Abstract

A gas sensing method based on quartz-tuning-fork enhanced photothermal spectroscopy (QEPTS) is reported in this paper. Unlike usually used thermally sensitive elements, a sharply resonant quartz-tuning-fork with the capability of enhanced mechanical resonance was used to amplify the photothermal signal level. Acetylene (C2H2) detection was used to verify the QEPTS sensor performance. The measured results indicate a minimum detection limit (MDL) of 718 ppb and a normalized noise equivalent absorption coefficient (NNEA) of 7.63 × 10−9 cm−1W/√Hz. This performance demonstrates that QEPTS can be an ultra-high sensitive technique for gas detection and shows superiority when compared to usually used methods of tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) and quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy (QEPAS). Furthermore, when compared to an optical detector, especially a costly mercury cadmium telluride (MCT) detector with cryogenic cooling used in TDLAS, a quartz-tuning-fork is much cheap and tiny. Besides, compared to the QEPAS technique, QEPTS is a non-contact measurement technique and therefore can be used for standoff and remote trace gas detection.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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    [Crossref]

2018 (1)

K. Krzempek, A. Hudzikowski, A. Głuszek, G. Dudzik, K. Abramski, G. Wysocki, and M. Nikodem, “Multi-pass cell-assisted photoacoustic/photothermal spectroscopy of gases using quantum cascade laser excitation and heterodyne interferometric signal detection,” Appl. Phys. B 124(5), 74 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (4)

Y. He, Y. F. Ma, Y. Tong, X. Yu, Z. F. Peng, J. Gao, and F. K. Tittel, “Long distance, distributed gas sensing based on micro-nano fiber evanescent wave quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(24), 241102 (2017).
[Crossref]

I. Todoshchenko, A. Savin, M. Haataja, J. P. Kaikkonen, and P. J. Hakonen, “Quartz tuning fork as a probe of surface oscillations,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(7), 071601 (2017).
[Crossref]

I. E. Gordon, L. S. Rothman, C. Hill, R. V. Kochanov, Y. Tan, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, A. Campargue, K. V. Chance, B. J. Drouin, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, K. P. Shine, M.-A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, H. Tran, V. G. Tyuterev, A. Barbe, A. G. Császár, V. M. Devi, T. Furtenbacher, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, A. Jolly, T. J. Johnson, T. Karman, I. Kleiner, A. A. Kyuberis, J. Loos, O. M. Lyulin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, O. L. Polyansky, M. Rey, M. Rotger, S. W. Sharpe, K. Sung, E. Starikova, S. A. Tashkun, J. V. Auwera, G. Wagner, J. Wilzewski, P. Wcisło, S. Yu, and E. J. Zak, “he HITRAN2016 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 203, 3–69 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. F. Ma, Y. He, L. G. Zhang, X. Yu, J. B. Zhang, R. Sun, and F. K. Tittel, “Ultra-high sensitive acetylene detection using quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy with a fiber amplified diode laser and a 30.72 kHz quartz tuning fork,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(3), 031107 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (3)

2015 (5)

Y. F. Ma, X. Yu, G. Yu, X. D. Li, J. B. Zhang, D. Y. Chen, R. Sun, and F. K. Tittel, “Multi-quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(2), 021106 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Triki, T. Nguyen Ba, and A. Vicet, “Compact sensor for methane detection in the mid infrared region based on quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 69, 74–80 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Ma, G. Yu, J. Zhang, X. Yu, R. Sun, and F. K. Tittel, “Quartz enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy based trace gas sensors using different quartz tuning forks,” Sensors (Basel) 15(4), 7596–7604 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Mordmüller, M. Köhring, W. Schade, and U. Willer, “An electrically and optically cooperated QEPAS device for highly integrated gas sensors,” Appl. Phys. B 119(1), 111–118 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. M. Yi, R. Maamary, X. Gao, M. W. Sigrist, E. Fertein, and W. Chen, “Short-lived species detection of nitrous acid by external-cavity quantum cascade laser based quartz-enhanced photoacoustic absorption spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(10), 101109 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (2)

U. W. Paetzold, S. Lehnen, K. Bittkau, U. Rau, and R. Carius, “Nanoscale observation of waveguide modes enhancing the efficiency of solar cells,” Nano Lett. 14(11), 6599–6605 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Borri, P. Patimisco, I. Galli, D. Mazzotti, G. Giusfredi, N. Akikusa, M. Yamanishi, G. Scamarcio, P. De Natale, and V. Spagnolo, “Intracavity quartz-enhanced photoacoustic sensor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(9), 091114 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

S. Borri, P. Patimisco, A. Sampaolo, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, M. S. Vitiello, G. Scamarcio, and V. Spagnolo, “Terahertz quartz enhanced photo-acoustic sensor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(2), 021105 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Ma, R. Lewicki, M. Razeghi, and F. K. Tittel, “QEPAS based ppb-level detection of CO and N2O using a high power CW DFB-QCL,” Opt. Express 21(1), 1008–1019 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (1)

2011 (1)

K. L. Miller, E. Morrison, S. T. Marshall, and J. W. Medlin, “Experimental and modeling studies of acetylene detection in hydrogen/acetylene mixtures on PdM bimetallic metal–insulator–semiconductor devices,” Sens. Act. B Chem. 156(2), 924–931 (2011).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

K. Liu, X. Guo, H. Yi, W. Chen, W. Zhang, and X. Gao, “Off-beam quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 34(10), 1594–1596 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. T. Marshall, D. K. Schwartz, and J. W. Medlin, “Selective acetylene detection through surface modification of metal-insulator-semiconductor sensors with alkanethiolate monolayers,” Sensor Actuat. B 136(2), 315–319 (2009).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

M. Barbic, L. Eliason, and J. Ranshaw, “Femto-Newton force sensitivity quartz tuning fork sensor,” Sensor Actuat. A 136(2), 564–566 (2007).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

R. D. Grober, J. Acimovic, J. Schuck, D. Hessman, P. J. Kindlemann, J. Hespanha, A. S. Morse, K. Karrai, I. Tiemann, and S. Manus, “Fundamental limits to force detection using quartz tuning forks,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71(7), 2776–2780 (2000).
[Crossref]

1998 (3)

F. J. Giessibl, “High-speed force sensor for force microscopy and profilometry utilizing a quartz tuning fork,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(26), 3956–3958 (1998).
[Crossref]

M. Todorovic and S. Schultz, “Miniature high-sensitivity quartz tuning fork alternating gradient magnetometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(24), 3595–3597 (1998).
[Crossref]

M. Todorovic and S. Schultz, “Magnetic force microscopy using nonoptical piezoelectric quartz tuning fork detection design with applications to magnetic recording studies,” J. Appl. Phys. 83(11), 6229–6231 (1998).
[Crossref]

1997 (2)

H. Edwards, L. Taylor, W. Duncan, and A. J. Melmed, “Fast, high-resolution atomic force microscopy using a quartz tuning fork as actuator and sensor,” J. Appl. Phys. 82(3), 980–984 (1997).
[Crossref]

A. G. T. Ruiter, J. A. Veerman, K. O. van der Werf, and N. F. van Hulst, “Dynamic behavior of tuning fork shear-force feedback,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(1), 28–30 (1997).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

K. Karrai and R. D. Grober, “Piezoelectric tip-sample distance control for near field optical microscopes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66(14), 1842–1844 (1995).
[Crossref]

Abramski, K.

K. Krzempek, A. Hudzikowski, A. Głuszek, G. Dudzik, K. Abramski, G. Wysocki, and M. Nikodem, “Multi-pass cell-assisted photoacoustic/photothermal spectroscopy of gases using quantum cascade laser excitation and heterodyne interferometric signal detection,” Appl. Phys. B 124(5), 74 (2018).
[Crossref]

Acimovic, J.

R. D. Grober, J. Acimovic, J. Schuck, D. Hessman, P. J. Kindlemann, J. Hespanha, A. S. Morse, K. Karrai, I. Tiemann, and S. Manus, “Fundamental limits to force detection using quartz tuning forks,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71(7), 2776–2780 (2000).
[Crossref]

Akikusa, N.

S. Borri, P. Patimisco, I. Galli, D. Mazzotti, G. Giusfredi, N. Akikusa, M. Yamanishi, G. Scamarcio, P. De Natale, and V. Spagnolo, “Intracavity quartz-enhanced photoacoustic sensor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(9), 091114 (2014).
[Crossref]

Auwera, J. V.

I. E. Gordon, L. S. Rothman, C. Hill, R. V. Kochanov, Y. Tan, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, A. Campargue, K. V. Chance, B. J. Drouin, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, K. P. Shine, M.-A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, H. Tran, V. G. Tyuterev, A. Barbe, A. G. Császár, V. M. Devi, T. Furtenbacher, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, A. Jolly, T. J. Johnson, T. Karman, I. Kleiner, A. A. Kyuberis, J. Loos, O. M. Lyulin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, O. L. Polyansky, M. Rey, M. Rotger, S. W. Sharpe, K. Sung, E. Starikova, S. A. Tashkun, J. V. Auwera, G. Wagner, J. Wilzewski, P. Wcisło, S. Yu, and E. J. Zak, “he HITRAN2016 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 203, 3–69 (2017).
[Crossref]

Barbe, A.

I. E. Gordon, L. S. Rothman, C. Hill, R. V. Kochanov, Y. Tan, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, A. Campargue, K. V. Chance, B. J. Drouin, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, K. P. Shine, M.-A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, H. Tran, V. G. Tyuterev, A. Barbe, A. G. Császár, V. M. Devi, T. Furtenbacher, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, A. Jolly, T. J. Johnson, T. Karman, I. Kleiner, A. A. Kyuberis, J. Loos, O. M. Lyulin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, O. L. Polyansky, M. Rey, M. Rotger, S. W. Sharpe, K. Sung, E. Starikova, S. A. Tashkun, J. V. Auwera, G. Wagner, J. Wilzewski, P. Wcisło, S. Yu, and E. J. Zak, “he HITRAN2016 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 203, 3–69 (2017).
[Crossref]

Barbic, M.

M. Barbic, L. Eliason, and J. Ranshaw, “Femto-Newton force sensitivity quartz tuning fork sensor,” Sensor Actuat. A 136(2), 564–566 (2007).
[Crossref]

Beere, H. E.

S. Borri, P. Patimisco, A. Sampaolo, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, M. S. Vitiello, G. Scamarcio, and V. Spagnolo, “Terahertz quartz enhanced photo-acoustic sensor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(2), 021105 (2013).
[Crossref]

Belahsene, S.

Bernath, P. F.

I. E. Gordon, L. S. Rothman, C. Hill, R. V. Kochanov, Y. Tan, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, A. Campargue, K. V. Chance, B. J. Drouin, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, K. P. Shine, M.-A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, H. Tran, V. G. Tyuterev, A. Barbe, A. G. Császár, V. M. Devi, T. Furtenbacher, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, A. Jolly, T. J. Johnson, T. Karman, I. Kleiner, A. A. Kyuberis, J. Loos, O. M. Lyulin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, O. L. Polyansky, M. Rey, M. Rotger, S. W. Sharpe, K. Sung, E. Starikova, S. A. Tashkun, J. V. Auwera, G. Wagner, J. Wilzewski, P. Wcisło, S. Yu, and E. J. Zak, “he HITRAN2016 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 203, 3–69 (2017).
[Crossref]

Birk, M.

I. E. Gordon, L. S. Rothman, C. Hill, R. V. Kochanov, Y. Tan, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, A. Campargue, K. V. Chance, B. J. Drouin, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, K. P. Shine, M.-A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, H. Tran, V. G. Tyuterev, A. Barbe, A. G. Császár, V. M. Devi, T. Furtenbacher, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, A. Jolly, T. J. Johnson, T. Karman, I. Kleiner, A. A. Kyuberis, J. Loos, O. M. Lyulin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, O. L. Polyansky, M. Rey, M. Rotger, S. W. Sharpe, K. Sung, E. Starikova, S. A. Tashkun, J. V. Auwera, G. Wagner, J. Wilzewski, P. Wcisło, S. Yu, and E. J. Zak, “he HITRAN2016 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 203, 3–69 (2017).
[Crossref]

Bittkau, K.

U. W. Paetzold, S. Lehnen, K. Bittkau, U. Rau, and R. Carius, “Nanoscale observation of waveguide modes enhancing the efficiency of solar cells,” Nano Lett. 14(11), 6599–6605 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Borri, S.

S. Borri, P. Patimisco, I. Galli, D. Mazzotti, G. Giusfredi, N. Akikusa, M. Yamanishi, G. Scamarcio, P. De Natale, and V. Spagnolo, “Intracavity quartz-enhanced photoacoustic sensor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(9), 091114 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Borri, P. Patimisco, A. Sampaolo, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, M. S. Vitiello, G. Scamarcio, and V. Spagnolo, “Terahertz quartz enhanced photo-acoustic sensor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(2), 021105 (2013).
[Crossref]

Boudon, V.

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Flaud, J.-M.

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Y. He, Y. F. Ma, Y. Tong, X. Yu, Z. F. Peng, J. Gao, and F. K. Tittel, “Long distance, distributed gas sensing based on micro-nano fiber evanescent wave quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(24), 241102 (2017).
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Y. F. Ma, Y. He, L. G. Zhang, X. Yu, J. B. Zhang, R. Sun, and F. K. Tittel, “Ultra-high sensitive acetylene detection using quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy with a fiber amplified diode laser and a 30.72 kHz quartz tuning fork,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(3), 031107 (2017).
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M. Mordmüller, M. Köhring, W. Schade, and U. Willer, “An electrically and optically cooperated QEPAS device for highly integrated gas sensors,” Appl. Phys. B 119(1), 111–118 (2015).
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K. L. Miller, E. Morrison, S. T. Marshall, and J. W. Medlin, “Experimental and modeling studies of acetylene detection in hydrogen/acetylene mixtures on PdM bimetallic metal–insulator–semiconductor devices,” Sens. Act. B Chem. 156(2), 924–931 (2011).
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R. D. Grober, J. Acimovic, J. Schuck, D. Hessman, P. J. Kindlemann, J. Hespanha, A. S. Morse, K. Karrai, I. Tiemann, and S. Manus, “Fundamental limits to force detection using quartz tuning forks,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71(7), 2776–2780 (2000).
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Müller, H. S. P.

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I. E. Gordon, L. S. Rothman, C. Hill, R. V. Kochanov, Y. Tan, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, A. Campargue, K. V. Chance, B. J. Drouin, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, K. P. Shine, M.-A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, H. Tran, V. G. Tyuterev, A. Barbe, A. G. Császár, V. M. Devi, T. Furtenbacher, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, A. Jolly, T. J. Johnson, T. Karman, I. Kleiner, A. A. Kyuberis, J. Loos, O. M. Lyulin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, O. L. Polyansky, M. Rey, M. Rotger, S. W. Sharpe, K. Sung, E. Starikova, S. A. Tashkun, J. V. Auwera, G. Wagner, J. Wilzewski, P. Wcisło, S. Yu, and E. J. Zak, “he HITRAN2016 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 203, 3–69 (2017).
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Y. F. Ma, Y. He, L. G. Zhang, X. Yu, J. B. Zhang, R. Sun, and F. K. Tittel, “Ultra-high sensitive acetylene detection using quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy with a fiber amplified diode laser and a 30.72 kHz quartz tuning fork,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(3), 031107 (2017).
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Q. He, C. Zheng, H. Liu, B. Li, Y. Wang, and F. K. Tittel, “A near-infrared acetylene detection system based on a 1.534 μm tunable diode laser and a miniature gas chamber,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 75, 93–99 (2016).
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Y. Ma, G. Yu, J. Zhang, X. Yu, R. Sun, and F. K. Tittel, “Quartz enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy based trace gas sensors using different quartz tuning forks,” Sensors (Basel) 15(4), 7596–7604 (2015).
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Y. F. Ma, X. Yu, G. Yu, X. D. Li, J. B. Zhang, D. Y. Chen, R. Sun, and F. K. Tittel, “Multi-quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(2), 021106 (2015).
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Y. Ma, R. Lewicki, M. Razeghi, and F. K. Tittel, “QEPAS based ppb-level detection of CO and N2O using a high power CW DFB-QCL,” Opt. Express 21(1), 1008–1019 (2013).
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M. Todorovic and S. Schultz, “Miniature high-sensitivity quartz tuning fork alternating gradient magnetometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(24), 3595–3597 (1998).
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I. Todoshchenko, A. Savin, M. Haataja, J. P. Kaikkonen, and P. J. Hakonen, “Quartz tuning fork as a probe of surface oscillations,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(7), 071601 (2017).
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Y. He, Y. F. Ma, Y. Tong, X. Yu, Z. F. Peng, J. Gao, and F. K. Tittel, “Long distance, distributed gas sensing based on micro-nano fiber evanescent wave quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(24), 241102 (2017).
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M. Triki, T. Nguyen Ba, and A. Vicet, “Compact sensor for methane detection in the mid infrared region based on quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 69, 74–80 (2015).
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Wagner, G.

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Wang, Y.

Q. He, C. Zheng, H. Liu, B. Li, Y. Wang, and F. K. Tittel, “A near-infrared acetylene detection system based on a 1.534 μm tunable diode laser and a miniature gas chamber,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 75, 93–99 (2016).
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I. E. Gordon, L. S. Rothman, C. Hill, R. V. Kochanov, Y. Tan, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, A. Campargue, K. V. Chance, B. J. Drouin, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, K. P. Shine, M.-A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, H. Tran, V. G. Tyuterev, A. Barbe, A. G. Császár, V. M. Devi, T. Furtenbacher, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, A. Jolly, T. J. Johnson, T. Karman, I. Kleiner, A. A. Kyuberis, J. Loos, O. M. Lyulin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, O. L. Polyansky, M. Rey, M. Rotger, S. W. Sharpe, K. Sung, E. Starikova, S. A. Tashkun, J. V. Auwera, G. Wagner, J. Wilzewski, P. Wcisło, S. Yu, and E. J. Zak, “he HITRAN2016 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 203, 3–69 (2017).
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M. Mordmüller, M. Köhring, W. Schade, and U. Willer, “An electrically and optically cooperated QEPAS device for highly integrated gas sensors,” Appl. Phys. B 119(1), 111–118 (2015).
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I. E. Gordon, L. S. Rothman, C. Hill, R. V. Kochanov, Y. Tan, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, A. Campargue, K. V. Chance, B. J. Drouin, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, K. P. Shine, M.-A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, H. Tran, V. G. Tyuterev, A. Barbe, A. G. Császár, V. M. Devi, T. Furtenbacher, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, A. Jolly, T. J. Johnson, T. Karman, I. Kleiner, A. A. Kyuberis, J. Loos, O. M. Lyulin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, O. L. Polyansky, M. Rey, M. Rotger, S. W. Sharpe, K. Sung, E. Starikova, S. A. Tashkun, J. V. Auwera, G. Wagner, J. Wilzewski, P. Wcisło, S. Yu, and E. J. Zak, “he HITRAN2016 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 203, 3–69 (2017).
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Wysocki, G.

K. Krzempek, A. Hudzikowski, A. Głuszek, G. Dudzik, K. Abramski, G. Wysocki, and M. Nikodem, “Multi-pass cell-assisted photoacoustic/photothermal spectroscopy of gases using quantum cascade laser excitation and heterodyne interferometric signal detection,” Appl. Phys. B 124(5), 74 (2018).
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Yamanishi, M.

S. Borri, P. Patimisco, I. Galli, D. Mazzotti, G. Giusfredi, N. Akikusa, M. Yamanishi, G. Scamarcio, P. De Natale, and V. Spagnolo, “Intracavity quartz-enhanced photoacoustic sensor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(9), 091114 (2014).
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Yi, H.

Yi, H. M.

H. M. Yi, R. Maamary, X. Gao, M. W. Sigrist, E. Fertein, and W. Chen, “Short-lived species detection of nitrous acid by external-cavity quantum cascade laser based quartz-enhanced photoacoustic absorption spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(10), 101109 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yu, G.

Y. Ma, G. Yu, J. Zhang, X. Yu, R. Sun, and F. K. Tittel, “Quartz enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy based trace gas sensors using different quartz tuning forks,” Sensors (Basel) 15(4), 7596–7604 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. F. Ma, X. Yu, G. Yu, X. D. Li, J. B. Zhang, D. Y. Chen, R. Sun, and F. K. Tittel, “Multi-quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(2), 021106 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yu, S.

I. E. Gordon, L. S. Rothman, C. Hill, R. V. Kochanov, Y. Tan, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, A. Campargue, K. V. Chance, B. J. Drouin, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, K. P. Shine, M.-A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, H. Tran, V. G. Tyuterev, A. Barbe, A. G. Császár, V. M. Devi, T. Furtenbacher, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, A. Jolly, T. J. Johnson, T. Karman, I. Kleiner, A. A. Kyuberis, J. Loos, O. M. Lyulin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, O. L. Polyansky, M. Rey, M. Rotger, S. W. Sharpe, K. Sung, E. Starikova, S. A. Tashkun, J. V. Auwera, G. Wagner, J. Wilzewski, P. Wcisło, S. Yu, and E. J. Zak, “he HITRAN2016 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 203, 3–69 (2017).
[Crossref]

Yu, X.

Y. He, Y. F. Ma, Y. Tong, X. Yu, Z. F. Peng, J. Gao, and F. K. Tittel, “Long distance, distributed gas sensing based on micro-nano fiber evanescent wave quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(24), 241102 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. F. Ma, Y. He, L. G. Zhang, X. Yu, J. B. Zhang, R. Sun, and F. K. Tittel, “Ultra-high sensitive acetylene detection using quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy with a fiber amplified diode laser and a 30.72 kHz quartz tuning fork,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(3), 031107 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. F. Ma, X. Yu, G. Yu, X. D. Li, J. B. Zhang, D. Y. Chen, R. Sun, and F. K. Tittel, “Multi-quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(2), 021106 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Ma, G. Yu, J. Zhang, X. Yu, R. Sun, and F. K. Tittel, “Quartz enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy based trace gas sensors using different quartz tuning forks,” Sensors (Basel) 15(4), 7596–7604 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zak, E. J.

I. E. Gordon, L. S. Rothman, C. Hill, R. V. Kochanov, Y. Tan, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, A. Campargue, K. V. Chance, B. J. Drouin, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, K. P. Shine, M.-A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, H. Tran, V. G. Tyuterev, A. Barbe, A. G. Császár, V. M. Devi, T. Furtenbacher, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, A. Jolly, T. J. Johnson, T. Karman, I. Kleiner, A. A. Kyuberis, J. Loos, O. M. Lyulin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, O. L. Polyansky, M. Rey, M. Rotger, S. W. Sharpe, K. Sung, E. Starikova, S. A. Tashkun, J. V. Auwera, G. Wagner, J. Wilzewski, P. Wcisło, S. Yu, and E. J. Zak, “he HITRAN2016 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 203, 3–69 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zhang, J.

Y. Ma, G. Yu, J. Zhang, X. Yu, R. Sun, and F. K. Tittel, “Quartz enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy based trace gas sensors using different quartz tuning forks,” Sensors (Basel) 15(4), 7596–7604 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, J. B.

Y. F. Ma, Y. He, L. G. Zhang, X. Yu, J. B. Zhang, R. Sun, and F. K. Tittel, “Ultra-high sensitive acetylene detection using quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy with a fiber amplified diode laser and a 30.72 kHz quartz tuning fork,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(3), 031107 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. F. Ma, X. Yu, G. Yu, X. D. Li, J. B. Zhang, D. Y. Chen, R. Sun, and F. K. Tittel, “Multi-quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(2), 021106 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhang, L. G.

Y. F. Ma, Y. He, L. G. Zhang, X. Yu, J. B. Zhang, R. Sun, and F. K. Tittel, “Ultra-high sensitive acetylene detection using quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy with a fiber amplified diode laser and a 30.72 kHz quartz tuning fork,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(3), 031107 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zhang, W.

Zheng, C.

Q. He, C. Zheng, H. Liu, B. Li, Y. Wang, and F. K. Tittel, “A near-infrared acetylene detection system based on a 1.534 μm tunable diode laser and a miniature gas chamber,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 75, 93–99 (2016).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. B (2)

K. Krzempek, A. Hudzikowski, A. Głuszek, G. Dudzik, K. Abramski, G. Wysocki, and M. Nikodem, “Multi-pass cell-assisted photoacoustic/photothermal spectroscopy of gases using quantum cascade laser excitation and heterodyne interferometric signal detection,” Appl. Phys. B 124(5), 74 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. Mordmüller, M. Köhring, W. Schade, and U. Willer, “An electrically and optically cooperated QEPAS device for highly integrated gas sensors,” Appl. Phys. B 119(1), 111–118 (2015).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (11)

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[Crossref]

S. Borri, P. Patimisco, I. Galli, D. Mazzotti, G. Giusfredi, N. Akikusa, M. Yamanishi, G. Scamarcio, P. De Natale, and V. Spagnolo, “Intracavity quartz-enhanced photoacoustic sensor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(9), 091114 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. M. Yi, R. Maamary, X. Gao, M. W. Sigrist, E. Fertein, and W. Chen, “Short-lived species detection of nitrous acid by external-cavity quantum cascade laser based quartz-enhanced photoacoustic absorption spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(10), 101109 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. He, Y. F. Ma, Y. Tong, X. Yu, Z. F. Peng, J. Gao, and F. K. Tittel, “Long distance, distributed gas sensing based on micro-nano fiber evanescent wave quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(24), 241102 (2017).
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M. Todorovic and S. Schultz, “Miniature high-sensitivity quartz tuning fork alternating gradient magnetometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(24), 3595–3597 (1998).
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I. Todoshchenko, A. Savin, M. Haataja, J. P. Kaikkonen, and P. J. Hakonen, “Quartz tuning fork as a probe of surface oscillations,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(7), 071601 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. F. Ma, X. Yu, G. Yu, X. D. Li, J. B. Zhang, D. Y. Chen, R. Sun, and F. K. Tittel, “Multi-quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(2), 021106 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. F. Ma, Y. He, L. G. Zhang, X. Yu, J. B. Zhang, R. Sun, and F. K. Tittel, “Ultra-high sensitive acetylene detection using quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy with a fiber amplified diode laser and a 30.72 kHz quartz tuning fork,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(3), 031107 (2017).
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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic diagram of the experimental setup. FC: fiber collimator; W: CaF2 window; L: CaF2 plano-convex lens; TA: transimpedance amplifier; ADC: analog-to-digital converter; Le1 = 6 mm; Le2 = 3.9 mm; Wd = 0.6 mm; Th = 0.36 mm.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Experimental results and test specification. (a) QEPTS sensor signal amplitude as a function of ΔY at a modulation depth of 0.14 cm−1. (b) Spatial arrangement of laser beam and QTF. ΔY: the distance between the top of QTF prongs and the laser beam; Line A: laser focused on the front edge of QTF’s prong; Line B: laser focused on the front center of the QTF’s prong; Line C: laser focused on the side of the QTF’s prong.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Calculated temperature and displacement fields of the QTF. (a) Two-dimensional temperature and displacement fields at different values of ΔY of 1.0 mm, 3.9 mm and 5.6 mm, respectively when the laser beam was focused on the center of QTF’s prong (See line B shown in Fig. 2). (b) Three-dimensional temperature and displacement fields at ΔY = 5.6 mm when the laser beam was focused on the center of QTF’s prong.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 QEPTS signal amplitude for Line A at ΔY = 3.9 mm. (a) C2H2-QEPTS signal amplitude as a function of modulation depth. (b) C2H2-QEPTS signal amplitude as a function of C2H2 concentrations with a modulation depth of 0.18 cm−1.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 C2H2-QEPTS signal amplitude as a function of laser power at the optimized ΔY and modulation depth. Insert for 50 μW laser power.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Pure N2 was used for the background noise determination.

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