Abstract

A time-domain optical coherence tomography technique is introduced for high-resolution B-scan imaging in real-time. The technique is based on a two-beam interference microscope with line illumination and line detection using a broadband spatially coherent light source and a line-scan camera. Multiple (2048) A-scans are acquired in parallel by scanning the sample depth while adjusting the focus. Quasi-isotropic spatial resolution of 1.3 µm × 1.1 µm (lateral × axial) is achieved. In vivo cellular-level resolution imaging of human skin is demonstrated at 10 frames per second with a penetration depth of ∼500 µm.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2018 (2)

S. Liu, J. A. Mulligan, and S. G. Adie, “Volumetric optical coherence microscopy with a high space-bandwidth-time product enabled by hybrid adaptive optics,” Biomed. Opt. Express 9(7), 3137–3152 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Ogien and A. Dubois, “A compact high-speed full-field optical coherence microscope for high-resolution in vivo skin imaging,” J. Biophotonics 2018, e201800208 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2017 (3)

2015 (4)

2013 (1)

2012 (1)

Y. Chen, S. W. Huang, C. Zhou, B. Potsaid, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Improved Detection Sensitivity of Line-Scanning Optical Coherence Microscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18(3), 1094–1099 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (1)

2009 (2)

J. Holmes and S. Hattersley, “Optical coherence tomography and coherence domain optical methods in biomedicine XIII,” Proc. SPIE 7168, 71681N (2009).

H. G. Bezerra, M. A. Costa, G. Guagliumi, A. M. Rollins, and D. I. Simon, “Intracoronary optical coherence tomography: A Comprehensive Review,” JACC Cardiovasc. Interv. 2(11), 1035–1046 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

2007 (5)

D. C. Adler, Y. Chen, R. Huber, J. Schmitt, J. Connolly, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Three-dimensional endomicroscopy using optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Photonics 1(12), 709–716 (2007).
[Crossref]

A. M. Zysk, F. T. Nguyen, A. L. Oldenburg, D. L. Marks, and S. A. Boppart, “Optical coherence tomography: a review of clinical development from bench to bedside,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(5), 051403 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. S. Ralston, D. L. Marks, P. S. Carney, and S. A. Boppart, “Interferometric synthetic aperture microscopy,” Nat. Phys. 3(2), 129–134 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Yu, B. Rao, J. Zhang, J. Su, Q. Wang, S. Guo, and Z. Chen, “Improved lateral resolution in optical coherence tomography by digital focusing using two-dimensional numerical diffraction method,” Opt. Express 15(12), 7634–7641 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Chen, S.-W. Huang, A. D. Aguirre, and J. G. Fujimoto, “High-resolution line-scanning optical coherence microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 32(14), 1971–1973 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (2)

2005 (4)

2004 (5)

2003 (1)

2002 (2)

2000 (1)

1999 (3)

1997 (1)

J. M. Schmitt, S. L. Lee, and K. M. Yung, “An optical coherence microscope with enhanced resolving power in thick tissue,” Opt. Commun. 142(4-6), 203–207 (1997).
[Crossref]

1996 (2)

1995 (1)

1991 (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Adie, S. G.

Adler, D. C.

D. C. Adler, Y. Chen, R. Huber, J. Schmitt, J. Connolly, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Three-dimensional endomicroscopy using optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Photonics 1(12), 709–716 (2007).
[Crossref]

Aguirre, A.

Aguirre, A. D.

Apolonski, A.

Bachman, M.

A. Divetia, T.-H. Hsieh, J. Zhang, Z. Chen, M. Bachman, and G.-P. Li, “Dynamically focused optical coherence tomography for endoscopic applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(10), 103902 (2005).
[Crossref]

Bachmann, A. H.

Bezerra, H. G.

H. G. Bezerra, M. A. Costa, G. Guagliumi, A. M. Rollins, and D. I. Simon, “Intracoronary optical coherence tomography: A Comprehensive Review,” JACC Cardiovasc. Interv. 2(11), 1035–1046 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bizheva, K.

Blatter, C.

Boccara, A. C.

Bonner, R. F.

Boppart, S. A.

A. M. Zysk, F. T. Nguyen, A. L. Oldenburg, D. L. Marks, and S. A. Boppart, “Optical coherence tomography: a review of clinical development from bench to bedside,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(5), 051403 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. S. Ralston, D. L. Marks, P. S. Carney, and S. A. Boppart, “Interferometric synthetic aperture microscopy,” Nat. Phys. 3(2), 129–134 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Drexler, U. Morgner, F. X. Kärtner, C. Pitris, S. A. Boppart, X. D. Li, E. P. Ippen, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 24(17), 1221–1223 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bouma, B.

Bourquin, S.

Carney, P. S.

T. S. Ralston, D. L. Marks, P. S. Carney, and S. A. Boppart, “Interferometric synthetic aperture microscopy,” Nat. Phys. 3(2), 129–134 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, Y.

Y. Chen, S. W. Huang, C. Zhou, B. Potsaid, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Improved Detection Sensitivity of Line-Scanning Optical Coherence Microscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18(3), 1094–1099 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. C. Adler, Y. Chen, R. Huber, J. Schmitt, J. Connolly, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Three-dimensional endomicroscopy using optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Photonics 1(12), 709–716 (2007).
[Crossref]

Y. Chen, S.-W. Huang, A. D. Aguirre, and J. G. Fujimoto, “High-resolution line-scanning optical coherence microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 32(14), 1971–1973 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, Z.

Cobb, M. J.

Connolly, J.

D. C. Adler, Y. Chen, R. Huber, J. Schmitt, J. Connolly, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Three-dimensional endomicroscopy using optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Photonics 1(12), 709–716 (2007).
[Crossref]

Costa, M. A.

H. G. Bezerra, M. A. Costa, G. Guagliumi, A. M. Rollins, and D. I. Simon, “Intracoronary optical coherence tomography: A Comprehensive Review,” JACC Cardiovasc. Interv. 2(11), 1035–1046 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

de Boer, J.

de Boer, J. F.

de Groot, M.

Dickensheets, D. L.

B. Qi, P. A. Himmer, M. L. Gordon, V. X. D. Yang, D. L. Dickensheets, and I. A. Vitkin, “Dynamic focus control in high-speed optical coherence tomography based on a microelectromechanical mirror,” Opt. Commun. 232(1-6), 123–128 (2004).
[Crossref]

Divetia, A.

A. Divetia, T.-H. Hsieh, J. Zhang, Z. Chen, M. Bachman, and G.-P. Li, “Dynamically focused optical coherence tomography for endoscopic applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(10), 103902 (2005).
[Crossref]

Donaldson, L.

Drexler, W.

Dubois, A.

Dunne, S.

Ellerbee, A. K.

Fechtig, D.

Fechtig, D. J.

D. J. Fechtig, B. Grajciar, T. Schmoll, C. Blatter, R. M. Werkmeister, W. Drexler, and R. A. Leitgeb, “Line-field parallel swept source MHz OCT for structural and functional retinal imaging,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(3), 716–735 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. J. Fechtig, A. Kumar, W. Drexler, and R. A. Leitgeb, “Full range line-field parallel swept source imaging utilizing digital refocusing,” J. Mod. Opt. 62(21), 1801–1807 (2015).
[Crossref]

Fercher, A.

Fercher, A. F.

B. Povazay, K. Bizheva, A. Unterhuber, B. Hermann, H. Sattmann, A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, A. Apolonski, W. J. Wadsworth, J. C. Knight, P. S. J. Russell, M. Vetterlein, and E. Scherzer, “Submicrometer axial resolution optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 27(20), 1800–1802 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Lexer, C. K. Hitzenberger, W. Drexler, S. Molebny, H. Sattmann, M. Sticker, and A. F. Fercher, “Dynamic coherent focus OCT with depth-independent transversal resolution,” J. Mod. Opt. 46(3), 541–553 (1999).
[Crossref]

A. F. Fercher, “Optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 1(2), 157–173 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fujimoto, J.

Fujimoto, J. G.

Y. Chen, S. W. Huang, C. Zhou, B. Potsaid, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Improved Detection Sensitivity of Line-Scanning Optical Coherence Microscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18(3), 1094–1099 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. C. Adler, Y. Chen, R. Huber, J. Schmitt, J. Connolly, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Three-dimensional endomicroscopy using optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Photonics 1(12), 709–716 (2007).
[Crossref]

Y. Chen, S.-W. Huang, A. D. Aguirre, and J. G. Fujimoto, “High-resolution line-scanning optical coherence microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 32(14), 1971–1973 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Drexler, U. Morgner, F. X. Kärtner, C. Pitris, S. A. Boppart, X. D. Li, E. P. Ippen, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 24(17), 1221–1223 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gan, X.

Ginner, L.

Gmitro, A. F.

Gordon, M. L.

V. X. D. Yang, N. Munce, J. Pekar, M. L. Gordon, S. Lo, N. E. Marcon, B. C. Wilson, and I. A. Vitkin, “Micromachined array tip for multifocus fiber-based optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 29(15), 1754–1756 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Qi, P. A. Himmer, M. L. Gordon, V. X. D. Yang, D. L. Dickensheets, and I. A. Vitkin, “Dynamic focus control in high-speed optical coherence tomography based on a microelectromechanical mirror,” Opt. Commun. 232(1-6), 123–128 (2004).
[Crossref]

Grajciar, B.

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gu, M.

Guagliumi, G.

H. G. Bezerra, M. A. Costa, G. Guagliumi, A. M. Rollins, and D. I. Simon, “Intracoronary optical coherence tomography: A Comprehensive Review,” JACC Cardiovasc. Interv. 2(11), 1035–1046 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Guo, S.

Gurjarpadhye, A. A.

Hattersley, S.

J. Holmes and S. Hattersley, “Optical coherence tomography and coherence domain optical methods in biomedicine XIII,” Proc. SPIE 7168, 71681N (2009).

Hee, M. R.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hermann, B.

Himmer, P. A.

B. Qi, P. A. Himmer, M. L. Gordon, V. X. D. Yang, D. L. Dickensheets, and I. A. Vitkin, “Dynamic focus control in high-speed optical coherence tomography based on a microelectromechanical mirror,” Opt. Commun. 232(1-6), 123–128 (2004).
[Crossref]

Hitzenberger, C. K.

F. Lexer, C. K. Hitzenberger, W. Drexler, S. Molebny, H. Sattmann, M. Sticker, and A. F. Fercher, “Dynamic coherent focus OCT with depth-independent transversal resolution,” J. Mod. Opt. 46(3), 541–553 (1999).
[Crossref]

Holmes, J.

J. Holmes and S. Hattersley, “Optical coherence tomography and coherence domain optical methods in biomedicine XIII,” Proc. SPIE 7168, 71681N (2009).

Hopkins, M. F.

Hsieh, T.-H.

A. Divetia, T.-H. Hsieh, J. Zhang, Z. Chen, M. Bachman, and G.-P. Li, “Dynamically focused optical coherence tomography for endoscopic applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(10), 103902 (2005).
[Crossref]

Huang, D.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huang, S. W.

Y. Chen, S. W. Huang, C. Zhou, B. Potsaid, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Improved Detection Sensitivity of Line-Scanning Optical Coherence Microscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18(3), 1094–1099 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huang, S.-W.

Huber, R.

Ippen, E. P.

Jackson, D. A.

Karamata, B.

Kärtner, F. X.

Knight, J. C.

Kopf, D.

Krabbendam, I.

Kumar, A.

L. Ginner, A. Kumar, D. Fechtig, L. M. Wurster, M. Salas, M. Pircher, and R. A. Leitgeb, “Noniterative digital aberration correction for cellular resolution retinal optical coherence tomography in vivo,” Optica 4(8), 924–931 (2017).
[Crossref]

D. J. Fechtig, A. Kumar, W. Drexler, and R. A. Leitgeb, “Full range line-field parallel swept source imaging utilizing digital refocusing,” J. Mod. Opt. 62(21), 1801–1807 (2015).
[Crossref]

Lambelet, P.

Lancee, C. T.

Larkin, K. G.

Lasser, T.

Laubscher, M.

Lederer, M.

Lee, K. S.

Lee, K.-S.

Lee, S. L.

J. M. Schmitt, S. L. Lee, and K. M. Yung, “An optical coherence microscope with enhanced resolving power in thick tissue,” Opt. Commun. 142(4-6), 203–207 (1997).
[Crossref]

Leitgeb, R.

Leitgeb, R. A.

Leutenegger, M.

Levine, A.

A. Levine, K. Wang, and O. Markowitz, “Optical coherence tomography in the diagnosis of skin cancer,” Dermatol. Clin. 35(4), 465–488 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lexer, F.

F. Lexer, C. K. Hitzenberger, W. Drexler, S. Molebny, H. Sattmann, M. Sticker, and A. F. Fercher, “Dynamic coherent focus OCT with depth-independent transversal resolution,” J. Mod. Opt. 46(3), 541–553 (1999).
[Crossref]

Li, G.-P.

A. Divetia, T.-H. Hsieh, J. Zhang, Z. Chen, M. Bachman, and G.-P. Li, “Dynamically focused optical coherence tomography for endoscopic applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(10), 103902 (2005).
[Crossref]

Li, X.

Li, X. D.

Lin, C. P.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, S.

Liu, X.

Lo, S.

Lu, Q.

Luo, Q.

Lurie, K. L.

Marcon, N. E.

Markowitz, O.

A. Levine, K. Wang, and O. Markowitz, “Optical coherence tomography in the diagnosis of skin cancer,” Dermatol. Clin. 35(4), 465–488 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Marks, D. L.

A. M. Zysk, F. T. Nguyen, A. L. Oldenburg, D. L. Marks, and S. A. Boppart, “Optical coherence tomography: a review of clinical development from bench to bedside,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(5), 051403 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. S. Ralston, D. L. Marks, P. S. Carney, and S. A. Boppart, “Interferometric synthetic aperture microscopy,” Nat. Phys. 3(2), 129–134 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Meemon, P.

Mo, J.

Molebny, S.

F. Lexer, C. K. Hitzenberger, W. Drexler, S. Molebny, H. Sattmann, M. Sticker, and A. F. Fercher, “Dynamic coherent focus OCT with depth-independent transversal resolution,” J. Mod. Opt. 46(3), 541–553 (1999).
[Crossref]

Morgner, U.

Mulligan, J. A.

Munce, N.

Murali, S.

Nelson, J. S.

Nguyen, F. T.

A. M. Zysk, F. T. Nguyen, A. L. Oldenburg, D. L. Marks, and S. A. Boppart, “Optical coherence tomography: a review of clinical development from bench to bedside,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(5), 051403 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nishizawa, N.

Ogien, J.

J. Ogien and A. Dubois, “A compact high-speed full-field optical coherence microscope for high-resolution in vivo skin imaging,” J. Biophotonics 2018, e201800208 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Oldenburg, A. L.

A. M. Zysk, F. T. Nguyen, A. L. Oldenburg, D. L. Marks, and S. A. Boppart, “Optical coherence tomography: a review of clinical development from bench to bedside,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(5), 051403 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pekar, J.

Pfeiffer, T.

Pircher, M.

Pitris, C.

Podoleanu, A. G.

Potsaid, B.

Y. Chen, S. W. Huang, C. Zhou, B. Potsaid, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Improved Detection Sensitivity of Line-Scanning Optical Coherence Microscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18(3), 1094–1099 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Povazay, B.

Puliafito, C. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Qi, B.

B. Qi, P. A. Himmer, M. L. Gordon, V. X. D. Yang, D. L. Dickensheets, and I. A. Vitkin, “Dynamic focus control in high-speed optical coherence tomography based on a microelectromechanical mirror,” Opt. Commun. 232(1-6), 123–128 (2004).
[Crossref]

Ralston, T. S.

T. S. Ralston, D. L. Marks, P. S. Carney, and S. A. Boppart, “Interferometric synthetic aperture microscopy,” Nat. Phys. 3(2), 129–134 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rao, B.

Regar, E.

Rogers, J. A.

Rolland, J. P.

Rollins, A. M.

H. G. Bezerra, M. A. Costa, G. Guagliumi, A. M. Rollins, and D. I. Simon, “Intracoronary optical coherence tomography: A Comprehensive Review,” JACC Cardiovasc. Interv. 2(11), 1035–1046 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rouse, A. R.

Russell, P. S. J.

Sabharwal, Y. S.

Salas, M.

Salathé, R. P.

Sattmann, H.

B. Povazay, K. Bizheva, A. Unterhuber, B. Hermann, H. Sattmann, A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, A. Apolonski, W. J. Wadsworth, J. C. Knight, P. S. J. Russell, M. Vetterlein, and E. Scherzer, “Submicrometer axial resolution optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 27(20), 1800–1802 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Lexer, C. K. Hitzenberger, W. Drexler, S. Molebny, H. Sattmann, M. Sticker, and A. F. Fercher, “Dynamic coherent focus OCT with depth-independent transversal resolution,” J. Mod. Opt. 46(3), 541–553 (1999).
[Crossref]

Scherzer, E.

Schmitt, J.

D. C. Adler, Y. Chen, R. Huber, J. Schmitt, J. Connolly, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Three-dimensional endomicroscopy using optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Photonics 1(12), 709–716 (2007).
[Crossref]

Schmitt, J. M.

J. M. Schmitt, S. L. Lee, and K. M. Yung, “An optical coherence microscope with enhanced resolving power in thick tissue,” Opt. Commun. 142(4-6), 203–207 (1997).
[Crossref]

M. J. Yadlowsky, J. M. Schmitt, and R. F. Bonner, “Multiple scattering in optical coherence microscopy,” Appl. Opt. 34(25), 5699–5707 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schmoll, T.

Schuman, J. S.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Seibel, E. J.

Seitz, W.

Simon, D. I.

H. G. Bezerra, M. A. Costa, G. Guagliumi, A. M. Rollins, and D. I. Simon, “Intracoronary optical coherence tomography: A Comprehensive Review,” JACC Cardiovasc. Interv. 2(11), 1035–1046 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Springeling, G.

Steinmann, L.

Sticker, M.

F. Lexer, C. K. Hitzenberger, W. Drexler, S. Molebny, H. Sattmann, M. Sticker, and A. F. Fercher, “Dynamic coherent focus OCT with depth-independent transversal resolution,” J. Mod. Opt. 46(3), 541–553 (1999).
[Crossref]

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Su, J.

Swanson, E. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tearney, G.

Thompson, K. P.

Unterhuber, A.

Vabre, L.

van Beusekom, H.

van der Steen, A. F. W.

van Soest, G.

Vetterlein, M.

Villiger, M.

Vitkin, I. A.

V. X. D. Yang, N. Munce, J. Pekar, M. L. Gordon, S. Lo, N. E. Marcon, B. C. Wilson, and I. A. Vitkin, “Micromachined array tip for multifocus fiber-based optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 29(15), 1754–1756 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Qi, P. A. Himmer, M. L. Gordon, V. X. D. Yang, D. L. Dickensheets, and I. A. Vitkin, “Dynamic focus control in high-speed optical coherence tomography based on a microelectromechanical mirror,” Opt. Commun. 232(1-6), 123–128 (2004).
[Crossref]

Wadsworth, W. J.

Wang, K.

A. Levine, K. Wang, and O. Markowitz, “Optical coherence tomography in the diagnosis of skin cancer,” Dermatol. Clin. 35(4), 465–488 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, Q.

Wang, T.

Wang, Y.

Werkmeister, R. M.

Wieser, W.

Wilson, B. C.

Windeler, R. S.

Wurster, L. M.

Yadlowsky, M. J.

Yang, V. X. D.

V. X. D. Yang, N. Munce, J. Pekar, M. L. Gordon, S. Lo, N. E. Marcon, B. C. Wilson, and I. A. Vitkin, “Micromachined array tip for multifocus fiber-based optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 29(15), 1754–1756 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Qi, P. A. Himmer, M. L. Gordon, V. X. D. Yang, D. L. Dickensheets, and I. A. Vitkin, “Dynamic focus control in high-speed optical coherence tomography based on a microelectromechanical mirror,” Opt. Commun. 232(1-6), 123–128 (2004).
[Crossref]

Yu, L.

Yun, S. H.

Yung, K. M.

J. M. Schmitt, S. L. Lee, and K. M. Yung, “An optical coherence microscope with enhanced resolving power in thick tissue,” Opt. Commun. 142(4-6), 203–207 (1997).
[Crossref]

Zhang, J.

L. Yu, B. Rao, J. Zhang, J. Su, Q. Wang, S. Guo, and Z. Chen, “Improved lateral resolution in optical coherence tomography by digital focusing using two-dimensional numerical diffraction method,” Opt. Express 15(12), 7634–7641 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Divetia, T.-H. Hsieh, J. Zhang, Z. Chen, M. Bachman, and G.-P. Li, “Dynamically focused optical coherence tomography for endoscopic applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(10), 103902 (2005).
[Crossref]

Zhao, Y.

Zhou, C.

Y. Chen, S. W. Huang, C. Zhou, B. Potsaid, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Improved Detection Sensitivity of Line-Scanning Optical Coherence Microscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18(3), 1094–1099 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zysk, A. M.

A. M. Zysk, F. T. Nguyen, A. L. Oldenburg, D. L. Marks, and S. A. Boppart, “Optical coherence tomography: a review of clinical development from bench to bedside,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(5), 051403 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (4)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

A. Divetia, T.-H. Hsieh, J. Zhang, Z. Chen, M. Bachman, and G.-P. Li, “Dynamically focused optical coherence tomography for endoscopic applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(10), 103902 (2005).
[Crossref]

Biomed. Opt. Express (3)

Dermatol. Clin. (1)

A. Levine, K. Wang, and O. Markowitz, “Optical coherence tomography in the diagnosis of skin cancer,” Dermatol. Clin. 35(4), 465–488 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

Y. Chen, S. W. Huang, C. Zhou, B. Potsaid, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Improved Detection Sensitivity of Line-Scanning Optical Coherence Microscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18(3), 1094–1099 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (2)

A. F. Fercher, “Optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 1(2), 157–173 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. M. Zysk, F. T. Nguyen, A. L. Oldenburg, D. L. Marks, and S. A. Boppart, “Optical coherence tomography: a review of clinical development from bench to bedside,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(5), 051403 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Biophotonics (1)

J. Ogien and A. Dubois, “A compact high-speed full-field optical coherence microscope for high-resolution in vivo skin imaging,” J. Biophotonics 2018, e201800208 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Mod. Opt. (2)

D. J. Fechtig, A. Kumar, W. Drexler, and R. A. Leitgeb, “Full range line-field parallel swept source imaging utilizing digital refocusing,” J. Mod. Opt. 62(21), 1801–1807 (2015).
[Crossref]

F. Lexer, C. K. Hitzenberger, W. Drexler, S. Molebny, H. Sattmann, M. Sticker, and A. F. Fercher, “Dynamic coherent focus OCT with depth-independent transversal resolution,” J. Mod. Opt. 46(3), 541–553 (1999).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (2)

JACC Cardiovasc. Interv. (1)

H. G. Bezerra, M. A. Costa, G. Guagliumi, A. M. Rollins, and D. I. Simon, “Intracoronary optical coherence tomography: A Comprehensive Review,” JACC Cardiovasc. Interv. 2(11), 1035–1046 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (1)

D. C. Adler, Y. Chen, R. Huber, J. Schmitt, J. Connolly, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Three-dimensional endomicroscopy using optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Photonics 1(12), 709–716 (2007).
[Crossref]

Nat. Phys. (1)

T. S. Ralston, D. L. Marks, P. S. Carney, and S. A. Boppart, “Interferometric synthetic aperture microscopy,” Nat. Phys. 3(2), 129–134 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun. (2)

B. Qi, P. A. Himmer, M. L. Gordon, V. X. D. Yang, D. L. Dickensheets, and I. A. Vitkin, “Dynamic focus control in high-speed optical coherence tomography based on a microelectromechanical mirror,” Opt. Commun. 232(1-6), 123–128 (2004).
[Crossref]

J. M. Schmitt, S. L. Lee, and K. M. Yung, “An optical coherence microscope with enhanced resolving power in thick tissue,” Opt. Commun. 142(4-6), 203–207 (1997).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (7)

A. G. Podoleanu, J. A. Rogers, D. A. Jackson, and S. Dunne, “Three dimensional OCT images from retina and skin,” Opt. Express 7(9), 292–298 (2000).
[Crossref]

L. Yu, B. Rao, J. Zhang, J. Su, Q. Wang, S. Guo, and Z. Chen, “Improved lateral resolution in optical coherence tomography by digital focusing using two-dimensional numerical diffraction method,” Opt. Express 15(12), 7634–7641 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. P. Rolland, P. Meemon, S. Murali, K. P. Thompson, and K.-S. Lee, “Gabor-based fusion technique for optical coherence microscopy,” Opt. Express 18(4), 3632–3642 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Aguirre, N. Nishizawa, J. Fujimoto, W. Seitz, M. Lederer, and D. Kopf, “Continuum generation in a novel photonic crystal fiber for ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography at 800 nm and 1300 nm,” Opt. Express 14(3), 1145–1160 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Mo, M. de Groot, and J. F. de Boer, “Focus-extension by depth-encoded synthetic aperture in Optical Coherence Tomography,” Opt. Express 21(8), 10048–10061 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Grajciar, M. Pircher, A. Fercher, and R. Leitgeb, “Parallel Fourier domain optical coherence tomography for in vivo measurement of the human eye,” Opt. Express 13(4), 1131–1137 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. H. Yun, G. Tearney, J. de Boer, and B. Bouma, “Motion artifacts in optical coherence tomography with frequency-domain ranging,” Opt. Express 12(13), 2977–2998 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (11)

K. L. Lurie, A. A. Gurjarpadhye, E. J. Seibel, and A. K. Ellerbee, “Rapid scanning catheterscope for expanded forward-view volumetric imaging with optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 40(13), 3165–3168 (2015).
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Y. Chen, S.-W. Huang, A. D. Aguirre, and J. G. Fujimoto, “High-resolution line-scanning optical coherence microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 32(14), 1971–1973 (2007).
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R. A. Leitgeb, M. Villiger, A. H. Bachmann, L. Steinmann, and T. Lasser, “Extended focus depth for Fourier domain optical coherence microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 31(16), 2450–2452 (2006).
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K. S. Lee and J. P. Rolland, “Bessel beam spectral-domain high-resolution optical coherence tomography with micro-optic axicon providing extended focusing range,” Opt. Lett. 33(15), 1696–1698 (2008).
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W. Drexler, U. Morgner, F. X. Kärtner, C. Pitris, S. A. Boppart, X. D. Li, E. P. Ippen, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 24(17), 1221–1223 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Povazay, K. Bizheva, A. Unterhuber, B. Hermann, H. Sattmann, A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, A. Apolonski, W. J. Wadsworth, J. C. Knight, P. S. J. Russell, M. Vetterlein, and E. Scherzer, “Submicrometer axial resolution optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 27(20), 1800–1802 (2002).
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Y. Wang, Y. Zhao, J. S. Nelson, Z. Chen, and R. S. Windeler, “Ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography by broadband continuum generation from a photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Lett. 28(3), 182–184 (2003).
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M. J. Cobb, X. Liu, and X. Li, “Continuous focus tracking for real-time optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 30(13), 1680–1682 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. X. D. Yang, N. Munce, J. Pekar, M. L. Gordon, S. Lo, N. E. Marcon, B. C. Wilson, and I. A. Vitkin, “Micromachined array tip for multifocus fiber-based optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 29(15), 1754–1756 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Vabre, A. Dubois, and A. C. Boccara, “Thermal-light full-field optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 27(7), 530–532 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Karamata, P. Lambelet, M. Laubscher, R. P. Salathé, and T. Lasser, “Spatially incoherent illumination as a mechanism for cross-talk suppression in wide-field optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 29(7), 736–738 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Optica (1)

Proc. SPIE (1)

J. Holmes and S. Hattersley, “Optical coherence tomography and coherence domain optical methods in biomedicine XIII,” Proc. SPIE 7168, 71681N (2009).

Science (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (3)

J. S. Schuman, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, and J. S. Duker, Optical Coherence Tomography of Ocular Diseases, 3rd ed. (Slack Inc., Thorofare, NJ, 2013)

A. Dubois, Handbook of Full-Field Optical Coherence Microscopy, Technology and Applications, A. Dubois eds., (Pan Stanford Publishing Singapore 2016), Chap. 1, p. 1–51.

Optical Coherence Tomography, Technology and Applications, W. Drexler and G. Fujimoto, eds. (Springer, 2008), Chap. 19, p. 565–592, Full-Field Optical Coherence Tomography, A. Dubois and A. C. Boccara.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic of the LC-OCT system. TL: tube lens; PZT: piezoelectric actuator; MO: microscope objective; IM: immersion medium; SMF: single mode fiber; BS: beam-splitter; CL: cylindrical lens. GP: glass plate. The plain red lines represent the beam in the plane of the figure (the cylindrical lens has no effect in this plane). The dotted red lines represent the beam in the direction orthogonal to the plane of the figure.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Measurements of spatial resolution and detection sensitivity. (a) Edge response. (b) Typical interference signal acquired by a pixel of the line-scan camera using a plane interface as a sample. (c) Axial response to a plane interface, obtained from digital demodulation of the interference fringes shown in (b). (d) Axial response to a weak reflectivity (8×10−5) plane interface, calibrated in reflectivity and plotted in decibels (dB). The measured noise-floor (plain black line), defined as the detection sensitivity, is compared with the theoretical sensitivity of a hypothetical shot-noise limited detection (dashed black line).
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 LC-OCT B-scan images of an infrared viewing card with full-field illumination (a) and line-field illumination (b). Scale bar: 100 µm.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 LC-OCT B-scan images of human skin, in vivo. Back (a) and palm (b) of the hand. K: keratinocytes; DEJ: dermal-epidermal junction; SD: sweat duct; H: hair; CF: collagen fibers; BV: blood vessels. Scale bars: 200 µm.

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

d obj =z( n im /n ),
d ref =z( n 2 n im 2 + n im )/n.
d ref / d obj =1+( n 2 n im 2 )/ n im .

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