Abstract

The development of Ge and SiGe chemical vapor deposition techniques on silicon wafers has enabled the integration of multi-quantum well structures in silicon photonics chips for nonlinear optics with potential applications to integrated nonlinear optics, however research has focused up to now on undoped quantum wells and interband optical excitations. In this work, we present model calculations for the giant nonlinear coefficients provided by intersubband transitions in hole-doped Ge/SiGe and Si/SiGe multi-quantum wells. We employ a valence band-structure model for Si1-xGex to calculate the confined hole states of asymmetric-coupled quantum wells for second-harmonic generation in the mid-infrared. We calculate the nonlinear emission spectra from the second-order susceptibility tensor, including the particular vertical emission spectra of valence-band quantum wells. Two possible nonlinear mid-infrared sensor architectures, one based on waveguides and another based on metasurfaces, are described as perspective application.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2018 (1)

2017 (3)

2016 (7)

F. B. Barho, F. Gonzalez-Posada, M. J. Milla-Rodrigo, M. Bomers, L. Cerutti, and T. Taliercio, “All-semiconductor plasmonic gratings for biosensing applications in the mid-infrared spectral range,” Opt. Express 24(14), 16175–16190 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Haas and B. Mizaikoff, “Advances in Mid-Infrared Spectroscopy for Chemical Analysis,” Annu. Rev. Anal. Chem. (Palo Alto, Calif.) 9(1), 45–68 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Lee, N. Nookala, J. S. Gomez-Diaz, M. Tymchenko, F. Demmerle, G. Boehm, M. C. Amann, A. Alù, and M. A. Belkin, “Ultrathin Second-Harmonic Metasurfaces with Record-High Nonlinear Optical Response,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4(5), 664–670 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. P. Fischer, C. Schmidt, E. Sakat, J. Stock, A. Samarelli, J. Frigerio, M. Ortolani, D. J. Paul, G. Isella, A. Leitenstorfer, P. Biagioni, and D. Brida, “Optical activation of germanium plasmonic antennas in the mid-infrared,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 117(4), 047401 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Razdolski, Y. Chen, A. J. Giles, S. Gewinner, W. Schöllkopf, M. Hong, M. Wolf, V. Giannini, J. D. Caldwell, S. A. Maier, and A. Paarmann, “Resonant Enhancement of Second-Harmonic Generation in the Mid-Infrared Using Localized Surface Phonon Polaritons in Subdiffractional Nanostructures,” Nano Lett. 16(11), 6954–6959 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Durmaz, P. Sookchoo, X. Cui, R. B. Jacobson, D. E. Savage, M. G. Lagally, and R. Paiella, “SiGe Nanomembrane Quantum-Well Infrared Photodetectors,” ACS Photonics 3(10), 1978–1985 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. Sabbagh, J. Schmidt, S. Winnerl, M. Helm, L. Di Gaspare, M. De Seta, M. Virgilio, and M. Ortolani, “Electron Dynamics in Silicon–Germanium Terahertz Quantum Fountain Structures,” ACS Photonics 3(3), 403–414 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (4)

O. Wolf, S. Campione, A. Benz, A. P. Ravikumar, S. Liu, T. S. Luk, E. A. Kadlec, E. A. Shaner, J. F. Klem, M. B. Sinclair, and I. Brener, “Phased-array sources based on nonlinear metamaterial nanocavities,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 7667 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Baldassarre, E. Sakat, J. Frigerio, A. Samarelli, K. Gallacher, E. Calandrini, G. Isella, D. J. Paul, M. Ortolani, and P. Biagioni, “Midinfrared plasmon-enhanced spectroscopy with germanium antennas on silicon substrates,” Nano Lett. 15(11), 7225–7231 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Neuman, C. Huck, J. Vogt, F. Neubrech, R. Hillenbrand, J. Aizpurua, and A. Pucci, “Importance of Plasmonic Scattering for an Optimal Enhancement of Vibrational Absorption in SEIRA with Linear Metallic Antennas,” J. Phys. Chem. C 119(47), 26652–26662 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Celebrano, X. Wu, M. Baselli, S. Großmann, P. Biagioni, A. Locatelli, C. De Angelis, G. Cerullo, R. Osellame, B. Hecht, L. Duò, F. Ciccacci, and M. Finazzi, “Mode matching in multiresonant plasmonic nanoantennas for enhanced second harmonic generation,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(5), 412–417 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (5)

J. Lee, M. Tymchenko, C. Argyropoulos, P. Y. Chen, F. Lu, F. Demmerle, G. Boehm, M. C. Amann, A. Alù, and M. A. Belkin, “Giant nonlinear response from plasmonic metasurfaces coupled to intersubband transitions,” Nature 511(7507), 65–69 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. T. Lin, S. W. Kwok, H. Y. G. Lin, V. Singh, L. C. Kimerling, G. M. Whitesides, and A. Agarwal, “Mid-Infrared Spectrometer Using Opto-Nanofluidic Slot-Waveguide for Label-Free On-Chip Chemical Sensing,” Nano Lett. 14(1), 231–238 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Chaisakul, D. Marris-Morini, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, M. S. Rouifed, S. Cecchi, P. Crozat, G. Isella, and L. Vivien, “Integrated germanium optical interconnects on silicon substrates,” Nat. Photonics 8(6), 482–488 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. Zhang, A. M. Agarwal, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Nonlinear Group IV photonics based on silicon and germanium: from near-infrared to mid-infrared,” Nanophotonics 3(4-5), 247–268 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Brun, P. Labeye, G. Grand, J.-M. Hartmann, F. Boulila, M. Carras, and S. Nicoletti, “Low loss SiGe graded index waveguides for mid-IR applications,” Opt. Express 22(1), 508–518 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (3)

P. Chaisakul, D. Marris-Morini, M.-S. Rouifed, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, J.-R. Coudevylle, X. L. Roux, S. Edmond, G. Isella, and L. Vivien, “Recent progress in GeSi electro-absorption modulators,” Sci. Technol. Adv. Mater. 15(1), 014601 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Adato and H. Altug, “In-situ ultra-sensitive infrared absorption spectroscopy of biomolecule interactions in real time with plasmonic nanoantennas,” Nat. Commun. 4(1), 2154–2163 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. Limaj, F. D’Apuzzo, A. Di Gaspare, V. Giliberti, F. Domenici, S. Sennato, F. Bordi, S. Lupi, and M. Ortolani, “Mid-Infrared Surface Plasmon Polariton Sensors Resonant with the Vibrational Modes of Phospholipid Layers,” J. Phys. Chem. C 117(37), 19119–19126 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (3)

Y.-C. Chang, P. Wägli, V. Paeder, A. Homsy, L. Hvozdara, P. van der Wal, J. Di Francesco, N. F. de Rooij, and H. Peter Herzig, “Cocaine detection by a mid-infrared waveguide integrated with a microfluidic chip,” Lab Chip 12(17), 3020–3023 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Leindecker, A. Marandi, R. L. Byer, K. L. Vodopyanov, J. Jiang, I. Hartl, M. Fermann, and P. G. Schunemann, “Octave-spanning ultrafast OPO with 2.6-6.1 µm instantaneous bandwidth pumped by femtosecond Tm-fiber laser,” Opt. Express 20(7), 7046–7053 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Gallacher, P. Velha, D. J. Paul, S. Cecchi, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, and G. Isella, “1.55 μm direct bandgap electroluminescence from strained n-Ge quantum wells grown on Si substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(21), 211101 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (3)

V. Giannini, Y. Francescato, H. Amrania, C. C. Phillips, and S. A. Maier, “Fano Resonances in Nanoscale Plasmonic Systems: A Parameter-Free Modeling Approach,” Nano Lett. 11(7), 2835–2840 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Galli, S. Bartalini, S. Borri, P. Cancio, D. Mazzotti, P. De Natale, and G. Giusfredi, “Molecular gas sensing below parts per trillion: radiocarbon-dioxide optical detection,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(27), 270802 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. Limaj, S. Lupi, F. Mattioli, R. Leoni, and M. Ortolani, “Midinfrared surface plasmon sensor based on a substrateless metal mesh,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(9), 091902 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (3)

R. Soref, “Mid-infrared photonics in silicon and germanium,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 495–497 (2010).
[Crossref]

L. Lever, Z. Ikonic, A. Valavanis, J. Cooper, and R. Kelsall, “Design of Ge-SiGe Quantum-Confined Stark Effect Electroabsorption Heterostructures for CMOS Compatible Photonics,” J. Lit. Technol. 28, 3273–3281 (2010).
[Crossref]

D. J. Paul, “The progress towards terahertz quantum cascade lasers on silicon substrates,” Laser Photonics Rev. 4(5), 610–632 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

M. Virgilio and G. Grosso, “Valley splitting and optical intersubband transitions at parallel and normal incidence in [001]-Ge/SiGe quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 79(16), 165310 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. De Seta, G. Capellini, Y. Busby, F. Evangelisti, M. Ortolani, M. Virgilio, G. Grosso, G. Pizzi, A. Nucara, and S. Lupi, “Conduction band intersubband transitions in Ge/SiGe quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(5), 051918 (2009).
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

M. Virgilio and G. Grosso, “Valence and conduction intersubband transitions in SiGe, Ge-rich, quantum wells on [001] Si0.5Ge0.5 substrates: A tight-binding approach,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(9), 093506 (2007).
[Crossref]

B. G. Lee, M. A. Belkin, R. Audet, J. MacArthur, L. Diehl, C. Pflügl, F. Capasso, D. C. Oakley, D. Chapman, A. Napoleone, D. Bour, S. Corzine, G. Höfler, and J. Faist, “Widely tunable single-mode quantum cascade laser source for mid-infrared spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(23), 231101 (2007).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

Y. H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris, “Strong quantum-confined Stark effect in germanium quantum-well structures on silicon,” Nature 437(7063), 1334–1336 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

C. Gmachl, A. Belyanin, D. L. Sivco, M. L. Peabody, N. Owschimikow, A. M. Sergent, F. Capasso, and A. Y. Cho, “Optimized second-harmonic generation in quantum cascade lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39(11), 1345–1355 (2003).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

K. L. Vodopyanov, K. O’Neill, G. B. Serapiglia, C. C. Phillips, M. Hopkinson, I. Vurgaftman, and J. R. Meyer, “Phase-matched second harmonic generation in asymmetric double quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(21), 2654–2656 (1998).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

E. Rosencher, A. Fiore, B. Vinter, V. Berger, Ph. Bois, and J. Nagle, “Quantum Engineering of Optical Nonlinearities,” Science 271(5246), 168–173 (1996).
[Crossref]

1993 (1)

S. Li and J. Khurgin, “Second-order nonlinear optical susceptibility in p-doped asymmetric quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62(15), 1727–1729 (1993).
[Crossref]

Adato, R.

R. Adato and H. Altug, “In-situ ultra-sensitive infrared absorption spectroscopy of biomolecule interactions in real time with plasmonic nanoantennas,” Nat. Commun. 4(1), 2154–2163 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Agarwal, A.

P. T. Lin, S. W. Kwok, H. Y. G. Lin, V. Singh, L. C. Kimerling, G. M. Whitesides, and A. Agarwal, “Mid-Infrared Spectrometer Using Opto-Nanofluidic Slot-Waveguide for Label-Free On-Chip Chemical Sensing,” Nano Lett. 14(1), 231–238 (2014).
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Agarwal, A. M.

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J. Lee, N. Nookala, J. S. Gomez-Diaz, M. Tymchenko, F. Demmerle, G. Boehm, M. C. Amann, A. Alù, and M. A. Belkin, “Ultrathin Second-Harmonic Metasurfaces with Record-High Nonlinear Optical Response,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4(5), 664–670 (2016).
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J. Lee, M. Tymchenko, C. Argyropoulos, P. Y. Chen, F. Lu, F. Demmerle, G. Boehm, M. C. Amann, A. Alù, and M. A. Belkin, “Giant nonlinear response from plasmonic metasurfaces coupled to intersubband transitions,” Nature 511(7507), 65–69 (2014).
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D. Sabbagh, J. Schmidt, S. Winnerl, M. Helm, L. Di Gaspare, M. De Seta, M. Virgilio, and M. Ortolani, “Electron Dynamics in Silicon–Germanium Terahertz Quantum Fountain Structures,” ACS Photonics 3(3), 403–414 (2016).
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B. G. Lee, M. A. Belkin, R. Audet, J. MacArthur, L. Diehl, C. Pflügl, F. Capasso, D. C. Oakley, D. Chapman, A. Napoleone, D. Bour, S. Corzine, G. Höfler, and J. Faist, “Widely tunable single-mode quantum cascade laser source for mid-infrared spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(23), 231101 (2007).
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K. L. Vodopyanov, K. O’Neill, G. B. Serapiglia, C. C. Phillips, M. Hopkinson, I. Vurgaftman, and J. R. Meyer, “Phase-matched second harmonic generation in asymmetric double quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(21), 2654–2656 (1998).
[Crossref]

Sergent, A. M.

C. Gmachl, A. Belyanin, D. L. Sivco, M. L. Peabody, N. Owschimikow, A. M. Sergent, F. Capasso, and A. Y. Cho, “Optimized second-harmonic generation in quantum cascade lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39(11), 1345–1355 (2003).
[Crossref]

Shaner, E. A.

O. Wolf, S. Campione, A. Benz, A. P. Ravikumar, S. Liu, T. S. Luk, E. A. Kadlec, E. A. Shaner, J. F. Klem, M. B. Sinclair, and I. Brener, “Phased-array sources based on nonlinear metamaterial nanocavities,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 7667 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shimura, Y.

A. Malik, M. Muneeb, Y. Shimura, J. Van Campenhout, R. Loo, and G. Roelkens, “Germanium-on-silicon mid infrared waveguides and Mach Zehnder interferometers,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Photonics (IEEE IPC, 2013), pp. 104–105.
[Crossref]

Sinclair, M. B.

O. Wolf, S. Campione, A. Benz, A. P. Ravikumar, S. Liu, T. S. Luk, E. A. Kadlec, E. A. Shaner, J. F. Klem, M. B. Sinclair, and I. Brener, “Phased-array sources based on nonlinear metamaterial nanocavities,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 7667 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Singh, V.

P. T. Lin, S. W. Kwok, H. Y. G. Lin, V. Singh, L. C. Kimerling, G. M. Whitesides, and A. Agarwal, “Mid-Infrared Spectrometer Using Opto-Nanofluidic Slot-Waveguide for Label-Free On-Chip Chemical Sensing,” Nano Lett. 14(1), 231–238 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sivco, D. L.

C. Gmachl, A. Belyanin, D. L. Sivco, M. L. Peabody, N. Owschimikow, A. M. Sergent, F. Capasso, and A. Y. Cho, “Optimized second-harmonic generation in quantum cascade lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39(11), 1345–1355 (2003).
[Crossref]

Sookchoo, P.

H. Durmaz, P. Sookchoo, X. Cui, R. B. Jacobson, D. E. Savage, M. G. Lagally, and R. Paiella, “SiGe Nanomembrane Quantum-Well Infrared Photodetectors,” ACS Photonics 3(10), 1978–1985 (2016).
[Crossref]

Soref, R.

R. Soref, “Mid-infrared photonics in silicon and germanium,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 495–497 (2010).
[Crossref]

Stock, J.

M. P. Fischer, C. Schmidt, E. Sakat, J. Stock, A. Samarelli, J. Frigerio, M. Ortolani, D. J. Paul, G. Isella, A. Leitenstorfer, P. Biagioni, and D. Brida, “Optical activation of germanium plasmonic antennas in the mid-infrared,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 117(4), 047401 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Taliercio, T.

Tournie, E.

Tymchenko, M.

J. Lee, N. Nookala, J. S. Gomez-Diaz, M. Tymchenko, F. Demmerle, G. Boehm, M. C. Amann, A. Alù, and M. A. Belkin, “Ultrathin Second-Harmonic Metasurfaces with Record-High Nonlinear Optical Response,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4(5), 664–670 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Lee, M. Tymchenko, C. Argyropoulos, P. Y. Chen, F. Lu, F. Demmerle, G. Boehm, M. C. Amann, A. Alù, and M. A. Belkin, “Giant nonlinear response from plasmonic metasurfaces coupled to intersubband transitions,” Nature 511(7507), 65–69 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vakarin, V.

Valavanis, A.

L. Lever, Z. Ikonic, A. Valavanis, J. Cooper, and R. Kelsall, “Design of Ge-SiGe Quantum-Confined Stark Effect Electroabsorption Heterostructures for CMOS Compatible Photonics,” J. Lit. Technol. 28, 3273–3281 (2010).
[Crossref]

Van Campenhout, J.

A. Malik, M. Muneeb, Y. Shimura, J. Van Campenhout, R. Loo, and G. Roelkens, “Germanium-on-silicon mid infrared waveguides and Mach Zehnder interferometers,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Photonics (IEEE IPC, 2013), pp. 104–105.
[Crossref]

van der Wal, P.

Y.-C. Chang, P. Wägli, V. Paeder, A. Homsy, L. Hvozdara, P. van der Wal, J. Di Francesco, N. F. de Rooij, and H. Peter Herzig, “Cocaine detection by a mid-infrared waveguide integrated with a microfluidic chip,” Lab Chip 12(17), 3020–3023 (2012).
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Velha, P.

K. Gallacher, P. Velha, D. J. Paul, S. Cecchi, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, and G. Isella, “1.55 μm direct bandgap electroluminescence from strained n-Ge quantum wells grown on Si substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(21), 211101 (2012).
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E. Rosencher, A. Fiore, B. Vinter, V. Berger, Ph. Bois, and J. Nagle, “Quantum Engineering of Optical Nonlinearities,” Science 271(5246), 168–173 (1996).
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D. Sabbagh, J. Schmidt, S. Winnerl, M. Helm, L. Di Gaspare, M. De Seta, M. Virgilio, and M. Ortolani, “Electron Dynamics in Silicon–Germanium Terahertz Quantum Fountain Structures,” ACS Photonics 3(3), 403–414 (2016).
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M. De Seta, G. Capellini, Y. Busby, F. Evangelisti, M. Ortolani, M. Virgilio, G. Grosso, G. Pizzi, A. Nucara, and S. Lupi, “Conduction band intersubband transitions in Ge/SiGe quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(5), 051918 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. Virgilio and G. Grosso, “Valley splitting and optical intersubband transitions at parallel and normal incidence in [001]-Ge/SiGe quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 79(16), 165310 (2009).
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M. Virgilio and G. Grosso, “Valence and conduction intersubband transitions in SiGe, Ge-rich, quantum wells on [001] Si0.5Ge0.5 substrates: A tight-binding approach,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(9), 093506 (2007).
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Vivien, L.

J. M. Ramirez, Q. Liu, V. Vakarin, J. Frigerio, A. Ballabio, X. Le Roux, D. Bouville, L. Vivien, G. Isella, and D. Marris-Morini, “Graded SiGe waveguides with broadband low-loss propagation in the mid infrared,” Opt. Express 26(2), 870–877 (2018).
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J. M. Ramirez, V. Vakarin, C. Gilles, J. Frigerio, A. Ballabio, P. Chaisakul, X. L. Roux, C. Alonso-Ramos, G. Maisons, L. Vivien, M. Carras, G. Isella, and D. Marris-Morini, “Low-loss Ge-rich Si0.2Ge0.8 waveguides for mid-infrared photonics,” Opt. Lett. 42(1), 105–108 (2017).
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P. Chaisakul, D. Marris-Morini, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, M. S. Rouifed, S. Cecchi, P. Crozat, G. Isella, and L. Vivien, “Integrated germanium optical interconnects on silicon substrates,” Nat. Photonics 8(6), 482–488 (2014).
[Crossref]

P. Chaisakul, D. Marris-Morini, M.-S. Rouifed, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, J.-R. Coudevylle, X. L. Roux, S. Edmond, G. Isella, and L. Vivien, “Recent progress in GeSi electro-absorption modulators,” Sci. Technol. Adv. Mater. 15(1), 014601 (2013).
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N. Leindecker, A. Marandi, R. L. Byer, K. L. Vodopyanov, J. Jiang, I. Hartl, M. Fermann, and P. G. Schunemann, “Octave-spanning ultrafast OPO with 2.6-6.1 µm instantaneous bandwidth pumped by femtosecond Tm-fiber laser,” Opt. Express 20(7), 7046–7053 (2012).
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T. Neuman, C. Huck, J. Vogt, F. Neubrech, R. Hillenbrand, J. Aizpurua, and A. Pucci, “Importance of Plasmonic Scattering for an Optimal Enhancement of Vibrational Absorption in SEIRA with Linear Metallic Antennas,” J. Phys. Chem. C 119(47), 26652–26662 (2015).
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K. L. Vodopyanov, K. O’Neill, G. B. Serapiglia, C. C. Phillips, M. Hopkinson, I. Vurgaftman, and J. R. Meyer, “Phase-matched second harmonic generation in asymmetric double quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(21), 2654–2656 (1998).
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Y.-C. Chang, P. Wägli, V. Paeder, A. Homsy, L. Hvozdara, P. van der Wal, J. Di Francesco, N. F. de Rooij, and H. Peter Herzig, “Cocaine detection by a mid-infrared waveguide integrated with a microfluidic chip,” Lab Chip 12(17), 3020–3023 (2012).
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Weber, K.

F. Neubrech, C. Huck, K. Weber, A. Pucci, and H. Giessen, “Surface-Enhanced Infrared Spectroscopy Using Resonant Nanoantennas,” Chem. Rev. 117(7), 5110–5145 (2017).
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P. T. Lin, S. W. Kwok, H. Y. G. Lin, V. Singh, L. C. Kimerling, G. M. Whitesides, and A. Agarwal, “Mid-Infrared Spectrometer Using Opto-Nanofluidic Slot-Waveguide for Label-Free On-Chip Chemical Sensing,” Nano Lett. 14(1), 231–238 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Winnerl, S.

D. Sabbagh, J. Schmidt, S. Winnerl, M. Helm, L. Di Gaspare, M. De Seta, M. Virgilio, and M. Ortolani, “Electron Dynamics in Silicon–Germanium Terahertz Quantum Fountain Structures,” ACS Photonics 3(3), 403–414 (2016).
[Crossref]

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I. Razdolski, Y. Chen, A. J. Giles, S. Gewinner, W. Schöllkopf, M. Hong, M. Wolf, V. Giannini, J. D. Caldwell, S. A. Maier, and A. Paarmann, “Resonant Enhancement of Second-Harmonic Generation in the Mid-Infrared Using Localized Surface Phonon Polaritons in Subdiffractional Nanostructures,” Nano Lett. 16(11), 6954–6959 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wolf, O.

O. Wolf, S. Campione, A. Benz, A. P. Ravikumar, S. Liu, T. S. Luk, E. A. Kadlec, E. A. Shaner, J. F. Klem, M. B. Sinclair, and I. Brener, “Phased-array sources based on nonlinear metamaterial nanocavities,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 7667 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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M. Celebrano, X. Wu, M. Baselli, S. Großmann, P. Biagioni, A. Locatelli, C. De Angelis, G. Cerullo, R. Osellame, B. Hecht, L. Duò, F. Ciccacci, and M. Finazzi, “Mode matching in multiresonant plasmonic nanoantennas for enhanced second harmonic generation,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(5), 412–417 (2015).
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L. Zhang, A. M. Agarwal, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Nonlinear Group IV photonics based on silicon and germanium: from near-infrared to mid-infrared,” Nanophotonics 3(4-5), 247–268 (2014).
[Crossref]

ACS Photonics (2)

H. Durmaz, P. Sookchoo, X. Cui, R. B. Jacobson, D. E. Savage, M. G. Lagally, and R. Paiella, “SiGe Nanomembrane Quantum-Well Infrared Photodetectors,” ACS Photonics 3(10), 1978–1985 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. Sabbagh, J. Schmidt, S. Winnerl, M. Helm, L. Di Gaspare, M. De Seta, M. Virgilio, and M. Ortolani, “Electron Dynamics in Silicon–Germanium Terahertz Quantum Fountain Structures,” ACS Photonics 3(3), 403–414 (2016).
[Crossref]

Adv. Opt. Mater. (1)

J. Lee, N. Nookala, J. S. Gomez-Diaz, M. Tymchenko, F. Demmerle, G. Boehm, M. C. Amann, A. Alù, and M. A. Belkin, “Ultrathin Second-Harmonic Metasurfaces with Record-High Nonlinear Optical Response,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4(5), 664–670 (2016).
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Annu. Rev. Anal. Chem. (Palo Alto, Calif.) (1)

J. Haas and B. Mizaikoff, “Advances in Mid-Infrared Spectroscopy for Chemical Analysis,” Annu. Rev. Anal. Chem. (Palo Alto, Calif.) 9(1), 45–68 (2016).
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O. Limaj, S. Lupi, F. Mattioli, R. Leoni, and M. Ortolani, “Midinfrared surface plasmon sensor based on a substrateless metal mesh,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(9), 091902 (2011).
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B. G. Lee, M. A. Belkin, R. Audet, J. MacArthur, L. Diehl, C. Pflügl, F. Capasso, D. C. Oakley, D. Chapman, A. Napoleone, D. Bour, S. Corzine, G. Höfler, and J. Faist, “Widely tunable single-mode quantum cascade laser source for mid-infrared spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(23), 231101 (2007).
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M. De Seta, G. Capellini, Y. Busby, F. Evangelisti, M. Ortolani, M. Virgilio, G. Grosso, G. Pizzi, A. Nucara, and S. Lupi, “Conduction band intersubband transitions in Ge/SiGe quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(5), 051918 (2009).
[Crossref]

K. Gallacher, P. Velha, D. J. Paul, S. Cecchi, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, and G. Isella, “1.55 μm direct bandgap electroluminescence from strained n-Ge quantum wells grown on Si substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(21), 211101 (2012).
[Crossref]

K. L. Vodopyanov, K. O’Neill, G. B. Serapiglia, C. C. Phillips, M. Hopkinson, I. Vurgaftman, and J. R. Meyer, “Phase-matched second harmonic generation in asymmetric double quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(21), 2654–2656 (1998).
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F. Neubrech, C. Huck, K. Weber, A. Pucci, and H. Giessen, “Surface-Enhanced Infrared Spectroscopy Using Resonant Nanoantennas,” Chem. Rev. 117(7), 5110–5145 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

C. Gmachl, A. Belyanin, D. L. Sivco, M. L. Peabody, N. Owschimikow, A. M. Sergent, F. Capasso, and A. Y. Cho, “Optimized second-harmonic generation in quantum cascade lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39(11), 1345–1355 (2003).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

M. Virgilio and G. Grosso, “Valence and conduction intersubband transitions in SiGe, Ge-rich, quantum wells on [001] Si0.5Ge0.5 substrates: A tight-binding approach,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(9), 093506 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. Lit. Technol. (1)

L. Lever, Z. Ikonic, A. Valavanis, J. Cooper, and R. Kelsall, “Design of Ge-SiGe Quantum-Confined Stark Effect Electroabsorption Heterostructures for CMOS Compatible Photonics,” J. Lit. Technol. 28, 3273–3281 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. Chem. C (2)

T. Neuman, C. Huck, J. Vogt, F. Neubrech, R. Hillenbrand, J. Aizpurua, and A. Pucci, “Importance of Plasmonic Scattering for an Optimal Enhancement of Vibrational Absorption in SEIRA with Linear Metallic Antennas,” J. Phys. Chem. C 119(47), 26652–26662 (2015).
[Crossref]

O. Limaj, F. D’Apuzzo, A. Di Gaspare, V. Giliberti, F. Domenici, S. Sennato, F. Bordi, S. Lupi, and M. Ortolani, “Mid-Infrared Surface Plasmon Polariton Sensors Resonant with the Vibrational Modes of Phospholipid Layers,” J. Phys. Chem. C 117(37), 19119–19126 (2013).
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Lab Chip (1)

Y.-C. Chang, P. Wägli, V. Paeder, A. Homsy, L. Hvozdara, P. van der Wal, J. Di Francesco, N. F. de Rooij, and H. Peter Herzig, “Cocaine detection by a mid-infrared waveguide integrated with a microfluidic chip,” Lab Chip 12(17), 3020–3023 (2012).
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Laser Photonics Rev. (1)

D. J. Paul, “The progress towards terahertz quantum cascade lasers on silicon substrates,” Laser Photonics Rev. 4(5), 610–632 (2010).
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Nano Lett. (4)

P. T. Lin, S. W. Kwok, H. Y. G. Lin, V. Singh, L. C. Kimerling, G. M. Whitesides, and A. Agarwal, “Mid-Infrared Spectrometer Using Opto-Nanofluidic Slot-Waveguide for Label-Free On-Chip Chemical Sensing,” Nano Lett. 14(1), 231–238 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Baldassarre, E. Sakat, J. Frigerio, A. Samarelli, K. Gallacher, E. Calandrini, G. Isella, D. J. Paul, M. Ortolani, and P. Biagioni, “Midinfrared plasmon-enhanced spectroscopy with germanium antennas on silicon substrates,” Nano Lett. 15(11), 7225–7231 (2015).
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V. Giannini, Y. Francescato, H. Amrania, C. C. Phillips, and S. A. Maier, “Fano Resonances in Nanoscale Plasmonic Systems: A Parameter-Free Modeling Approach,” Nano Lett. 11(7), 2835–2840 (2011).
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I. Razdolski, Y. Chen, A. J. Giles, S. Gewinner, W. Schöllkopf, M. Hong, M. Wolf, V. Giannini, J. D. Caldwell, S. A. Maier, and A. Paarmann, “Resonant Enhancement of Second-Harmonic Generation in the Mid-Infrared Using Localized Surface Phonon Polaritons in Subdiffractional Nanostructures,” Nano Lett. 16(11), 6954–6959 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nanophotonics (1)

L. Zhang, A. M. Agarwal, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Nonlinear Group IV photonics based on silicon and germanium: from near-infrared to mid-infrared,” Nanophotonics 3(4-5), 247–268 (2014).
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Nat. Commun. (2)

R. Adato and H. Altug, “In-situ ultra-sensitive infrared absorption spectroscopy of biomolecule interactions in real time with plasmonic nanoantennas,” Nat. Commun. 4(1), 2154–2163 (2013).
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O. Wolf, S. Campione, A. Benz, A. P. Ravikumar, S. Liu, T. S. Luk, E. A. Kadlec, E. A. Shaner, J. F. Klem, M. B. Sinclair, and I. Brener, “Phased-array sources based on nonlinear metamaterial nanocavities,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 7667 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Nanotechnol. (1)

M. Celebrano, X. Wu, M. Baselli, S. Großmann, P. Biagioni, A. Locatelli, C. De Angelis, G. Cerullo, R. Osellame, B. Hecht, L. Duò, F. Ciccacci, and M. Finazzi, “Mode matching in multiresonant plasmonic nanoantennas for enhanced second harmonic generation,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(5), 412–417 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (2)

R. Soref, “Mid-infrared photonics in silicon and germanium,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 495–497 (2010).
[Crossref]

P. Chaisakul, D. Marris-Morini, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, M. S. Rouifed, S. Cecchi, P. Crozat, G. Isella, and L. Vivien, “Integrated germanium optical interconnects on silicon substrates,” Nat. Photonics 8(6), 482–488 (2014).
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Y. H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris, “Strong quantum-confined Stark effect in germanium quantum-well structures on silicon,” Nature 437(7063), 1334–1336 (2005).
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Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. (1)

M. Virgilio and G. Grosso, “Valley splitting and optical intersubband transitions at parallel and normal incidence in [001]-Ge/SiGe quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 79(16), 165310 (2009).
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P. Chaisakul, D. Marris-Morini, M.-S. Rouifed, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, J.-R. Coudevylle, X. L. Roux, S. Edmond, G. Isella, and L. Vivien, “Recent progress in GeSi electro-absorption modulators,” Sci. Technol. Adv. Mater. 15(1), 014601 (2013).
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Science (1)

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[Crossref]

Other (2)

A. Malik, M. Muneeb, Y. Shimura, J. Van Campenhout, R. Loo, and G. Roelkens, “Germanium-on-silicon mid infrared waveguides and Mach Zehnder interferometers,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Photonics (IEEE IPC, 2013), pp. 104–105.
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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Heterostructure layer scheme for the three different designs presented in this work. The epitaxial layer sequence can be identically repeated a large number of times to increase the thickness of the interaction region.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a,b,c) Valence band structure around the Γ point for the three heterostructure designs presented in this work. (d, e, f) Potential energy profile at the Γ point (straight lines) and squared modulus of the wavefunctions (curves). Heavy hole states: black, Light hole states: red, split-off band: green. The thicker curves indicate the states among which intersubband transitions responsible for the giant nonlinearity take place.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Diagonal term of the modulus of the susceptibility sensor χ zzz (2) for the Ge/SiGe design at 10 K (a) and at 300 K (b), calculated for different free hole density levels N2D: blue, 2∙1011 cm−2 (blue); 5∙1011 cm−2 (cyan); 8∙1011 cm−2 (green); 1.1∙1012 cm−2 (gold); 1.3∙1012 cm−2 (red). In the inset, the peak value of the susceptibility χ zzz (2) vs. N2D.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Nonlinear susceptibility spectra for the three designs design at T = 10 K (a-c) and at T = 300 K (d-f) and for diagonal (black) and off-diagonal (red) tensor elements. The value of N2D = 5∙1011 cm−2 has been considered.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Effect of the intermixing on the potential profile (ideal in black solid line, with intermixing in red solid line) and on the wavefunctions (ideal in black dash-dot line, with intermixing in red dashed line) for the Ge/SiGe design.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Sketch of two possible sensing configurations. (a) integrated waveguides; (b) plasmonic metasurfaces. The blue arrow indicates the incoming direction of the laser pump beam, while the red shaded areas represent the propagation volumes of the emitted SHG. D: detector, L: lens, SL: substrate lens.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Summary of nonlinear parameters of the ACQW structures for N2D = 5.0∙1011cm−2.

Equations (2)

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χ ijk (2) (2ω)= d 3 k (2π) 3 2 lmn ρ ll (0) (k) ( μ ln i (k) μ nm j (k) μ ml k (k) [( ω nl (k)2ω)i γ nl )][( ω ml (k)ω)i γ ml ] + μ ln i (k) μ nm k (k) μ ml j (k) [( ω nl (k)2ω)i γ nl )][( ω ml (k)ω)i γ ml ] + μ ln k (k) μ nm i (k) μ ml j (k) [( ω mn (k)2ω)i γ mn )][( ω nl (k)+ω)+i γ nl ] + μ ln j (k) μ nm i (k) μ ml k (k) [( ω mn (k)2ω)i γ mn )][( ω nl (k)+ω)+i γ nl ] + μ ln j (k) μ nm i (k) μ ml k (k) [( ω nm (k)+2ω)+i γ nm )][( ω ml (k)ω)i γ ml ] + μ ln k (k) μ nm i (k) μ ml j (k) [( ω nm (k)+2ω)+i γ nm )][( ω ml (k)ω)i γ ml ] + μ ln k (k) μ nm j (k) μ ml i (k) [( ω ml (k)+2ω)+i γ ml )][( ω nl (k)+ω)+i γ nl ] + μ ln j (k) μ nm k (k) μ ml i (k) [( ω ml (k)+2ω)+i γ ml )][( ω nl (k)+ω)+i γ nl ] )
x=  x b + 1 2 ( x b - x w )( erf( a 2 +x 2 σ )+erf( a 2 -x 2 σ ) )

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