Abstract

Knowledge on the phenology and distribution of phytoplankton taxonomic groups (PTGs) represent valuable information when studying marine ecosystem, especially in the Arctic Ocean where rapid warming has drastic effects on sea-ice dynamics, which affect the marine food web. Taxonomic groups of phytoplankton can be discriminated based on their pigment signatures, which, in turn, impact their absorption spectra, given that different pigments have different absorption windows in the visible. Using concurrent measurements of phytoplankton diagnostic pigments and absorption spectra (aph) collected in the Bering and Chukchi Seas, a novel and direct approach was designed for simultaneously estimating the biomass concentrations of several PTGs (Ci) as well as their specific absorption coefficient. The chemotaxonomic tool CHEMTAX was applied to twelve diagnostic pigments measured by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Their results revealed that the phytoplankton community composition was made of nine groups, from which six dominant were identified: diatoms, dinoflagellates, c3-flagellate, haptophytes type 7, two types of prasinophytes. Out of 117 samples, twenty pairs of Ci derived by CHEMTAX and measured aph were randomly selected and used in a linear unmixing model to extract the specific absorption spectral of each group. This step was repeated 1000 times to provide the mean specific absorption of a given phytoplankton group. These specific absorption spectra were used to reconstruct total aph, which was consistent with the measured aph (R2 from 0.8 to 0.95) at all visible wavelengths (400-700 nm). The derived specific absorption spectra were further used with the measured aph(λ) at ten Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) wavebands in a linear unmixing model to test the ability to retrieve the concentrations of PTGs from satellite remote sensing. A comparison between estimated and measured Ci showed that the approach used in this study performed best when retrieving five groups (i.e., dinoflagellates, c3-flagellate, haptophytes, two types of prasinophytes) from the nine initially identified using CHEMTAX with a mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) <35%, except for diatoms with a MAPE value of about 45%. Our approach provides a practical basis for estimation of PTGs using aph(λ) derived from satellite observations and field measurements.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2018 (1)

H. Zhang, S. Wang, Z. Qiu, D. Sun, J. Ishizaka, S. Sun, and Y. He, “Phytoplankton size class in the East China Sea derived from MODIS satellite data,” Biogeosciences 15(13), 4271–4289 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (5)

A. Chase, E. Boss, I. Cetinić, and W. Slade, “Estimation of phytoplankton accessory pigments from hyperspectral reflectance spectra: Toward a global algorithm,” J. Geophys. Res. Oceans 122(12), 97125–9743 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. Zhang, Z. Qiu, D. Sun, S. Wang, and Y. He, “Seasonal and interannual variability of satellite-derived chlorophyll-a (2000–2012) in the Bohai Sea, China,” Remote Sens. 9(6), 582 (2017).
[Crossref]

T. S. Kostadinov, A. Cabré, H. Vedantham, I. Marinov, A. Bracher, R. J. Brewin, A. Bricaud, T. Hirata, T. Hirawake, N. J. Hardman-Mountford, C. Mouw, S. Roy, and J. Uitz, “Inter-comparison of phytoplankton functional type phenology metrics derived from ocean color algorithms and earth system models,” Remote Sens. Environ. 190, 162–177 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. B. Mouw, N. J. Hardman-Mountford, S. Alvain, A. Bracher, R. J. Brewin, A. Bricaud, A. M. Ciotti, E. Devred, A. Fujiwara, T. Hirata, T. Hirawake, T. S. Kostadinov, S. Roy, and J. Uitz, “A consumer’s guide to satellite remote sensing of multiple phytoplankton groups in the global ocean,” Front. Mar. Sci. 4, 41 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. Bracher, H. A. Bouman, R. J. Brewin, A. Bricaud, V. Brotas, A. M. Ciotti, L. Clementson, E. Devred, A. Di Cicco, S. Dutkiewicz, N. J. Hardman-Mountford, A. E. Hickman, M. Hieronymi, T. Hirata, S. N. Losa, C. B. Mouw, E. Organelli, D. E. Raitsos, J. Uitz, M. Vogt, and A. Wolanin, “Obtaining phytoplankton diversity from ocean color: a scientific roadmap for future development,” Front. Mar. Sci. 4, 55 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (2)

C. M. Swan, M. Vogt, N. Gruber, and C. Laufkoetter, “A global seasonal surface ocean climatology of phytoplankton types based on CHEMTAX analysis of HPLC pigments,” Deep Sea Res. Part I Oceanogr. Res. Pap. 109, 137–156 (2016).
[Crossref]

L. Zheng, Z. Qiu, Y. Zhou, D. Sun, S. Wang, W. Wu, and W. Perrie, “Comparisons of algorithms to estimate water turbidity in the coastal areas of China,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 37(24), 6165–6186 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (3)

D. Müller, H. Krasemann, R. J. Brewin, C. Brockmann, P.-Y. Deschamps, R. Doerffer, N. Fomferra, B. A. Franz, M. G. Grant, S. B. Groom, F. Mélin, T. Platt, P. Regner, S. Sathyendranath, F. Steinmetz, and J. Swinton, “The Ocean Colour Climate Change Initiative: I. A methodology for assessing atmospheric correction processors based on in-situ measurements,” Remote Sens. Environ. 162, 242–256 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Xi, M. Hieronymi, R. Röttgers, H. Krasemann, and Z. Qiu, “Hyperspectral differentiation of phytoplankton taxonomic groups: A comparison between using remote sensing reflectance and absorption spectra,” Remote Sens. 7(11), 14781–14805 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. Coupel, A. Matsuoka, D. Ruiz-Pino, M. Gosselin, D. Marie, J. É. Tremblay, and M. Babin, “Pigment signatures of phytoplankton communities in the Beaufort Sea,” Biogeosciences 12(4), 991–1006 (2015).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

G. Zheng and D. Stramski, “A model based on stacked constraints approach for partitioning the light absorption coefficient of seawater into phytoplankton and nonphytoplankton components,” J. Geophys. Res. Oceans 118(4), 2155–2174 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Ferreira, D. Stramski, C. A. E. Garcia, V. M. T. Garcia, Á. M. Ciotti, and C. R. B. Mendes, “Variability in light absorption and scattering of phytoplankton in Patagonian waters: Role of community size structure and pigment composition,” J. Geophys. Res. Oceans 118(2), 698–714 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

P. Coupel, H. Y. Jin, M. Joo, R. Horner, H. A. Bouvet, M. A. Sicre, J. C. Gascard, J. F. Chen, V. Garçon, and D. Ruiz-Pino, “Phytoplankton distribution in unusually low sea ice cover over the Pacific Arctic,” Biogeosciences 9(11), 4835–4850 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (5)

E. Siswanto, J. Tang, H. Yamaguchi, Y.-H. Ahn, J. Ishizaka, S. Yoo, S.-W. Kim, Y. Kiyomoto, K. Yamada, C. Chiang, and H. Kawamura, “Empirical ocean-color algorithms to retrieve chlorophyll-a, total suspended matter, and colored dissolved organic matter absorption coefficient in the Yellow and East China Seas,” J. Oceanogr. 67(5), 627–650 (2011).
[Crossref]

E. Devred, S. Sathyendranath, V. Stuart, and T. Platt, “A three component classification of phytoplankton absorption spectra: Application to ocean-color data,” Remote Sens. Environ. 115(9), 2255–2266 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. R. Moisan, T. A. H. Moisan, and M. A. Linkswiler, “An inverse modeling approach to estimating phytoplankton pigment concentrations from phytoplankton absorption spectra,” J. Geophys. Res. 116(C9), C09018 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. Fujiwara, T. Hirawake, K. Suzuki, and S. I. Saitoh, “Remote sensing of size structure of phytoplankton communities using optical properties of the Chukchi and Bering Sea shelf region,” Biogeosciences 8(12), 3567–3580 (2011).
[Crossref]

R. J. Brewin, N. J. Hardman-Mountford, S. J. Lavender, D. E. Raitsos, T. Hirata, J. Uitz, E. Devred, A. Bricaud, A. Ciotti, and B. Gentili, “An intercomparison of bio-optical techniques for detecting dominant phytoplankton size class from satellite remote sensing,” Remote Sens. Environ. 115(2), 325–339 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

D. G. Boyce, M. R. Lewis, and B. Worm, “Global phytoplankton decline over the past century,” Nature 466(7306), 591–596 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

J. Aiken, Y. Pradhan, R. Barlow, S. Lavender, A. Poulton, P. Holligan, and N. Hardman-Mountford, “Phytoplankton pigments and functional types in the Atlantic Ocean: A decadal assessment, 1995–2005,” Deep Sea Res. Part II Top. Stud. Oceanogr. 56(15), 899–917 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (3)

T. Hirata, J. Aiken, N. Hardman-Mountford, T. Smyth, and R. Barlow, “An absorption model to determine phytoplankton size classes from satellite ocean colour,” Remote Sens. Environ. 112(6), 3153–3159 (2008).
[Crossref]

A. Nair, S. Sathyendranath, T. Platt, J. Morales, V. Stuart, M.-H. Forget, E. Devred, and H. Bouman, “Remote sensing of phytoplankton functional types,” Remote Sens. Environ. 112(8), 3366–3375 (2008).
[Crossref]

D. E. Raitsos, S. J. Lavender, C. D. Maravelias, J. Haralabous, A. J. Richardson, and P. C. Reid, “Identifying four phytoplankton functional types from space: An ecological approach,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 53(2), 605–613 (2008).
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2007 (2)

2006 (2)

J. Uitz, H. Claustre, A. Morel, and S. B. Hooker, “Vertical distribution of phytoplankton communities in open ocean: an assessment based on surface chlorophyll,” J. Geophys. Res. 111(C8), C08005 (2006).
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S. E. Craig, S. E. Lohrenz, Z. Lee, K. L. Mahoney, G. J. Kirkpatrick, O. M. Schofield, and R. G. Steward, “Use of hyperspectral remote sensing reflectance for detection and assessment of the harmful alga, Karenia brevis,” Appl. Opt. 45(21), 5414–5425 (2006).
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2005 (4)

K. Suzuki, A. Hinuma, H. Saito, H. Kiyosawa, H. Liu, T. Saino, and A. Tsuda, “Responses of phytoplankton and heterotrophic bacteria in the northwest subarctic Pacific to in situ iron fertilization as estimated by HPLC pigment analysis and flow cytometry,” Prog. Oceanogr. 64(2–4), 167–187 (2005).
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S. Alvain, C. Moulin, Y. Dandonneau, and F. M. Bréon, “Remote sensing of phytoplankton groups in case 1 waters from global SeaWiFS imagery,” Deep Sea Res. Part I Oceanogr. Res. Pap. 52(11), 1989–2004 (2005).
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C. L. Quere, S. P. Harrison, I. Colin Prentice, E. T. Buitenhuis, O. Aumont, L. Bopp, H. Claustre, L. Cotrim Da Cunha, R. Geider, X. Giraud, C. Klaas, K. E. Kohfeld, L. Legendre, M. Manizza, T. Platt, R. B. Rivkin, S. Sathyendranath, J. Uitz, A. J. Watson, and D. Wolf-Gladrow, “Ecosystem dynamics based on plankton functional types for global ocean biogeochemistry models,” Glob. Change Biol. 11(11), 2016–2040 (2005).
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J. Wang, G. F. Cota, and D. A. Ruble, “Absorption and backscattering in the Beaufort and Chukchi Seas,” J. Geophys. Res. Oceans 110, C4 (2005).

2004 (4)

W. W. Gregg and N. W. Casey, “Global and regional evaluation of the SeaWiFS chlorophyll data set,” Remote Sens. Environ. 93(4), 463–479 (2004).
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P. G. Falkowski, M. E. Katz, A. H. Knoll, A. Quigg, J. A. Raven, O. Schofield, and F. J. Taylor, “The evolution of modern eukaryotic phytoplankton,” Science 305(5682), 354–360 (2004).
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A. Bricaud, H. Claustre, J. Ras, and K. Oubelkheir, “Natural variability of phytoplanktonic absorption in oceanic waters: Influence of the size structure of algal populations,” J. Geophys. Res. Oceans 109(11), 45–50 (2004).

S. Sathyendranath, L. Watts, E. Devred, T. Platt, C. Caverhill, and H. Maass, “Discrimination of diatoms from other phytoplankton using ocean-colour data,” Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 272, 59–68 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

G. Zeidner, C. M. Preston, E. F. Delong, R. Massana, A. F. Post, D. J. Scanlan, and O. Béjà, “Molecular diversity among marine picophytoplankton as revealed by psbA analyses,” Environ. Microbiol. 5(3), 212–216 (2003).
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2002 (6)

C. L. Sabine, R. M. Key, R. A. Feely, and D. Greeley, “Inorganic carbon in the Indian Ocean: distribution and dissolution processes,” Global Biogeochem. Cycles 16(4), 1–18 (2002).

Z. Lee, K. L. Carder, and R. A. Arnone, “Deriving inherent optical properties from water color: a multiband quasi-analytical algorithm for optically deep waters,” Appl. Opt. 41(27), 5755–5772 (2002).
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S. Maritorena, D. A. Siegel, and A. R. Peterson, “Optimization of a semianalytical ocean color model for global-scale applications,” Appl. Opt. 41(15), 2705–2714 (2002).
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R. Barlow, J. Aiken, P. Holligan, D. Cummings, S. Maritorena, and S. Hooker, “Phytoplankton pigment and absorption characteristics along meridional transects in the Atlantic Ocean,” Deep Sea Res. Part I Oceanogr. Res. Pap. 49(4), 637–660 (2002).
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W. S. Pegau, “Inherent optical properties of the central Arctic surface waters,” J. Geophys. Res. Oceans 107(10), 16 (2002).

A. M. Ciotti, M. R. Lewis, and J. J. Cullen, “Assessment of the relationships between dominant cell size in natural phytoplankton communities and the spectral shape of the absorption coefficient,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 47(2), 404–417 (2002).
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2001 (3)

F. Vidussi, H. Claustre, B. B. Manca, A. Luchetta, and J. C. Marty, “Phytoplankton pigment distribution in relation to upper thermocline circulation in the eastern Mediterranean Sea during winter,” J. Geophys. Res. Oceans 106(C9), 19939–19956 (2001).
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L. Van Heukelem and C. S. Thomas, “Computer-assisted high-performance liquid chromatography method development with applications to the isolation and analysis of phytoplankton pigments,” J. Chromatogr. A 910(1), 31–49 (2001).
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W. K. Li and P. M. Dickie, “Monitoring phytoplankton, bacterioplankton, and virioplankton in a coastal inlet (Bedford Basin) by flow cytometry,” Cytometry 44(3), 236–246 (2001).
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2000 (1)

C. C. Trees, D. K. Clark, R. R. Bidigare, M. E. Ondrusek, and J. L. Mueller, “Accessory pigments versus chlorophylla concentrations within the euphotic zone: a ubiquitous relationship,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 45(5), 1130–1143 (2000).
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1996 (2)

M. Mackey, D. Mackey, H. Higgins, and S. Wright, “CHEMTAX-a program for estimating class abundances from chemical markers: application to HPLC measurements of phytoplankton,” Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 144, 265–283 (1996).
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F. E. Hoge and P. E. Lyon, “Satellite retrieval of inherent optical properties by linear matrix inversion of oceanic radiance models: an analysis of model and radiance measurement errors,” J. Geophys. Res. Oceans 101(C7), 16631–16648 (1996).
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1993 (2)

J. Cleveland and A. D. Weidemann, “Quantifying absorption by aquatic particles: A multiple scattering correction for glass fiber filters,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 38(6), 1321–1327 (1993).
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N. Hoepffner and S. Sathyendranath, “Determination of the major groups of phytoplankton pigments from the absorption spectra of total particulate matter,” J. Geophys. Res. Oceans 98(C12), 22789–22803 (1993).
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1991 (1)

N. Hoepffner and S. Sathyendranath, “Effect of pigment composition on absorption properties of phytoplankton,” Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 73(1), 11–23 (1991).
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1988 (1)

J. M. Grebmeier, C. P. McRoy, and H. M. Feder, “Pelagic-benthic coupling on the shelf of the northern Bering and Chukchi Seas. I. Food supply source and benthic biomass,” Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 48(1), 57–67 (1988).
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1987 (1)

S. Sathyendranath, L. Lazzara, and L. Prieur, “Variations in the spectral values of specific absorption of phytoplankton,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 32(2), 403–415 (1987).
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1985 (1)

M. Kishino, M. Takahashi, N. Okami, and S. Ichimura, “Estimation of the spectral absorption coefficients of phytoplankton in the sea,” Bull. Mar. Sci. 37(2), 634–642 (1985).

Ahn, Y.-H.

E. Siswanto, J. Tang, H. Yamaguchi, Y.-H. Ahn, J. Ishizaka, S. Yoo, S.-W. Kim, Y. Kiyomoto, K. Yamada, C. Chiang, and H. Kawamura, “Empirical ocean-color algorithms to retrieve chlorophyll-a, total suspended matter, and colored dissolved organic matter absorption coefficient in the Yellow and East China Seas,” J. Oceanogr. 67(5), 627–650 (2011).
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Aiken, J.

J. Aiken, Y. Pradhan, R. Barlow, S. Lavender, A. Poulton, P. Holligan, and N. Hardman-Mountford, “Phytoplankton pigments and functional types in the Atlantic Ocean: A decadal assessment, 1995–2005,” Deep Sea Res. Part II Top. Stud. Oceanogr. 56(15), 899–917 (2009).
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T. Hirata, J. Aiken, N. Hardman-Mountford, T. Smyth, and R. Barlow, “An absorption model to determine phytoplankton size classes from satellite ocean colour,” Remote Sens. Environ. 112(6), 3153–3159 (2008).
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R. Barlow, J. Aiken, P. Holligan, D. Cummings, S. Maritorena, and S. Hooker, “Phytoplankton pigment and absorption characteristics along meridional transects in the Atlantic Ocean,” Deep Sea Res. Part I Oceanogr. Res. Pap. 49(4), 637–660 (2002).
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Alvain, S.

C. B. Mouw, N. J. Hardman-Mountford, S. Alvain, A. Bracher, R. J. Brewin, A. Bricaud, A. M. Ciotti, E. Devred, A. Fujiwara, T. Hirata, T. Hirawake, T. S. Kostadinov, S. Roy, and J. Uitz, “A consumer’s guide to satellite remote sensing of multiple phytoplankton groups in the global ocean,” Front. Mar. Sci. 4, 41 (2017).
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S. Alvain, C. Moulin, Y. Dandonneau, and F. M. Bréon, “Remote sensing of phytoplankton groups in case 1 waters from global SeaWiFS imagery,” Deep Sea Res. Part I Oceanogr. Res. Pap. 52(11), 1989–2004 (2005).
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Arnone, R. A.

Aumont, O.

C. L. Quere, S. P. Harrison, I. Colin Prentice, E. T. Buitenhuis, O. Aumont, L. Bopp, H. Claustre, L. Cotrim Da Cunha, R. Geider, X. Giraud, C. Klaas, K. E. Kohfeld, L. Legendre, M. Manizza, T. Platt, R. B. Rivkin, S. Sathyendranath, J. Uitz, A. J. Watson, and D. Wolf-Gladrow, “Ecosystem dynamics based on plankton functional types for global ocean biogeochemistry models,” Glob. Change Biol. 11(11), 2016–2040 (2005).
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Babin, M.

P. Coupel, A. Matsuoka, D. Ruiz-Pino, M. Gosselin, D. Marie, J. É. Tremblay, and M. Babin, “Pigment signatures of phytoplankton communities in the Beaufort Sea,” Biogeosciences 12(4), 991–1006 (2015).
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Barlow, R.

J. Aiken, Y. Pradhan, R. Barlow, S. Lavender, A. Poulton, P. Holligan, and N. Hardman-Mountford, “Phytoplankton pigments and functional types in the Atlantic Ocean: A decadal assessment, 1995–2005,” Deep Sea Res. Part II Top. Stud. Oceanogr. 56(15), 899–917 (2009).
[Crossref]

T. Hirata, J. Aiken, N. Hardman-Mountford, T. Smyth, and R. Barlow, “An absorption model to determine phytoplankton size classes from satellite ocean colour,” Remote Sens. Environ. 112(6), 3153–3159 (2008).
[Crossref]

R. Barlow, J. Aiken, P. Holligan, D. Cummings, S. Maritorena, and S. Hooker, “Phytoplankton pigment and absorption characteristics along meridional transects in the Atlantic Ocean,” Deep Sea Res. Part I Oceanogr. Res. Pap. 49(4), 637–660 (2002).
[Crossref]

Béjà, O.

G. Zeidner, C. M. Preston, E. F. Delong, R. Massana, A. F. Post, D. J. Scanlan, and O. Béjà, “Molecular diversity among marine picophytoplankton as revealed by psbA analyses,” Environ. Microbiol. 5(3), 212–216 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bidigare, R. R.

C. C. Trees, D. K. Clark, R. R. Bidigare, M. E. Ondrusek, and J. L. Mueller, “Accessory pigments versus chlorophylla concentrations within the euphotic zone: a ubiquitous relationship,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 45(5), 1130–1143 (2000).
[Crossref]

Blondeau-Patissier, D.

Bopp, L.

C. L. Quere, S. P. Harrison, I. Colin Prentice, E. T. Buitenhuis, O. Aumont, L. Bopp, H. Claustre, L. Cotrim Da Cunha, R. Geider, X. Giraud, C. Klaas, K. E. Kohfeld, L. Legendre, M. Manizza, T. Platt, R. B. Rivkin, S. Sathyendranath, J. Uitz, A. J. Watson, and D. Wolf-Gladrow, “Ecosystem dynamics based on plankton functional types for global ocean biogeochemistry models,” Glob. Change Biol. 11(11), 2016–2040 (2005).
[Crossref]

Boss, E.

A. Chase, E. Boss, I. Cetinić, and W. Slade, “Estimation of phytoplankton accessory pigments from hyperspectral reflectance spectra: Toward a global algorithm,” J. Geophys. Res. Oceans 122(12), 97125–9743 (2017).
[Crossref]

Bouman, H.

A. Nair, S. Sathyendranath, T. Platt, J. Morales, V. Stuart, M.-H. Forget, E. Devred, and H. Bouman, “Remote sensing of phytoplankton functional types,” Remote Sens. Environ. 112(8), 3366–3375 (2008).
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Bouman, H. A.

A. Bracher, H. A. Bouman, R. J. Brewin, A. Bricaud, V. Brotas, A. M. Ciotti, L. Clementson, E. Devred, A. Di Cicco, S. Dutkiewicz, N. J. Hardman-Mountford, A. E. Hickman, M. Hieronymi, T. Hirata, S. N. Losa, C. B. Mouw, E. Organelli, D. E. Raitsos, J. Uitz, M. Vogt, and A. Wolanin, “Obtaining phytoplankton diversity from ocean color: a scientific roadmap for future development,” Front. Mar. Sci. 4, 55 (2017).
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Bouvet, H. A.

P. Coupel, H. Y. Jin, M. Joo, R. Horner, H. A. Bouvet, M. A. Sicre, J. C. Gascard, J. F. Chen, V. Garçon, and D. Ruiz-Pino, “Phytoplankton distribution in unusually low sea ice cover over the Pacific Arctic,” Biogeosciences 9(11), 4835–4850 (2012).
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Boyce, D. G.

D. G. Boyce, M. R. Lewis, and B. Worm, “Global phytoplankton decline over the past century,” Nature 466(7306), 591–596 (2010).
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Bracher, A.

C. B. Mouw, N. J. Hardman-Mountford, S. Alvain, A. Bracher, R. J. Brewin, A. Bricaud, A. M. Ciotti, E. Devred, A. Fujiwara, T. Hirata, T. Hirawake, T. S. Kostadinov, S. Roy, and J. Uitz, “A consumer’s guide to satellite remote sensing of multiple phytoplankton groups in the global ocean,” Front. Mar. Sci. 4, 41 (2017).
[Crossref]

T. S. Kostadinov, A. Cabré, H. Vedantham, I. Marinov, A. Bracher, R. J. Brewin, A. Bricaud, T. Hirata, T. Hirawake, N. J. Hardman-Mountford, C. Mouw, S. Roy, and J. Uitz, “Inter-comparison of phytoplankton functional type phenology metrics derived from ocean color algorithms and earth system models,” Remote Sens. Environ. 190, 162–177 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. Bracher, H. A. Bouman, R. J. Brewin, A. Bricaud, V. Brotas, A. M. Ciotti, L. Clementson, E. Devred, A. Di Cicco, S. Dutkiewicz, N. J. Hardman-Mountford, A. E. Hickman, M. Hieronymi, T. Hirata, S. N. Losa, C. B. Mouw, E. Organelli, D. E. Raitsos, J. Uitz, M. Vogt, and A. Wolanin, “Obtaining phytoplankton diversity from ocean color: a scientific roadmap for future development,” Front. Mar. Sci. 4, 55 (2017).
[Crossref]

Bréon, F. M.

S. Alvain, C. Moulin, Y. Dandonneau, and F. M. Bréon, “Remote sensing of phytoplankton groups in case 1 waters from global SeaWiFS imagery,” Deep Sea Res. Part I Oceanogr. Res. Pap. 52(11), 1989–2004 (2005).
[Crossref]

Brewin, R. J.

T. S. Kostadinov, A. Cabré, H. Vedantham, I. Marinov, A. Bracher, R. J. Brewin, A. Bricaud, T. Hirata, T. Hirawake, N. J. Hardman-Mountford, C. Mouw, S. Roy, and J. Uitz, “Inter-comparison of phytoplankton functional type phenology metrics derived from ocean color algorithms and earth system models,” Remote Sens. Environ. 190, 162–177 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. B. Mouw, N. J. Hardman-Mountford, S. Alvain, A. Bracher, R. J. Brewin, A. Bricaud, A. M. Ciotti, E. Devred, A. Fujiwara, T. Hirata, T. Hirawake, T. S. Kostadinov, S. Roy, and J. Uitz, “A consumer’s guide to satellite remote sensing of multiple phytoplankton groups in the global ocean,” Front. Mar. Sci. 4, 41 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. Bracher, H. A. Bouman, R. J. Brewin, A. Bricaud, V. Brotas, A. M. Ciotti, L. Clementson, E. Devred, A. Di Cicco, S. Dutkiewicz, N. J. Hardman-Mountford, A. E. Hickman, M. Hieronymi, T. Hirata, S. N. Losa, C. B. Mouw, E. Organelli, D. E. Raitsos, J. Uitz, M. Vogt, and A. Wolanin, “Obtaining phytoplankton diversity from ocean color: a scientific roadmap for future development,” Front. Mar. Sci. 4, 55 (2017).
[Crossref]

D. Müller, H. Krasemann, R. J. Brewin, C. Brockmann, P.-Y. Deschamps, R. Doerffer, N. Fomferra, B. A. Franz, M. G. Grant, S. B. Groom, F. Mélin, T. Platt, P. Regner, S. Sathyendranath, F. Steinmetz, and J. Swinton, “The Ocean Colour Climate Change Initiative: I. A methodology for assessing atmospheric correction processors based on in-situ measurements,” Remote Sens. Environ. 162, 242–256 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. J. Brewin, N. J. Hardman-Mountford, S. J. Lavender, D. E. Raitsos, T. Hirata, J. Uitz, E. Devred, A. Bricaud, A. Ciotti, and B. Gentili, “An intercomparison of bio-optical techniques for detecting dominant phytoplankton size class from satellite remote sensing,” Remote Sens. Environ. 115(2), 325–339 (2011).
[Crossref]

Bricaud, A.

C. B. Mouw, N. J. Hardman-Mountford, S. Alvain, A. Bracher, R. J. Brewin, A. Bricaud, A. M. Ciotti, E. Devred, A. Fujiwara, T. Hirata, T. Hirawake, T. S. Kostadinov, S. Roy, and J. Uitz, “A consumer’s guide to satellite remote sensing of multiple phytoplankton groups in the global ocean,” Front. Mar. Sci. 4, 41 (2017).
[Crossref]

T. S. Kostadinov, A. Cabré, H. Vedantham, I. Marinov, A. Bracher, R. J. Brewin, A. Bricaud, T. Hirata, T. Hirawake, N. J. Hardman-Mountford, C. Mouw, S. Roy, and J. Uitz, “Inter-comparison of phytoplankton functional type phenology metrics derived from ocean color algorithms and earth system models,” Remote Sens. Environ. 190, 162–177 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. Bracher, H. A. Bouman, R. J. Brewin, A. Bricaud, V. Brotas, A. M. Ciotti, L. Clementson, E. Devred, A. Di Cicco, S. Dutkiewicz, N. J. Hardman-Mountford, A. E. Hickman, M. Hieronymi, T. Hirata, S. N. Losa, C. B. Mouw, E. Organelli, D. E. Raitsos, J. Uitz, M. Vogt, and A. Wolanin, “Obtaining phytoplankton diversity from ocean color: a scientific roadmap for future development,” Front. Mar. Sci. 4, 55 (2017).
[Crossref]

R. J. Brewin, N. J. Hardman-Mountford, S. J. Lavender, D. E. Raitsos, T. Hirata, J. Uitz, E. Devred, A. Bricaud, A. Ciotti, and B. Gentili, “An intercomparison of bio-optical techniques for detecting dominant phytoplankton size class from satellite remote sensing,” Remote Sens. Environ. 115(2), 325–339 (2011).
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A. Bricaud, C. Mejia, D. Blondeau-Patissier, H. Claustre, M. Crepon, and S. Thiria, “Retrieval of pigment concentrations and size structure of algal populations from their absorption spectra using multilayered perceptrons,” Appl. Opt. 46(8), 1251–1260 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Bricaud, H. Claustre, J. Ras, and K. Oubelkheir, “Natural variability of phytoplanktonic absorption in oceanic waters: Influence of the size structure of algal populations,” J. Geophys. Res. Oceans 109(11), 45–50 (2004).

Brockmann, C.

D. Müller, H. Krasemann, R. J. Brewin, C. Brockmann, P.-Y. Deschamps, R. Doerffer, N. Fomferra, B. A. Franz, M. G. Grant, S. B. Groom, F. Mélin, T. Platt, P. Regner, S. Sathyendranath, F. Steinmetz, and J. Swinton, “The Ocean Colour Climate Change Initiative: I. A methodology for assessing atmospheric correction processors based on in-situ measurements,” Remote Sens. Environ. 162, 242–256 (2015).
[Crossref]

Brotas, V.

A. Bracher, H. A. Bouman, R. J. Brewin, A. Bricaud, V. Brotas, A. M. Ciotti, L. Clementson, E. Devred, A. Di Cicco, S. Dutkiewicz, N. J. Hardman-Mountford, A. E. Hickman, M. Hieronymi, T. Hirata, S. N. Losa, C. B. Mouw, E. Organelli, D. E. Raitsos, J. Uitz, M. Vogt, and A. Wolanin, “Obtaining phytoplankton diversity from ocean color: a scientific roadmap for future development,” Front. Mar. Sci. 4, 55 (2017).
[Crossref]

Buitenhuis, E. T.

C. L. Quere, S. P. Harrison, I. Colin Prentice, E. T. Buitenhuis, O. Aumont, L. Bopp, H. Claustre, L. Cotrim Da Cunha, R. Geider, X. Giraud, C. Klaas, K. E. Kohfeld, L. Legendre, M. Manizza, T. Platt, R. B. Rivkin, S. Sathyendranath, J. Uitz, A. J. Watson, and D. Wolf-Gladrow, “Ecosystem dynamics based on plankton functional types for global ocean biogeochemistry models,” Glob. Change Biol. 11(11), 2016–2040 (2005).
[Crossref]

Cabré, A.

T. S. Kostadinov, A. Cabré, H. Vedantham, I. Marinov, A. Bracher, R. J. Brewin, A. Bricaud, T. Hirata, T. Hirawake, N. J. Hardman-Mountford, C. Mouw, S. Roy, and J. Uitz, “Inter-comparison of phytoplankton functional type phenology metrics derived from ocean color algorithms and earth system models,” Remote Sens. Environ. 190, 162–177 (2017).
[Crossref]

Carder, K. L.

Casey, N. W.

W. W. Gregg and N. W. Casey, “Global and regional evaluation of the SeaWiFS chlorophyll data set,” Remote Sens. Environ. 93(4), 463–479 (2004).
[Crossref]

Caverhill, C.

S. Sathyendranath, L. Watts, E. Devred, T. Platt, C. Caverhill, and H. Maass, “Discrimination of diatoms from other phytoplankton using ocean-colour data,” Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 272, 59–68 (2004).
[Crossref]

Cetinic, I.

A. Chase, E. Boss, I. Cetinić, and W. Slade, “Estimation of phytoplankton accessory pigments from hyperspectral reflectance spectra: Toward a global algorithm,” J. Geophys. Res. Oceans 122(12), 97125–9743 (2017).
[Crossref]

Chase, A.

A. Chase, E. Boss, I. Cetinić, and W. Slade, “Estimation of phytoplankton accessory pigments from hyperspectral reflectance spectra: Toward a global algorithm,” J. Geophys. Res. Oceans 122(12), 97125–9743 (2017).
[Crossref]

Chen, J. F.

P. Coupel, H. Y. Jin, M. Joo, R. Horner, H. A. Bouvet, M. A. Sicre, J. C. Gascard, J. F. Chen, V. Garçon, and D. Ruiz-Pino, “Phytoplankton distribution in unusually low sea ice cover over the Pacific Arctic,” Biogeosciences 9(11), 4835–4850 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chiang, C.

E. Siswanto, J. Tang, H. Yamaguchi, Y.-H. Ahn, J. Ishizaka, S. Yoo, S.-W. Kim, Y. Kiyomoto, K. Yamada, C. Chiang, and H. Kawamura, “Empirical ocean-color algorithms to retrieve chlorophyll-a, total suspended matter, and colored dissolved organic matter absorption coefficient in the Yellow and East China Seas,” J. Oceanogr. 67(5), 627–650 (2011).
[Crossref]

Ciotti, A.

R. J. Brewin, N. J. Hardman-Mountford, S. J. Lavender, D. E. Raitsos, T. Hirata, J. Uitz, E. Devred, A. Bricaud, A. Ciotti, and B. Gentili, “An intercomparison of bio-optical techniques for detecting dominant phytoplankton size class from satellite remote sensing,” Remote Sens. Environ. 115(2), 325–339 (2011).
[Crossref]

Ciotti, A. M.

C. B. Mouw, N. J. Hardman-Mountford, S. Alvain, A. Bracher, R. J. Brewin, A. Bricaud, A. M. Ciotti, E. Devred, A. Fujiwara, T. Hirata, T. Hirawake, T. S. Kostadinov, S. Roy, and J. Uitz, “A consumer’s guide to satellite remote sensing of multiple phytoplankton groups in the global ocean,” Front. Mar. Sci. 4, 41 (2017).
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H. Xi, M. Hieronymi, R. Röttgers, H. Krasemann, and Z. Qiu, “Hyperspectral differentiation of phytoplankton taxonomic groups: A comparison between using remote sensing reflectance and absorption spectra,” Remote Sens. 7(11), 14781–14805 (2015).
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S. Sathyendranath, L. Watts, E. Devred, T. Platt, C. Caverhill, and H. Maass, “Discrimination of diatoms from other phytoplankton using ocean-colour data,” Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 272, 59–68 (2004).
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G. Zeidner, C. M. Preston, E. F. Delong, R. Massana, A. F. Post, D. J. Scanlan, and O. Béjà, “Molecular diversity among marine picophytoplankton as revealed by psbA analyses,” Environ. Microbiol. 5(3), 212–216 (2003).
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E. Devred, S. Sathyendranath, V. Stuart, and T. Platt, “A three component classification of phytoplankton absorption spectra: Application to ocean-color data,” Remote Sens. Environ. 115(9), 2255–2266 (2011).
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Sun, D.

H. Zhang, S. Wang, Z. Qiu, D. Sun, J. Ishizaka, S. Sun, and Y. He, “Phytoplankton size class in the East China Sea derived from MODIS satellite data,” Biogeosciences 15(13), 4271–4289 (2018).
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L. Zheng, Z. Qiu, Y. Zhou, D. Sun, S. Wang, W. Wu, and W. Perrie, “Comparisons of algorithms to estimate water turbidity in the coastal areas of China,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 37(24), 6165–6186 (2016).
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Sun, S.

H. Zhang, S. Wang, Z. Qiu, D. Sun, J. Ishizaka, S. Sun, and Y. He, “Phytoplankton size class in the East China Sea derived from MODIS satellite data,” Biogeosciences 15(13), 4271–4289 (2018).
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Suzuki, K.

A. Fujiwara, T. Hirawake, K. Suzuki, and S. I. Saitoh, “Remote sensing of size structure of phytoplankton communities using optical properties of the Chukchi and Bering Sea shelf region,” Biogeosciences 8(12), 3567–3580 (2011).
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Tang, J.

E. Siswanto, J. Tang, H. Yamaguchi, Y.-H. Ahn, J. Ishizaka, S. Yoo, S.-W. Kim, Y. Kiyomoto, K. Yamada, C. Chiang, and H. Kawamura, “Empirical ocean-color algorithms to retrieve chlorophyll-a, total suspended matter, and colored dissolved organic matter absorption coefficient in the Yellow and East China Seas,” J. Oceanogr. 67(5), 627–650 (2011).
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P. G. Falkowski, M. E. Katz, A. H. Knoll, A. Quigg, J. A. Raven, O. Schofield, and F. J. Taylor, “The evolution of modern eukaryotic phytoplankton,” Science 305(5682), 354–360 (2004).
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Tremblay, J. É.

P. Coupel, A. Matsuoka, D. Ruiz-Pino, M. Gosselin, D. Marie, J. É. Tremblay, and M. Babin, “Pigment signatures of phytoplankton communities in the Beaufort Sea,” Biogeosciences 12(4), 991–1006 (2015).
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Tsuda, A.

K. Suzuki, A. Hinuma, H. Saito, H. Kiyosawa, H. Liu, T. Saino, and A. Tsuda, “Responses of phytoplankton and heterotrophic bacteria in the northwest subarctic Pacific to in situ iron fertilization as estimated by HPLC pigment analysis and flow cytometry,” Prog. Oceanogr. 64(2–4), 167–187 (2005).
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Uitz, J.

A. Bracher, H. A. Bouman, R. J. Brewin, A. Bricaud, V. Brotas, A. M. Ciotti, L. Clementson, E. Devred, A. Di Cicco, S. Dutkiewicz, N. J. Hardman-Mountford, A. E. Hickman, M. Hieronymi, T. Hirata, S. N. Losa, C. B. Mouw, E. Organelli, D. E. Raitsos, J. Uitz, M. Vogt, and A. Wolanin, “Obtaining phytoplankton diversity from ocean color: a scientific roadmap for future development,” Front. Mar. Sci. 4, 55 (2017).
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C. B. Mouw, N. J. Hardman-Mountford, S. Alvain, A. Bracher, R. J. Brewin, A. Bricaud, A. M. Ciotti, E. Devred, A. Fujiwara, T. Hirata, T. Hirawake, T. S. Kostadinov, S. Roy, and J. Uitz, “A consumer’s guide to satellite remote sensing of multiple phytoplankton groups in the global ocean,” Front. Mar. Sci. 4, 41 (2017).
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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Locations of the sampling stations in the Chukchi and Bering Seas.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Distribution of the relative contributions of nine taxonomic groups to C derived from CHEMTAX (a) and their average contributions (b). These measurements were collected at different times of year over multiple years as described above.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 The specific absorption spectra of individual phytoplankton taxonomic groups (top) and spectra that were normalized to the value of absorption coefficient at 443 nm (bottom) for the three cases.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 A comparison of the specific absorption spectra of four groups (diatoms, dinoflagellates, c3-flagellates, and hapto-7) for the different cases.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 The determination coefficients (R2) (a), linear regression slope (b), RMSE (c), and MAPE (d) from comparison of the reconstructed with measured aph(λ) for the three cases.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Comparison of the estimated versus measured Ci for the PTGs in Case 1 (a), Case 2 (b), and Case 3 (c). Blue solid points represent the samples where the total CTC value of the three excluded groups is above 20%. Black dashed lines are the 1:1 lines.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 R2 (a), RMSE (b), and MAPE (c) of the aph-LMM approach performed on measured aph(λ) with different combinations of MODIS wavebands. Table of MODIS bands combination (d). ‘-’ means the removed band.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 The samples and their contributions to C (%) used for computing a*i,HPLC (a). The numbers in bar represent the CTC of a given dominant taxonomic group. Comparison of the obtained a*i,LMM (solid curves) with the a*i,HPLC (dashed curves) (b).
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 The derived aph* of diatoms and pigment-specific absorption spectral of fucoxanthin (a); the derived aph* of two prasino types and pigment-specific absorption spectra of zeaxanthin and chlorophyll b (b). These pigment-specific absorption spectra were obtained from Bricaud et al. [21].

Tables (5)

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Table 1 List of phytoplankton pigments and their taxonomic significance and pigments formulae [13,39]. The name of the twelve pigments used in CHEMTAX to distinguish between nine phytoplankton groups are highlighted in bold.

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Table 2 Initial ratio matrices for CHEMTAX analysis. Pigment abbreviations are shown in Table 1. Here Chryso-Pelago: chrysophytes and pelagophytes; Hapto-7: haptophytes type 7; Prasino-3: prasinophytes type 3; Prasino-2: prasinophytes type 2.

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Table 3 Final ratio matrices for CHEMTAX analysis. Abbreviations in this table are same as Table 2.

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Table 4 Three cases for phytoplankton taxonomic group assemblages used in this study. Here prasino represents the combination of prasino-2 and prasino-3; Hapto-Prasino represents the combination of hapto-7 and prasino.

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Table 5 Statistical results of Fig. 6. P-values from the significance level tests were both less than 0.001.

Equations (7)

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a ph = i=1 m C i a i * ( λ )
( C i=1,j=1 C i=m,j=1 C i=1,j=n C i=m,j=n )( a ˜ i=1 * ( λ ) a ˜ i=m * ( λ ) )=( a ph,j=1 ( λ ) a ph,j=n ( λ ) )
C A * = A ph
min( 1 2 C A * A ph 2 2 )
( a i=1,LMM * ( λ=1 ) a i=m,LMM * ( λ=1 ) a i=1,LMM * ( λ=k ) a i=m,LMM * ( λ=k ) )( C i=1 C i=m )=( a ph ( λ=1 ) a ph ( λ=k ) )
RMSE= 1 n i=1 n [ ( x i e x i m )/ x i m ] 2
MAPE( % )= 1 n i=1 n | ( x i e x i m )/ x i m | ×100%

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