Abstract

Phase gratings are used as beam multiplexers in the submillimeter and Terahertz spectral range. Two-dimensional beam arrangements can often be obtained most easily by the superposition of two one-dimensional grating structures. We show that in general this approach does not yield the maximum grating efficiency and propose a method to obtain significantly higher efficiencies for this grating class.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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  1. U. U. Graf and S. Heyminck, “Fourier gratings as submillimeter beam splitters,” IEEE Transactions on Antennas Propag. 49, 542–546 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  2. S. Heyminck and U. U. Graf, “Array-receiver LO unit using collimating Fourier gratings,” in Proceedings of the 12th International Symposium on Space Terahertz Technology, I. Mehdi, ed. (2001), pp. 563–570.
  3. U. U. Graf, S. Heyminck, E. A. Michael, and S. Stanko, “KOSMA’s 490/810 GHz array receiver,” in Proceedings of the 12th International Symposium on Space Terahertz Technology, I. Mehdi, ed. (2001), pp. 553–562.
  4. C. Kasemann, R. Güsten, S. Heyminck, B. Klein, T. Klein, S. D. Philipp, A. Korn, G. Schneider, A. Henseler, A. Baryshev, and T. M. Klapwijk, “CHAMP+: a powerful array receiver for APEX,” in Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE) Conference Series, vol. 6275J. Zmuidzinas, W. S. Holland, S. Withington, and W. D. Duncan, eds. (2006).
  5. C. Risacher, R. Güsten, J. Stutzki, H.-W. Hübers, D. Büchel, U. U. Graf, S. Heyminck, C. E. Honingh, K. Jacobs, B. Klein, T. Klein, C. Leinz, P. Pütz, N. Reyes, O. Ricken, H.-J. Wunsch, P. Fusco, and S. Rosner, “First supra-THz heterodyne array receivers for astronomy with the SOFIA observatory,” IEEE Transactions on Terahertz Sci. Technol. 6, 199–211 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  6. C. Risacher, R. G. J. Stutzki, H.-W. Hübers, R. Aladro, A. Bell, C. Buchbender, D. Büchel, T. C. C. Durán, U. U. Graf, R. D. Higgins, C. E. Honingh, K. Jacobs, M. Justen, B. Klein, M. Mertens, Y. Okada, A. Parikka, P. Pütz, N. Reyes, H. Richter, O. Ricken, D. Riquelme, N. Rothbart, N. Schneider, R. Simon, M. Wienold, H. Wiesemeyer, M. Ziebart, P. Fusco, S. Rosner, and B. Wohler, “The upGREAT dual frequency heterodyne arrays for SOFIA,” J. Astron. Instrumentation (in press).
  7. C. Walker, C. Kulesa, P. Bernasconi, H. Eaton, N. Rolander, C. Groppi, J. Kloosterman, T. Cottam, D. Lesser, C. Martin, A. Stark, D. Neufeld, C. Lisse, D. Hollenbach, J. Kawamura, P. Goldsmith, W. Langer, H. Yorke, J. Sterne, A. Skalare, I. Mehdi, S. Weinreb, J. Kooi, J. Stutzki, U. Graf, M. Brasse, C. Honingh, R. Simon, M. Akyilmaz, P. Pütz, and M. Wolfire, “The Stratospheric THz Observatory (STO),” in Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE) Conference Series, vol. 7733L. M. Stepp, R. Gilmozzi, and H. J. Hall, eds. (2010).
  8. B. Mirzaei, J. R. G. Silva, Y. C. Luo, X. X. Liu, L. Wei, D. J. Hayton, J. R. Gao, and C. Groppi, “Efficiency of multi-beam Fourier phase gratings at 1.4 THz,” Opt. Express 25, 6581–6588 (2017).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. B. Mirzaei, J. R. G. Silva, D. Hayton, C. Groppi, T. Y. Kao, Q. Hu, J. L. Reno, and J. R. Gao, “8-beam local oscillator array at 4.7 THz generated by a phase grating and a quantum cascade laser,” Opt. Express 25, 29587–29596 (2017).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. R. W. Gerchberg and W. O. Saxton, “A practical algorithm for the determination of phase from image and diffraction plane pictures,” Optik 35, 237–246 (1972).
  11. F. Defrance, M. Casaletti, J. Sarrazin, M. C. Wiedner, H. Gibson, G. Gay, R. Lefèvre, and Y. Delorme, “Structured surface reflector design for oblique incidence beam splitter at 610 GHz,” Opt. Express 24, 20335–20345 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2017 (2)

2016 (2)

C. Risacher, R. Güsten, J. Stutzki, H.-W. Hübers, D. Büchel, U. U. Graf, S. Heyminck, C. E. Honingh, K. Jacobs, B. Klein, T. Klein, C. Leinz, P. Pütz, N. Reyes, O. Ricken, H.-J. Wunsch, P. Fusco, and S. Rosner, “First supra-THz heterodyne array receivers for astronomy with the SOFIA observatory,” IEEE Transactions on Terahertz Sci. Technol. 6, 199–211 (2016).
[Crossref]

F. Defrance, M. Casaletti, J. Sarrazin, M. C. Wiedner, H. Gibson, G. Gay, R. Lefèvre, and Y. Delorme, “Structured surface reflector design for oblique incidence beam splitter at 610 GHz,” Opt. Express 24, 20335–20345 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

U. U. Graf and S. Heyminck, “Fourier gratings as submillimeter beam splitters,” IEEE Transactions on Antennas Propag. 49, 542–546 (2001).
[Crossref]

1972 (1)

R. W. Gerchberg and W. O. Saxton, “A practical algorithm for the determination of phase from image and diffraction plane pictures,” Optik 35, 237–246 (1972).

Akyilmaz, M.

C. Walker, C. Kulesa, P. Bernasconi, H. Eaton, N. Rolander, C. Groppi, J. Kloosterman, T. Cottam, D. Lesser, C. Martin, A. Stark, D. Neufeld, C. Lisse, D. Hollenbach, J. Kawamura, P. Goldsmith, W. Langer, H. Yorke, J. Sterne, A. Skalare, I. Mehdi, S. Weinreb, J. Kooi, J. Stutzki, U. Graf, M. Brasse, C. Honingh, R. Simon, M. Akyilmaz, P. Pütz, and M. Wolfire, “The Stratospheric THz Observatory (STO),” in Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE) Conference Series, vol. 7733L. M. Stepp, R. Gilmozzi, and H. J. Hall, eds. (2010).

Aladro, R.

C. Risacher, R. G. J. Stutzki, H.-W. Hübers, R. Aladro, A. Bell, C. Buchbender, D. Büchel, T. C. C. Durán, U. U. Graf, R. D. Higgins, C. E. Honingh, K. Jacobs, M. Justen, B. Klein, M. Mertens, Y. Okada, A. Parikka, P. Pütz, N. Reyes, H. Richter, O. Ricken, D. Riquelme, N. Rothbart, N. Schneider, R. Simon, M. Wienold, H. Wiesemeyer, M. Ziebart, P. Fusco, S. Rosner, and B. Wohler, “The upGREAT dual frequency heterodyne arrays for SOFIA,” J. Astron. Instrumentation (in press).

Baryshev, A.

C. Kasemann, R. Güsten, S. Heyminck, B. Klein, T. Klein, S. D. Philipp, A. Korn, G. Schneider, A. Henseler, A. Baryshev, and T. M. Klapwijk, “CHAMP+: a powerful array receiver for APEX,” in Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE) Conference Series, vol. 6275J. Zmuidzinas, W. S. Holland, S. Withington, and W. D. Duncan, eds. (2006).

Bell, A.

C. Risacher, R. G. J. Stutzki, H.-W. Hübers, R. Aladro, A. Bell, C. Buchbender, D. Büchel, T. C. C. Durán, U. U. Graf, R. D. Higgins, C. E. Honingh, K. Jacobs, M. Justen, B. Klein, M. Mertens, Y. Okada, A. Parikka, P. Pütz, N. Reyes, H. Richter, O. Ricken, D. Riquelme, N. Rothbart, N. Schneider, R. Simon, M. Wienold, H. Wiesemeyer, M. Ziebart, P. Fusco, S. Rosner, and B. Wohler, “The upGREAT dual frequency heterodyne arrays for SOFIA,” J. Astron. Instrumentation (in press).

Bernasconi, P.

C. Walker, C. Kulesa, P. Bernasconi, H. Eaton, N. Rolander, C. Groppi, J. Kloosterman, T. Cottam, D. Lesser, C. Martin, A. Stark, D. Neufeld, C. Lisse, D. Hollenbach, J. Kawamura, P. Goldsmith, W. Langer, H. Yorke, J. Sterne, A. Skalare, I. Mehdi, S. Weinreb, J. Kooi, J. Stutzki, U. Graf, M. Brasse, C. Honingh, R. Simon, M. Akyilmaz, P. Pütz, and M. Wolfire, “The Stratospheric THz Observatory (STO),” in Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE) Conference Series, vol. 7733L. M. Stepp, R. Gilmozzi, and H. J. Hall, eds. (2010).

Brasse, M.

C. Walker, C. Kulesa, P. Bernasconi, H. Eaton, N. Rolander, C. Groppi, J. Kloosterman, T. Cottam, D. Lesser, C. Martin, A. Stark, D. Neufeld, C. Lisse, D. Hollenbach, J. Kawamura, P. Goldsmith, W. Langer, H. Yorke, J. Sterne, A. Skalare, I. Mehdi, S. Weinreb, J. Kooi, J. Stutzki, U. Graf, M. Brasse, C. Honingh, R. Simon, M. Akyilmaz, P. Pütz, and M. Wolfire, “The Stratospheric THz Observatory (STO),” in Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE) Conference Series, vol. 7733L. M. Stepp, R. Gilmozzi, and H. J. Hall, eds. (2010).

Buchbender, C.

C. Risacher, R. G. J. Stutzki, H.-W. Hübers, R. Aladro, A. Bell, C. Buchbender, D. Büchel, T. C. C. Durán, U. U. Graf, R. D. Higgins, C. E. Honingh, K. Jacobs, M. Justen, B. Klein, M. Mertens, Y. Okada, A. Parikka, P. Pütz, N. Reyes, H. Richter, O. Ricken, D. Riquelme, N. Rothbart, N. Schneider, R. Simon, M. Wienold, H. Wiesemeyer, M. Ziebart, P. Fusco, S. Rosner, and B. Wohler, “The upGREAT dual frequency heterodyne arrays for SOFIA,” J. Astron. Instrumentation (in press).

Büchel, D.

C. Risacher, R. Güsten, J. Stutzki, H.-W. Hübers, D. Büchel, U. U. Graf, S. Heyminck, C. E. Honingh, K. Jacobs, B. Klein, T. Klein, C. Leinz, P. Pütz, N. Reyes, O. Ricken, H.-J. Wunsch, P. Fusco, and S. Rosner, “First supra-THz heterodyne array receivers for astronomy with the SOFIA observatory,” IEEE Transactions on Terahertz Sci. Technol. 6, 199–211 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. Risacher, R. G. J. Stutzki, H.-W. Hübers, R. Aladro, A. Bell, C. Buchbender, D. Büchel, T. C. C. Durán, U. U. Graf, R. D. Higgins, C. E. Honingh, K. Jacobs, M. Justen, B. Klein, M. Mertens, Y. Okada, A. Parikka, P. Pütz, N. Reyes, H. Richter, O. Ricken, D. Riquelme, N. Rothbart, N. Schneider, R. Simon, M. Wienold, H. Wiesemeyer, M. Ziebart, P. Fusco, S. Rosner, and B. Wohler, “The upGREAT dual frequency heterodyne arrays for SOFIA,” J. Astron. Instrumentation (in press).

Casaletti, M.

Cottam, T.

C. Walker, C. Kulesa, P. Bernasconi, H. Eaton, N. Rolander, C. Groppi, J. Kloosterman, T. Cottam, D. Lesser, C. Martin, A. Stark, D. Neufeld, C. Lisse, D. Hollenbach, J. Kawamura, P. Goldsmith, W. Langer, H. Yorke, J. Sterne, A. Skalare, I. Mehdi, S. Weinreb, J. Kooi, J. Stutzki, U. Graf, M. Brasse, C. Honingh, R. Simon, M. Akyilmaz, P. Pütz, and M. Wolfire, “The Stratospheric THz Observatory (STO),” in Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE) Conference Series, vol. 7733L. M. Stepp, R. Gilmozzi, and H. J. Hall, eds. (2010).

Defrance, F.

Delorme, Y.

Durán, T. C. C.

C. Risacher, R. G. J. Stutzki, H.-W. Hübers, R. Aladro, A. Bell, C. Buchbender, D. Büchel, T. C. C. Durán, U. U. Graf, R. D. Higgins, C. E. Honingh, K. Jacobs, M. Justen, B. Klein, M. Mertens, Y. Okada, A. Parikka, P. Pütz, N. Reyes, H. Richter, O. Ricken, D. Riquelme, N. Rothbart, N. Schneider, R. Simon, M. Wienold, H. Wiesemeyer, M. Ziebart, P. Fusco, S. Rosner, and B. Wohler, “The upGREAT dual frequency heterodyne arrays for SOFIA,” J. Astron. Instrumentation (in press).

Eaton, H.

C. Walker, C. Kulesa, P. Bernasconi, H. Eaton, N. Rolander, C. Groppi, J. Kloosterman, T. Cottam, D. Lesser, C. Martin, A. Stark, D. Neufeld, C. Lisse, D. Hollenbach, J. Kawamura, P. Goldsmith, W. Langer, H. Yorke, J. Sterne, A. Skalare, I. Mehdi, S. Weinreb, J. Kooi, J. Stutzki, U. Graf, M. Brasse, C. Honingh, R. Simon, M. Akyilmaz, P. Pütz, and M. Wolfire, “The Stratospheric THz Observatory (STO),” in Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE) Conference Series, vol. 7733L. M. Stepp, R. Gilmozzi, and H. J. Hall, eds. (2010).

Fusco, P.

C. Risacher, R. Güsten, J. Stutzki, H.-W. Hübers, D. Büchel, U. U. Graf, S. Heyminck, C. E. Honingh, K. Jacobs, B. Klein, T. Klein, C. Leinz, P. Pütz, N. Reyes, O. Ricken, H.-J. Wunsch, P. Fusco, and S. Rosner, “First supra-THz heterodyne array receivers for astronomy with the SOFIA observatory,” IEEE Transactions on Terahertz Sci. Technol. 6, 199–211 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. Risacher, R. G. J. Stutzki, H.-W. Hübers, R. Aladro, A. Bell, C. Buchbender, D. Büchel, T. C. C. Durán, U. U. Graf, R. D. Higgins, C. E. Honingh, K. Jacobs, M. Justen, B. Klein, M. Mertens, Y. Okada, A. Parikka, P. Pütz, N. Reyes, H. Richter, O. Ricken, D. Riquelme, N. Rothbart, N. Schneider, R. Simon, M. Wienold, H. Wiesemeyer, M. Ziebart, P. Fusco, S. Rosner, and B. Wohler, “The upGREAT dual frequency heterodyne arrays for SOFIA,” J. Astron. Instrumentation (in press).

Gao, J. R.

Gay, G.

Gerchberg, R. W.

R. W. Gerchberg and W. O. Saxton, “A practical algorithm for the determination of phase from image and diffraction plane pictures,” Optik 35, 237–246 (1972).

Gibson, H.

Goldsmith, P.

C. Walker, C. Kulesa, P. Bernasconi, H. Eaton, N. Rolander, C. Groppi, J. Kloosterman, T. Cottam, D. Lesser, C. Martin, A. Stark, D. Neufeld, C. Lisse, D. Hollenbach, J. Kawamura, P. Goldsmith, W. Langer, H. Yorke, J. Sterne, A. Skalare, I. Mehdi, S. Weinreb, J. Kooi, J. Stutzki, U. Graf, M. Brasse, C. Honingh, R. Simon, M. Akyilmaz, P. Pütz, and M. Wolfire, “The Stratospheric THz Observatory (STO),” in Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE) Conference Series, vol. 7733L. M. Stepp, R. Gilmozzi, and H. J. Hall, eds. (2010).

Graf, U.

C. Walker, C. Kulesa, P. Bernasconi, H. Eaton, N. Rolander, C. Groppi, J. Kloosterman, T. Cottam, D. Lesser, C. Martin, A. Stark, D. Neufeld, C. Lisse, D. Hollenbach, J. Kawamura, P. Goldsmith, W. Langer, H. Yorke, J. Sterne, A. Skalare, I. Mehdi, S. Weinreb, J. Kooi, J. Stutzki, U. Graf, M. Brasse, C. Honingh, R. Simon, M. Akyilmaz, P. Pütz, and M. Wolfire, “The Stratospheric THz Observatory (STO),” in Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE) Conference Series, vol. 7733L. M. Stepp, R. Gilmozzi, and H. J. Hall, eds. (2010).

Graf, U. U.

C. Risacher, R. Güsten, J. Stutzki, H.-W. Hübers, D. Büchel, U. U. Graf, S. Heyminck, C. E. Honingh, K. Jacobs, B. Klein, T. Klein, C. Leinz, P. Pütz, N. Reyes, O. Ricken, H.-J. Wunsch, P. Fusco, and S. Rosner, “First supra-THz heterodyne array receivers for astronomy with the SOFIA observatory,” IEEE Transactions on Terahertz Sci. Technol. 6, 199–211 (2016).
[Crossref]

U. U. Graf and S. Heyminck, “Fourier gratings as submillimeter beam splitters,” IEEE Transactions on Antennas Propag. 49, 542–546 (2001).
[Crossref]

S. Heyminck and U. U. Graf, “Array-receiver LO unit using collimating Fourier gratings,” in Proceedings of the 12th International Symposium on Space Terahertz Technology, I. Mehdi, ed. (2001), pp. 563–570.

U. U. Graf, S. Heyminck, E. A. Michael, and S. Stanko, “KOSMA’s 490/810 GHz array receiver,” in Proceedings of the 12th International Symposium on Space Terahertz Technology, I. Mehdi, ed. (2001), pp. 553–562.

C. Risacher, R. G. J. Stutzki, H.-W. Hübers, R. Aladro, A. Bell, C. Buchbender, D. Büchel, T. C. C. Durán, U. U. Graf, R. D. Higgins, C. E. Honingh, K. Jacobs, M. Justen, B. Klein, M. Mertens, Y. Okada, A. Parikka, P. Pütz, N. Reyes, H. Richter, O. Ricken, D. Riquelme, N. Rothbart, N. Schneider, R. Simon, M. Wienold, H. Wiesemeyer, M. Ziebart, P. Fusco, S. Rosner, and B. Wohler, “The upGREAT dual frequency heterodyne arrays for SOFIA,” J. Astron. Instrumentation (in press).

Groppi, C.

B. Mirzaei, J. R. G. Silva, D. Hayton, C. Groppi, T. Y. Kao, Q. Hu, J. L. Reno, and J. R. Gao, “8-beam local oscillator array at 4.7 THz generated by a phase grating and a quantum cascade laser,” Opt. Express 25, 29587–29596 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Mirzaei, J. R. G. Silva, Y. C. Luo, X. X. Liu, L. Wei, D. J. Hayton, J. R. Gao, and C. Groppi, “Efficiency of multi-beam Fourier phase gratings at 1.4 THz,” Opt. Express 25, 6581–6588 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Walker, C. Kulesa, P. Bernasconi, H. Eaton, N. Rolander, C. Groppi, J. Kloosterman, T. Cottam, D. Lesser, C. Martin, A. Stark, D. Neufeld, C. Lisse, D. Hollenbach, J. Kawamura, P. Goldsmith, W. Langer, H. Yorke, J. Sterne, A. Skalare, I. Mehdi, S. Weinreb, J. Kooi, J. Stutzki, U. Graf, M. Brasse, C. Honingh, R. Simon, M. Akyilmaz, P. Pütz, and M. Wolfire, “The Stratospheric THz Observatory (STO),” in Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE) Conference Series, vol. 7733L. M. Stepp, R. Gilmozzi, and H. J. Hall, eds. (2010).

Güsten, R.

C. Risacher, R. Güsten, J. Stutzki, H.-W. Hübers, D. Büchel, U. U. Graf, S. Heyminck, C. E. Honingh, K. Jacobs, B. Klein, T. Klein, C. Leinz, P. Pütz, N. Reyes, O. Ricken, H.-J. Wunsch, P. Fusco, and S. Rosner, “First supra-THz heterodyne array receivers for astronomy with the SOFIA observatory,” IEEE Transactions on Terahertz Sci. Technol. 6, 199–211 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. Kasemann, R. Güsten, S. Heyminck, B. Klein, T. Klein, S. D. Philipp, A. Korn, G. Schneider, A. Henseler, A. Baryshev, and T. M. Klapwijk, “CHAMP+: a powerful array receiver for APEX,” in Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE) Conference Series, vol. 6275J. Zmuidzinas, W. S. Holland, S. Withington, and W. D. Duncan, eds. (2006).

Hayton, D.

Hayton, D. J.

Henseler, A.

C. Kasemann, R. Güsten, S. Heyminck, B. Klein, T. Klein, S. D. Philipp, A. Korn, G. Schneider, A. Henseler, A. Baryshev, and T. M. Klapwijk, “CHAMP+: a powerful array receiver for APEX,” in Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE) Conference Series, vol. 6275J. Zmuidzinas, W. S. Holland, S. Withington, and W. D. Duncan, eds. (2006).

Heyminck, S.

C. Risacher, R. Güsten, J. Stutzki, H.-W. Hübers, D. Büchel, U. U. Graf, S. Heyminck, C. E. Honingh, K. Jacobs, B. Klein, T. Klein, C. Leinz, P. Pütz, N. Reyes, O. Ricken, H.-J. Wunsch, P. Fusco, and S. Rosner, “First supra-THz heterodyne array receivers for astronomy with the SOFIA observatory,” IEEE Transactions on Terahertz Sci. Technol. 6, 199–211 (2016).
[Crossref]

U. U. Graf and S. Heyminck, “Fourier gratings as submillimeter beam splitters,” IEEE Transactions on Antennas Propag. 49, 542–546 (2001).
[Crossref]

S. Heyminck and U. U. Graf, “Array-receiver LO unit using collimating Fourier gratings,” in Proceedings of the 12th International Symposium on Space Terahertz Technology, I. Mehdi, ed. (2001), pp. 563–570.

C. Kasemann, R. Güsten, S. Heyminck, B. Klein, T. Klein, S. D. Philipp, A. Korn, G. Schneider, A. Henseler, A. Baryshev, and T. M. Klapwijk, “CHAMP+: a powerful array receiver for APEX,” in Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE) Conference Series, vol. 6275J. Zmuidzinas, W. S. Holland, S. Withington, and W. D. Duncan, eds. (2006).

U. U. Graf, S. Heyminck, E. A. Michael, and S. Stanko, “KOSMA’s 490/810 GHz array receiver,” in Proceedings of the 12th International Symposium on Space Terahertz Technology, I. Mehdi, ed. (2001), pp. 553–562.

Higgins, R. D.

C. Risacher, R. G. J. Stutzki, H.-W. Hübers, R. Aladro, A. Bell, C. Buchbender, D. Büchel, T. C. C. Durán, U. U. Graf, R. D. Higgins, C. E. Honingh, K. Jacobs, M. Justen, B. Klein, M. Mertens, Y. Okada, A. Parikka, P. Pütz, N. Reyes, H. Richter, O. Ricken, D. Riquelme, N. Rothbart, N. Schneider, R. Simon, M. Wienold, H. Wiesemeyer, M. Ziebart, P. Fusco, S. Rosner, and B. Wohler, “The upGREAT dual frequency heterodyne arrays for SOFIA,” J. Astron. Instrumentation (in press).

Hollenbach, D.

C. Walker, C. Kulesa, P. Bernasconi, H. Eaton, N. Rolander, C. Groppi, J. Kloosterman, T. Cottam, D. Lesser, C. Martin, A. Stark, D. Neufeld, C. Lisse, D. Hollenbach, J. Kawamura, P. Goldsmith, W. Langer, H. Yorke, J. Sterne, A. Skalare, I. Mehdi, S. Weinreb, J. Kooi, J. Stutzki, U. Graf, M. Brasse, C. Honingh, R. Simon, M. Akyilmaz, P. Pütz, and M. Wolfire, “The Stratospheric THz Observatory (STO),” in Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE) Conference Series, vol. 7733L. M. Stepp, R. Gilmozzi, and H. J. Hall, eds. (2010).

Honingh, C.

C. Walker, C. Kulesa, P. Bernasconi, H. Eaton, N. Rolander, C. Groppi, J. Kloosterman, T. Cottam, D. Lesser, C. Martin, A. Stark, D. Neufeld, C. Lisse, D. Hollenbach, J. Kawamura, P. Goldsmith, W. Langer, H. Yorke, J. Sterne, A. Skalare, I. Mehdi, S. Weinreb, J. Kooi, J. Stutzki, U. Graf, M. Brasse, C. Honingh, R. Simon, M. Akyilmaz, P. Pütz, and M. Wolfire, “The Stratospheric THz Observatory (STO),” in Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE) Conference Series, vol. 7733L. M. Stepp, R. Gilmozzi, and H. J. Hall, eds. (2010).

Honingh, C. E.

C. Risacher, R. Güsten, J. Stutzki, H.-W. Hübers, D. Büchel, U. U. Graf, S. Heyminck, C. E. Honingh, K. Jacobs, B. Klein, T. Klein, C. Leinz, P. Pütz, N. Reyes, O. Ricken, H.-J. Wunsch, P. Fusco, and S. Rosner, “First supra-THz heterodyne array receivers for astronomy with the SOFIA observatory,” IEEE Transactions on Terahertz Sci. Technol. 6, 199–211 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. Risacher, R. G. J. Stutzki, H.-W. Hübers, R. Aladro, A. Bell, C. Buchbender, D. Büchel, T. C. C. Durán, U. U. Graf, R. D. Higgins, C. E. Honingh, K. Jacobs, M. Justen, B. Klein, M. Mertens, Y. Okada, A. Parikka, P. Pütz, N. Reyes, H. Richter, O. Ricken, D. Riquelme, N. Rothbart, N. Schneider, R. Simon, M. Wienold, H. Wiesemeyer, M. Ziebart, P. Fusco, S. Rosner, and B. Wohler, “The upGREAT dual frequency heterodyne arrays for SOFIA,” J. Astron. Instrumentation (in press).

Hu, Q.

Hübers, H.-W.

C. Risacher, R. Güsten, J. Stutzki, H.-W. Hübers, D. Büchel, U. U. Graf, S. Heyminck, C. E. Honingh, K. Jacobs, B. Klein, T. Klein, C. Leinz, P. Pütz, N. Reyes, O. Ricken, H.-J. Wunsch, P. Fusco, and S. Rosner, “First supra-THz heterodyne array receivers for astronomy with the SOFIA observatory,” IEEE Transactions on Terahertz Sci. Technol. 6, 199–211 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. Risacher, R. G. J. Stutzki, H.-W. Hübers, R. Aladro, A. Bell, C. Buchbender, D. Büchel, T. C. C. Durán, U. U. Graf, R. D. Higgins, C. E. Honingh, K. Jacobs, M. Justen, B. Klein, M. Mertens, Y. Okada, A. Parikka, P. Pütz, N. Reyes, H. Richter, O. Ricken, D. Riquelme, N. Rothbart, N. Schneider, R. Simon, M. Wienold, H. Wiesemeyer, M. Ziebart, P. Fusco, S. Rosner, and B. Wohler, “The upGREAT dual frequency heterodyne arrays for SOFIA,” J. Astron. Instrumentation (in press).

Jacobs, K.

C. Risacher, R. Güsten, J. Stutzki, H.-W. Hübers, D. Büchel, U. U. Graf, S. Heyminck, C. E. Honingh, K. Jacobs, B. Klein, T. Klein, C. Leinz, P. Pütz, N. Reyes, O. Ricken, H.-J. Wunsch, P. Fusco, and S. Rosner, “First supra-THz heterodyne array receivers for astronomy with the SOFIA observatory,” IEEE Transactions on Terahertz Sci. Technol. 6, 199–211 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. Risacher, R. G. J. Stutzki, H.-W. Hübers, R. Aladro, A. Bell, C. Buchbender, D. Büchel, T. C. C. Durán, U. U. Graf, R. D. Higgins, C. E. Honingh, K. Jacobs, M. Justen, B. Klein, M. Mertens, Y. Okada, A. Parikka, P. Pütz, N. Reyes, H. Richter, O. Ricken, D. Riquelme, N. Rothbart, N. Schneider, R. Simon, M. Wienold, H. Wiesemeyer, M. Ziebart, P. Fusco, S. Rosner, and B. Wohler, “The upGREAT dual frequency heterodyne arrays for SOFIA,” J. Astron. Instrumentation (in press).

Justen, M.

C. Risacher, R. G. J. Stutzki, H.-W. Hübers, R. Aladro, A. Bell, C. Buchbender, D. Büchel, T. C. C. Durán, U. U. Graf, R. D. Higgins, C. E. Honingh, K. Jacobs, M. Justen, B. Klein, M. Mertens, Y. Okada, A. Parikka, P. Pütz, N. Reyes, H. Richter, O. Ricken, D. Riquelme, N. Rothbart, N. Schneider, R. Simon, M. Wienold, H. Wiesemeyer, M. Ziebart, P. Fusco, S. Rosner, and B. Wohler, “The upGREAT dual frequency heterodyne arrays for SOFIA,” J. Astron. Instrumentation (in press).

Kao, T. Y.

Kasemann, C.

C. Kasemann, R. Güsten, S. Heyminck, B. Klein, T. Klein, S. D. Philipp, A. Korn, G. Schneider, A. Henseler, A. Baryshev, and T. M. Klapwijk, “CHAMP+: a powerful array receiver for APEX,” in Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE) Conference Series, vol. 6275J. Zmuidzinas, W. S. Holland, S. Withington, and W. D. Duncan, eds. (2006).

Kawamura, J.

C. Walker, C. Kulesa, P. Bernasconi, H. Eaton, N. Rolander, C. Groppi, J. Kloosterman, T. Cottam, D. Lesser, C. Martin, A. Stark, D. Neufeld, C. Lisse, D. Hollenbach, J. Kawamura, P. Goldsmith, W. Langer, H. Yorke, J. Sterne, A. Skalare, I. Mehdi, S. Weinreb, J. Kooi, J. Stutzki, U. Graf, M. Brasse, C. Honingh, R. Simon, M. Akyilmaz, P. Pütz, and M. Wolfire, “The Stratospheric THz Observatory (STO),” in Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE) Conference Series, vol. 7733L. M. Stepp, R. Gilmozzi, and H. J. Hall, eds. (2010).

Klapwijk, T. M.

C. Kasemann, R. Güsten, S. Heyminck, B. Klein, T. Klein, S. D. Philipp, A. Korn, G. Schneider, A. Henseler, A. Baryshev, and T. M. Klapwijk, “CHAMP+: a powerful array receiver for APEX,” in Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE) Conference Series, vol. 6275J. Zmuidzinas, W. S. Holland, S. Withington, and W. D. Duncan, eds. (2006).

Klein, B.

C. Risacher, R. Güsten, J. Stutzki, H.-W. Hübers, D. Büchel, U. U. Graf, S. Heyminck, C. E. Honingh, K. Jacobs, B. Klein, T. Klein, C. Leinz, P. Pütz, N. Reyes, O. Ricken, H.-J. Wunsch, P. Fusco, and S. Rosner, “First supra-THz heterodyne array receivers for astronomy with the SOFIA observatory,” IEEE Transactions on Terahertz Sci. Technol. 6, 199–211 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. Kasemann, R. Güsten, S. Heyminck, B. Klein, T. Klein, S. D. Philipp, A. Korn, G. Schneider, A. Henseler, A. Baryshev, and T. M. Klapwijk, “CHAMP+: a powerful array receiver for APEX,” in Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE) Conference Series, vol. 6275J. Zmuidzinas, W. S. Holland, S. Withington, and W. D. Duncan, eds. (2006).

C. Risacher, R. G. J. Stutzki, H.-W. Hübers, R. Aladro, A. Bell, C. Buchbender, D. Büchel, T. C. C. Durán, U. U. Graf, R. D. Higgins, C. E. Honingh, K. Jacobs, M. Justen, B. Klein, M. Mertens, Y. Okada, A. Parikka, P. Pütz, N. Reyes, H. Richter, O. Ricken, D. Riquelme, N. Rothbart, N. Schneider, R. Simon, M. Wienold, H. Wiesemeyer, M. Ziebart, P. Fusco, S. Rosner, and B. Wohler, “The upGREAT dual frequency heterodyne arrays for SOFIA,” J. Astron. Instrumentation (in press).

Klein, T.

C. Risacher, R. Güsten, J. Stutzki, H.-W. Hübers, D. Büchel, U. U. Graf, S. Heyminck, C. E. Honingh, K. Jacobs, B. Klein, T. Klein, C. Leinz, P. Pütz, N. Reyes, O. Ricken, H.-J. Wunsch, P. Fusco, and S. Rosner, “First supra-THz heterodyne array receivers for astronomy with the SOFIA observatory,” IEEE Transactions on Terahertz Sci. Technol. 6, 199–211 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. Kasemann, R. Güsten, S. Heyminck, B. Klein, T. Klein, S. D. Philipp, A. Korn, G. Schneider, A. Henseler, A. Baryshev, and T. M. Klapwijk, “CHAMP+: a powerful array receiver for APEX,” in Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE) Conference Series, vol. 6275J. Zmuidzinas, W. S. Holland, S. Withington, and W. D. Duncan, eds. (2006).

Kloosterman, J.

C. Walker, C. Kulesa, P. Bernasconi, H. Eaton, N. Rolander, C. Groppi, J. Kloosterman, T. Cottam, D. Lesser, C. Martin, A. Stark, D. Neufeld, C. Lisse, D. Hollenbach, J. Kawamura, P. Goldsmith, W. Langer, H. Yorke, J. Sterne, A. Skalare, I. Mehdi, S. Weinreb, J. Kooi, J. Stutzki, U. Graf, M. Brasse, C. Honingh, R. Simon, M. Akyilmaz, P. Pütz, and M. Wolfire, “The Stratospheric THz Observatory (STO),” in Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE) Conference Series, vol. 7733L. M. Stepp, R. Gilmozzi, and H. J. Hall, eds. (2010).

Kooi, J.

C. Walker, C. Kulesa, P. Bernasconi, H. Eaton, N. Rolander, C. Groppi, J. Kloosterman, T. Cottam, D. Lesser, C. Martin, A. Stark, D. Neufeld, C. Lisse, D. Hollenbach, J. Kawamura, P. Goldsmith, W. Langer, H. Yorke, J. Sterne, A. Skalare, I. Mehdi, S. Weinreb, J. Kooi, J. Stutzki, U. Graf, M. Brasse, C. Honingh, R. Simon, M. Akyilmaz, P. Pütz, and M. Wolfire, “The Stratospheric THz Observatory (STO),” in Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE) Conference Series, vol. 7733L. M. Stepp, R. Gilmozzi, and H. J. Hall, eds. (2010).

Korn, A.

C. Kasemann, R. Güsten, S. Heyminck, B. Klein, T. Klein, S. D. Philipp, A. Korn, G. Schneider, A. Henseler, A. Baryshev, and T. M. Klapwijk, “CHAMP+: a powerful array receiver for APEX,” in Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE) Conference Series, vol. 6275J. Zmuidzinas, W. S. Holland, S. Withington, and W. D. Duncan, eds. (2006).

Kulesa, C.

C. Walker, C. Kulesa, P. Bernasconi, H. Eaton, N. Rolander, C. Groppi, J. Kloosterman, T. Cottam, D. Lesser, C. Martin, A. Stark, D. Neufeld, C. Lisse, D. Hollenbach, J. Kawamura, P. Goldsmith, W. Langer, H. Yorke, J. Sterne, A. Skalare, I. Mehdi, S. Weinreb, J. Kooi, J. Stutzki, U. Graf, M. Brasse, C. Honingh, R. Simon, M. Akyilmaz, P. Pütz, and M. Wolfire, “The Stratospheric THz Observatory (STO),” in Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE) Conference Series, vol. 7733L. M. Stepp, R. Gilmozzi, and H. J. Hall, eds. (2010).

Langer, W.

C. Walker, C. Kulesa, P. Bernasconi, H. Eaton, N. Rolander, C. Groppi, J. Kloosterman, T. Cottam, D. Lesser, C. Martin, A. Stark, D. Neufeld, C. Lisse, D. Hollenbach, J. Kawamura, P. Goldsmith, W. Langer, H. Yorke, J. Sterne, A. Skalare, I. Mehdi, S. Weinreb, J. Kooi, J. Stutzki, U. Graf, M. Brasse, C. Honingh, R. Simon, M. Akyilmaz, P. Pütz, and M. Wolfire, “The Stratospheric THz Observatory (STO),” in Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE) Conference Series, vol. 7733L. M. Stepp, R. Gilmozzi, and H. J. Hall, eds. (2010).

Lefèvre, R.

Leinz, C.

C. Risacher, R. Güsten, J. Stutzki, H.-W. Hübers, D. Büchel, U. U. Graf, S. Heyminck, C. E. Honingh, K. Jacobs, B. Klein, T. Klein, C. Leinz, P. Pütz, N. Reyes, O. Ricken, H.-J. Wunsch, P. Fusco, and S. Rosner, “First supra-THz heterodyne array receivers for astronomy with the SOFIA observatory,” IEEE Transactions on Terahertz Sci. Technol. 6, 199–211 (2016).
[Crossref]

Lesser, D.

C. Walker, C. Kulesa, P. Bernasconi, H. Eaton, N. Rolander, C. Groppi, J. Kloosterman, T. Cottam, D. Lesser, C. Martin, A. Stark, D. Neufeld, C. Lisse, D. Hollenbach, J. Kawamura, P. Goldsmith, W. Langer, H. Yorke, J. Sterne, A. Skalare, I. Mehdi, S. Weinreb, J. Kooi, J. Stutzki, U. Graf, M. Brasse, C. Honingh, R. Simon, M. Akyilmaz, P. Pütz, and M. Wolfire, “The Stratospheric THz Observatory (STO),” in Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE) Conference Series, vol. 7733L. M. Stepp, R. Gilmozzi, and H. J. Hall, eds. (2010).

Lisse, C.

C. Walker, C. Kulesa, P. Bernasconi, H. Eaton, N. Rolander, C. Groppi, J. Kloosterman, T. Cottam, D. Lesser, C. Martin, A. Stark, D. Neufeld, C. Lisse, D. Hollenbach, J. Kawamura, P. Goldsmith, W. Langer, H. Yorke, J. Sterne, A. Skalare, I. Mehdi, S. Weinreb, J. Kooi, J. Stutzki, U. Graf, M. Brasse, C. Honingh, R. Simon, M. Akyilmaz, P. Pütz, and M. Wolfire, “The Stratospheric THz Observatory (STO),” in Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE) Conference Series, vol. 7733L. M. Stepp, R. Gilmozzi, and H. J. Hall, eds. (2010).

Liu, X. X.

Luo, Y. C.

Martin, C.

C. Walker, C. Kulesa, P. Bernasconi, H. Eaton, N. Rolander, C. Groppi, J. Kloosterman, T. Cottam, D. Lesser, C. Martin, A. Stark, D. Neufeld, C. Lisse, D. Hollenbach, J. Kawamura, P. Goldsmith, W. Langer, H. Yorke, J. Sterne, A. Skalare, I. Mehdi, S. Weinreb, J. Kooi, J. Stutzki, U. Graf, M. Brasse, C. Honingh, R. Simon, M. Akyilmaz, P. Pütz, and M. Wolfire, “The Stratospheric THz Observatory (STO),” in Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE) Conference Series, vol. 7733L. M. Stepp, R. Gilmozzi, and H. J. Hall, eds. (2010).

Mehdi, I.

C. Walker, C. Kulesa, P. Bernasconi, H. Eaton, N. Rolander, C. Groppi, J. Kloosterman, T. Cottam, D. Lesser, C. Martin, A. Stark, D. Neufeld, C. Lisse, D. Hollenbach, J. Kawamura, P. Goldsmith, W. Langer, H. Yorke, J. Sterne, A. Skalare, I. Mehdi, S. Weinreb, J. Kooi, J. Stutzki, U. Graf, M. Brasse, C. Honingh, R. Simon, M. Akyilmaz, P. Pütz, and M. Wolfire, “The Stratospheric THz Observatory (STO),” in Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE) Conference Series, vol. 7733L. M. Stepp, R. Gilmozzi, and H. J. Hall, eds. (2010).

Mertens, M.

C. Risacher, R. G. J. Stutzki, H.-W. Hübers, R. Aladro, A. Bell, C. Buchbender, D. Büchel, T. C. C. Durán, U. U. Graf, R. D. Higgins, C. E. Honingh, K. Jacobs, M. Justen, B. Klein, M. Mertens, Y. Okada, A. Parikka, P. Pütz, N. Reyes, H. Richter, O. Ricken, D. Riquelme, N. Rothbart, N. Schneider, R. Simon, M. Wienold, H. Wiesemeyer, M. Ziebart, P. Fusco, S. Rosner, and B. Wohler, “The upGREAT dual frequency heterodyne arrays for SOFIA,” J. Astron. Instrumentation (in press).

Michael, E. A.

U. U. Graf, S. Heyminck, E. A. Michael, and S. Stanko, “KOSMA’s 490/810 GHz array receiver,” in Proceedings of the 12th International Symposium on Space Terahertz Technology, I. Mehdi, ed. (2001), pp. 553–562.

Mirzaei, B.

Neufeld, D.

C. Walker, C. Kulesa, P. Bernasconi, H. Eaton, N. Rolander, C. Groppi, J. Kloosterman, T. Cottam, D. Lesser, C. Martin, A. Stark, D. Neufeld, C. Lisse, D. Hollenbach, J. Kawamura, P. Goldsmith, W. Langer, H. Yorke, J. Sterne, A. Skalare, I. Mehdi, S. Weinreb, J. Kooi, J. Stutzki, U. Graf, M. Brasse, C. Honingh, R. Simon, M. Akyilmaz, P. Pütz, and M. Wolfire, “The Stratospheric THz Observatory (STO),” in Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE) Conference Series, vol. 7733L. M. Stepp, R. Gilmozzi, and H. J. Hall, eds. (2010).

Okada, Y.

C. Risacher, R. G. J. Stutzki, H.-W. Hübers, R. Aladro, A. Bell, C. Buchbender, D. Büchel, T. C. C. Durán, U. U. Graf, R. D. Higgins, C. E. Honingh, K. Jacobs, M. Justen, B. Klein, M. Mertens, Y. Okada, A. Parikka, P. Pütz, N. Reyes, H. Richter, O. Ricken, D. Riquelme, N. Rothbart, N. Schneider, R. Simon, M. Wienold, H. Wiesemeyer, M. Ziebart, P. Fusco, S. Rosner, and B. Wohler, “The upGREAT dual frequency heterodyne arrays for SOFIA,” J. Astron. Instrumentation (in press).

Parikka, A.

C. Risacher, R. G. J. Stutzki, H.-W. Hübers, R. Aladro, A. Bell, C. Buchbender, D. Büchel, T. C. C. Durán, U. U. Graf, R. D. Higgins, C. E. Honingh, K. Jacobs, M. Justen, B. Klein, M. Mertens, Y. Okada, A. Parikka, P. Pütz, N. Reyes, H. Richter, O. Ricken, D. Riquelme, N. Rothbart, N. Schneider, R. Simon, M. Wienold, H. Wiesemeyer, M. Ziebart, P. Fusco, S. Rosner, and B. Wohler, “The upGREAT dual frequency heterodyne arrays for SOFIA,” J. Astron. Instrumentation (in press).

Philipp, S. D.

C. Kasemann, R. Güsten, S. Heyminck, B. Klein, T. Klein, S. D. Philipp, A. Korn, G. Schneider, A. Henseler, A. Baryshev, and T. M. Klapwijk, “CHAMP+: a powerful array receiver for APEX,” in Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE) Conference Series, vol. 6275J. Zmuidzinas, W. S. Holland, S. Withington, and W. D. Duncan, eds. (2006).

Pütz, P.

C. Risacher, R. Güsten, J. Stutzki, H.-W. Hübers, D. Büchel, U. U. Graf, S. Heyminck, C. E. Honingh, K. Jacobs, B. Klein, T. Klein, C. Leinz, P. Pütz, N. Reyes, O. Ricken, H.-J. Wunsch, P. Fusco, and S. Rosner, “First supra-THz heterodyne array receivers for astronomy with the SOFIA observatory,” IEEE Transactions on Terahertz Sci. Technol. 6, 199–211 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. Risacher, R. G. J. Stutzki, H.-W. Hübers, R. Aladro, A. Bell, C. Buchbender, D. Büchel, T. C. C. Durán, U. U. Graf, R. D. Higgins, C. E. Honingh, K. Jacobs, M. Justen, B. Klein, M. Mertens, Y. Okada, A. Parikka, P. Pütz, N. Reyes, H. Richter, O. Ricken, D. Riquelme, N. Rothbart, N. Schneider, R. Simon, M. Wienold, H. Wiesemeyer, M. Ziebart, P. Fusco, S. Rosner, and B. Wohler, “The upGREAT dual frequency heterodyne arrays for SOFIA,” J. Astron. Instrumentation (in press).

C. Walker, C. Kulesa, P. Bernasconi, H. Eaton, N. Rolander, C. Groppi, J. Kloosterman, T. Cottam, D. Lesser, C. Martin, A. Stark, D. Neufeld, C. Lisse, D. Hollenbach, J. Kawamura, P. Goldsmith, W. Langer, H. Yorke, J. Sterne, A. Skalare, I. Mehdi, S. Weinreb, J. Kooi, J. Stutzki, U. Graf, M. Brasse, C. Honingh, R. Simon, M. Akyilmaz, P. Pütz, and M. Wolfire, “The Stratospheric THz Observatory (STO),” in Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE) Conference Series, vol. 7733L. M. Stepp, R. Gilmozzi, and H. J. Hall, eds. (2010).

Reno, J. L.

Reyes, N.

C. Risacher, R. Güsten, J. Stutzki, H.-W. Hübers, D. Büchel, U. U. Graf, S. Heyminck, C. E. Honingh, K. Jacobs, B. Klein, T. Klein, C. Leinz, P. Pütz, N. Reyes, O. Ricken, H.-J. Wunsch, P. Fusco, and S. Rosner, “First supra-THz heterodyne array receivers for astronomy with the SOFIA observatory,” IEEE Transactions on Terahertz Sci. Technol. 6, 199–211 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. Risacher, R. G. J. Stutzki, H.-W. Hübers, R. Aladro, A. Bell, C. Buchbender, D. Büchel, T. C. C. Durán, U. U. Graf, R. D. Higgins, C. E. Honingh, K. Jacobs, M. Justen, B. Klein, M. Mertens, Y. Okada, A. Parikka, P. Pütz, N. Reyes, H. Richter, O. Ricken, D. Riquelme, N. Rothbart, N. Schneider, R. Simon, M. Wienold, H. Wiesemeyer, M. Ziebart, P. Fusco, S. Rosner, and B. Wohler, “The upGREAT dual frequency heterodyne arrays for SOFIA,” J. Astron. Instrumentation (in press).

Richter, H.

C. Risacher, R. G. J. Stutzki, H.-W. Hübers, R. Aladro, A. Bell, C. Buchbender, D. Büchel, T. C. C. Durán, U. U. Graf, R. D. Higgins, C. E. Honingh, K. Jacobs, M. Justen, B. Klein, M. Mertens, Y. Okada, A. Parikka, P. Pütz, N. Reyes, H. Richter, O. Ricken, D. Riquelme, N. Rothbart, N. Schneider, R. Simon, M. Wienold, H. Wiesemeyer, M. Ziebart, P. Fusco, S. Rosner, and B. Wohler, “The upGREAT dual frequency heterodyne arrays for SOFIA,” J. Astron. Instrumentation (in press).

Ricken, O.

C. Risacher, R. Güsten, J. Stutzki, H.-W. Hübers, D. Büchel, U. U. Graf, S. Heyminck, C. E. Honingh, K. Jacobs, B. Klein, T. Klein, C. Leinz, P. Pütz, N. Reyes, O. Ricken, H.-J. Wunsch, P. Fusco, and S. Rosner, “First supra-THz heterodyne array receivers for astronomy with the SOFIA observatory,” IEEE Transactions on Terahertz Sci. Technol. 6, 199–211 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. Risacher, R. G. J. Stutzki, H.-W. Hübers, R. Aladro, A. Bell, C. Buchbender, D. Büchel, T. C. C. Durán, U. U. Graf, R. D. Higgins, C. E. Honingh, K. Jacobs, M. Justen, B. Klein, M. Mertens, Y. Okada, A. Parikka, P. Pütz, N. Reyes, H. Richter, O. Ricken, D. Riquelme, N. Rothbart, N. Schneider, R. Simon, M. Wienold, H. Wiesemeyer, M. Ziebart, P. Fusco, S. Rosner, and B. Wohler, “The upGREAT dual frequency heterodyne arrays for SOFIA,” J. Astron. Instrumentation (in press).

Riquelme, D.

C. Risacher, R. G. J. Stutzki, H.-W. Hübers, R. Aladro, A. Bell, C. Buchbender, D. Büchel, T. C. C. Durán, U. U. Graf, R. D. Higgins, C. E. Honingh, K. Jacobs, M. Justen, B. Klein, M. Mertens, Y. Okada, A. Parikka, P. Pütz, N. Reyes, H. Richter, O. Ricken, D. Riquelme, N. Rothbart, N. Schneider, R. Simon, M. Wienold, H. Wiesemeyer, M. Ziebart, P. Fusco, S. Rosner, and B. Wohler, “The upGREAT dual frequency heterodyne arrays for SOFIA,” J. Astron. Instrumentation (in press).

Risacher, C.

C. Risacher, R. Güsten, J. Stutzki, H.-W. Hübers, D. Büchel, U. U. Graf, S. Heyminck, C. E. Honingh, K. Jacobs, B. Klein, T. Klein, C. Leinz, P. Pütz, N. Reyes, O. Ricken, H.-J. Wunsch, P. Fusco, and S. Rosner, “First supra-THz heterodyne array receivers for astronomy with the SOFIA observatory,” IEEE Transactions on Terahertz Sci. Technol. 6, 199–211 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. Risacher, R. G. J. Stutzki, H.-W. Hübers, R. Aladro, A. Bell, C. Buchbender, D. Büchel, T. C. C. Durán, U. U. Graf, R. D. Higgins, C. E. Honingh, K. Jacobs, M. Justen, B. Klein, M. Mertens, Y. Okada, A. Parikka, P. Pütz, N. Reyes, H. Richter, O. Ricken, D. Riquelme, N. Rothbart, N. Schneider, R. Simon, M. Wienold, H. Wiesemeyer, M. Ziebart, P. Fusco, S. Rosner, and B. Wohler, “The upGREAT dual frequency heterodyne arrays for SOFIA,” J. Astron. Instrumentation (in press).

Rolander, N.

C. Walker, C. Kulesa, P. Bernasconi, H. Eaton, N. Rolander, C. Groppi, J. Kloosterman, T. Cottam, D. Lesser, C. Martin, A. Stark, D. Neufeld, C. Lisse, D. Hollenbach, J. Kawamura, P. Goldsmith, W. Langer, H. Yorke, J. Sterne, A. Skalare, I. Mehdi, S. Weinreb, J. Kooi, J. Stutzki, U. Graf, M. Brasse, C. Honingh, R. Simon, M. Akyilmaz, P. Pütz, and M. Wolfire, “The Stratospheric THz Observatory (STO),” in Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE) Conference Series, vol. 7733L. M. Stepp, R. Gilmozzi, and H. J. Hall, eds. (2010).

Rosner, S.

C. Risacher, R. Güsten, J. Stutzki, H.-W. Hübers, D. Büchel, U. U. Graf, S. Heyminck, C. E. Honingh, K. Jacobs, B. Klein, T. Klein, C. Leinz, P. Pütz, N. Reyes, O. Ricken, H.-J. Wunsch, P. Fusco, and S. Rosner, “First supra-THz heterodyne array receivers for astronomy with the SOFIA observatory,” IEEE Transactions on Terahertz Sci. Technol. 6, 199–211 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. Risacher, R. G. J. Stutzki, H.-W. Hübers, R. Aladro, A. Bell, C. Buchbender, D. Büchel, T. C. C. Durán, U. U. Graf, R. D. Higgins, C. E. Honingh, K. Jacobs, M. Justen, B. Klein, M. Mertens, Y. Okada, A. Parikka, P. Pütz, N. Reyes, H. Richter, O. Ricken, D. Riquelme, N. Rothbart, N. Schneider, R. Simon, M. Wienold, H. Wiesemeyer, M. Ziebart, P. Fusco, S. Rosner, and B. Wohler, “The upGREAT dual frequency heterodyne arrays for SOFIA,” J. Astron. Instrumentation (in press).

Rothbart, N.

C. Risacher, R. G. J. Stutzki, H.-W. Hübers, R. Aladro, A. Bell, C. Buchbender, D. Büchel, T. C. C. Durán, U. U. Graf, R. D. Higgins, C. E. Honingh, K. Jacobs, M. Justen, B. Klein, M. Mertens, Y. Okada, A. Parikka, P. Pütz, N. Reyes, H. Richter, O. Ricken, D. Riquelme, N. Rothbart, N. Schneider, R. Simon, M. Wienold, H. Wiesemeyer, M. Ziebart, P. Fusco, S. Rosner, and B. Wohler, “The upGREAT dual frequency heterodyne arrays for SOFIA,” J. Astron. Instrumentation (in press).

Sarrazin, J.

Saxton, W. O.

R. W. Gerchberg and W. O. Saxton, “A practical algorithm for the determination of phase from image and diffraction plane pictures,” Optik 35, 237–246 (1972).

Schneider, G.

C. Kasemann, R. Güsten, S. Heyminck, B. Klein, T. Klein, S. D. Philipp, A. Korn, G. Schneider, A. Henseler, A. Baryshev, and T. M. Klapwijk, “CHAMP+: a powerful array receiver for APEX,” in Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE) Conference Series, vol. 6275J. Zmuidzinas, W. S. Holland, S. Withington, and W. D. Duncan, eds. (2006).

Schneider, N.

C. Risacher, R. G. J. Stutzki, H.-W. Hübers, R. Aladro, A. Bell, C. Buchbender, D. Büchel, T. C. C. Durán, U. U. Graf, R. D. Higgins, C. E. Honingh, K. Jacobs, M. Justen, B. Klein, M. Mertens, Y. Okada, A. Parikka, P. Pütz, N. Reyes, H. Richter, O. Ricken, D. Riquelme, N. Rothbart, N. Schneider, R. Simon, M. Wienold, H. Wiesemeyer, M. Ziebart, P. Fusco, S. Rosner, and B. Wohler, “The upGREAT dual frequency heterodyne arrays for SOFIA,” J. Astron. Instrumentation (in press).

Silva, J. R. G.

Simon, R.

C. Risacher, R. G. J. Stutzki, H.-W. Hübers, R. Aladro, A. Bell, C. Buchbender, D. Büchel, T. C. C. Durán, U. U. Graf, R. D. Higgins, C. E. Honingh, K. Jacobs, M. Justen, B. Klein, M. Mertens, Y. Okada, A. Parikka, P. Pütz, N. Reyes, H. Richter, O. Ricken, D. Riquelme, N. Rothbart, N. Schneider, R. Simon, M. Wienold, H. Wiesemeyer, M. Ziebart, P. Fusco, S. Rosner, and B. Wohler, “The upGREAT dual frequency heterodyne arrays for SOFIA,” J. Astron. Instrumentation (in press).

C. Walker, C. Kulesa, P. Bernasconi, H. Eaton, N. Rolander, C. Groppi, J. Kloosterman, T. Cottam, D. Lesser, C. Martin, A. Stark, D. Neufeld, C. Lisse, D. Hollenbach, J. Kawamura, P. Goldsmith, W. Langer, H. Yorke, J. Sterne, A. Skalare, I. Mehdi, S. Weinreb, J. Kooi, J. Stutzki, U. Graf, M. Brasse, C. Honingh, R. Simon, M. Akyilmaz, P. Pütz, and M. Wolfire, “The Stratospheric THz Observatory (STO),” in Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE) Conference Series, vol. 7733L. M. Stepp, R. Gilmozzi, and H. J. Hall, eds. (2010).

Skalare, A.

C. Walker, C. Kulesa, P. Bernasconi, H. Eaton, N. Rolander, C. Groppi, J. Kloosterman, T. Cottam, D. Lesser, C. Martin, A. Stark, D. Neufeld, C. Lisse, D. Hollenbach, J. Kawamura, P. Goldsmith, W. Langer, H. Yorke, J. Sterne, A. Skalare, I. Mehdi, S. Weinreb, J. Kooi, J. Stutzki, U. Graf, M. Brasse, C. Honingh, R. Simon, M. Akyilmaz, P. Pütz, and M. Wolfire, “The Stratospheric THz Observatory (STO),” in Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE) Conference Series, vol. 7733L. M. Stepp, R. Gilmozzi, and H. J. Hall, eds. (2010).

Stanko, S.

U. U. Graf, S. Heyminck, E. A. Michael, and S. Stanko, “KOSMA’s 490/810 GHz array receiver,” in Proceedings of the 12th International Symposium on Space Terahertz Technology, I. Mehdi, ed. (2001), pp. 553–562.

Stark, A.

C. Walker, C. Kulesa, P. Bernasconi, H. Eaton, N. Rolander, C. Groppi, J. Kloosterman, T. Cottam, D. Lesser, C. Martin, A. Stark, D. Neufeld, C. Lisse, D. Hollenbach, J. Kawamura, P. Goldsmith, W. Langer, H. Yorke, J. Sterne, A. Skalare, I. Mehdi, S. Weinreb, J. Kooi, J. Stutzki, U. Graf, M. Brasse, C. Honingh, R. Simon, M. Akyilmaz, P. Pütz, and M. Wolfire, “The Stratospheric THz Observatory (STO),” in Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE) Conference Series, vol. 7733L. M. Stepp, R. Gilmozzi, and H. J. Hall, eds. (2010).

Sterne, J.

C. Walker, C. Kulesa, P. Bernasconi, H. Eaton, N. Rolander, C. Groppi, J. Kloosterman, T. Cottam, D. Lesser, C. Martin, A. Stark, D. Neufeld, C. Lisse, D. Hollenbach, J. Kawamura, P. Goldsmith, W. Langer, H. Yorke, J. Sterne, A. Skalare, I. Mehdi, S. Weinreb, J. Kooi, J. Stutzki, U. Graf, M. Brasse, C. Honingh, R. Simon, M. Akyilmaz, P. Pütz, and M. Wolfire, “The Stratospheric THz Observatory (STO),” in Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE) Conference Series, vol. 7733L. M. Stepp, R. Gilmozzi, and H. J. Hall, eds. (2010).

Stutzki, J.

C. Risacher, R. Güsten, J. Stutzki, H.-W. Hübers, D. Büchel, U. U. Graf, S. Heyminck, C. E. Honingh, K. Jacobs, B. Klein, T. Klein, C. Leinz, P. Pütz, N. Reyes, O. Ricken, H.-J. Wunsch, P. Fusco, and S. Rosner, “First supra-THz heterodyne array receivers for astronomy with the SOFIA observatory,” IEEE Transactions on Terahertz Sci. Technol. 6, 199–211 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. Walker, C. Kulesa, P. Bernasconi, H. Eaton, N. Rolander, C. Groppi, J. Kloosterman, T. Cottam, D. Lesser, C. Martin, A. Stark, D. Neufeld, C. Lisse, D. Hollenbach, J. Kawamura, P. Goldsmith, W. Langer, H. Yorke, J. Sterne, A. Skalare, I. Mehdi, S. Weinreb, J. Kooi, J. Stutzki, U. Graf, M. Brasse, C. Honingh, R. Simon, M. Akyilmaz, P. Pütz, and M. Wolfire, “The Stratospheric THz Observatory (STO),” in Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE) Conference Series, vol. 7733L. M. Stepp, R. Gilmozzi, and H. J. Hall, eds. (2010).

Stutzki, R. G. J.

C. Risacher, R. G. J. Stutzki, H.-W. Hübers, R. Aladro, A. Bell, C. Buchbender, D. Büchel, T. C. C. Durán, U. U. Graf, R. D. Higgins, C. E. Honingh, K. Jacobs, M. Justen, B. Klein, M. Mertens, Y. Okada, A. Parikka, P. Pütz, N. Reyes, H. Richter, O. Ricken, D. Riquelme, N. Rothbart, N. Schneider, R. Simon, M. Wienold, H. Wiesemeyer, M. Ziebart, P. Fusco, S. Rosner, and B. Wohler, “The upGREAT dual frequency heterodyne arrays for SOFIA,” J. Astron. Instrumentation (in press).

Walker, C.

C. Walker, C. Kulesa, P. Bernasconi, H. Eaton, N. Rolander, C. Groppi, J. Kloosterman, T. Cottam, D. Lesser, C. Martin, A. Stark, D. Neufeld, C. Lisse, D. Hollenbach, J. Kawamura, P. Goldsmith, W. Langer, H. Yorke, J. Sterne, A. Skalare, I. Mehdi, S. Weinreb, J. Kooi, J. Stutzki, U. Graf, M. Brasse, C. Honingh, R. Simon, M. Akyilmaz, P. Pütz, and M. Wolfire, “The Stratospheric THz Observatory (STO),” in Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE) Conference Series, vol. 7733L. M. Stepp, R. Gilmozzi, and H. J. Hall, eds. (2010).

Wei, L.

Weinreb, S.

C. Walker, C. Kulesa, P. Bernasconi, H. Eaton, N. Rolander, C. Groppi, J. Kloosterman, T. Cottam, D. Lesser, C. Martin, A. Stark, D. Neufeld, C. Lisse, D. Hollenbach, J. Kawamura, P. Goldsmith, W. Langer, H. Yorke, J. Sterne, A. Skalare, I. Mehdi, S. Weinreb, J. Kooi, J. Stutzki, U. Graf, M. Brasse, C. Honingh, R. Simon, M. Akyilmaz, P. Pütz, and M. Wolfire, “The Stratospheric THz Observatory (STO),” in Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE) Conference Series, vol. 7733L. M. Stepp, R. Gilmozzi, and H. J. Hall, eds. (2010).

Wiedner, M. C.

Wienold, M.

C. Risacher, R. G. J. Stutzki, H.-W. Hübers, R. Aladro, A. Bell, C. Buchbender, D. Büchel, T. C. C. Durán, U. U. Graf, R. D. Higgins, C. E. Honingh, K. Jacobs, M. Justen, B. Klein, M. Mertens, Y. Okada, A. Parikka, P. Pütz, N. Reyes, H. Richter, O. Ricken, D. Riquelme, N. Rothbart, N. Schneider, R. Simon, M. Wienold, H. Wiesemeyer, M. Ziebart, P. Fusco, S. Rosner, and B. Wohler, “The upGREAT dual frequency heterodyne arrays for SOFIA,” J. Astron. Instrumentation (in press).

Wiesemeyer, H.

C. Risacher, R. G. J. Stutzki, H.-W. Hübers, R. Aladro, A. Bell, C. Buchbender, D. Büchel, T. C. C. Durán, U. U. Graf, R. D. Higgins, C. E. Honingh, K. Jacobs, M. Justen, B. Klein, M. Mertens, Y. Okada, A. Parikka, P. Pütz, N. Reyes, H. Richter, O. Ricken, D. Riquelme, N. Rothbart, N. Schneider, R. Simon, M. Wienold, H. Wiesemeyer, M. Ziebart, P. Fusco, S. Rosner, and B. Wohler, “The upGREAT dual frequency heterodyne arrays for SOFIA,” J. Astron. Instrumentation (in press).

Wohler, B.

C. Risacher, R. G. J. Stutzki, H.-W. Hübers, R. Aladro, A. Bell, C. Buchbender, D. Büchel, T. C. C. Durán, U. U. Graf, R. D. Higgins, C. E. Honingh, K. Jacobs, M. Justen, B. Klein, M. Mertens, Y. Okada, A. Parikka, P. Pütz, N. Reyes, H. Richter, O. Ricken, D. Riquelme, N. Rothbart, N. Schneider, R. Simon, M. Wienold, H. Wiesemeyer, M. Ziebart, P. Fusco, S. Rosner, and B. Wohler, “The upGREAT dual frequency heterodyne arrays for SOFIA,” J. Astron. Instrumentation (in press).

Wolfire, M.

C. Walker, C. Kulesa, P. Bernasconi, H. Eaton, N. Rolander, C. Groppi, J. Kloosterman, T. Cottam, D. Lesser, C. Martin, A. Stark, D. Neufeld, C. Lisse, D. Hollenbach, J. Kawamura, P. Goldsmith, W. Langer, H. Yorke, J. Sterne, A. Skalare, I. Mehdi, S. Weinreb, J. Kooi, J. Stutzki, U. Graf, M. Brasse, C. Honingh, R. Simon, M. Akyilmaz, P. Pütz, and M. Wolfire, “The Stratospheric THz Observatory (STO),” in Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE) Conference Series, vol. 7733L. M. Stepp, R. Gilmozzi, and H. J. Hall, eds. (2010).

Wunsch, H.-J.

C. Risacher, R. Güsten, J. Stutzki, H.-W. Hübers, D. Büchel, U. U. Graf, S. Heyminck, C. E. Honingh, K. Jacobs, B. Klein, T. Klein, C. Leinz, P. Pütz, N. Reyes, O. Ricken, H.-J. Wunsch, P. Fusco, and S. Rosner, “First supra-THz heterodyne array receivers for astronomy with the SOFIA observatory,” IEEE Transactions on Terahertz Sci. Technol. 6, 199–211 (2016).
[Crossref]

Yorke, H.

C. Walker, C. Kulesa, P. Bernasconi, H. Eaton, N. Rolander, C. Groppi, J. Kloosterman, T. Cottam, D. Lesser, C. Martin, A. Stark, D. Neufeld, C. Lisse, D. Hollenbach, J. Kawamura, P. Goldsmith, W. Langer, H. Yorke, J. Sterne, A. Skalare, I. Mehdi, S. Weinreb, J. Kooi, J. Stutzki, U. Graf, M. Brasse, C. Honingh, R. Simon, M. Akyilmaz, P. Pütz, and M. Wolfire, “The Stratospheric THz Observatory (STO),” in Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE) Conference Series, vol. 7733L. M. Stepp, R. Gilmozzi, and H. J. Hall, eds. (2010).

Ziebart, M.

C. Risacher, R. G. J. Stutzki, H.-W. Hübers, R. Aladro, A. Bell, C. Buchbender, D. Büchel, T. C. C. Durán, U. U. Graf, R. D. Higgins, C. E. Honingh, K. Jacobs, M. Justen, B. Klein, M. Mertens, Y. Okada, A. Parikka, P. Pütz, N. Reyes, H. Richter, O. Ricken, D. Riquelme, N. Rothbart, N. Schneider, R. Simon, M. Wienold, H. Wiesemeyer, M. Ziebart, P. Fusco, S. Rosner, and B. Wohler, “The upGREAT dual frequency heterodyne arrays for SOFIA,” J. Astron. Instrumentation (in press).

IEEE Transactions on Antennas Propag. (1)

U. U. Graf and S. Heyminck, “Fourier gratings as submillimeter beam splitters,” IEEE Transactions on Antennas Propag. 49, 542–546 (2001).
[Crossref]

IEEE Transactions on Terahertz Sci. Technol. (1)

C. Risacher, R. Güsten, J. Stutzki, H.-W. Hübers, D. Büchel, U. U. Graf, S. Heyminck, C. E. Honingh, K. Jacobs, B. Klein, T. Klein, C. Leinz, P. Pütz, N. Reyes, O. Ricken, H.-J. Wunsch, P. Fusco, and S. Rosner, “First supra-THz heterodyne array receivers for astronomy with the SOFIA observatory,” IEEE Transactions on Terahertz Sci. Technol. 6, 199–211 (2016).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (3)

Optik (1)

R. W. Gerchberg and W. O. Saxton, “A practical algorithm for the determination of phase from image and diffraction plane pictures,” Optik 35, 237–246 (1972).

Other (5)

C. Risacher, R. G. J. Stutzki, H.-W. Hübers, R. Aladro, A. Bell, C. Buchbender, D. Büchel, T. C. C. Durán, U. U. Graf, R. D. Higgins, C. E. Honingh, K. Jacobs, M. Justen, B. Klein, M. Mertens, Y. Okada, A. Parikka, P. Pütz, N. Reyes, H. Richter, O. Ricken, D. Riquelme, N. Rothbart, N. Schneider, R. Simon, M. Wienold, H. Wiesemeyer, M. Ziebart, P. Fusco, S. Rosner, and B. Wohler, “The upGREAT dual frequency heterodyne arrays for SOFIA,” J. Astron. Instrumentation (in press).

C. Walker, C. Kulesa, P. Bernasconi, H. Eaton, N. Rolander, C. Groppi, J. Kloosterman, T. Cottam, D. Lesser, C. Martin, A. Stark, D. Neufeld, C. Lisse, D. Hollenbach, J. Kawamura, P. Goldsmith, W. Langer, H. Yorke, J. Sterne, A. Skalare, I. Mehdi, S. Weinreb, J. Kooi, J. Stutzki, U. Graf, M. Brasse, C. Honingh, R. Simon, M. Akyilmaz, P. Pütz, and M. Wolfire, “The Stratospheric THz Observatory (STO),” in Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE) Conference Series, vol. 7733L. M. Stepp, R. Gilmozzi, and H. J. Hall, eds. (2010).

S. Heyminck and U. U. Graf, “Array-receiver LO unit using collimating Fourier gratings,” in Proceedings of the 12th International Symposium on Space Terahertz Technology, I. Mehdi, ed. (2001), pp. 563–570.

U. U. Graf, S. Heyminck, E. A. Michael, and S. Stanko, “KOSMA’s 490/810 GHz array receiver,” in Proceedings of the 12th International Symposium on Space Terahertz Technology, I. Mehdi, ed. (2001), pp. 553–562.

C. Kasemann, R. Güsten, S. Heyminck, B. Klein, T. Klein, S. D. Philipp, A. Korn, G. Schneider, A. Henseler, A. Baryshev, and T. M. Klapwijk, “CHAMP+: a powerful array receiver for APEX,” in Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE) Conference Series, vol. 6275J. Zmuidzinas, W. S. Holland, S. Withington, and W. D. Duncan, eds. (2006).

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Unit cell phase structure of the pseudo-2D 2×4 beam grating (a) the true 2D 2×4 (b) and the true 2D 2×2 (c) beam gratings. The axis labels are relative linear dimensions of the unit cell size, The corresponding diffraction patterns are shown in Fig. 2.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Simulated diffraction patterns of the unit cell structures of Fig. 1. The color code is on a logarithmic scale. The power contours range from 0.05 to 0.95 in steps of 0.45 of the peak power in linear units. The axis labels denote diffraction orders. The efficiency improvement by the true 2D structures (b) and (c) is evident from the reduction of power lost into unwanted diffraction orders.

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