Abstract

Wide-bandgap inorganic semiconductors based ultraviolet lasers bring versatile applications with significant advantages including low-power consumption, high-power output, robustness and long-term operation stability. However, flexible membrane lasers remain challenging predominantly due to the need for a lattice matched supporting substrate. Here, we develop a simple laser liftoff process to make freestanding single crystalline ZnO membranes that demonstrate low-threshold ultraviolet stimulated emissions together with large sized dimension (> 2 mm), ultralow-weight (m/A<15 g/m2) and excellent flexibility. The 2.6 μm-thick crack-free ZnO membrane exhibits well-retained single crystallinity and enhanced excitonic emissions while the defect-related emissions are completely suppressed. The inelastic exciton-exciton scattering stimulated emissions with increased spontaneous emission rate is obtained with a reduced threshold of 0.35 MW/cm2 in the ZnO membrane transferred onto a flexible polyethylene naphthalate substrate. Theoretical simulations reveal that it is a synergetic effect of the increased quantum efficiency via Purcell effect and the improved optical gain due to vertical directional waveguiding of the membrane, which functions as a Fabry-Perot photonic resonator due to the refractive index contrast at ZnO-air boundaries. With simple architecture, efficient exciton recombination and easy fusion with waveguide system, the ZnO membranes provide an alternative platform to develop compact low-threshold ultraviolet excitonic lasers.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2018 (4)

M. Karl, J. M. E. Glackin, M. Schubert, N. M. Kronenberg, G. A. Turnbull, I. D. W. Samuel, and M. C. Gather, “Flexible and ultra-lightweight polymer membrane lasers,” Nat. Commun. 9(1), 1525 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Falson and M. Kawasaki, “A review of the quantum Hall effects in MgZnO/ZnO heterostructures,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 81(5), 056501 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Mehari, D. A. Cohen, D. L. Becerra, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Demonstration of enhanced continuous-wave operation of blue laser diodes on a semipolar (2021) GaN substrate using indium-tin-oxide/thin-p-GaN cladding layers,” Opt. Express 26(2), 1564–1572 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. H. Zhang, A. Dadgar, and T. Palacios, “Gallium nitride vertical power devices on foreign substrates: a review and outlook,” J. Phys. D 51(27), 273001 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (5)

L. Shen, L. Wu, Q. Sheng, C. Ma, Y. Zhang, L. Lu, J. Ma, J. Ma, J. Bian, Y. Yang, A. Chen, X. Lu, M. Liu, H. Wang, and C. L. Jia, “Epitaxial lift-off of centimeter-scaled spinel ferrite oxide thin films for flexible electronics,” Adv. Mater. 29(33), 1702411 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Kim, J. H. Seo, U. Singisetti, and Z. Q. Ma, “Recent advances in free-standing single crystalline wide band-gap semiconductors and their applications: GaN, SiC, ZnO, β-Ga2O3, and diamond,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 5(33), 8338–8354 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. C. Yu, T. P. H. Sidiropoulos, W. Liu, C. Ronning, P. K. Petrov, S. H. Oh, S. A. Maier, P. Jin, and R. F. Oulton, “Influence of silver film quality on the threshold of plasmonic nanowire lasers,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5(6), 1600856 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. K. Barman, P. Mitra, R. Bera, S. Das, A. Pramanik, and A. Parta, “An efficient charge separation and photocurrent generation in the carbon dot-zinc oxide nanoparticle composite,” Nanoscale 9(20), 6791–6799 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Yang, Y. Yan, Q. Wang, Y. Zeng, F. Liu, L. Li, Y. Zhao, and Y. Jiang, “Sandwich-structure-modulated photoluminescence enhancement of wide bandgap semiconductors capping with dielectric microsphere arrays,” Opt. Express 25(6), 6000–6014 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (1)

L. Petti, N. Münzenrieder, C. Vogt, H. Faber, L. Büthe, G. Cantarella, F. Bottacchi, T. D. Anthopoulos, and G. Tröster, “Metal oxide semiconductor thin-film transistors for flexible electronics,” Appl. Phys. Rev. 3(2), 021303 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (4)

K. H. Li, X. Liu, Q. Wang, S. Zhao, and Z. Mi, “Ultralow-threshold electrically injected AlGaN nanowire ultraviolet lasers on Si operating at low temperature,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(2), 140–144 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. A. Hurni, A. David, M. J. Cich, R. I. Aldaz, B. Ellis, K. Huang, A. Tyagi, R. A. Delille, M. D. Craven, F. M. Steranka, and M. R. Krames, “Bulk GaN flip-chip violet light-emitting diodes with optimized efficiency for high-power operation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(3), 031101 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Shibata, Y. Sakai, and D. Yokoyama, “Advantages and disadvantages of vacuum-deposited and spin-coated amorphous organic semiconductor films for organic light-emitting diodes,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 3(42), 11178–11191 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Falson, D. Maryenko, B. Friess, D. Zhang, Y. Kozuka, A. Tsukazaki, J. H. Smet, and M. Kawasaki, “Even-denominator fractional quantum Hall physics in ZnO,” Nat. Phys. 11(4), 347–351 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (2)

J. H. Choi, E. H. Cho, Y. S. Lee, M. B. Shim, H. Y. Ahn, C. W. Baik, E. H. Lee, K. Kim, T. H. Kim, S. Kim, K. S. Cho, J. Yoon, M. Kim, and S. Hwang, “Fully flexible GaN light-emitting diodes through nanovoid-mediated transfer,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 2(3), 267–274 (2014).
[Crossref]

K. Nomenyo, A. S. Gadallah, S. Kostcheev, D. J. Rogers, and G. Lerondel, “Enhanced stimulated emission in ZnO thin films using microdisk top-down structuring,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(18), 181104 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (3)

J. Heo, S. Jahangir, B. Xiao, and P. Bhattacharya, “Room-temperature polariton lasing from GaN nanowire array clad by dielectric microcavity,” Nano Lett. 13(6), 2376–2380 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. C. Su, H. Zhu, L. X. Zhang, M. He, L. Z. Zhao, S. F. Yu, J. N. Wang, and F. C. C. Ling, “Low-threshold lasing action in as asymmetric double ZnO/ZnMgO quantum structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(13), 131104 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. S. Gadallah, K. Nomenyo, C. Couteau, D. J. Rogers, and G. Lérondel, “Stimulated emission from ZnO thin films with high optical gain and low loss,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(17), 171105 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (3)

J. Ye, S. Ter Lim, M. Bosman, S. Gu, Y. Zheng, H. H. Tan, C. Jagadish, X. Sun, and K. L. Teo, “Spin-polarized wide electron slabs in functionally graded polar oxide heterostructures,” Sci. Rep. 2(1), 533 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Han, N. Tang, J. D. Ye, J. X. Duan, Y. C. Liu, K. L. Teo, and B. Shen, “Spin-polarized two-dimensional electron gas in undoped MgxZn1−xO/ZnO heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(19), 192105 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. A. M. Versteegh, D. Vanmaekelbergh, and J. I. Dijkhuis, “Room-temperature laser emission of ZnO nanowires explained by many-body theory,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108(15), 157402 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (3)

S. Chu, G. Wang, W. Zhou, Y. Lin, L. Chernyak, J. Zhao, J. Kong, L. Li, J. Ren, and J. Liu, “Electrically pumped waveguide lasing from ZnO nanowires,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(8), 506–510 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Ueda, M. Ishida, and M. Yuri, “Separation of thin GaN from sapphire by laser lift-off technique,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 50(4R), 041001 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. R. Wagner, G. Callsen, J. S. Reparaz, J. H. Schulze, R. Kirste, M. Cobet, I. A. Ostapenko, S. Rodt, C. Nenstiel, M. Kaiser, A. Hoffmann, A. V. Rodina, M. R. Phillips, S. Lautenschläger, S. Eisermann, and B. K. Meyer, “Bound excitons in ZnO: Structural defect complexes versus shallow impurity centers,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 84(3), 035313 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (5)

C. H. Lee, S. J. Kim, Y. Oh, M. Y. Kin, Y. J. Yoon, and H. S. Lee, “Use of laser lift-off for flexible device applications,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(10), 102814 (2010).
[Crossref]

H. Zhu, C. X. Shan, J. Y. Zhang, Z. Z. Zhang, B. H. Li, D. X. Zhao, B. Yao, D. Z. Shen, X. W. Fan, Z. K. Tang, X. Hou, and K. L. Choy, “Low-threshold electrically pumped random lasers,” Adv. Mater. 22(16), 1877–1881 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Clark and G. Lanzani, “Organic photonics for communications,” Nat. Photonics 4(7), 438–446 (2010).
[Crossref]

K. Chung, C. H. Lee, and G. C. Yi, “Transferable GaN layers grown on ZnO-coated graphene layers for optoelectronic devices,” Science 330(6004), 655–657 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. D. Ye, S. Pannirselvam, S. T. Lim, J. F. Bi, X. W. Sun, G. Q. Lo, and K. L. Teo, “Two-dimensional electron gas in Zn-polar ZnMgO/ZnO heterostructure grown by metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(11), 111908 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (5)

J. D. Ye, S. T. Tan, S. Pannirselvam, S. F. Choy, X. W. Sun, G. Q. Lo, and K. L. Teo, “Surfactant effect of arsenic doping on modification of ZnO (0001) growth kinetics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(10), 101905 (2009).
[Crossref]

H. Zhu, C. X. Shan, B. Yao, B. H. Li, J. Y. Zhang, Z. Z. Zhang, D. X. Zhao, D. Z. Shen, X. W. Fan, Y. M. Lu, and Z. K. Tang, “Ultrolow-threshold laser in zinc oxide,” Adv. Mater. 21(16), 1613–1617 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. D. Ye, S. Tripathy, F. F. Ren, X. W. Sun, G. Q. Lo, and K. L. Teo, “Raman-active Fröhlich optical phonon mode in arsenic implanted ZnO,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(1), 011913 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Dai, C. X. Xu, K. Zheng, C. G. Lv, and Y. P. Cui, “Whispering gallery-mode lasing in ZnO microrods at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(24), 241110 (2009).
[Crossref]

I. D. W. Samuel, E. B. Namdas, and G. A. Turnbull, “How to recognize lasing,” Nat. Photonics 3(10), 546–549 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (4)

M. A. Zimmler, J. M. Bao, F. Capasso, S. Müller, and C. Ronning, “Laser action in nanowires: Observation of the transition from amplified spontaneous emission to laser oscillation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(5), 051101 (2008).
[Crossref]

H. Yoshida, Y. Yamashita, M. Kuwabara, and H. Kan, “A 342-nm ultraviolet AlGaN multiple-quantum-well laser diode,” Nat. Photonics 2(9), 551–554 (2008).
[Crossref]

H. Yoshida, Y. Yamashita, M. Kuwabara, and H. Kan, “Demonstration of an ultraviolet 336 nm AlGaN multiple-quantum-well laser diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(24), 241106 (2008).
[Crossref]

H. Matsubara, S. Yoshimoto, H. Saito, Y. Jianglin, Y. Tanaka, and S. Noda, “GaN photonic-crystal surface-emitting laser at blue-violet wavelengths,” Science 319(5862), 445–447 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

C. Klingshirn, R. Hauschild, J. Fallert, and H. Kalt, “Room-temperature stimulated emission of ZnO: Alternatives to excitonic lasing,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 75(11), 115203 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

J. Cui, S. Sadofev, S. Blumstengel, J. Puls, and F. Henneberger, “Optical gain and lasing of ZnO/ZnMgO multiple quantum wells: From low to room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(5), 051108 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

C. X. Xu, X. W. Sun, C. Yuen, B. J. Chen, S. F. Yu, and Z. L. Dong, “Ultraviolet amplified spontaneous emission from self-organized network of zinc oxide nanofibers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(1), 011118 (2005).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

J. C. Johnson, H. J. Choi, K. P. Knutsen, R. D. Schaller, P. Yang, and R. J. Saykally, “Single gallium nitride nanowire lasers,” Nat. Mater. 1(2), 106–110 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

Y. F. Chen, N. T. Tuan, Y. Segawa, H. J. Ko, S. K. Hong, and T. Yao, “Stimulated emission and optical gain in ZnO epilayers grown by plasma-assisted molecular-beam epitaxy with buffers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(11), 1469–1471 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

H. Cao, J. Y. Xu, D. Z. Zhang, S. Chang, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, X. Liu, and R. P. H. Chang, “Spatial Confinement of Laser Light in Active Random Media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(24), 5584–5587 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

1997 (2)

P. Zu, Z. K. Tang, G. K. L. Wong, M. Kawasaki, A. Ohtomo, H. Koinuma, and Y. Segawa, “Ultraviolet spontaneous and stimulated emissions from ZnO microcrystallite thin films at room temperature,” Solid State Commun. 103(8), 459–463 (1997).
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D. M. Bagnall, Y. F. Chen, Z. Zhu, T. Yao, S. Koyama, M. Y. Shen, and T. Goto, “Optically pumped lasing of ZnO at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(17), 2230–2232 (1997).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

S. M. Dutra and P. L. Knight, “Spontaneous emission in a planar Fabry-Pérot microcavity,” Phys. Rev. A 53(5), 3587–3605 (1996).
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Ahn, H. Y.

J. H. Choi, E. H. Cho, Y. S. Lee, M. B. Shim, H. Y. Ahn, C. W. Baik, E. H. Lee, K. Kim, T. H. Kim, S. Kim, K. S. Cho, J. Yoon, M. Kim, and S. Hwang, “Fully flexible GaN light-emitting diodes through nanovoid-mediated transfer,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 2(3), 267–274 (2014).
[Crossref]

Aldaz, R. I.

C. A. Hurni, A. David, M. J. Cich, R. I. Aldaz, B. Ellis, K. Huang, A. Tyagi, R. A. Delille, M. D. Craven, F. M. Steranka, and M. R. Krames, “Bulk GaN flip-chip violet light-emitting diodes with optimized efficiency for high-power operation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(3), 031101 (2015).
[Crossref]

Anthopoulos, T. D.

L. Petti, N. Münzenrieder, C. Vogt, H. Faber, L. Büthe, G. Cantarella, F. Bottacchi, T. D. Anthopoulos, and G. Tröster, “Metal oxide semiconductor thin-film transistors for flexible electronics,” Appl. Phys. Rev. 3(2), 021303 (2016).
[Crossref]

Bagnall, D. M.

D. M. Bagnall, Y. F. Chen, Z. Zhu, T. Yao, S. Koyama, M. Y. Shen, and T. Goto, “Optically pumped lasing of ZnO at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(17), 2230–2232 (1997).
[Crossref]

Baik, C. W.

J. H. Choi, E. H. Cho, Y. S. Lee, M. B. Shim, H. Y. Ahn, C. W. Baik, E. H. Lee, K. Kim, T. H. Kim, S. Kim, K. S. Cho, J. Yoon, M. Kim, and S. Hwang, “Fully flexible GaN light-emitting diodes through nanovoid-mediated transfer,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 2(3), 267–274 (2014).
[Crossref]

Bao, J. M.

M. A. Zimmler, J. M. Bao, F. Capasso, S. Müller, and C. Ronning, “Laser action in nanowires: Observation of the transition from amplified spontaneous emission to laser oscillation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(5), 051101 (2008).
[Crossref]

Barman, M. K.

M. K. Barman, P. Mitra, R. Bera, S. Das, A. Pramanik, and A. Parta, “An efficient charge separation and photocurrent generation in the carbon dot-zinc oxide nanoparticle composite,” Nanoscale 9(20), 6791–6799 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Becerra, D. L.

Bera, R.

M. K. Barman, P. Mitra, R. Bera, S. Das, A. Pramanik, and A. Parta, “An efficient charge separation and photocurrent generation in the carbon dot-zinc oxide nanoparticle composite,” Nanoscale 9(20), 6791–6799 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bhat, R.

Bhattacharya, P.

J. Heo, S. Jahangir, B. Xiao, and P. Bhattacharya, “Room-temperature polariton lasing from GaN nanowire array clad by dielectric microcavity,” Nano Lett. 13(6), 2376–2380 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bi, J. F.

J. D. Ye, S. Pannirselvam, S. T. Lim, J. F. Bi, X. W. Sun, G. Q. Lo, and K. L. Teo, “Two-dimensional electron gas in Zn-polar ZnMgO/ZnO heterostructure grown by metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(11), 111908 (2010).
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Bian, J.

L. Shen, L. Wu, Q. Sheng, C. Ma, Y. Zhang, L. Lu, J. Ma, J. Ma, J. Bian, Y. Yang, A. Chen, X. Lu, M. Liu, H. Wang, and C. L. Jia, “Epitaxial lift-off of centimeter-scaled spinel ferrite oxide thin films for flexible electronics,” Adv. Mater. 29(33), 1702411 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Blumstengel, S.

J. Cui, S. Sadofev, S. Blumstengel, J. Puls, and F. Henneberger, “Optical gain and lasing of ZnO/ZnMgO multiple quantum wells: From low to room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(5), 051108 (2006).
[Crossref]

Boroditsky, M.

Bosman, M.

J. Ye, S. Ter Lim, M. Bosman, S. Gu, Y. Zheng, H. H. Tan, C. Jagadish, X. Sun, and K. L. Teo, “Spin-polarized wide electron slabs in functionally graded polar oxide heterostructures,” Sci. Rep. 2(1), 533 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bottacchi, F.

L. Petti, N. Münzenrieder, C. Vogt, H. Faber, L. Büthe, G. Cantarella, F. Bottacchi, T. D. Anthopoulos, and G. Tröster, “Metal oxide semiconductor thin-film transistors for flexible electronics,” Appl. Phys. Rev. 3(2), 021303 (2016).
[Crossref]

Büthe, L.

L. Petti, N. Münzenrieder, C. Vogt, H. Faber, L. Büthe, G. Cantarella, F. Bottacchi, T. D. Anthopoulos, and G. Tröster, “Metal oxide semiconductor thin-film transistors for flexible electronics,” Appl. Phys. Rev. 3(2), 021303 (2016).
[Crossref]

Callsen, G.

M. R. Wagner, G. Callsen, J. S. Reparaz, J. H. Schulze, R. Kirste, M. Cobet, I. A. Ostapenko, S. Rodt, C. Nenstiel, M. Kaiser, A. Hoffmann, A. V. Rodina, M. R. Phillips, S. Lautenschläger, S. Eisermann, and B. K. Meyer, “Bound excitons in ZnO: Structural defect complexes versus shallow impurity centers,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 84(3), 035313 (2011).
[Crossref]

Cantarella, G.

L. Petti, N. Münzenrieder, C. Vogt, H. Faber, L. Büthe, G. Cantarella, F. Bottacchi, T. D. Anthopoulos, and G. Tröster, “Metal oxide semiconductor thin-film transistors for flexible electronics,” Appl. Phys. Rev. 3(2), 021303 (2016).
[Crossref]

Cao, H.

H. Cao, J. Y. Xu, D. Z. Zhang, S. Chang, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, X. Liu, and R. P. H. Chang, “Spatial Confinement of Laser Light in Active Random Media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(24), 5584–5587 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Capasso, F.

M. A. Zimmler, J. M. Bao, F. Capasso, S. Müller, and C. Ronning, “Laser action in nanowires: Observation of the transition from amplified spontaneous emission to laser oscillation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(5), 051101 (2008).
[Crossref]

Chang, R. P. H.

H. Cao, J. Y. Xu, D. Z. Zhang, S. Chang, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, X. Liu, and R. P. H. Chang, “Spatial Confinement of Laser Light in Active Random Media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(24), 5584–5587 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chang, S.

H. Cao, J. Y. Xu, D. Z. Zhang, S. Chang, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, X. Liu, and R. P. H. Chang, “Spatial Confinement of Laser Light in Active Random Media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(24), 5584–5587 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, A.

L. Shen, L. Wu, Q. Sheng, C. Ma, Y. Zhang, L. Lu, J. Ma, J. Ma, J. Bian, Y. Yang, A. Chen, X. Lu, M. Liu, H. Wang, and C. L. Jia, “Epitaxial lift-off of centimeter-scaled spinel ferrite oxide thin films for flexible electronics,” Adv. Mater. 29(33), 1702411 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, B. J.

C. X. Xu, X. W. Sun, C. Yuen, B. J. Chen, S. F. Yu, and Z. L. Dong, “Ultraviolet amplified spontaneous emission from self-organized network of zinc oxide nanofibers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(1), 011118 (2005).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y. F.

Y. F. Chen, N. T. Tuan, Y. Segawa, H. J. Ko, S. K. Hong, and T. Yao, “Stimulated emission and optical gain in ZnO epilayers grown by plasma-assisted molecular-beam epitaxy with buffers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(11), 1469–1471 (2001).
[Crossref]

D. M. Bagnall, Y. F. Chen, Z. Zhu, T. Yao, S. Koyama, M. Y. Shen, and T. Goto, “Optically pumped lasing of ZnO at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(17), 2230–2232 (1997).
[Crossref]

Chernyak, L.

S. Chu, G. Wang, W. Zhou, Y. Lin, L. Chernyak, J. Zhao, J. Kong, L. Li, J. Ren, and J. Liu, “Electrically pumped waveguide lasing from ZnO nanowires,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(8), 506–510 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cho, E. H.

J. H. Choi, E. H. Cho, Y. S. Lee, M. B. Shim, H. Y. Ahn, C. W. Baik, E. H. Lee, K. Kim, T. H. Kim, S. Kim, K. S. Cho, J. Yoon, M. Kim, and S. Hwang, “Fully flexible GaN light-emitting diodes through nanovoid-mediated transfer,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 2(3), 267–274 (2014).
[Crossref]

Cho, K. S.

J. H. Choi, E. H. Cho, Y. S. Lee, M. B. Shim, H. Y. Ahn, C. W. Baik, E. H. Lee, K. Kim, T. H. Kim, S. Kim, K. S. Cho, J. Yoon, M. Kim, and S. Hwang, “Fully flexible GaN light-emitting diodes through nanovoid-mediated transfer,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 2(3), 267–274 (2014).
[Crossref]

Choi, H. J.

J. C. Johnson, H. J. Choi, K. P. Knutsen, R. D. Schaller, P. Yang, and R. J. Saykally, “Single gallium nitride nanowire lasers,” Nat. Mater. 1(2), 106–110 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Choi, J. H.

J. H. Choi, E. H. Cho, Y. S. Lee, M. B. Shim, H. Y. Ahn, C. W. Baik, E. H. Lee, K. Kim, T. H. Kim, S. Kim, K. S. Cho, J. Yoon, M. Kim, and S. Hwang, “Fully flexible GaN light-emitting diodes through nanovoid-mediated transfer,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 2(3), 267–274 (2014).
[Crossref]

Choy, K. L.

H. Zhu, C. X. Shan, J. Y. Zhang, Z. Z. Zhang, B. H. Li, D. X. Zhao, B. Yao, D. Z. Shen, X. W. Fan, Z. K. Tang, X. Hou, and K. L. Choy, “Low-threshold electrically pumped random lasers,” Adv. Mater. 22(16), 1877–1881 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Choy, S. F.

J. D. Ye, S. T. Tan, S. Pannirselvam, S. F. Choy, X. W. Sun, G. Q. Lo, and K. L. Teo, “Surfactant effect of arsenic doping on modification of ZnO (0001) growth kinetics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(10), 101905 (2009).
[Crossref]

Chu, S.

S. Chu, G. Wang, W. Zhou, Y. Lin, L. Chernyak, J. Zhao, J. Kong, L. Li, J. Ren, and J. Liu, “Electrically pumped waveguide lasing from ZnO nanowires,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(8), 506–510 (2011).
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Chung, K.

K. Chung, C. H. Lee, and G. C. Yi, “Transferable GaN layers grown on ZnO-coated graphene layers for optoelectronic devices,” Science 330(6004), 655–657 (2010).
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Cich, M. J.

C. A. Hurni, A. David, M. J. Cich, R. I. Aldaz, B. Ellis, K. Huang, A. Tyagi, R. A. Delille, M. D. Craven, F. M. Steranka, and M. R. Krames, “Bulk GaN flip-chip violet light-emitting diodes with optimized efficiency for high-power operation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(3), 031101 (2015).
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Clark, J.

J. Clark and G. Lanzani, “Organic photonics for communications,” Nat. Photonics 4(7), 438–446 (2010).
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Cobet, M.

M. R. Wagner, G. Callsen, J. S. Reparaz, J. H. Schulze, R. Kirste, M. Cobet, I. A. Ostapenko, S. Rodt, C. Nenstiel, M. Kaiser, A. Hoffmann, A. V. Rodina, M. R. Phillips, S. Lautenschläger, S. Eisermann, and B. K. Meyer, “Bound excitons in ZnO: Structural defect complexes versus shallow impurity centers,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 84(3), 035313 (2011).
[Crossref]

Coccioli, R.

Cohen, D. A.

Couteau, C.

A. S. Gadallah, K. Nomenyo, C. Couteau, D. J. Rogers, and G. Lérondel, “Stimulated emission from ZnO thin films with high optical gain and low loss,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(17), 171105 (2013).
[Crossref]

Craven, M. D.

C. A. Hurni, A. David, M. J. Cich, R. I. Aldaz, B. Ellis, K. Huang, A. Tyagi, R. A. Delille, M. D. Craven, F. M. Steranka, and M. R. Krames, “Bulk GaN flip-chip violet light-emitting diodes with optimized efficiency for high-power operation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(3), 031101 (2015).
[Crossref]

Cui, J.

J. Cui, S. Sadofev, S. Blumstengel, J. Puls, and F. Henneberger, “Optical gain and lasing of ZnO/ZnMgO multiple quantum wells: From low to room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(5), 051108 (2006).
[Crossref]

Cui, Y. P.

J. Dai, C. X. Xu, K. Zheng, C. G. Lv, and Y. P. Cui, “Whispering gallery-mode lasing in ZnO microrods at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(24), 241110 (2009).
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Dadgar, A.

Y. H. Zhang, A. Dadgar, and T. Palacios, “Gallium nitride vertical power devices on foreign substrates: a review and outlook,” J. Phys. D 51(27), 273001 (2018).
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Dai, J.

J. Dai, C. X. Xu, K. Zheng, C. G. Lv, and Y. P. Cui, “Whispering gallery-mode lasing in ZnO microrods at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(24), 241110 (2009).
[Crossref]

Das, S.

M. K. Barman, P. Mitra, R. Bera, S. Das, A. Pramanik, and A. Parta, “An efficient charge separation and photocurrent generation in the carbon dot-zinc oxide nanoparticle composite,” Nanoscale 9(20), 6791–6799 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

David, A.

C. A. Hurni, A. David, M. J. Cich, R. I. Aldaz, B. Ellis, K. Huang, A. Tyagi, R. A. Delille, M. D. Craven, F. M. Steranka, and M. R. Krames, “Bulk GaN flip-chip violet light-emitting diodes with optimized efficiency for high-power operation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(3), 031101 (2015).
[Crossref]

Delille, R. A.

C. A. Hurni, A. David, M. J. Cich, R. I. Aldaz, B. Ellis, K. Huang, A. Tyagi, R. A. Delille, M. D. Craven, F. M. Steranka, and M. R. Krames, “Bulk GaN flip-chip violet light-emitting diodes with optimized efficiency for high-power operation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(3), 031101 (2015).
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DenBaars, S. P.

Dijkhuis, J. I.

M. A. M. Versteegh, D. Vanmaekelbergh, and J. I. Dijkhuis, “Room-temperature laser emission of ZnO nanowires explained by many-body theory,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108(15), 157402 (2012).
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Dong, Z. L.

C. X. Xu, X. W. Sun, C. Yuen, B. J. Chen, S. F. Yu, and Z. L. Dong, “Ultraviolet amplified spontaneous emission from self-organized network of zinc oxide nanofibers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(1), 011118 (2005).
[Crossref]

Duan, J. X.

K. Han, N. Tang, J. D. Ye, J. X. Duan, Y. C. Liu, K. L. Teo, and B. Shen, “Spin-polarized two-dimensional electron gas in undoped MgxZn1−xO/ZnO heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(19), 192105 (2012).
[Crossref]

Dutra, S. M.

S. M. Dutra and P. L. Knight, “Spontaneous emission in a planar Fabry-Pérot microcavity,” Phys. Rev. A 53(5), 3587–3605 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Eisermann, S.

M. R. Wagner, G. Callsen, J. S. Reparaz, J. H. Schulze, R. Kirste, M. Cobet, I. A. Ostapenko, S. Rodt, C. Nenstiel, M. Kaiser, A. Hoffmann, A. V. Rodina, M. R. Phillips, S. Lautenschläger, S. Eisermann, and B. K. Meyer, “Bound excitons in ZnO: Structural defect complexes versus shallow impurity centers,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 84(3), 035313 (2011).
[Crossref]

Ellis, B.

C. A. Hurni, A. David, M. J. Cich, R. I. Aldaz, B. Ellis, K. Huang, A. Tyagi, R. A. Delille, M. D. Craven, F. M. Steranka, and M. R. Krames, “Bulk GaN flip-chip violet light-emitting diodes with optimized efficiency for high-power operation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(3), 031101 (2015).
[Crossref]

Faber, H.

L. Petti, N. Münzenrieder, C. Vogt, H. Faber, L. Büthe, G. Cantarella, F. Bottacchi, T. D. Anthopoulos, and G. Tröster, “Metal oxide semiconductor thin-film transistors for flexible electronics,” Appl. Phys. Rev. 3(2), 021303 (2016).
[Crossref]

Fallert, J.

C. Klingshirn, R. Hauschild, J. Fallert, and H. Kalt, “Room-temperature stimulated emission of ZnO: Alternatives to excitonic lasing,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 75(11), 115203 (2007).
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Falson, J.

J. Falson and M. Kawasaki, “A review of the quantum Hall effects in MgZnO/ZnO heterostructures,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 81(5), 056501 (2018).
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J. Falson, D. Maryenko, B. Friess, D. Zhang, Y. Kozuka, A. Tsukazaki, J. H. Smet, and M. Kawasaki, “Even-denominator fractional quantum Hall physics in ZnO,” Nat. Phys. 11(4), 347–351 (2015).
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Fan, X. W.

H. Zhu, C. X. Shan, J. Y. Zhang, Z. Z. Zhang, B. H. Li, D. X. Zhao, B. Yao, D. Z. Shen, X. W. Fan, Z. K. Tang, X. Hou, and K. L. Choy, “Low-threshold electrically pumped random lasers,” Adv. Mater. 22(16), 1877–1881 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Zhu, C. X. Shan, B. Yao, B. H. Li, J. Y. Zhang, Z. Z. Zhang, D. X. Zhao, D. Z. Shen, X. W. Fan, Y. M. Lu, and Z. K. Tang, “Ultrolow-threshold laser in zinc oxide,” Adv. Mater. 21(16), 1613–1617 (2009).
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Friess, B.

J. Falson, D. Maryenko, B. Friess, D. Zhang, Y. Kozuka, A. Tsukazaki, J. H. Smet, and M. Kawasaki, “Even-denominator fractional quantum Hall physics in ZnO,” Nat. Phys. 11(4), 347–351 (2015).
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Gadallah, A. S.

K. Nomenyo, A. S. Gadallah, S. Kostcheev, D. J. Rogers, and G. Lerondel, “Enhanced stimulated emission in ZnO thin films using microdisk top-down structuring,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(18), 181104 (2014).
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A. S. Gadallah, K. Nomenyo, C. Couteau, D. J. Rogers, and G. Lérondel, “Stimulated emission from ZnO thin films with high optical gain and low loss,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(17), 171105 (2013).
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Gather, M. C.

M. Karl, J. M. E. Glackin, M. Schubert, N. M. Kronenberg, G. A. Turnbull, I. D. W. Samuel, and M. C. Gather, “Flexible and ultra-lightweight polymer membrane lasers,” Nat. Commun. 9(1), 1525 (2018).
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Glackin, J. M. E.

M. Karl, J. M. E. Glackin, M. Schubert, N. M. Kronenberg, G. A. Turnbull, I. D. W. Samuel, and M. C. Gather, “Flexible and ultra-lightweight polymer membrane lasers,” Nat. Commun. 9(1), 1525 (2018).
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Goto, T.

D. M. Bagnall, Y. F. Chen, Z. Zhu, T. Yao, S. Koyama, M. Y. Shen, and T. Goto, “Optically pumped lasing of ZnO at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(17), 2230–2232 (1997).
[Crossref]

Gu, S.

J. Ye, S. Ter Lim, M. Bosman, S. Gu, Y. Zheng, H. H. Tan, C. Jagadish, X. Sun, and K. L. Teo, “Spin-polarized wide electron slabs in functionally graded polar oxide heterostructures,” Sci. Rep. 2(1), 533 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Han, K.

K. Han, N. Tang, J. D. Ye, J. X. Duan, Y. C. Liu, K. L. Teo, and B. Shen, “Spin-polarized two-dimensional electron gas in undoped MgxZn1−xO/ZnO heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(19), 192105 (2012).
[Crossref]

Hauschild, R.

C. Klingshirn, R. Hauschild, J. Fallert, and H. Kalt, “Room-temperature stimulated emission of ZnO: Alternatives to excitonic lasing,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 75(11), 115203 (2007).
[Crossref]

He, M.

S. C. Su, H. Zhu, L. X. Zhang, M. He, L. Z. Zhao, S. F. Yu, J. N. Wang, and F. C. C. Ling, “Low-threshold lasing action in as asymmetric double ZnO/ZnMgO quantum structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(13), 131104 (2013).
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Henneberger, F.

J. Cui, S. Sadofev, S. Blumstengel, J. Puls, and F. Henneberger, “Optical gain and lasing of ZnO/ZnMgO multiple quantum wells: From low to room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(5), 051108 (2006).
[Crossref]

Heo, J.

J. Heo, S. Jahangir, B. Xiao, and P. Bhattacharya, “Room-temperature polariton lasing from GaN nanowire array clad by dielectric microcavity,” Nano Lett. 13(6), 2376–2380 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ho, S. T.

H. Cao, J. Y. Xu, D. Z. Zhang, S. Chang, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, X. Liu, and R. P. H. Chang, “Spatial Confinement of Laser Light in Active Random Media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(24), 5584–5587 (2000).
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J. H. Choi, E. H. Cho, Y. S. Lee, M. B. Shim, H. Y. Ahn, C. W. Baik, E. H. Lee, K. Kim, T. H. Kim, S. Kim, K. S. Cho, J. Yoon, M. Kim, and S. Hwang, “Fully flexible GaN light-emitting diodes through nanovoid-mediated transfer,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 2(3), 267–274 (2014).
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H. C. Yu, T. P. H. Sidiropoulos, W. Liu, C. Ronning, P. K. Petrov, S. H. Oh, S. A. Maier, P. Jin, and R. F. Oulton, “Influence of silver film quality on the threshold of plasmonic nanowire lasers,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5(6), 1600856 (2017).
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M. A. Zimmler, J. M. Bao, F. Capasso, S. Müller, and C. Ronning, “Laser action in nanowires: Observation of the transition from amplified spontaneous emission to laser oscillation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(5), 051101 (2008).
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M. R. Wagner, G. Callsen, J. S. Reparaz, J. H. Schulze, R. Kirste, M. Cobet, I. A. Ostapenko, S. Rodt, C. Nenstiel, M. Kaiser, A. Hoffmann, A. V. Rodina, M. R. Phillips, S. Lautenschläger, S. Eisermann, and B. K. Meyer, “Bound excitons in ZnO: Structural defect complexes versus shallow impurity centers,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 84(3), 035313 (2011).
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A. S. Gadallah, K. Nomenyo, C. Couteau, D. J. Rogers, and G. Lérondel, “Stimulated emission from ZnO thin films with high optical gain and low loss,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(17), 171105 (2013).
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M. R. Wagner, G. Callsen, J. S. Reparaz, J. H. Schulze, R. Kirste, M. Cobet, I. A. Ostapenko, S. Rodt, C. Nenstiel, M. Kaiser, A. Hoffmann, A. V. Rodina, M. R. Phillips, S. Lautenschläger, S. Eisermann, and B. K. Meyer, “Bound excitons in ZnO: Structural defect complexes versus shallow impurity centers,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 84(3), 035313 (2011).
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H. C. Yu, T. P. H. Sidiropoulos, W. Liu, C. Ronning, P. K. Petrov, S. H. Oh, S. A. Maier, P. Jin, and R. F. Oulton, “Influence of silver film quality on the threshold of plasmonic nanowire lasers,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5(6), 1600856 (2017).
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J. D. Ye, S. T. Tan, S. Pannirselvam, S. F. Choy, X. W. Sun, G. Q. Lo, and K. L. Teo, “Surfactant effect of arsenic doping on modification of ZnO (0001) growth kinetics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(10), 101905 (2009).
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M. K. Barman, P. Mitra, R. Bera, S. Das, A. Pramanik, and A. Parta, “An efficient charge separation and photocurrent generation in the carbon dot-zinc oxide nanoparticle composite,” Nanoscale 9(20), 6791–6799 (2017).
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H. C. Yu, T. P. H. Sidiropoulos, W. Liu, C. Ronning, P. K. Petrov, S. H. Oh, S. A. Maier, P. Jin, and R. F. Oulton, “Influence of silver film quality on the threshold of plasmonic nanowire lasers,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5(6), 1600856 (2017).
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L. Petti, N. Münzenrieder, C. Vogt, H. Faber, L. Büthe, G. Cantarella, F. Bottacchi, T. D. Anthopoulos, and G. Tröster, “Metal oxide semiconductor thin-film transistors for flexible electronics,” Appl. Phys. Rev. 3(2), 021303 (2016).
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M. R. Wagner, G. Callsen, J. S. Reparaz, J. H. Schulze, R. Kirste, M. Cobet, I. A. Ostapenko, S. Rodt, C. Nenstiel, M. Kaiser, A. Hoffmann, A. V. Rodina, M. R. Phillips, S. Lautenschläger, S. Eisermann, and B. K. Meyer, “Bound excitons in ZnO: Structural defect complexes versus shallow impurity centers,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 84(3), 035313 (2011).
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M. K. Barman, P. Mitra, R. Bera, S. Das, A. Pramanik, and A. Parta, “An efficient charge separation and photocurrent generation in the carbon dot-zinc oxide nanoparticle composite,” Nanoscale 9(20), 6791–6799 (2017).
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J. D. Ye, S. Tripathy, F. F. Ren, X. W. Sun, G. Q. Lo, and K. L. Teo, “Raman-active Fröhlich optical phonon mode in arsenic implanted ZnO,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(1), 011913 (2009).
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M. R. Wagner, G. Callsen, J. S. Reparaz, J. H. Schulze, R. Kirste, M. Cobet, I. A. Ostapenko, S. Rodt, C. Nenstiel, M. Kaiser, A. Hoffmann, A. V. Rodina, M. R. Phillips, S. Lautenschläger, S. Eisermann, and B. K. Meyer, “Bound excitons in ZnO: Structural defect complexes versus shallow impurity centers,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 84(3), 035313 (2011).
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M. R. Wagner, G. Callsen, J. S. Reparaz, J. H. Schulze, R. Kirste, M. Cobet, I. A. Ostapenko, S. Rodt, C. Nenstiel, M. Kaiser, A. Hoffmann, A. V. Rodina, M. R. Phillips, S. Lautenschläger, S. Eisermann, and B. K. Meyer, “Bound excitons in ZnO: Structural defect complexes versus shallow impurity centers,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 84(3), 035313 (2011).
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K. Nomenyo, A. S. Gadallah, S. Kostcheev, D. J. Rogers, and G. Lerondel, “Enhanced stimulated emission in ZnO thin films using microdisk top-down structuring,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(18), 181104 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. S. Gadallah, K. Nomenyo, C. Couteau, D. J. Rogers, and G. Lérondel, “Stimulated emission from ZnO thin films with high optical gain and low loss,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(17), 171105 (2013).
[Crossref]

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H. C. Yu, T. P. H. Sidiropoulos, W. Liu, C. Ronning, P. K. Petrov, S. H. Oh, S. A. Maier, P. Jin, and R. F. Oulton, “Influence of silver film quality on the threshold of plasmonic nanowire lasers,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5(6), 1600856 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. A. Zimmler, J. M. Bao, F. Capasso, S. Müller, and C. Ronning, “Laser action in nanowires: Observation of the transition from amplified spontaneous emission to laser oscillation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(5), 051101 (2008).
[Crossref]

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J. Cui, S. Sadofev, S. Blumstengel, J. Puls, and F. Henneberger, “Optical gain and lasing of ZnO/ZnMgO multiple quantum wells: From low to room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(5), 051108 (2006).
[Crossref]

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H. Matsubara, S. Yoshimoto, H. Saito, Y. Jianglin, Y. Tanaka, and S. Noda, “GaN photonic-crystal surface-emitting laser at blue-violet wavelengths,” Science 319(5862), 445–447 (2008).
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M. Shibata, Y. Sakai, and D. Yokoyama, “Advantages and disadvantages of vacuum-deposited and spin-coated amorphous organic semiconductor films for organic light-emitting diodes,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 3(42), 11178–11191 (2015).
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I. D. W. Samuel, E. B. Namdas, and G. A. Turnbull, “How to recognize lasing,” Nat. Photonics 3(10), 546–549 (2009).
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M. Kim, J. H. Seo, U. Singisetti, and Z. Q. Ma, “Recent advances in free-standing single crystalline wide band-gap semiconductors and their applications: GaN, SiC, ZnO, β-Ga2O3, and diamond,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 5(33), 8338–8354 (2017).
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K. Han, N. Tang, J. D. Ye, J. X. Duan, Y. C. Liu, K. L. Teo, and B. Shen, “Spin-polarized two-dimensional electron gas in undoped MgxZn1−xO/ZnO heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(19), 192105 (2012).
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M. Kim, J. H. Seo, U. Singisetti, and Z. Q. Ma, “Recent advances in free-standing single crystalline wide band-gap semiconductors and their applications: GaN, SiC, ZnO, β-Ga2O3, and diamond,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 5(33), 8338–8354 (2017).
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J. Falson, D. Maryenko, B. Friess, D. Zhang, Y. Kozuka, A. Tsukazaki, J. H. Smet, and M. Kawasaki, “Even-denominator fractional quantum Hall physics in ZnO,” Nat. Phys. 11(4), 347–351 (2015).
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J. D. Ye, S. Pannirselvam, S. T. Lim, J. F. Bi, X. W. Sun, G. Q. Lo, and K. L. Teo, “Two-dimensional electron gas in Zn-polar ZnMgO/ZnO heterostructure grown by metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(11), 111908 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. D. Ye, S. T. Tan, S. Pannirselvam, S. F. Choy, X. W. Sun, G. Q. Lo, and K. L. Teo, “Surfactant effect of arsenic doping on modification of ZnO (0001) growth kinetics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(10), 101905 (2009).
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J. D. Ye, S. Tripathy, F. F. Ren, X. W. Sun, G. Q. Lo, and K. L. Teo, “Raman-active Fröhlich optical phonon mode in arsenic implanted ZnO,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(1), 011913 (2009).
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J. D. Ye, S. T. Tan, S. Pannirselvam, S. F. Choy, X. W. Sun, G. Q. Lo, and K. L. Teo, “Surfactant effect of arsenic doping on modification of ZnO (0001) growth kinetics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(10), 101905 (2009).
[Crossref]

Tanaka, Y.

H. Matsubara, S. Yoshimoto, H. Saito, Y. Jianglin, Y. Tanaka, and S. Noda, “GaN photonic-crystal surface-emitting laser at blue-violet wavelengths,” Science 319(5862), 445–447 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tang, N.

K. Han, N. Tang, J. D. Ye, J. X. Duan, Y. C. Liu, K. L. Teo, and B. Shen, “Spin-polarized two-dimensional electron gas in undoped MgxZn1−xO/ZnO heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(19), 192105 (2012).
[Crossref]

Tang, Z. K.

H. Zhu, C. X. Shan, J. Y. Zhang, Z. Z. Zhang, B. H. Li, D. X. Zhao, B. Yao, D. Z. Shen, X. W. Fan, Z. K. Tang, X. Hou, and K. L. Choy, “Low-threshold electrically pumped random lasers,” Adv. Mater. 22(16), 1877–1881 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Zhu, C. X. Shan, B. Yao, B. H. Li, J. Y. Zhang, Z. Z. Zhang, D. X. Zhao, D. Z. Shen, X. W. Fan, Y. M. Lu, and Z. K. Tang, “Ultrolow-threshold laser in zinc oxide,” Adv. Mater. 21(16), 1613–1617 (2009).
[Crossref]

P. Zu, Z. K. Tang, G. K. L. Wong, M. Kawasaki, A. Ohtomo, H. Koinuma, and Y. Segawa, “Ultraviolet spontaneous and stimulated emissions from ZnO microcrystallite thin films at room temperature,” Solid State Commun. 103(8), 459–463 (1997).
[Crossref]

Teo, K. L.

K. Han, N. Tang, J. D. Ye, J. X. Duan, Y. C. Liu, K. L. Teo, and B. Shen, “Spin-polarized two-dimensional electron gas in undoped MgxZn1−xO/ZnO heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(19), 192105 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Ye, S. Ter Lim, M. Bosman, S. Gu, Y. Zheng, H. H. Tan, C. Jagadish, X. Sun, and K. L. Teo, “Spin-polarized wide electron slabs in functionally graded polar oxide heterostructures,” Sci. Rep. 2(1), 533 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. D. Ye, S. Pannirselvam, S. T. Lim, J. F. Bi, X. W. Sun, G. Q. Lo, and K. L. Teo, “Two-dimensional electron gas in Zn-polar ZnMgO/ZnO heterostructure grown by metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(11), 111908 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. D. Ye, S. T. Tan, S. Pannirselvam, S. F. Choy, X. W. Sun, G. Q. Lo, and K. L. Teo, “Surfactant effect of arsenic doping on modification of ZnO (0001) growth kinetics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(10), 101905 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. D. Ye, S. Tripathy, F. F. Ren, X. W. Sun, G. Q. Lo, and K. L. Teo, “Raman-active Fröhlich optical phonon mode in arsenic implanted ZnO,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(1), 011913 (2009).
[Crossref]

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J. Ye, S. Ter Lim, M. Bosman, S. Gu, Y. Zheng, H. H. Tan, C. Jagadish, X. Sun, and K. L. Teo, “Spin-polarized wide electron slabs in functionally graded polar oxide heterostructures,” Sci. Rep. 2(1), 533 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tripathy, S.

J. D. Ye, S. Tripathy, F. F. Ren, X. W. Sun, G. Q. Lo, and K. L. Teo, “Raman-active Fröhlich optical phonon mode in arsenic implanted ZnO,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(1), 011913 (2009).
[Crossref]

Tröster, G.

L. Petti, N. Münzenrieder, C. Vogt, H. Faber, L. Büthe, G. Cantarella, F. Bottacchi, T. D. Anthopoulos, and G. Tröster, “Metal oxide semiconductor thin-film transistors for flexible electronics,” Appl. Phys. Rev. 3(2), 021303 (2016).
[Crossref]

Tsukazaki, A.

J. Falson, D. Maryenko, B. Friess, D. Zhang, Y. Kozuka, A. Tsukazaki, J. H. Smet, and M. Kawasaki, “Even-denominator fractional quantum Hall physics in ZnO,” Nat. Phys. 11(4), 347–351 (2015).
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D. M. Bagnall, Y. F. Chen, Z. Zhu, T. Yao, S. Koyama, M. Y. Shen, and T. Goto, “Optically pumped lasing of ZnO at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(17), 2230–2232 (1997).
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S. C. Su, H. Zhu, L. X. Zhang, M. He, L. Z. Zhao, S. F. Yu, J. N. Wang, and F. C. C. Ling, “Low-threshold lasing action in as asymmetric double ZnO/ZnMgO quantum structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(13), 131104 (2013).
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H. Zhu, C. X. Shan, J. Y. Zhang, Z. Z. Zhang, B. H. Li, D. X. Zhao, B. Yao, D. Z. Shen, X. W. Fan, Z. K. Tang, X. Hou, and K. L. Choy, “Low-threshold electrically pumped random lasers,” Adv. Mater. 22(16), 1877–1881 (2010).
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H. Zhu, C. X. Shan, B. Yao, B. H. Li, J. Y. Zhang, Z. Z. Zhang, D. X. Zhao, D. Z. Shen, X. W. Fan, Y. M. Lu, and Z. K. Tang, “Ultrolow-threshold laser in zinc oxide,” Adv. Mater. 21(16), 1613–1617 (2009).
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[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Zhu, C. X. Shan, B. Yao, B. H. Li, J. Y. Zhang, Z. Z. Zhang, D. X. Zhao, D. Z. Shen, X. W. Fan, Y. M. Lu, and Z. K. Tang, “Ultrolow-threshold laser in zinc oxide,” Adv. Mater. 21(16), 1613–1617 (2009).
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Zhao, J.

S. Chu, G. Wang, W. Zhou, Y. Lin, L. Chernyak, J. Zhao, J. Kong, L. Li, J. Ren, and J. Liu, “Electrically pumped waveguide lasing from ZnO nanowires,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(8), 506–510 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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S. C. Su, H. Zhu, L. X. Zhang, M. He, L. Z. Zhao, S. F. Yu, J. N. Wang, and F. C. C. Ling, “Low-threshold lasing action in as asymmetric double ZnO/ZnMgO quantum structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(13), 131104 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhao, S.

K. H. Li, X. Liu, Q. Wang, S. Zhao, and Z. Mi, “Ultralow-threshold electrically injected AlGaN nanowire ultraviolet lasers on Si operating at low temperature,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(2), 140–144 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhao, Y.

Zheng, K.

J. Dai, C. X. Xu, K. Zheng, C. G. Lv, and Y. P. Cui, “Whispering gallery-mode lasing in ZnO microrods at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(24), 241110 (2009).
[Crossref]

Zheng, Y.

J. Ye, S. Ter Lim, M. Bosman, S. Gu, Y. Zheng, H. H. Tan, C. Jagadish, X. Sun, and K. L. Teo, “Spin-polarized wide electron slabs in functionally graded polar oxide heterostructures,” Sci. Rep. 2(1), 533 (2012).
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[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhu, H.

S. C. Su, H. Zhu, L. X. Zhang, M. He, L. Z. Zhao, S. F. Yu, J. N. Wang, and F. C. C. Ling, “Low-threshold lasing action in as asymmetric double ZnO/ZnMgO quantum structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(13), 131104 (2013).
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H. Zhu, C. X. Shan, J. Y. Zhang, Z. Z. Zhang, B. H. Li, D. X. Zhao, B. Yao, D. Z. Shen, X. W. Fan, Z. K. Tang, X. Hou, and K. L. Choy, “Low-threshold electrically pumped random lasers,” Adv. Mater. 22(16), 1877–1881 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Zhu, C. X. Shan, B. Yao, B. H. Li, J. Y. Zhang, Z. Z. Zhang, D. X. Zhao, D. Z. Shen, X. W. Fan, Y. M. Lu, and Z. K. Tang, “Ultrolow-threshold laser in zinc oxide,” Adv. Mater. 21(16), 1613–1617 (2009).
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Zhu, Z.

D. M. Bagnall, Y. F. Chen, Z. Zhu, T. Yao, S. Koyama, M. Y. Shen, and T. Goto, “Optically pumped lasing of ZnO at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(17), 2230–2232 (1997).
[Crossref]

Zimmler, M. A.

M. A. Zimmler, J. M. Bao, F. Capasso, S. Müller, and C. Ronning, “Laser action in nanowires: Observation of the transition from amplified spontaneous emission to laser oscillation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(5), 051101 (2008).
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Zu, P.

P. Zu, Z. K. Tang, G. K. L. Wong, M. Kawasaki, A. Ohtomo, H. Koinuma, and Y. Segawa, “Ultraviolet spontaneous and stimulated emissions from ZnO microcrystallite thin films at room temperature,” Solid State Commun. 103(8), 459–463 (1997).
[Crossref]

Adv. Mater. (3)

H. Zhu, C. X. Shan, J. Y. Zhang, Z. Z. Zhang, B. H. Li, D. X. Zhao, B. Yao, D. Z. Shen, X. W. Fan, Z. K. Tang, X. Hou, and K. L. Choy, “Low-threshold electrically pumped random lasers,” Adv. Mater. 22(16), 1877–1881 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Zhu, C. X. Shan, B. Yao, B. H. Li, J. Y. Zhang, Z. Z. Zhang, D. X. Zhao, D. Z. Shen, X. W. Fan, Y. M. Lu, and Z. K. Tang, “Ultrolow-threshold laser in zinc oxide,” Adv. Mater. 21(16), 1613–1617 (2009).
[Crossref]

L. Shen, L. Wu, Q. Sheng, C. Ma, Y. Zhang, L. Lu, J. Ma, J. Ma, J. Bian, Y. Yang, A. Chen, X. Lu, M. Liu, H. Wang, and C. L. Jia, “Epitaxial lift-off of centimeter-scaled spinel ferrite oxide thin films for flexible electronics,” Adv. Mater. 29(33), 1702411 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Adv. Opt. Mater. (2)

H. C. Yu, T. P. H. Sidiropoulos, W. Liu, C. Ronning, P. K. Petrov, S. H. Oh, S. A. Maier, P. Jin, and R. F. Oulton, “Influence of silver film quality on the threshold of plasmonic nanowire lasers,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5(6), 1600856 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. H. Choi, E. H. Cho, Y. S. Lee, M. B. Shim, H. Y. Ahn, C. W. Baik, E. H. Lee, K. Kim, T. H. Kim, S. Kim, K. S. Cho, J. Yoon, M. Kim, and S. Hwang, “Fully flexible GaN light-emitting diodes through nanovoid-mediated transfer,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 2(3), 267–274 (2014).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (15)

K. Nomenyo, A. S. Gadallah, S. Kostcheev, D. J. Rogers, and G. Lerondel, “Enhanced stimulated emission in ZnO thin films using microdisk top-down structuring,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(18), 181104 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Yoshida, Y. Yamashita, M. Kuwabara, and H. Kan, “Demonstration of an ultraviolet 336 nm AlGaN multiple-quantum-well laser diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(24), 241106 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Dai, C. X. Xu, K. Zheng, C. G. Lv, and Y. P. Cui, “Whispering gallery-mode lasing in ZnO microrods at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(24), 241110 (2009).
[Crossref]

C. A. Hurni, A. David, M. J. Cich, R. I. Aldaz, B. Ellis, K. Huang, A. Tyagi, R. A. Delille, M. D. Craven, F. M. Steranka, and M. R. Krames, “Bulk GaN flip-chip violet light-emitting diodes with optimized efficiency for high-power operation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(3), 031101 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. M. Bagnall, Y. F. Chen, Z. Zhu, T. Yao, S. Koyama, M. Y. Shen, and T. Goto, “Optically pumped lasing of ZnO at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(17), 2230–2232 (1997).
[Crossref]

J. D. Ye, S. T. Tan, S. Pannirselvam, S. F. Choy, X. W. Sun, G. Q. Lo, and K. L. Teo, “Surfactant effect of arsenic doping on modification of ZnO (0001) growth kinetics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(10), 101905 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. D. Ye, S. Pannirselvam, S. T. Lim, J. F. Bi, X. W. Sun, G. Q. Lo, and K. L. Teo, “Two-dimensional electron gas in Zn-polar ZnMgO/ZnO heterostructure grown by metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(11), 111908 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Cui, S. Sadofev, S. Blumstengel, J. Puls, and F. Henneberger, “Optical gain and lasing of ZnO/ZnMgO multiple quantum wells: From low to room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(5), 051108 (2006).
[Crossref]

S. C. Su, H. Zhu, L. X. Zhang, M. He, L. Z. Zhao, S. F. Yu, J. N. Wang, and F. C. C. Ling, “Low-threshold lasing action in as asymmetric double ZnO/ZnMgO quantum structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(13), 131104 (2013).
[Crossref]

K. Han, N. Tang, J. D. Ye, J. X. Duan, Y. C. Liu, K. L. Teo, and B. Shen, “Spin-polarized two-dimensional electron gas in undoped MgxZn1−xO/ZnO heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(19), 192105 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. D. Ye, S. Tripathy, F. F. Ren, X. W. Sun, G. Q. Lo, and K. L. Teo, “Raman-active Fröhlich optical phonon mode in arsenic implanted ZnO,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(1), 011913 (2009).
[Crossref]

C. X. Xu, X. W. Sun, C. Yuen, B. J. Chen, S. F. Yu, and Z. L. Dong, “Ultraviolet amplified spontaneous emission from self-organized network of zinc oxide nanofibers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(1), 011118 (2005).
[Crossref]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Schematics of laser lift-off process upon the ZnO epilayer grown on sapphire; (b) optical image of the produced ZnO free-standing membrane with a scale bar of 2 mm; (c) high-resolution TEM image and the insert is the selective area electron diffraction pattern; (d) atomic force microscopic image of a ZnO free-standing membrane.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Normalized Raman scattering spectra at room temperature; (b) photoluminescence spectra at room temperature; (c) normalized PL spectra at 10K; (d) time resolved PL spectra for the ZnO epilayer grown on sapphire (S0), and the ZnO free-standing membrane measured from front (S1) and LLO-side (S2).
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a)-(d) Photoluminescence spectra of the ZnO epilayer grown on sapphire (S0), and ZnO membrane measured from front (S1) and LLO-side (S2), and ZnO membrane on PEN substrate (S3) at various pumping intensities, respectively. The corresponding dark-field optical images are shown in the right column.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) Integrated intensity and FWHM of the emission spectra as a function of pumping power density for different ZnO epilayer and membranes (S0-S3), respectively. (c) and (d) shows the FDTD simulated electric field distribution for ZnO epilayer and membrane, respectively. The dipole with a radiation wavelength of 390 nm is located at 200nm beneath the ZnO topmost surface.

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