Abstract

Decoration of curved topological objects with an ultrathin layer of meta-atoms, which creates a conformal metasurface, allows the scattering wavefront to be modulated willingly. Here, we demonstrate adaptive conformal metasurfaces, which are composed of subwavelength dielectric TiO2 nano-posts on curved surfaces. Further, these surfaces support novel phenomena, such as focusing, tunable anomalous refraction, cloaking, and illusion (curved holography) in the visible range. The polarization-independent cloaking is demonstrated successfully by using these high-efficiency dielectric conformal metasurfaces. Besides, the metasurfaces’s performance under small oblique angles of incidence angles was similar to its performance under normal angles of incidence. Conformal metasurfaces loaded on curved objects are promising platforms for applications in miniaturized optical systems, such as medical devices, wearable electronics, and communication devices.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  35. C. Wang, D. Hwang, Z. Yu, K. Takei, J. Park, T. Chen, B. Ma, and A. Javey, “User-interactive electronic skin for instantaneous pressure visualization,” Nat. Mater. 12(10), 899–904 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  36. J. He, R. G. Nuzzo, and J. A. Rogers, “Inorganic materials and assembly techniques for flexible and stretchable electronics,” Proc. IEEE 103(4), 619–632 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  37. D. H. Kim, J. H. Ahn, W. M. Choi, H. S. Kim, T. H. Kim, J. Song, Y. Y. Huang, Z. Liu, C. Lu, and J. A. Rogers, “Stretchable and foldable silicon integrated circuits,” Science 320(5875), 507–511 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  38. V. Liu and S. Fan, “S4: A free electromagnetic solver for layered periodic structures,” Comput. Phys. Commun. 183(10), 2233–2244 (2012).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  40. X. Ni, Z. J. Wong, M. Mrejen, Y. Wang, and X. Zhang, “An ultrathin invisibility skin cloak for visible light,” Science 349(6254), 1310–1314 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  41. Y. Yang, H. Wang, F. Yu, Z. Xu, and H. Chen, “A metasurface carpet cloak for electromagnetic, acoustic and water waves,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 20219–20224 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  42. J. Valentine, J. Li, T. Zentgraf, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “An optical cloak made of dielectrics,” Nat. Mater. 8(7), 568–571 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  43. C. Slinger, C. Cameron, and M. Stanley, “Computer-generated holography as a generic display technology,” Computer 38(8), 46–53 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  44. G. Zheng, H. Mühlenbernd, M. Kenney, G. Li, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Metasurface holograms reaching 80% efficiency,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(4), 308–312 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  45. R. W. Gerchberg, “A practical algorithm for the determination of phase from image and diffraction plane pictures,” Optik (Stuttg.) 35, 237–250 (1972).
  46. J. Burch and A. Di Falco, “Surface topology specific metasurface holograms,” ACS Photonics 5(5), 1762–1766 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  47. L. Huang, H. Mühlenbernd, X. Li, X. Song, B. Bai, Y. Wang, and T. Zentgraf, “Broadband hybrid holographic multiplexing with geometric metasurfaces,” Adv. Mater. 27(41), 6444–6449 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2018 (5)

M. Jang, Y. Horie, A. Shibukawa, J. Brake, Y. Liu, S. M. Kamali, A. Arbabi, H. Ruan, A. Faraon, and C. Yang, “Wavefront shaping with disorder-engineered metasurfaces,” Nat. Photonics 12(2), 84–90 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. M. Kamali, E. Arbabi, A. Arbabi, and A. Faraon, “A review of dielectric optical metasurfaces for wavefront control,” Nanophotonics 7(6), 1041–1068 (2018).
[Crossref]

K. Wu, P. Coquet, Q. J. Wang, and P. Genevet, “Modelling of free-form conformal metasurfaces,” Nat. Commun. 9(1), 3494 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Burch and A. Di Falco, “Surface topology specific metasurface holograms,” ACS Photonics 5(5), 1762–1766 (2018).
[Crossref]

V. C. Su, C. H. Chu, G. Sun, and D. P. Tsai, “Advances in optical metasurfaces: fabrication and applications [Invited],” Opt. Express 26(10), 13148–13182 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2017 (3)

S. Abdollahramezani, A. Chizari, A. E. Dorche, M. V. Jamali, and J. A. Salehi, “Dielectric metasurfaces solve differential and integro-differential equations,” Opt. Lett. 42(7), 1197–1200 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Díaz-Rubio, V. S. Asadchy, A. Elsakka, and S. A. Tretyakov, “From the generalized reflection law to the realization of perfect anomalous reflectors,” Sci. Adv. 3(8), 1602714 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Wei, L. Huang, X. Li, J. Liu, and Y. Wang, “Broadband multiplane holography based on plasmonic metasurface,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5(18), 1700434 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (11)

A. I. Kuznetsov, A. E. Miroshnichenko, M. L. Brongersma, Y. S. Kivshar, and B. Luk’yanchuk, “Optically resonant dielectric nanostructures,” Science 354(6314), 2472–2482 (2016).
[Crossref]

P. Wei, S. Xiao, Y. Xu, H. Chen, S. T. Chu, and J. Li, “Metasurface-loaded waveguide for transformation optics applications,” J. Opt. 18(4), 044015 (2016).
[Crossref]

L. Zhang, S. Mei, K. Huang, and C. W. Qiu, “Advances in full control of electromagnetic waves with metasurfaces,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4(6), 818–833 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Jahani and Z. Jacob, “All-dielectric metamaterials,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 11(1), 23–36 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Y. H. Teo, L. J. Wong, C. Molardi, and P. Genevet, “Controlling electromagnetic fields at boundaries of arbitrary geometries,” Phys. Rev. A (Coll. Park) 94(2), 23820 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. M. Kamali, A. Arbabi, E. Arbabi, Y. Horie, and A. Faraon, “Decoupling optical function and geometrical form using conformal flexible dielectric metasurfaces,” Nat. Commun. 7, 11618–11624 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Cheng, S. Jafar-Zanjani, and H. Mosallaei, “All-dielectric ultrathin conformal metasurfaces: lensing and cloaking applications at 532 nm wavelength,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 38440–38449 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Khorasaninejad, W. T. Chen, R. C. Devlin, J. Oh, A. Y. Zhu, and F. Capasso, “Metalenses at visible wavelengths: Diffraction-limited focusing and subwavelength resolution imaging,” Science 352(6290), 1190–1194 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Qin, L. Ding, L. Zhang, F. Monticone, C. C. Chum, J. Deng, S. Mei, Y. Li, J. Teng, M. Hong, S. Zhang, A. Alù, and C. W. Qiu, “Hybrid bilayer plasmonic metasurface efficiently manipulates visible light,” Sci. Adv. 2(1), 1501168 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Huang, W. B. Pan, X. L. Ma, and X. G. Luo, “Multi-spectral metasurface for different functional control of reflection waves,” Sci Rep-Uk 623291 (2016).

Y. Yang, H. Wang, F. Yu, Z. Xu, and H. Chen, “A metasurface carpet cloak for electromagnetic, acoustic and water waves,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 20219–20224 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (8)

X. Ni, Z. J. Wong, M. Mrejen, Y. Wang, and X. Zhang, “An ultrathin invisibility skin cloak for visible light,” Science 349(6254), 1310–1314 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Huang, H. Mühlenbernd, X. Li, X. Song, B. Bai, Y. Wang, and T. Zentgraf, “Broadband hybrid holographic multiplexing with geometric metasurfaces,” Adv. Mater. 27(41), 6444–6449 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Zheng, H. Mühlenbernd, M. Kenney, G. Li, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Metasurface holograms reaching 80% efficiency,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(4), 308–312 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Achouri, M. A. Salem, and C. Caloz, “General metasurface synthesis based on susceptibility tensors,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 63(7), 2977–2991 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. Li, I. Bayn, M. Lu, C. Y. Nam, T. Schröder, A. Stein, N. C. Harris, and D. Englund, “Nanofabrication on unconventional substrates using transferred hard masks,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 7802–7804 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. He, R. G. Nuzzo, and J. A. Rogers, “Inorganic materials and assembly techniques for flexible and stretchable electronics,” Proc. IEEE 103(4), 619–632 (2015).
[Crossref]

X. G. Luo, “Principles of electromagnetic waves in metasurfaces,” Sci. China Phys. Mech. Astron. 58(9), 594201 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Arbabi, Y. Horie, M. Bagheri, and A. Faraon, “Dielectric metasurfaces for complete control of phase and polarization with subwavelength spatial resolution and high transmission,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(11), 937–943 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (4)

D. Lin, P. Fan, E. Hasman, and M. L. Brongersma, “Dielectric gradient metasurface optical elements,” Science 345(6194), 298–302 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Yu and F. Capasso, “Flat optics with designer metasurfaces,” Nat. Mater. 13(2), 139–150 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Vo, D. Fattal, W. V. Sorin, Z. Peng, T. Tran, M. Fiorentino, and R. G. Beausoleil, “Sub-wavelength grating lenses with a twist,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(13), 1375–1378 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Schnell, P. S. Carney, and R. Hillenbrand, “Synthetic optical holography for rapid nanoimaging,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 3499–3508 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (4)

X. Ni, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Metasurface holograms for visible light,” Nat. Commun. 4(1), 2807–2812 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. Wang, D. Hwang, Z. Yu, K. Takei, J. Park, T. Chen, B. Ma, and A. Javey, “User-interactive electronic skin for instantaneous pressure visualization,” Nat. Mater. 12(10), 899–904 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Pfeiffer and A. Grbic, “Metamaterial Huygens’ surfaces: tailoring wave fronts with reflectionless sheets,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(19), 197401 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. V. Kildishev, A. Boltasseva, and V. M. Shalaev, “Planar photonics with metasurfaces,” Science 339(6125), 1232009 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (6)

L. Huang, X. Chen, H. Mühlenbernd, G. Li, B. Bai, Q. Tan, G. Jin, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Dispersionless phase discontinuities for controlling light propagation,” Nano Lett. 12(11), 5750–5755 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Aieta, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, N. Yu, R. Blanchard, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Aberration-Free Ultrathin Flat Lenses and Axicons at Telecom Wavelengths Based on Plasmonic Metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(9), 4932–4936 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Dolev, I. Epstein, and A. Arie, “Surface-plasmon holographic beam shaping,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(20), 203903 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. I. Zheludev and Y. S. Kivshar, “From metamaterials to metadevices,” Nat. Mater. 11(11), 917–924 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Sun, K. Y. Yang, C. M. Wang, T. K. Juan, W. T. Chen, C. Y. Liao, Q. He, S. Xiao, W. T. Kung, G. Y. Guo, L. Zhou, and D. P. Tsai, “High-efficiency broadband anomalous reflection by gradient meta-surfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(12), 6223–6229 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Liu and S. Fan, “S4: A free electromagnetic solver for layered periodic structures,” Comput. Phys. Commun. 183(10), 2233–2244 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J. P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (1)

T. Ergin, N. Stenger, P. Brenner, J. B. Pendry, and M. Wegener, “Three-dimensional invisibility cloak at optical wavelengths,” Science 328(5976), 337–339 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

J. Valentine, J. Li, T. Zentgraf, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “An optical cloak made of dielectrics,” Nat. Mater. 8(7), 568–571 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

D. H. Kim, J. H. Ahn, W. M. Choi, H. S. Kim, T. H. Kim, J. Song, Y. Y. Huang, Z. Liu, C. Lu, and J. A. Rogers, “Stretchable and foldable silicon integrated circuits,” Science 320(5875), 507–511 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

C. Slinger, C. Cameron, and M. Stanley, “Computer-generated holography as a generic display technology,” Computer 38(8), 46–53 (2005).
[Crossref]

1972 (1)

R. W. Gerchberg, “A practical algorithm for the determination of phase from image and diffraction plane pictures,” Optik (Stuttg.) 35, 237–250 (1972).

Abdollahramezani, S.

Achouri, K.

K. Achouri, M. A. Salem, and C. Caloz, “General metasurface synthesis based on susceptibility tensors,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 63(7), 2977–2991 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ahn, J. H.

D. H. Kim, J. H. Ahn, W. M. Choi, H. S. Kim, T. H. Kim, J. Song, Y. Y. Huang, Z. Liu, C. Lu, and J. A. Rogers, “Stretchable and foldable silicon integrated circuits,” Science 320(5875), 507–511 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aieta, F.

F. Aieta, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, N. Yu, R. Blanchard, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Aberration-Free Ultrathin Flat Lenses and Axicons at Telecom Wavelengths Based on Plasmonic Metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(9), 4932–4936 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J. P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Alù, A.

F. Qin, L. Ding, L. Zhang, F. Monticone, C. C. Chum, J. Deng, S. Mei, Y. Li, J. Teng, M. Hong, S. Zhang, A. Alù, and C. W. Qiu, “Hybrid bilayer plasmonic metasurface efficiently manipulates visible light,” Sci. Adv. 2(1), 1501168 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Arbabi, A.

S. M. Kamali, E. Arbabi, A. Arbabi, and A. Faraon, “A review of dielectric optical metasurfaces for wavefront control,” Nanophotonics 7(6), 1041–1068 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. Jang, Y. Horie, A. Shibukawa, J. Brake, Y. Liu, S. M. Kamali, A. Arbabi, H. Ruan, A. Faraon, and C. Yang, “Wavefront shaping with disorder-engineered metasurfaces,” Nat. Photonics 12(2), 84–90 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. M. Kamali, A. Arbabi, E. Arbabi, Y. Horie, and A. Faraon, “Decoupling optical function and geometrical form using conformal flexible dielectric metasurfaces,” Nat. Commun. 7, 11618–11624 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Arbabi, Y. Horie, M. Bagheri, and A. Faraon, “Dielectric metasurfaces for complete control of phase and polarization with subwavelength spatial resolution and high transmission,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(11), 937–943 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Arbabi, E.

S. M. Kamali, E. Arbabi, A. Arbabi, and A. Faraon, “A review of dielectric optical metasurfaces for wavefront control,” Nanophotonics 7(6), 1041–1068 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. M. Kamali, A. Arbabi, E. Arbabi, Y. Horie, and A. Faraon, “Decoupling optical function and geometrical form using conformal flexible dielectric metasurfaces,” Nat. Commun. 7, 11618–11624 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Arie, A.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic illustration of a conformal metasurface wrapped on an arbitrary curved surface to modify the optical properties of the scattered light, showing: (a) focusing; (b) anomalous refraction; (c) cloaking; (d) curved holography (illusion).
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) The single meta-atom is composed of TiO2 nano-posts patterned above a glass substrate. (b) and (c) The simulated transmission amplitude and phase profile of single meta-atom with radius ranging from 40 nm to 140 nm and height ranging from 200 nm to 800 nm. (d) The transmission amplitude and phase of a single meta-atom with height of 484 nm (corresponding to the dark dashed line in (b) and (c)). The simulation wavelength was 633 nm.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Electrical field intensity of the curved surface integrated with the conformal metasurface, which is able to differentially focus the light. (a) and (d) Intensity profiles of the bare plano-convex and plano-concave cylinder glasses with focal lengths of 10.33 μm and −10.33 μm, respectively. (b) and (e) Electrical field intensities for the convex and concave cylinder glasses integrated with the conformal metasurface, indicating the focal length of 15 μm. (c) and (f) Phase distributions of the convex and concave cylinder glasses integrated with the conformal metasurface. (g) The conformal metasurface phase profile of 2D focusing application. (h) and (i) Electrical field intensity and phase distribution of xz plane and yz plane monitor for the curved surface integrated with the conformal metasurface, indicating the focal length of 15 μm.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Results of the anomalous refraction simulation. The colored bar legend indicates the phase distribution. (a) Transmission amplitude and (b) phase shift of a single nano-post on a planar SiO2 substrate under incident angles of 0°, 10°, and 20°. (c) Phase distribution of the conformal metasurface on a planar substrate in the y = −1 μm plane. Anomalous refraction occurred when illuminated at an oblique incident angle of 10°, where the refraction angle was about 22.5°. (d) The phase profile of the bare curved surface with height z = sin(0.8x) × cos(0.8y). (e) When the incident angle was normal to the integrated conformal metasurface, the refraction angle was about 7.6°. (f) With an oblique incident angle of 10°, the anomalous refraction angle was about 22.5°.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) Schematic diagram of cloaking with a conformal metasurface. (b) Phase distribution in the y = 5 μm plane for a bare curved surface with height z = sin(0.3x) × sin(0.3y), showing that the scattered wavefront is distorted. (c) The transmission wavefront retains the same shape as in the normal incident case, so the object is perfectly invisible. (d) With an oblique incident angle of 10°, the cloaking is still satisfactory. (e) With an oblique incident angle of 20°, the cloaking can be achieved but with less effective performance
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Illustration of light propagation using the Rayleigh-Sommerfeld formula. The holographic metasurface is a paraboloid curved surface and the reconstructed surface is a plane displaying the letter pattern ‘NANO’.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 (a) Schematic of the curved surface, where color indicates the height of the curved surface (z = sin(x) × sin(y)) according to the legend shown at the right. (b) Phase distribution of the curved hologram. (c) The theoretical calculation results of the curved holography. (d) The simulated result of the reconstructed image based on the FDTD method, where the reconstruction distance is 5 mm.

Equations (6)

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1 f =( n1 )( 1 r 1 1 r 2 )
ϕ( r )= k 0 ( f 2 + r 2 | f | )
n t sin( θ t ) n i sin( θ i )= λ 2π dφ dx
U I ( x I , y I , z I )=Γ( r o , r I ) U o ( x o , y o , z o ) ×exp( ik( z I , z o ) )×exp( ik ( x I x o ) 2 + ( y I y o ) 2 2( z I z o ) )d x o d y o
U o ( x o , y o , z o )=exp(i( φ o ( x o , y o , z o )+ φ p ( x o , y o , z o )))
Γ( r o , r I )= 2( z I z o ) | r I r o | × ik 4π| r I r o |

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