Abstract

We have proposed and implemented for the first time to our knowledge a passive and all-optical pulse synchronization for polarization-maintaining fiber lasers. Specifically, the synchronization system was comprised of two independent Yb-doped and Er-doped mode-locked fiber lasers in a master-slave configuration. Master pulses were injected into the slave laser cavity consisting of a nonlinear amplifying loop mirror, which provided an effective fast intensity modulator due to the periodic introduction of nonreciprocal phase difference. As a result, robust and tight timing synchronization was achieved with a cavity mismatch tolerance of 800 µm and a relative timing jitter of 26 fs within 1-MHz bandwidth. In combination with the all-polarization-maintaining structure of fiber lasers, long-term stable operation was demonstrated over 12 hours without the need for temperature stabilization and vibration isolation. The implemented synchronous laser system could find immediate applications such as pump-probe microscopy, two-color spectroscopy and nonlinear frequency mixing.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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2018 (1)

2017 (4)

M. Xin, K. Şafak, M. Y. Peng, A. Kalaydzhyan, W.-T. Wang, O. D. Mücke, and F. X. Kärtner, “Attosecond precision multi-kilometer laser-microwave network,” Light: Science & Appl. 6, e16187 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. Tian, Y. Song, J. Yu, H. Shi, and M. Hu, “Optical-optical synchronization between two independent femtosecond Yb-fiber lasers with 10−20 instability in 105s,” IEEE Photon. J. 9, 1 (2017).
[Crossref]

F. Chen, Q. Hao, and H. Zeng, “Optimization of an NALM Mode-Locked All-PM Er:Fiber Laser System,” IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 29, 2119 (2017).
[Crossref]

W. Hänsel, H. Hoogland, M. Giunta, S. Schmid, T. Steinmetz, R. Doubek, P. Mayer, S. Dobner, C. Cleff, M. Fischer, and R. Holzwarth, “All polarization-maintaining fiber laser architecture for robust femtosecond pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. B 123, 41 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (2)

M. C. Fischer, J. W. Wilson, F. E. Robles, and W. S. Warren, “Invited Review Article: Pump-probe microscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 87, 031101 (2016).
[Crossref]

T. Jiang, Y. Cui, P. Lu, C. Li, A. Wang, and Z. Zhang, “All PM Fiber Laser Mode Locked With a Compact Phase Biased Amplifier Loop Mirror,” IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 28, 1786 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (1)

A. Chong, L. G. Wright, and F. W. Wise, “Ultrafast fiber lasers based on self-similar pulse evolution: a review of current progress,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 78, 113901 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (3)

2013 (1)

2012 (2)

N. Kuse, A. Ozawa, Y. Nomura, I. Ito, and Y. Kobayashi, “Injection locking of Yb-fiber based optical frequency comb,” Opt. Express 20, 10509–10518 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Huang, X. Gu, H. Pan, E. Wu, and H. Zeng, “Synchronized fiber lasers for efficient coincidence single-photon frequency upconversion,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 18, 562 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (3)

2010 (2)

X. Gu, K. Huang, Y. Li, H. Pan, E Wu, and H. Zeng, “Temporal and spectral control of single-photon frequency upconversion for pulsed radiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 131111 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Kim and F. X. Kärtner, “Attosecond-precision ultrafast photonics,” Laser & Photon. Rev. \ 4, 432 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

C. Zhou, Y. Cai, L. Ren, P. Li, S. Cao, L. Chen, and M. Zhang, “Passive synchronization of femtosecond Er- and Yb-fiber lasers by injection locking,” Appl. Phys. B 97, 445 (2009).
[Crossref]

Li Yao, Gu Xiaorong, Yan Ming, E Wu, and Heping Zeng, “Square nanosecond mode-locked Er-fiber laser synchronized to a picosecond Yb-fiber laser,” Opt. Express 17, 4526–4532 (2009).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

S. M. Foreman, K. W. Holman, D. D. Hudson, D. J. Jones, and J. Ye, “Remote transfer of ultrastable frequency references via fiber networks,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 021101 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (2)

2005 (2)

2004 (3)

2003 (1)

2002 (3)

R. K. Shelton, S. M. Foreman, L.-S. Ma, J. L. Hall, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, M. Notcutt, and J. Ye, “Subfemtosecond timing jitter between two independent, actively synchronized, mode-locked lasers,” Opt. Lett. 27, 312–314 (2002).
[Crossref]

Z. Wei, Y. Kaboyashi, and K. Torizuka, “Passive synchronization between femtosecond Ti:sapphire and Cr:forsterite lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 74, s171 (2002).
[Crossref]

T. Miura, H Nagaoka, K. Takasago, K. Kobayashi, A. Endo, K. Torizuka, M. Washio, and F. Kannari, “Active synchronization of two mode-locked lasers with optical cross correlation,” Appl. Phys. B 75, 19 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

R. K. Shelton, L.-S. Ma, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, J. L. Hall, and J. Ye, “Phase-Coherent Optical Pulse Synthesis from Separate Femtosecond Lasers,” Science 293, 1286 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1996 (1)

C. Furst, A. Leitenstorfer, and A. Laubereau, “Mechanism for self-synchronization of femtosecond pulses in a two-color Ti:sapphire laser,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quan. Electron. 2, 473 (1996).
[Crossref]

1992 (1)

S. M. Kelly, “Characteristic sideband instability of periodically amplified average soliton,” Electron. Lett. 28, 806 (1992).
[Crossref]

1990 (1)

Abramski, K. M.

Bai, J.

Betz, M.

Cai, Y.

C. Zhou, Y. Cai, L. Ren, P. Li, S. Cao, L. Chen, and M. Zhang, “Passive synchronization of femtosecond Er- and Yb-fiber lasers by injection locking,” Appl. Phys. B 97, 445 (2009).
[Crossref]

Cao, S.

C. Zhou, Y. Cai, L. Ren, P. Li, S. Cao, L. Chen, and M. Zhang, “Passive synchronization of femtosecond Er- and Yb-fiber lasers by injection locking,” Appl. Phys. B 97, 445 (2009).
[Crossref]

Chen, F.

F. Chen, Q. Hao, and H. Zeng, “Optimization of an NALM Mode-Locked All-PM Er:Fiber Laser System,” IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 29, 2119 (2017).
[Crossref]

Chen, L.

C. Zhou, Y. Cai, L. Ren, P. Li, S. Cao, L. Chen, and M. Zhang, “Passive synchronization of femtosecond Er- and Yb-fiber lasers by injection locking,” Appl. Phys. B 97, 445 (2009).
[Crossref]

Chong, A.

A. Chong, L. G. Wright, and F. W. Wise, “Ultrafast fiber lasers based on self-similar pulse evolution: a review of current progress,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 78, 113901 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cleff, C.

W. Hänsel, H. Hoogland, M. Giunta, S. Schmid, T. Steinmetz, R. Doubek, P. Mayer, S. Dobner, C. Cleff, M. Fischer, and R. Holzwarth, “All polarization-maintaining fiber laser architecture for robust femtosecond pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. B 123, 41 (2017).
[Crossref]

Cui, Y.

T. Jiang, Y. Cui, P. Lu, C. Li, A. Wang, and Z. Zhang, “All PM Fiber Laser Mode Locked With a Compact Phase Biased Amplifier Loop Mirror,” IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 28, 1786 (2016).
[Crossref]

Cundiff, S. T.

Dobner, S.

W. Hänsel, H. Hoogland, M. Giunta, S. Schmid, T. Steinmetz, R. Doubek, P. Mayer, S. Dobner, C. Cleff, M. Fischer, and R. Holzwarth, “All polarization-maintaining fiber laser architecture for robust femtosecond pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. B 123, 41 (2017).
[Crossref]

Doubek, R.

W. Hänsel, H. Hoogland, M. Giunta, S. Schmid, T. Steinmetz, R. Doubek, P. Mayer, S. Dobner, C. Cleff, M. Fischer, and R. Holzwarth, “All polarization-maintaining fiber laser architecture for robust femtosecond pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. B 123, 41 (2017).
[Crossref]

Endo, A.

T. Miura, H Nagaoka, K. Takasago, K. Kobayashi, A. Endo, K. Torizuka, M. Washio, and F. Kannari, “Active synchronization of two mode-locked lasers with optical cross correlation,” Appl. Phys. B 75, 19 (2002).
[Crossref]

Fermann, M. E.

Fischer, M.

W. Hänsel, H. Hoogland, M. Giunta, S. Schmid, T. Steinmetz, R. Doubek, P. Mayer, S. Dobner, C. Cleff, M. Fischer, and R. Holzwarth, “All polarization-maintaining fiber laser architecture for robust femtosecond pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. B 123, 41 (2017).
[Crossref]

Fischer, M. C.

M. C. Fischer, J. W. Wilson, F. E. Robles, and W. S. Warren, “Invited Review Article: Pump-probe microscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 87, 031101 (2016).
[Crossref]

Foreman, S. M.

Fujimoto, J. G.

Furst, C.

C. Furst, A. Leitenstorfer, and A. Laubereau, “Mechanism for self-synchronization of femtosecond pulses in a two-color Ti:sapphire laser,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quan. Electron. 2, 473 (1996).
[Crossref]

Giunta, M.

W. Hänsel, H. Hoogland, M. Giunta, S. Schmid, T. Steinmetz, R. Doubek, P. Mayer, S. Dobner, C. Cleff, M. Fischer, and R. Holzwarth, “All polarization-maintaining fiber laser architecture for robust femtosecond pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. B 123, 41 (2017).
[Crossref]

Gopinath, J. T.

Gu, X.

K. Huang, X. Gu, H. Pan, E. Wu, and H. Zeng, “Synchronized fiber lasers for efficient coincidence single-photon frequency upconversion,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 18, 562 (2012).
[Crossref]

X. Gu, K. Huang, Y. Li, H. Pan, E Wu, and H. Zeng, “Temporal and spectral control of single-photon frequency upconversion for pulsed radiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 131111 (2010).
[Crossref]

Haberl, F.

Hall, J. L.

R. K. Shelton, S. M. Foreman, L.-S. Ma, J. L. Hall, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, M. Notcutt, and J. Ye, “Subfemtosecond timing jitter between two independent, actively synchronized, mode-locked lasers,” Opt. Lett. 27, 312–314 (2002).
[Crossref]

R. K. Shelton, L.-S. Ma, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, J. L. Hall, and J. Ye, “Phase-Coherent Optical Pulse Synthesis from Separate Femtosecond Lasers,” Science 293, 1286 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hänsel, W.

W. Hänsel, H. Hoogland, M. Giunta, S. Schmid, T. Steinmetz, R. Doubek, P. Mayer, S. Dobner, C. Cleff, M. Fischer, and R. Holzwarth, “All polarization-maintaining fiber laser architecture for robust femtosecond pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. B 123, 41 (2017).
[Crossref]

Hao, Q.

F. Chen, Q. Hao, and H. Zeng, “Optimization of an NALM Mode-Locked All-PM Er:Fiber Laser System,” IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 29, 2119 (2017).
[Crossref]

He, J. F.

Herda, R.

Hochreiter, H.

Hofer, M.

Holman, K. W.

S. M. Foreman, K. W. Holman, D. D. Hudson, D. J. Jones, and J. Ye, “Remote transfer of ultrastable frequency references via fiber networks,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 021101 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Holzwarth, R.

W. Hänsel, H. Hoogland, M. Giunta, S. Schmid, T. Steinmetz, R. Doubek, P. Mayer, S. Dobner, C. Cleff, M. Fischer, and R. Holzwarth, “All polarization-maintaining fiber laser architecture for robust femtosecond pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. B 123, 41 (2017).
[Crossref]

Hoogland, H.

W. Hänsel, H. Hoogland, M. Giunta, S. Schmid, T. Steinmetz, R. Doubek, P. Mayer, S. Dobner, C. Cleff, M. Fischer, and R. Holzwarth, “All polarization-maintaining fiber laser architecture for robust femtosecond pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. B 123, 41 (2017).
[Crossref]

Hsiang, W.

Hu, C.

Hu, M.

H. Tian, Y. Song, J. Yu, H. Shi, and M. Hu, “Optical-optical synchronization between two independent femtosecond Yb-fiber lasers with 10−20 instability in 105s,” IEEE Photon. J. 9, 1 (2017).
[Crossref]

Huang, K.

K. Huang, X. Gu, H. Pan, E. Wu, and H. Zeng, “Synchronized fiber lasers for efficient coincidence single-photon frequency upconversion,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 18, 562 (2012).
[Crossref]

X. Gu, K. Huang, Y. Li, H. Pan, E Wu, and H. Zeng, “Temporal and spectral control of single-photon frequency upconversion for pulsed radiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 131111 (2010).
[Crossref]

Hudson, D. D.

S. M. Foreman, K. W. Holman, D. D. Hudson, D. J. Jones, and J. Ye, “Remote transfer of ultrastable frequency references via fiber networks,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 021101 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. D. Hudson, S. M. Foreman, S. T. Cundiff, and J. Ye, “Synchronization of mode-locked femtosecond lasers through a fiber link,” Opt. Lett. 31, 1951–1953 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ippen, E. P.

Ito, I.

Jiang, T.

T. Jiang, Y. Cui, P. Lu, C. Li, A. Wang, and Z. Zhang, “All PM Fiber Laser Mode Locked With a Compact Phase Biased Amplifier Loop Mirror,” IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 28, 1786 (2016).
[Crossref]

Jones, D. J.

S. M. Foreman, K. W. Holman, D. D. Hudson, D. J. Jones, and J. Ye, “Remote transfer of ultrastable frequency references via fiber networks,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 021101 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jung, K.

Kaboyashi, Y.

Z. Wei, Y. Kaboyashi, and K. Torizuka, “Passive synchronization between femtosecond Ti:sapphire and Cr:forsterite lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 74, s171 (2002).
[Crossref]

Kaertner, F. X.

Kakehata, M.

Kalaydzhyan, A.

M. Xin, K. Şafak, M. Y. Peng, A. Kalaydzhyan, W.-T. Wang, O. D. Mücke, and F. X. Kärtner, “Attosecond precision multi-kilometer laser-microwave network,” Light: Science & Appl. 6, e16187 (2017).
[Crossref]

Kannari, F.

T. Miura, H Nagaoka, K. Takasago, K. Kobayashi, A. Endo, K. Torizuka, M. Washio, and F. Kannari, “Active synchronization of two mode-locked lasers with optical cross correlation,” Appl. Phys. B 75, 19 (2002).
[Crossref]

Kapteyn, H. C.

R. K. Shelton, S. M. Foreman, L.-S. Ma, J. L. Hall, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, M. Notcutt, and J. Ye, “Subfemtosecond timing jitter between two independent, actively synchronized, mode-locked lasers,” Opt. Lett. 27, 312–314 (2002).
[Crossref]

R. K. Shelton, L.-S. Ma, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, J. L. Hall, and J. Ye, “Phase-Coherent Optical Pulse Synthesis from Separate Femtosecond Lasers,” Science 293, 1286 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kärtner, F. X.

M. Xin, K. Şafak, M. Y. Peng, A. Kalaydzhyan, W.-T. Wang, O. D. Mücke, and F. X. Kärtner, “Attosecond precision multi-kilometer laser-microwave network,” Light: Science & Appl. 6, e16187 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Kim and F. X. Kärtner, “Attosecond-precision ultrafast photonics,” Laser & Photon. Rev. \ 4, 432 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kelleher, E. J. R.

Kelly, S. M.

S. M. Kelly, “Characteristic sideband instability of periodically amplified average soliton,” Electron. Lett. 28, 806 (1992).
[Crossref]

Kim, C.

Kim, H.

Kim, J.

Kim, T. K.

Kim, W.

Kobayashi, K.

T. Miura, H Nagaoka, K. Takasago, K. Kobayashi, A. Endo, K. Torizuka, M. Washio, and F. Kannari, “Active synchronization of two mode-locked lasers with optical cross correlation,” Appl. Phys. B 75, 19 (2002).
[Crossref]

Kobayashi, Y.

Kolodziejski, L. A.

Krajewska, A.

Kuse, N.

Kuzucu, O.

Lai, Y.

Laubereau, A.

M. Betz, F. Sotier, F. Tauser, S. Trumm, A. Laubereau, and A. Leitenstorfer, “All-optical phase locking of two femtosecond Ti:sapphire lasers: a passive coupling mechanism beyond the slowly varying amplitude approximation,” Opt. Lett. 29, 629–631 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Furst, A. Leitenstorfer, and A. Laubereau, “Mechanism for self-synchronization of femtosecond pulses in a two-color Ti:sapphire laser,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quan. Electron. 2, 473 (1996).
[Crossref]

Leitenstorfer, A.

M. Betz, F. Sotier, F. Tauser, S. Trumm, A. Laubereau, and A. Leitenstorfer, “All-optical phase locking of two femtosecond Ti:sapphire lasers: a passive coupling mechanism beyond the slowly varying amplitude approximation,” Opt. Lett. 29, 629–631 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Furst, A. Leitenstorfer, and A. Laubereau, “Mechanism for self-synchronization of femtosecond pulses in a two-color Ti:sapphire laser,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quan. Electron. 2, 473 (1996).
[Crossref]

Li, C.

D. Li, H. Xue, Y. Wang, M. Qi, W. Kim, C. Li, J. Riikonen, Z. Ren, J. Bai, H. Lipsanen, and Z. Sun, “Active synchronization and modulation of fiber lasers with a graphene electro-optic modulator,” Opt. Lett. 43, 3497–3500 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Jiang, Y. Cui, P. Lu, C. Li, A. Wang, and Z. Zhang, “All PM Fiber Laser Mode Locked With a Compact Phase Biased Amplifier Loop Mirror,” IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 28, 1786 (2016).
[Crossref]

Li, D.

Li, P.

C. Zhou, Y. Cai, L. Ren, P. Li, S. Cao, L. Chen, and M. Zhang, “Passive synchronization of femtosecond Er- and Yb-fiber lasers by injection locking,” Appl. Phys. B 97, 445 (2009).
[Crossref]

Li, Y.

X. Gu, K. Huang, Y. Li, H. Pan, E Wu, and H. Zeng, “Temporal and spectral control of single-photon frequency upconversion for pulsed radiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 131111 (2010).
[Crossref]

Lipsanen, H.

Lu, P.

T. Jiang, Y. Cui, P. Lu, C. Li, A. Wang, and Z. Zhang, “All PM Fiber Laser Mode Locked With a Compact Phase Biased Amplifier Loop Mirror,” IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 28, 1786 (2016).
[Crossref]

Ma, L.-S.

R. K. Shelton, S. M. Foreman, L.-S. Ma, J. L. Hall, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, M. Notcutt, and J. Ye, “Subfemtosecond timing jitter between two independent, actively synchronized, mode-locked lasers,” Opt. Lett. 27, 312–314 (2002).
[Crossref]

R. K. Shelton, L.-S. Ma, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, J. L. Hall, and J. Ye, “Phase-Coherent Optical Pulse Synthesis from Separate Femtosecond Lasers,” Science 293, 1286 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mayer, P.

W. Hänsel, H. Hoogland, M. Giunta, S. Schmid, T. Steinmetz, R. Doubek, P. Mayer, S. Dobner, C. Cleff, M. Fischer, and R. Holzwarth, “All polarization-maintaining fiber laser architecture for robust femtosecond pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. B 123, 41 (2017).
[Crossref]

Ming, Yan

Miura, T.

T. Miura, H Nagaoka, K. Takasago, K. Kobayashi, A. Endo, K. Torizuka, M. Washio, and F. Kannari, “Active synchronization of two mode-locked lasers with optical cross correlation,” Appl. Phys. B 75, 19 (2002).
[Crossref]

Mücke, O. D.

M. Xin, K. Şafak, M. Y. Peng, A. Kalaydzhyan, W.-T. Wang, O. D. Mücke, and F. X. Kärtner, “Attosecond precision multi-kilometer laser-microwave network,” Light: Science & Appl. 6, e16187 (2017).
[Crossref]

Murnane, M. M.

R. K. Shelton, S. M. Foreman, L.-S. Ma, J. L. Hall, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, M. Notcutt, and J. Ye, “Subfemtosecond timing jitter between two independent, actively synchronized, mode-locked lasers,” Opt. Lett. 27, 312–314 (2002).
[Crossref]

R. K. Shelton, L.-S. Ma, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, J. L. Hall, and J. Ye, “Phase-Coherent Optical Pulse Synthesis from Separate Femtosecond Lasers,” Science 293, 1286 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nagaoka, H

T. Miura, H Nagaoka, K. Takasago, K. Kobayashi, A. Endo, K. Torizuka, M. Washio, and F. Kannari, “Active synchronization of two mode-locked lasers with optical cross correlation,” Appl. Phys. B 75, 19 (2002).
[Crossref]

Nakamura, S.

Nam, C. H.

Nomura, Y.

Notcutt, M.

Obraztsova, E. D.

Okhotnikov, O. G.

Onuma, T.

Ozawa, A.

Pan, H.

K. Huang, X. Gu, H. Pan, E. Wu, and H. Zeng, “Synchronized fiber lasers for efficient coincidence single-photon frequency upconversion,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 18, 562 (2012).
[Crossref]

X. Gu, K. Huang, Y. Li, H. Pan, E Wu, and H. Zeng, “Temporal and spectral control of single-photon frequency upconversion for pulsed radiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 131111 (2010).
[Crossref]

Pasternak, I.

Peng, M. Y.

M. Xin, K. Şafak, M. Y. Peng, A. Kalaydzhyan, W.-T. Wang, O. D. Mücke, and F. X. Kärtner, “Attosecond precision multi-kilometer laser-microwave network,” Light: Science & Appl. 6, e16187 (2017).
[Crossref]

Petrich, G. S.

Popov, S. V.

Pozharov, A. S.

Qi, M.

Ren, L.

C. Zhou, Y. Cai, L. Ren, P. Li, S. Cao, L. Chen, and M. Zhang, “Passive synchronization of femtosecond Er- and Yb-fiber lasers by injection locking,” Appl. Phys. B 97, 445 (2009).
[Crossref]

Ren, Z.

Riikonen, J.

Robles, F. E.

M. C. Fischer, J. W. Wilson, F. E. Robles, and W. S. Warren, “Invited Review Article: Pump-probe microscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 87, 031101 (2016).
[Crossref]

Rusu, M.

Safak, K.

M. Xin, K. Şafak, M. Y. Peng, A. Kalaydzhyan, W.-T. Wang, O. D. Mücke, and F. X. Kärtner, “Attosecond precision multi-kilometer laser-microwave network,” Light: Science & Appl. 6, e16187 (2017).
[Crossref]

Schibli, T. R.

Schmid, S.

W. Hänsel, H. Hoogland, M. Giunta, S. Schmid, T. Steinmetz, R. Doubek, P. Mayer, S. Dobner, C. Cleff, M. Fischer, and R. Holzwarth, “All polarization-maintaining fiber laser architecture for robust femtosecond pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. B 123, 41 (2017).
[Crossref]

Sekiguchi, T.

Shelton, R. K.

R. K. Shelton, S. M. Foreman, L.-S. Ma, J. L. Hall, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, M. Notcutt, and J. Ye, “Subfemtosecond timing jitter between two independent, actively synchronized, mode-locked lasers,” Opt. Lett. 27, 312–314 (2002).
[Crossref]

R. K. Shelton, L.-S. Ma, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, J. L. Hall, and J. Ye, “Phase-Coherent Optical Pulse Synthesis from Separate Femtosecond Lasers,” Science 293, 1286 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shi, H.

H. Tian, Y. Song, J. Yu, H. Shi, and M. Hu, “Optical-optical synchronization between two independent femtosecond Yb-fiber lasers with 10−20 instability in 105s,” IEEE Photon. J. 9, 1 (2017).
[Crossref]

Sobon, G.

Song, Y.

Sotier, F.

Sotor, J.

Steinmetz, T.

W. Hänsel, H. Hoogland, M. Giunta, S. Schmid, T. Steinmetz, R. Doubek, P. Mayer, S. Dobner, C. Cleff, M. Fischer, and R. Holzwarth, “All polarization-maintaining fiber laser architecture for robust femtosecond pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. B 123, 41 (2017).
[Crossref]

Strupinski, W.

Sun, Z.

Takada, H.

Takasago, K.

T. Miura, H Nagaoka, K. Takasago, K. Kobayashi, A. Endo, K. Torizuka, M. Washio, and F. Kannari, “Active synchronization of two mode-locked lasers with optical cross correlation,” Appl. Phys. B 75, 19 (2002).
[Crossref]

Tandon, S. N.

Tarka, J.

Tauser, F.

Taylor, J. R.

Tian, H.

H. Tian, Y. Song, J. Yu, H. Shi, and M. Hu, “Optical-optical synchronization between two independent femtosecond Yb-fiber lasers with 10−20 instability in 105s,” IEEE Photon. J. 9, 1 (2017).
[Crossref]

Torizuka, K.

Trumm, S.

Tsai, B.

Wang, A.

T. Jiang, Y. Cui, P. Lu, C. Li, A. Wang, and Z. Zhang, “All PM Fiber Laser Mode Locked With a Compact Phase Biased Amplifier Loop Mirror,” IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 28, 1786 (2016).
[Crossref]

Wang, S. C.

Wang, W.-T.

M. Xin, K. Şafak, M. Y. Peng, A. Kalaydzhyan, W.-T. Wang, O. D. Mücke, and F. X. Kärtner, “Attosecond precision multi-kilometer laser-microwave network,” Light: Science & Appl. 6, e16187 (2017).
[Crossref]

Wang, Y.

Warren, W. S.

M. C. Fischer, J. W. Wilson, F. E. Robles, and W. S. Warren, “Invited Review Article: Pump-probe microscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 87, 031101 (2016).
[Crossref]

Washio, M.

T. Miura, H Nagaoka, K. Takasago, K. Kobayashi, A. Endo, K. Torizuka, M. Washio, and F. Kannari, “Active synchronization of two mode-locked lasers with optical cross correlation,” Appl. Phys. B 75, 19 (2002).
[Crossref]

Wei, Z.

Z. Wei, Y. Kaboyashi, and K. Torizuka, “Passive synchronization between femtosecond Ti:sapphire and Cr:forsterite lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 74, s171 (2002).
[Crossref]

Wilson, J. W.

M. C. Fischer, J. W. Wilson, F. E. Robles, and W. S. Warren, “Invited Review Article: Pump-probe microscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 87, 031101 (2016).
[Crossref]

Wise, F. W.

A. Chong, L. G. Wright, and F. W. Wise, “Ultrafast fiber lasers based on self-similar pulse evolution: a review of current progress,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 78, 113901 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wright, L. G.

A. Chong, L. G. Wright, and F. W. Wise, “Ultrafast fiber lasers based on self-similar pulse evolution: a review of current progress,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 78, 113901 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wu, E

X. Gu, K. Huang, Y. Li, H. Pan, E Wu, and H. Zeng, “Temporal and spectral control of single-photon frequency upconversion for pulsed radiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 131111 (2010).
[Crossref]

Li Yao, Gu Xiaorong, Yan Ming, E Wu, and Heping Zeng, “Square nanosecond mode-locked Er-fiber laser synchronized to a picosecond Yb-fiber laser,” Opt. Express 17, 4526–4532 (2009).
[Crossref]

Wu, E.

K. Huang, X. Gu, H. Pan, E. Wu, and H. Zeng, “Synchronized fiber lasers for efficient coincidence single-photon frequency upconversion,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 18, 562 (2012).
[Crossref]

Wu, S.

Xiaorong, Gu

Xin, M.

M. Xin, K. Şafak, M. Y. Peng, A. Kalaydzhyan, W.-T. Wang, O. D. Mücke, and F. X. Kärtner, “Attosecond precision multi-kilometer laser-microwave network,” Light: Science & Appl. 6, e16187 (2017).
[Crossref]

Xue, H.

Yao, Li

Ye, J.

S. M. Foreman, K. W. Holman, D. D. Hudson, D. J. Jones, and J. Ye, “Remote transfer of ultrastable frequency references via fiber networks,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 021101 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. D. Hudson, S. M. Foreman, S. T. Cundiff, and J. Ye, “Synchronization of mode-locked femtosecond lasers through a fiber link,” Opt. Lett. 31, 1951–1953 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. K. Shelton, S. M. Foreman, L.-S. Ma, J. L. Hall, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, M. Notcutt, and J. Ye, “Subfemtosecond timing jitter between two independent, actively synchronized, mode-locked lasers,” Opt. Lett. 27, 312–314 (2002).
[Crossref]

R. K. Shelton, L.-S. Ma, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, J. L. Hall, and J. Ye, “Phase-Coherent Optical Pulse Synthesis from Separate Femtosecond Lasers,” Science 293, 1286 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yokoi, H.

Yoshitomi, D.

Yu, J.

H. Tian, Y. Song, J. Yu, H. Shi, and M. Hu, “Optical-optical synchronization between two independent femtosecond Yb-fiber lasers with 10−20 instability in 105s,” IEEE Photon. J. 9, 1 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zeng, H.

F. Chen, Q. Hao, and H. Zeng, “Optimization of an NALM Mode-Locked All-PM Er:Fiber Laser System,” IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 29, 2119 (2017).
[Crossref]

K. Huang, X. Gu, H. Pan, E. Wu, and H. Zeng, “Synchronized fiber lasers for efficient coincidence single-photon frequency upconversion,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 18, 562 (2012).
[Crossref]

X. Gu, K. Huang, Y. Li, H. Pan, E Wu, and H. Zeng, “Temporal and spectral control of single-photon frequency upconversion for pulsed radiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 131111 (2010).
[Crossref]

Zeng, Heping

Zhang, M.

M. Zhang, E. J. R. Kelleher, A. S. Pozharov, E. D. Obraztsova, S. V. Popov, and J. R. Taylor, “Passive synchronization of all-fiber lasers through a common saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 36, 3984–3986 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Zhou, Y. Cai, L. Ren, P. Li, S. Cao, L. Chen, and M. Zhang, “Passive synchronization of femtosecond Er- and Yb-fiber lasers by injection locking,” Appl. Phys. B 97, 445 (2009).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Z.

T. Jiang, Y. Cui, P. Lu, C. Li, A. Wang, and Z. Zhang, “All PM Fiber Laser Mode Locked With a Compact Phase Biased Amplifier Loop Mirror,” IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 28, 1786 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zhou, C.

C. Zhou, Y. Cai, L. Ren, P. Li, S. Cao, L. Chen, and M. Zhang, “Passive synchronization of femtosecond Er- and Yb-fiber lasers by injection locking,” Appl. Phys. B 97, 445 (2009).
[Crossref]

Zhu, C. J.

Appl. Phys. B (4)

Z. Wei, Y. Kaboyashi, and K. Torizuka, “Passive synchronization between femtosecond Ti:sapphire and Cr:forsterite lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 74, s171 (2002).
[Crossref]

T. Miura, H Nagaoka, K. Takasago, K. Kobayashi, A. Endo, K. Torizuka, M. Washio, and F. Kannari, “Active synchronization of two mode-locked lasers with optical cross correlation,” Appl. Phys. B 75, 19 (2002).
[Crossref]

C. Zhou, Y. Cai, L. Ren, P. Li, S. Cao, L. Chen, and M. Zhang, “Passive synchronization of femtosecond Er- and Yb-fiber lasers by injection locking,” Appl. Phys. B 97, 445 (2009).
[Crossref]

W. Hänsel, H. Hoogland, M. Giunta, S. Schmid, T. Steinmetz, R. Doubek, P. Mayer, S. Dobner, C. Cleff, M. Fischer, and R. Holzwarth, “All polarization-maintaining fiber laser architecture for robust femtosecond pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. B 123, 41 (2017).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

X. Gu, K. Huang, Y. Li, H. Pan, E Wu, and H. Zeng, “Temporal and spectral control of single-photon frequency upconversion for pulsed radiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 131111 (2010).
[Crossref]

Electron. Lett. (1)

S. M. Kelly, “Characteristic sideband instability of periodically amplified average soliton,” Electron. Lett. 28, 806 (1992).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quan. Electron. (1)

C. Furst, A. Leitenstorfer, and A. Laubereau, “Mechanism for self-synchronization of femtosecond pulses in a two-color Ti:sapphire laser,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quan. Electron. 2, 473 (1996).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. (1)

K. Huang, X. Gu, H. Pan, E. Wu, and H. Zeng, “Synchronized fiber lasers for efficient coincidence single-photon frequency upconversion,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 18, 562 (2012).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photon. J. (1)

H. Tian, Y. Song, J. Yu, H. Shi, and M. Hu, “Optical-optical synchronization between two independent femtosecond Yb-fiber lasers with 10−20 instability in 105s,” IEEE Photon. J. 9, 1 (2017).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. (2)

T. Jiang, Y. Cui, P. Lu, C. Li, A. Wang, and Z. Zhang, “All PM Fiber Laser Mode Locked With a Compact Phase Biased Amplifier Loop Mirror,” IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 28, 1786 (2016).
[Crossref]

F. Chen, Q. Hao, and H. Zeng, “Optimization of an NALM Mode-Locked All-PM Er:Fiber Laser System,” IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 29, 2119 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Laser & Photon. Rev. (1)

J. Kim and F. X. Kärtner, “Attosecond-precision ultrafast photonics,” Laser & Photon. Rev. \ 4, 432 (2010).
[Crossref]

Light: Science & Appl. (1)

M. Xin, K. Şafak, M. Y. Peng, A. Kalaydzhyan, W.-T. Wang, O. D. Mücke, and F. X. Kärtner, “Attosecond precision multi-kilometer laser-microwave network,” Light: Science & Appl. 6, e16187 (2017).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (6)

Opt. Lett. (13)

M. Zhang, E. J. R. Kelleher, A. S. Pozharov, E. D. Obraztsova, S. V. Popov, and J. R. Taylor, “Passive synchronization of all-fiber lasers through a common saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 36, 3984–3986 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. K. Kim, Y. Song, K. Jung, C. Kim, H. Kim, C. H. Nam, and J. Kim, “Sub-100-as timing jitter optical pulse trains from mode-locked Er-fiber lasers,” Opt. Lett. 36, 4443–4445 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. J. Zhu, J. F. He, and S. C. Wang, “Generation of synchronized femtosecond and picosecond pulses in a dual-wavelength femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser,” Opt. Lett. 30, 561–563 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Yoshitomi, Y. Kobayashi, H. Takada, M. Kakehata, and K. Torizuka, “100-attosecond timing jitter between two-color mode-locked lasers by active-passive hybrid synchronization,” Opt. Lett. 30, 1408–1410 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. D. Hudson, S. M. Foreman, S. T. Cundiff, and J. Ye, “Synchronization of mode-locked femtosecond lasers through a fiber link,” Opt. Lett. 31, 1951–1953 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Yoshitomi, Y. Kobayashi, M. Kakehata, H. Takada, K. Torizuka, T. Onuma, H. Yokoi, T. Sekiguchi, and S. Nakamura, “Ultralow-jitter passive timing stabilization of a mode-locked Er-doped fiber laser by injection of an optical pulse train,” Opt. Lett. 31, 3243–3245 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Tsai, S. Wu, C. Hu, W. Hsiang, and Y. Lai, “Subfemtosecond hybrid synchronization between ultrafast Yb and Er fiber laser systems by controlling the relative injection timing,” Opt. Lett. 38, 3456–3459 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Li, H. Xue, Y. Wang, M. Qi, W. Kim, C. Li, J. Riikonen, Z. Ren, J. Bai, H. Lipsanen, and Z. Sun, “Active synchronization and modulation of fiber lasers with a graphene electro-optic modulator,” Opt. Lett. 43, 3497–3500 (2018).
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M. E. Fermann, F. Haberl, M. Hofer, and H. Hochreiter, “Nonlinear amplifying loop mirror,” Opt. Lett. 15, 752–754 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. K. Shelton, S. M. Foreman, L.-S. Ma, J. L. Hall, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, M. Notcutt, and J. Ye, “Subfemtosecond timing jitter between two independent, actively synchronized, mode-locked lasers,” Opt. Lett. 27, 312–314 (2002).
[Crossref]

T. R. Schibli, J. Kim, O. Kuzucu, J. T. Gopinath, S. N. Tandon, G. S. Petrich, L. A. Kolodziejski, J. G. Fujimoto, E. P. Ippen, and F. X. Kaertner, “Attosecond active synchronization of passively mode-locked lasers by balanced cross correlation,” Opt. Lett. 28, 947–949 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Betz, F. Sotier, F. Tauser, S. Trumm, A. Laubereau, and A. Leitenstorfer, “All-optical phase locking of two femtosecond Ti:sapphire lasers: a passive coupling mechanism beyond the slowly varying amplitude approximation,” Opt. Lett. 29, 629–631 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Rusu, R. Herda, and O. G. Okhotnikov, “Passively synchronized erbium (1550-nm) and ytterbium (1040-nm) mode-locked fiber lasers sharing a cavity,” Opt. Lett. 29, 2246–2248 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rep. Prog. Phys. (1)

A. Chong, L. G. Wright, and F. W. Wise, “Ultrafast fiber lasers based on self-similar pulse evolution: a review of current progress,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 78, 113901 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (2)

M. C. Fischer, J. W. Wilson, F. E. Robles, and W. S. Warren, “Invited Review Article: Pump-probe microscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 87, 031101 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. M. Foreman, K. W. Holman, D. D. Hudson, D. J. Jones, and J. Ye, “Remote transfer of ultrastable frequency references via fiber networks,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 021101 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Science (1)

R. K. Shelton, L.-S. Ma, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, J. L. Hall, and J. Ye, “Phase-Coherent Optical Pulse Synthesis from Separate Femtosecond Lasers,” Science 293, 1286 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Experimental setup for all-polarization-maintaining synchronization system. (a) Master Yb-doped mode-locked fiber laser. (b) Injection of master pulses into the slave Er-doped fiber laser cavity. The synchronous mode-locking is initiated by the additional non-reciprocal phase shift induced by the cross-phase modulation in the nonlinear amplifying loop mirror. (c) Schematic for the measurement of relative timing jitter. LD: Laser diode; SESAM: semiconductor saturable absorber mirror; WDM: wavelength division multiplexer; Yb: ytterbium-doped gain fiber; OC: output coupler; PZT: piezoelectric transducer; FBG: fiber Bragg grating; PS: phase shifter; Er: erbium-doped gain fiber; Col: collimator; PPLN: periodically-poled lithium niobate crystal; IF: interference filter; PD: photodiode; FFT: fast Fourier transform.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Optical spectra of master (a) and slave (b) pulses. Autocorrelation traces for master (c) and slave (d) pulses.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Pulse trains (a) and power stability (b) for synchronized master and slave pulses. σ indicates the relative fluctuation.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) Measured repetition rate of the slave laser as a function of its cavity-length variation. Red solid dots and blue open circles indicate synchronized and non-synchronized regimes, respectively. The intermediate Q-switched mode-locked regime is represented with red open circles. The dashed line is given by a theoretical mode in the absence of synchronization. (b) Optical spectrum of the slave laser for various cavity-length detuning. The dashed lines indicate a small wavelength shift about 0.2 nm. The inset shows the close-up of the spectral peaks.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) Cavity mismatch tolerance versus pump power of the slave laser. The dashed line indicates the mode-locking threshold in the free-running condition. (b) Cavity mismatch tolerance versus injection pulse energy from the master laser for above- and sub-threshold cases. The solid lines are given by linear fits.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 (a) Repetition-rate changes for master and slave pulses within 12 hours (top panel) and their discrepancy (bottom panel). The Δfr indicates the frequency discrepancy compared to the average value of the measured repetition rate for the master laser. (b) Repetition-rate fluctuations of master laser with and without active cavity-length locking (top panel). Repetition-rate fluctuations of slave laser with and without synchronization (bottom panel).
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 (a) Cross-correlation trace between the two synchronized pulses. The green dot at the half amplitude indicates the position to measure the timing jitter. (b) The voltage fluctuations within a 1-MHz bandwidth at the maximum and middle points at the correlation trace. (c) Timing jitter power spectral density (left) and the integrated timing jitter in Fourier domain (right).

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