Abstract

Visible light communications (VLC) is an emerging technology that uses LEDs, such as found in lighting fixtures and displays, to transmit data wirelessly. Research has so far focused on LED transmitters and on photoreceivers as separate, discrete components. Combining both types of devices into a single transceiver format will enable bi-directional VLC and offer flexibility for the development of future advanced VLC systems. Here, a proof of concept for an integrated optical transceiver is demonstrated by transfer printing a microsize LED, the transmitter, directly onto a fluorescent optical concentrator edge-coupled to a photodiode, the receiver. This integrated device can simultaneously receive (downlink) and transmit (uplink) data at rates of 416 Mbps and 165 Mbps, respectively. Its capability to operate in optical relay mode at 337 Mbps is experimentally demonstrated.

Published by The Optical Society under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License. Further distribution of this work must maintain attribution to the author(s) and the published article's title, journal citation, and DOI.

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References

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2018 (4)

Y. Zhao, H. Fu, G. T. Wang, and S. Nakamura, “Toward ultimate efficiency: progress and prospects on planar and 3D nanostructured nonpolar and semipolar InGaN light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Opt. Photon. 10(1), 246–308 (2018).
[Crossref]

H. E. Lee, J. Choi, S. H. Lee, M. Jeong, J. H. Shin, D. J. Joe, D. Kim, C. W. Kim, J. H. Park, J. H. Lee, D. Kim, C. S. Shin, and K. J. Lee, “Monolithic flexible vertical GaN light-emitting diodes for a transparent wireless brain optical stimulator,” Adv. Mater.  30, 1800649 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. H. Lee, J. Kim, J. H. Shin, H. E. Lee, I. S. Kang, K. Gwak, D. S. Kim, D. Kim, and K. J. Lee, “Optogenetic control of body movements via flexible vertical light-emitting diodes on brain surface,” Nano Energy 44, 447–455 (2018).
[Crossref]

H. E. Lee, S. H. Lee, M. Jeong, J. H. Shin, Y. Ahn, D. Kim, S. H. Oh, S. H. Yun, and K. J. Lee, “Trichogenic photostimulation using monolithic flexible vertical AlGaInP light-emitting diodes,” ACS Nano 12(12), 9587–9595 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2017 (4)

2016 (8)

P. P. Manousiadis, S. Rajbhandari, R. Mulyawan, D. A. Vithanage, H. Chun, G. Faulkner, D. O’Brien, G. A. Turnbull, S. Collins, and I. D. W. Samuels, “Wide field-of-view fluorescent antenna for visible light communications beyond the étendue limit,” Optica 3(7), 702–706 (2016).
[Crossref]

T. Peyronel, K. J. Quirk, S. C. Wang, and T. G. Tieke, “Luminescent detector for free-space optical communication,” Optica 3(7), 787–792 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Rajbhandari, J. J. D. McKendry, J. Herrnsdorf, H. Chun, G. Faulkner, H. Haas, I. M. Watson, D. O’Brien, and M. D. Dawson, “A review of Gallium Nitride LEDs for multi-gigabit-per-second visible light data communications,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 32(2), 1–44 (2016).

A. De Groote, P. Cardile, A. Z. Subramanian, A. M. Fecioru, C. Bower, D. Delbeke, R. Baets, and G. Roelkens, “Transfer-printing-based integration of single-mode waveguide-coupled III-V-on-silicon broadband light emitters,” Opt. Express 24(13), 13754–13762 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Guilhabert, A. Hurtado, D. Jevtics, Q. Gao, H. H. Tan, C. Jagadish, and M. D. Dawson, “Transfer printing of semiconductor nanowires with lasing emission for controllable nanophotonic device fabrication,” ACS Nano 10(4), 3951–3958 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Kang, B. Gai, B. Thompson, S. M. Lee, N. Malmstadt, and J. Yoon, “Flexible opto–fluidic fluorescence sensors based on heterogeneously integrated micro–VCSELs and silicon photodiodes,” ACS Photonics 3(6), 912–918 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. H. Cheng, T. W. Huang, C. L. Wu, M. K. Chen, C. H. Chu, Y. R. Wu, M. H. Shih, C. K. Lee, H. C. Kuo, D. P. Tsai, and G. R. Lin, “Transferring the bendable substrateless GaN LED grown on a thin C-rich SiC buffer layer to flexible dielectric and metallic plates,” J. Mater. Chem. C 5(3), 607–617 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. M. M. Santos, S. Rajbhandari, D. Tsonev, H. Chun, B. Guilhabert, A. B. Krysa, A. E. Kelly, H. Haas, D. C. O’Brien, N. Laurand, and M. D. Dawson, “Visible light communication using InGaN optical sources with AlInGaP nanomembrane downconverters,” Opt. Express 24(9), 10020–10029 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (2)

2014 (3)

P. Tian, J. J. D. McKendry, Z. Gong, S. Zhang, S. Watson, D. Zhu, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, A. E. Kelly, C. J. Humphreys, and M. D. Dawson, “Characteristics and applications of micro-pixelated GaN-based light emitting diodes on Si substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 115, 033112 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. K. Jeong, K. I. Park, J. H. Son, G. T. Hwang, S. H. Lee, D. Y. Park, H. E. Lee, H. K. Lee, M. Byuna, and K. J. Lee, “Self-powered fully-flexible light-emitting system enabled by flexible energy harvester, ” Energy Environ. Sci. 7(12), 4035–4043 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. Tsonev, H. Chun, S. Rajbhandari, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Videv, E. Gu, M. Haji, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, G. Faulkner, M. D. Dawson, H. Haas, and D. O’Brien, “A 3-Gb/s single-LED OFDM-based wireless VLC link using a Gallium Nitride micro-LED,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26(7), 637–640 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (3)

A. J. Trindade, B. Guilhabert, D. Massoubre, D. Zhu, N. Lauarand, E. Gu, I. M. Watson, C. J. Humphreys, and M. D. Dawson, “Nanoscale-accuracy transfer printing of ultra-thin AlInGaN light-emitting diodes onto mechanically flexible substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(25), 253302 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Nakamura and M. R. Krames, “History of gallium-nitride-based light-emitting diodes for illumination,” Proceedings of the IEEE 101(10), 2211–2220 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Chary, J. Tamelier, and K. Turner, “A microfabricated gecko-inspired controllable and reusable dry adhesive,” Smart Mater. Struct. 22(2), 25013 (2013)
[Crossref]

2012 (4)

D. H. Kim, R. Ghaffari, N. Lu, and J. A. Rogers, “Flexible and stretchable electronics for biointegrated devices,” Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng. 14, 113–128 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T-I. Kim, Y. H. Jung, J. Song, D. Kim, Y. Li, H-S. Kim, I-S. Song, J. J. Wierer, H. A. Pao, Y. Huang, and J. A. Rogers, “High–efficiency, microscale GaN light–emitting diodes and their thermal properties on unusual substrates,” Small 8(11), 1643–1649 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R-H. Kim, S. Kim, Y. M. Song, H. Jeong, T. Kim, J. Lee, X. Li, K. D. Choquette, and J. A. Rogers, “Flexible vertical light emitting diodes,” Small 8(20), 3123–3128 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. H. Lee, K. I. Park, C. Huh, M. Koo, H. G. Yoo, S. Kim, C. S. Ah, G. Y. Sung, and K. J. Lee, “Water-resistant flexible GaN LED on a liquid crystal polymer substrate for implantable biomedical applications,” Nano Energy 1, 145–152 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

P. F. Smet, A. B. Parmentier, and D. Poelman, “Selecting conversion phosphors for white light-emitting diodes,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 158(6), R37–R54 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

F. Chang and V. S. Corp, “Forward error correction for 100 G transport networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 48, (3)48–55 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. J. D. McKendry, R. P. Green, A. E. Kelly, Z. Gong, B. Guilhabert, D. Massoubre, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson,, “High-speed visible light communications using individual pixels in a micro light-emitting diode array,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(18), 1346–1348 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

S-I. Park, Y. Xiong, R. H. Kim, P. Elvikis, M. Meitl, D. H. Kim, J. Wu, J. Yoon, C. J. Yu, Z. Liu, Y. Huang, K. C. Hwang, P. Ferreira, X. Li, K. Choquette, and J. A. Rogers, “Printed assemblies of inorganic light-emitting diodes for deformable and semitransparent displays,” Science 325(5943), 977–981 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ah, C. S.

S. H. Lee, K. I. Park, C. Huh, M. Koo, H. G. Yoo, S. Kim, C. S. Ah, G. Y. Sung, and K. J. Lee, “Water-resistant flexible GaN LED on a liquid crystal polymer substrate for implantable biomedical applications,” Nano Energy 1, 145–152 (2012).
[Crossref]

Ahn, Y.

H. E. Lee, S. H. Lee, M. Jeong, J. H. Shin, Y. Ahn, D. Kim, S. H. Oh, S. H. Yun, and K. J. Lee, “Trichogenic photostimulation using monolithic flexible vertical AlGaInP light-emitting diodes,” ACS Nano 12(12), 9587–9595 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baets, R.

Bamiedakis, N.

Baranowski, I.

Bower, C.

Byuna, M.

C. K. Jeong, K. I. Park, J. H. Son, G. T. Hwang, S. H. Lee, D. Y. Park, H. E. Lee, H. K. Lee, M. Byuna, and K. J. Lee, “Self-powered fully-flexible light-emitting system enabled by flexible energy harvester, ” Energy Environ. Sci. 7(12), 4035–4043 (2014).
[Crossref]

Cameron, K.

S. Rajbhandari, A. V. N. Jalajakumari, H. Chun, G. Faulkner, K. Cameron, R. Henderson, D. Tsonev, H. Haas, E. Xie, J. J. D. McKendry, J. Herrnsdorf, R. Ferreira, E. Gu, M. D. Dawson, and D. O’Brien, “A multigigabit per second integrated multiple-input multiple-output VLC demonstrator,” J. Light. Technol. 35(20), 4358–4365 (2017).
[Crossref]

Cardile, P.

Chang, F.

F. Chang and V. S. Corp, “Forward error correction for 100 G transport networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 48, (3)48–55 (2010).
[Crossref]

Chary, S.

S. Chary, J. Tamelier, and K. Turner, “A microfabricated gecko-inspired controllable and reusable dry adhesive,” Smart Mater. Struct. 22(2), 25013 (2013)
[Crossref]

Chen, C.

H. Haas, L. Yin, Y. Wang, and C. Chen, “What is LiFi?” J. Light. Technol. 34(6), 1533–1544 (2015)
[Crossref]

Chen, H.

Chen, M. K.

C. H. Cheng, T. W. Huang, C. L. Wu, M. K. Chen, C. H. Chu, Y. R. Wu, M. H. Shih, C. K. Lee, H. C. Kuo, D. P. Tsai, and G. R. Lin, “Transferring the bendable substrateless GaN LED grown on a thin C-rich SiC buffer layer to flexible dielectric and metallic plates,” J. Mater. Chem. C 5(3), 607–617 (2016).
[Crossref]

Cheng, C. H.

C. H. Cheng, T. W. Huang, C. L. Wu, M. K. Chen, C. H. Chu, Y. R. Wu, M. H. Shih, C. K. Lee, H. C. Kuo, D. P. Tsai, and G. R. Lin, “Transferring the bendable substrateless GaN LED grown on a thin C-rich SiC buffer layer to flexible dielectric and metallic plates,” J. Mater. Chem. C 5(3), 607–617 (2016).
[Crossref]

Choi, J.

H. E. Lee, J. Choi, S. H. Lee, M. Jeong, J. H. Shin, D. J. Joe, D. Kim, C. W. Kim, J. H. Park, J. H. Lee, D. Kim, C. S. Shin, and K. J. Lee, “Monolithic flexible vertical GaN light-emitting diodes for a transparent wireless brain optical stimulator,” Adv. Mater.  30, 1800649 (2018).
[Crossref]

Choquette, K.

S-I. Park, Y. Xiong, R. H. Kim, P. Elvikis, M. Meitl, D. H. Kim, J. Wu, J. Yoon, C. J. Yu, Z. Liu, Y. Huang, K. C. Hwang, P. Ferreira, X. Li, K. Choquette, and J. A. Rogers, “Printed assemblies of inorganic light-emitting diodes for deformable and semitransparent displays,” Science 325(5943), 977–981 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Choquette, K. D.

R-H. Kim, S. Kim, Y. M. Song, H. Jeong, T. Kim, J. Lee, X. Li, K. D. Choquette, and J. A. Rogers, “Flexible vertical light emitting diodes,” Small 8(20), 3123–3128 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chu, C. H.

C. H. Cheng, T. W. Huang, C. L. Wu, M. K. Chen, C. H. Chu, Y. R. Wu, M. H. Shih, C. K. Lee, H. C. Kuo, D. P. Tsai, and G. R. Lin, “Transferring the bendable substrateless GaN LED grown on a thin C-rich SiC buffer layer to flexible dielectric and metallic plates,” J. Mater. Chem. C 5(3), 607–617 (2016).
[Crossref]

Chun, H.

S. Rajbhandari, A. V. N. Jalajakumari, H. Chun, G. Faulkner, K. Cameron, R. Henderson, D. Tsonev, H. Haas, E. Xie, J. J. D. McKendry, J. Herrnsdorf, R. Ferreira, E. Gu, M. D. Dawson, and D. O’Brien, “A multigigabit per second integrated multiple-input multiple-output VLC demonstrator,” J. Light. Technol. 35(20), 4358–4365 (2017).
[Crossref]

P. P. Manousiadis, S. Rajbhandari, R. Mulyawan, D. A. Vithanage, H. Chun, G. Faulkner, D. O’Brien, G. A. Turnbull, S. Collins, and I. D. W. Samuels, “Wide field-of-view fluorescent antenna for visible light communications beyond the étendue limit,” Optica 3(7), 702–706 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. M. M. Santos, S. Rajbhandari, D. Tsonev, H. Chun, B. Guilhabert, A. B. Krysa, A. E. Kelly, H. Haas, D. C. O’Brien, N. Laurand, and M. D. Dawson, “Visible light communication using InGaN optical sources with AlInGaP nanomembrane downconverters,” Opt. Express 24(9), 10020–10029 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Rajbhandari, J. J. D. McKendry, J. Herrnsdorf, H. Chun, G. Faulkner, H. Haas, I. M. Watson, D. O’Brien, and M. D. Dawson, “A review of Gallium Nitride LEDs for multi-gigabit-per-second visible light data communications,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 32(2), 1–44 (2016).

D. Tsonev, H. Chun, S. Rajbhandari, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Videv, E. Gu, M. Haji, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, G. Faulkner, M. D. Dawson, H. Haas, and D. O’Brien, “A 3-Gb/s single-LED OFDM-based wireless VLC link using a Gallium Nitride micro-LED,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26(7), 637–640 (2014).
[Crossref]

Collins, S.

Corp, V. S.

F. Chang and V. S. Corp, “Forward error correction for 100 G transport networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 48, (3)48–55 (2010).
[Crossref]

Dawson, M. D.

M. S. Islim, R. X. Ferreira, X. He, E. Xie, S. Videv, S. Viola, S. Watson, N. Bamiedakis, P. V. Plenty, I. H. White, A. E. kelly, E. Gu, H. Haas, and M. D. Dawson, “Towards 10 Gb/s OFDM-based visible light communication using a GaN violet micro-LED,” Photon. Res. 5(2), A35–A43 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Rajbhandari, A. V. N. Jalajakumari, H. Chun, G. Faulkner, K. Cameron, R. Henderson, D. Tsonev, H. Haas, E. Xie, J. J. D. McKendry, J. Herrnsdorf, R. Ferreira, E. Gu, M. D. Dawson, and D. O’Brien, “A multigigabit per second integrated multiple-input multiple-output VLC demonstrator,” J. Light. Technol. 35(20), 4358–4365 (2017).
[Crossref]

K. Rae, C. Foucher, B. Guilhabert, M. S. Islim, L. Yin, D. Zhu, R. A. Oliver, D. J. Wallis, H. Haas, N. Laurand, and M. D. Dawson, “InGaN micro-LEDs integrated onto an ultra-thin , colloidal quantum dot functionalized glass platform,” Opt. Express 25(16) 19179–19184 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. M. M. Santos, S. Rajbhandari, D. Tsonev, H. Chun, B. Guilhabert, A. B. Krysa, A. E. Kelly, H. Haas, D. C. O’Brien, N. Laurand, and M. D. Dawson, “Visible light communication using InGaN optical sources with AlInGaP nanomembrane downconverters,” Opt. Express 24(9), 10020–10029 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Rajbhandari, J. J. D. McKendry, J. Herrnsdorf, H. Chun, G. Faulkner, H. Haas, I. M. Watson, D. O’Brien, and M. D. Dawson, “A review of Gallium Nitride LEDs for multi-gigabit-per-second visible light data communications,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 32(2), 1–44 (2016).

B. Guilhabert, A. Hurtado, D. Jevtics, Q. Gao, H. H. Tan, C. Jagadish, and M. D. Dawson, “Transfer printing of semiconductor nanowires with lasing emission for controllable nanophotonic device fabrication,” ACS Nano 10(4), 3951–3958 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. J. Trindade, B. Guilhabert, E. Xie, R. Ferreira, J. J. D. McKendry, D. Zhu, N. Lauarand, E. Gu, D. J. Wallis, I. M. Watson, C. J. Humphreys, and M. D. Dawson, “Heterogeneous integration of gallium nitride light-emitting diodes on diamond and silica by transfer printing,” Opt. Express 23(7), 9329–9338 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Tsonev, H. Chun, S. Rajbhandari, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Videv, E. Gu, M. Haji, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, G. Faulkner, M. D. Dawson, H. Haas, and D. O’Brien, “A 3-Gb/s single-LED OFDM-based wireless VLC link using a Gallium Nitride micro-LED,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26(7), 637–640 (2014).
[Crossref]

P. Tian, J. J. D. McKendry, Z. Gong, S. Zhang, S. Watson, D. Zhu, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, A. E. Kelly, C. J. Humphreys, and M. D. Dawson, “Characteristics and applications of micro-pixelated GaN-based light emitting diodes on Si substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 115, 033112 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. J. Trindade, B. Guilhabert, D. Massoubre, D. Zhu, N. Lauarand, E. Gu, I. M. Watson, C. J. Humphreys, and M. D. Dawson, “Nanoscale-accuracy transfer printing of ultra-thin AlInGaN light-emitting diodes onto mechanically flexible substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(25), 253302 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. J. D. McKendry, R. P. Green, A. E. Kelly, Z. Gong, B. Guilhabert, D. Massoubre, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson,, “High-speed visible light communications using individual pixels in a micro light-emitting diode array,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(18), 1346–1348 (2010).
[Crossref]

K. Rae, E. Y. Xie, A. J. Trindade, B. Guilhabert, R. X. Ferreira, J. J. D. McKendry, D. Zhu, N. Laurand, E. Gu, I. M. Watson, C. J. Humphreys, D. J. Wallis, and M. D. Dawson, “Integrated dual-color InGaN light-emitting diode array through transfer printing,” in the proceedings of IEEE conference on Photonics (IPC, 2015), pp. 390–391.

De Groote, A.

Delbeke, D.

Elvikis, P.

S-I. Park, Y. Xiong, R. H. Kim, P. Elvikis, M. Meitl, D. H. Kim, J. Wu, J. Yoon, C. J. Yu, Z. Liu, Y. Huang, K. C. Hwang, P. Ferreira, X. Li, K. Choquette, and J. A. Rogers, “Printed assemblies of inorganic light-emitting diodes for deformable and semitransparent displays,” Science 325(5943), 977–981 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fan, Y.

Faulkner, G.

S. Rajbhandari, A. V. N. Jalajakumari, H. Chun, G. Faulkner, K. Cameron, R. Henderson, D. Tsonev, H. Haas, E. Xie, J. J. D. McKendry, J. Herrnsdorf, R. Ferreira, E. Gu, M. D. Dawson, and D. O’Brien, “A multigigabit per second integrated multiple-input multiple-output VLC demonstrator,” J. Light. Technol. 35(20), 4358–4365 (2017).
[Crossref]

P. P. Manousiadis, S. Rajbhandari, R. Mulyawan, D. A. Vithanage, H. Chun, G. Faulkner, D. O’Brien, G. A. Turnbull, S. Collins, and I. D. W. Samuels, “Wide field-of-view fluorescent antenna for visible light communications beyond the étendue limit,” Optica 3(7), 702–706 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Rajbhandari, J. J. D. McKendry, J. Herrnsdorf, H. Chun, G. Faulkner, H. Haas, I. M. Watson, D. O’Brien, and M. D. Dawson, “A review of Gallium Nitride LEDs for multi-gigabit-per-second visible light data communications,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 32(2), 1–44 (2016).

D. Tsonev, H. Chun, S. Rajbhandari, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Videv, E. Gu, M. Haji, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, G. Faulkner, M. D. Dawson, H. Haas, and D. O’Brien, “A 3-Gb/s single-LED OFDM-based wireless VLC link using a Gallium Nitride micro-LED,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26(7), 637–640 (2014).
[Crossref]

Fecioru, A. M.

Ferreira, P.

S-I. Park, Y. Xiong, R. H. Kim, P. Elvikis, M. Meitl, D. H. Kim, J. Wu, J. Yoon, C. J. Yu, Z. Liu, Y. Huang, K. C. Hwang, P. Ferreira, X. Li, K. Choquette, and J. A. Rogers, “Printed assemblies of inorganic light-emitting diodes for deformable and semitransparent displays,” Science 325(5943), 977–981 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ferreira, R.

S. Rajbhandari, A. V. N. Jalajakumari, H. Chun, G. Faulkner, K. Cameron, R. Henderson, D. Tsonev, H. Haas, E. Xie, J. J. D. McKendry, J. Herrnsdorf, R. Ferreira, E. Gu, M. D. Dawson, and D. O’Brien, “A multigigabit per second integrated multiple-input multiple-output VLC demonstrator,” J. Light. Technol. 35(20), 4358–4365 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. J. Trindade, B. Guilhabert, E. Xie, R. Ferreira, J. J. D. McKendry, D. Zhu, N. Lauarand, E. Gu, D. J. Wallis, I. M. Watson, C. J. Humphreys, and M. D. Dawson, “Heterogeneous integration of gallium nitride light-emitting diodes on diamond and silica by transfer printing,” Opt. Express 23(7), 9329–9338 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ferreira, R. X.

M. S. Islim, R. X. Ferreira, X. He, E. Xie, S. Videv, S. Viola, S. Watson, N. Bamiedakis, P. V. Plenty, I. H. White, A. E. kelly, E. Gu, H. Haas, and M. D. Dawson, “Towards 10 Gb/s OFDM-based visible light communication using a GaN violet micro-LED,” Photon. Res. 5(2), A35–A43 (2017).
[Crossref]

K. Rae, E. Y. Xie, A. J. Trindade, B. Guilhabert, R. X. Ferreira, J. J. D. McKendry, D. Zhu, N. Laurand, E. Gu, I. M. Watson, C. J. Humphreys, D. J. Wallis, and M. D. Dawson, “Integrated dual-color InGaN light-emitting diode array through transfer printing,” in the proceedings of IEEE conference on Photonics (IPC, 2015), pp. 390–391.

Foucher, C.

Fu, H.

Gai, B.

D. Kang, B. Gai, B. Thompson, S. M. Lee, N. Malmstadt, and J. Yoon, “Flexible opto–fluidic fluorescence sensors based on heterogeneously integrated micro–VCSELs and silicon photodiodes,” ACS Photonics 3(6), 912–918 (2016).
[Crossref]

Gao, Q.

B. Guilhabert, A. Hurtado, D. Jevtics, Q. Gao, H. H. Tan, C. Jagadish, and M. D. Dawson, “Transfer printing of semiconductor nanowires with lasing emission for controllable nanophotonic device fabrication,” ACS Nano 10(4), 3951–3958 (2016).
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Ghaffari, R.

D. H. Kim, R. Ghaffari, N. Lu, and J. A. Rogers, “Flexible and stretchable electronics for biointegrated devices,” Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng. 14, 113–128 (2012).
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Gong, Z.

P. Tian, J. J. D. McKendry, Z. Gong, S. Zhang, S. Watson, D. Zhu, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, A. E. Kelly, C. J. Humphreys, and M. D. Dawson, “Characteristics and applications of micro-pixelated GaN-based light emitting diodes on Si substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 115, 033112 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. J. D. McKendry, R. P. Green, A. E. Kelly, Z. Gong, B. Guilhabert, D. Massoubre, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson,, “High-speed visible light communications using individual pixels in a micro light-emitting diode array,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(18), 1346–1348 (2010).
[Crossref]

Green, R. P.

J. J. D. McKendry, R. P. Green, A. E. Kelly, Z. Gong, B. Guilhabert, D. Massoubre, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson,, “High-speed visible light communications using individual pixels in a micro light-emitting diode array,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(18), 1346–1348 (2010).
[Crossref]

Gu, E.

M. S. Islim, R. X. Ferreira, X. He, E. Xie, S. Videv, S. Viola, S. Watson, N. Bamiedakis, P. V. Plenty, I. H. White, A. E. kelly, E. Gu, H. Haas, and M. D. Dawson, “Towards 10 Gb/s OFDM-based visible light communication using a GaN violet micro-LED,” Photon. Res. 5(2), A35–A43 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Rajbhandari, A. V. N. Jalajakumari, H. Chun, G. Faulkner, K. Cameron, R. Henderson, D. Tsonev, H. Haas, E. Xie, J. J. D. McKendry, J. Herrnsdorf, R. Ferreira, E. Gu, M. D. Dawson, and D. O’Brien, “A multigigabit per second integrated multiple-input multiple-output VLC demonstrator,” J. Light. Technol. 35(20), 4358–4365 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. J. Trindade, B. Guilhabert, E. Xie, R. Ferreira, J. J. D. McKendry, D. Zhu, N. Lauarand, E. Gu, D. J. Wallis, I. M. Watson, C. J. Humphreys, and M. D. Dawson, “Heterogeneous integration of gallium nitride light-emitting diodes on diamond and silica by transfer printing,” Opt. Express 23(7), 9329–9338 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Tian, J. J. D. McKendry, Z. Gong, S. Zhang, S. Watson, D. Zhu, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, A. E. Kelly, C. J. Humphreys, and M. D. Dawson, “Characteristics and applications of micro-pixelated GaN-based light emitting diodes on Si substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 115, 033112 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. Tsonev, H. Chun, S. Rajbhandari, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Videv, E. Gu, M. Haji, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, G. Faulkner, M. D. Dawson, H. Haas, and D. O’Brien, “A 3-Gb/s single-LED OFDM-based wireless VLC link using a Gallium Nitride micro-LED,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26(7), 637–640 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. J. Trindade, B. Guilhabert, D. Massoubre, D. Zhu, N. Lauarand, E. Gu, I. M. Watson, C. J. Humphreys, and M. D. Dawson, “Nanoscale-accuracy transfer printing of ultra-thin AlInGaN light-emitting diodes onto mechanically flexible substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(25), 253302 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. J. D. McKendry, R. P. Green, A. E. Kelly, Z. Gong, B. Guilhabert, D. Massoubre, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson,, “High-speed visible light communications using individual pixels in a micro light-emitting diode array,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(18), 1346–1348 (2010).
[Crossref]

K. Rae, E. Y. Xie, A. J. Trindade, B. Guilhabert, R. X. Ferreira, J. J. D. McKendry, D. Zhu, N. Laurand, E. Gu, I. M. Watson, C. J. Humphreys, D. J. Wallis, and M. D. Dawson, “Integrated dual-color InGaN light-emitting diode array through transfer printing,” in the proceedings of IEEE conference on Photonics (IPC, 2015), pp. 390–391.

Guilhabert, B.

K. Rae, C. Foucher, B. Guilhabert, M. S. Islim, L. Yin, D. Zhu, R. A. Oliver, D. J. Wallis, H. Haas, N. Laurand, and M. D. Dawson, “InGaN micro-LEDs integrated onto an ultra-thin , colloidal quantum dot functionalized glass platform,” Opt. Express 25(16) 19179–19184 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. M. M. Santos, S. Rajbhandari, D. Tsonev, H. Chun, B. Guilhabert, A. B. Krysa, A. E. Kelly, H. Haas, D. C. O’Brien, N. Laurand, and M. D. Dawson, “Visible light communication using InGaN optical sources with AlInGaP nanomembrane downconverters,” Opt. Express 24(9), 10020–10029 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Guilhabert, A. Hurtado, D. Jevtics, Q. Gao, H. H. Tan, C. Jagadish, and M. D. Dawson, “Transfer printing of semiconductor nanowires with lasing emission for controllable nanophotonic device fabrication,” ACS Nano 10(4), 3951–3958 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. J. Trindade, B. Guilhabert, E. Xie, R. Ferreira, J. J. D. McKendry, D. Zhu, N. Lauarand, E. Gu, D. J. Wallis, I. M. Watson, C. J. Humphreys, and M. D. Dawson, “Heterogeneous integration of gallium nitride light-emitting diodes on diamond and silica by transfer printing,” Opt. Express 23(7), 9329–9338 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. J. Trindade, B. Guilhabert, D. Massoubre, D. Zhu, N. Lauarand, E. Gu, I. M. Watson, C. J. Humphreys, and M. D. Dawson, “Nanoscale-accuracy transfer printing of ultra-thin AlInGaN light-emitting diodes onto mechanically flexible substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(25), 253302 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. J. D. McKendry, R. P. Green, A. E. Kelly, Z. Gong, B. Guilhabert, D. Massoubre, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson,, “High-speed visible light communications using individual pixels in a micro light-emitting diode array,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(18), 1346–1348 (2010).
[Crossref]

K. Rae, E. Y. Xie, A. J. Trindade, B. Guilhabert, R. X. Ferreira, J. J. D. McKendry, D. Zhu, N. Laurand, E. Gu, I. M. Watson, C. J. Humphreys, D. J. Wallis, and M. D. Dawson, “Integrated dual-color InGaN light-emitting diode array through transfer printing,” in the proceedings of IEEE conference on Photonics (IPC, 2015), pp. 390–391.

Gwak, K.

S. H. Lee, J. Kim, J. H. Shin, H. E. Lee, I. S. Kang, K. Gwak, D. S. Kim, D. Kim, and K. J. Lee, “Optogenetic control of body movements via flexible vertical light-emitting diodes on brain surface,” Nano Energy 44, 447–455 (2018).
[Crossref]

Haas, H.

S. Rajbhandari, A. V. N. Jalajakumari, H. Chun, G. Faulkner, K. Cameron, R. Henderson, D. Tsonev, H. Haas, E. Xie, J. J. D. McKendry, J. Herrnsdorf, R. Ferreira, E. Gu, M. D. Dawson, and D. O’Brien, “A multigigabit per second integrated multiple-input multiple-output VLC demonstrator,” J. Light. Technol. 35(20), 4358–4365 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. S. Islim, R. X. Ferreira, X. He, E. Xie, S. Videv, S. Viola, S. Watson, N. Bamiedakis, P. V. Plenty, I. H. White, A. E. kelly, E. Gu, H. Haas, and M. D. Dawson, “Towards 10 Gb/s OFDM-based visible light communication using a GaN violet micro-LED,” Photon. Res. 5(2), A35–A43 (2017).
[Crossref]

K. Rae, C. Foucher, B. Guilhabert, M. S. Islim, L. Yin, D. Zhu, R. A. Oliver, D. J. Wallis, H. Haas, N. Laurand, and M. D. Dawson, “InGaN micro-LEDs integrated onto an ultra-thin , colloidal quantum dot functionalized glass platform,” Opt. Express 25(16) 19179–19184 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. M. M. Santos, S. Rajbhandari, D. Tsonev, H. Chun, B. Guilhabert, A. B. Krysa, A. E. Kelly, H. Haas, D. C. O’Brien, N. Laurand, and M. D. Dawson, “Visible light communication using InGaN optical sources with AlInGaP nanomembrane downconverters,” Opt. Express 24(9), 10020–10029 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Rajbhandari, J. J. D. McKendry, J. Herrnsdorf, H. Chun, G. Faulkner, H. Haas, I. M. Watson, D. O’Brien, and M. D. Dawson, “A review of Gallium Nitride LEDs for multi-gigabit-per-second visible light data communications,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 32(2), 1–44 (2016).

H. Haas, L. Yin, Y. Wang, and C. Chen, “What is LiFi?” J. Light. Technol. 34(6), 1533–1544 (2015)
[Crossref]

D. Tsonev, H. Chun, S. Rajbhandari, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Videv, E. Gu, M. Haji, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, G. Faulkner, M. D. Dawson, H. Haas, and D. O’Brien, “A 3-Gb/s single-LED OFDM-based wireless VLC link using a Gallium Nitride micro-LED,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26(7), 637–640 (2014).
[Crossref]

Haji, M.

D. Tsonev, H. Chun, S. Rajbhandari, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Videv, E. Gu, M. Haji, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, G. Faulkner, M. D. Dawson, H. Haas, and D. O’Brien, “A 3-Gb/s single-LED OFDM-based wireless VLC link using a Gallium Nitride micro-LED,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26(7), 637–640 (2014).
[Crossref]

He, X.

Henderson, R.

S. Rajbhandari, A. V. N. Jalajakumari, H. Chun, G. Faulkner, K. Cameron, R. Henderson, D. Tsonev, H. Haas, E. Xie, J. J. D. McKendry, J. Herrnsdorf, R. Ferreira, E. Gu, M. D. Dawson, and D. O’Brien, “A multigigabit per second integrated multiple-input multiple-output VLC demonstrator,” J. Light. Technol. 35(20), 4358–4365 (2017).
[Crossref]

Herrnsdorf, J.

S. Rajbhandari, A. V. N. Jalajakumari, H. Chun, G. Faulkner, K. Cameron, R. Henderson, D. Tsonev, H. Haas, E. Xie, J. J. D. McKendry, J. Herrnsdorf, R. Ferreira, E. Gu, M. D. Dawson, and D. O’Brien, “A multigigabit per second integrated multiple-input multiple-output VLC demonstrator,” J. Light. Technol. 35(20), 4358–4365 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Rajbhandari, J. J. D. McKendry, J. Herrnsdorf, H. Chun, G. Faulkner, H. Haas, I. M. Watson, D. O’Brien, and M. D. Dawson, “A review of Gallium Nitride LEDs for multi-gigabit-per-second visible light data communications,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 32(2), 1–44 (2016).

Huang, T. W.

C. H. Cheng, T. W. Huang, C. L. Wu, M. K. Chen, C. H. Chu, Y. R. Wu, M. H. Shih, C. K. Lee, H. C. Kuo, D. P. Tsai, and G. R. Lin, “Transferring the bendable substrateless GaN LED grown on a thin C-rich SiC buffer layer to flexible dielectric and metallic plates,” J. Mater. Chem. C 5(3), 607–617 (2016).
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Huang, X.

Huang, Y.

T-I. Kim, Y. H. Jung, J. Song, D. Kim, Y. Li, H-S. Kim, I-S. Song, J. J. Wierer, H. A. Pao, Y. Huang, and J. A. Rogers, “High–efficiency, microscale GaN light–emitting diodes and their thermal properties on unusual substrates,” Small 8(11), 1643–1649 (2012).
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S-I. Park, Y. Xiong, R. H. Kim, P. Elvikis, M. Meitl, D. H. Kim, J. Wu, J. Yoon, C. J. Yu, Z. Liu, Y. Huang, K. C. Hwang, P. Ferreira, X. Li, K. Choquette, and J. A. Rogers, “Printed assemblies of inorganic light-emitting diodes for deformable and semitransparent displays,” Science 325(5943), 977–981 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huh, C.

S. H. Lee, K. I. Park, C. Huh, M. Koo, H. G. Yoo, S. Kim, C. S. Ah, G. Y. Sung, and K. J. Lee, “Water-resistant flexible GaN LED on a liquid crystal polymer substrate for implantable biomedical applications,” Nano Energy 1, 145–152 (2012).
[Crossref]

Humphreys, C. J.

A. J. Trindade, B. Guilhabert, E. Xie, R. Ferreira, J. J. D. McKendry, D. Zhu, N. Lauarand, E. Gu, D. J. Wallis, I. M. Watson, C. J. Humphreys, and M. D. Dawson, “Heterogeneous integration of gallium nitride light-emitting diodes on diamond and silica by transfer printing,” Opt. Express 23(7), 9329–9338 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Tian, J. J. D. McKendry, Z. Gong, S. Zhang, S. Watson, D. Zhu, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, A. E. Kelly, C. J. Humphreys, and M. D. Dawson, “Characteristics and applications of micro-pixelated GaN-based light emitting diodes on Si substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 115, 033112 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. J. Trindade, B. Guilhabert, D. Massoubre, D. Zhu, N. Lauarand, E. Gu, I. M. Watson, C. J. Humphreys, and M. D. Dawson, “Nanoscale-accuracy transfer printing of ultra-thin AlInGaN light-emitting diodes onto mechanically flexible substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(25), 253302 (2013).
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H. E. Lee, J. Choi, S. H. Lee, M. Jeong, J. H. Shin, D. J. Joe, D. Kim, C. W. Kim, J. H. Park, J. H. Lee, D. Kim, C. S. Shin, and K. J. Lee, “Monolithic flexible vertical GaN light-emitting diodes for a transparent wireless brain optical stimulator,” Adv. Mater.  30, 1800649 (2018).
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Lee, C. K.

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H. E. Lee, S. H. Lee, M. Jeong, J. H. Shin, Y. Ahn, D. Kim, S. H. Oh, S. H. Yun, and K. J. Lee, “Trichogenic photostimulation using monolithic flexible vertical AlGaInP light-emitting diodes,” ACS Nano 12(12), 9587–9595 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. H. Lee, J. Kim, J. H. Shin, H. E. Lee, I. S. Kang, K. Gwak, D. S. Kim, D. Kim, and K. J. Lee, “Optogenetic control of body movements via flexible vertical light-emitting diodes on brain surface,” Nano Energy 44, 447–455 (2018).
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H. E. Lee, J. Choi, S. H. Lee, M. Jeong, J. H. Shin, D. J. Joe, D. Kim, C. W. Kim, J. H. Park, J. H. Lee, D. Kim, C. S. Shin, and K. J. Lee, “Monolithic flexible vertical GaN light-emitting diodes for a transparent wireless brain optical stimulator,” Adv. Mater.  30, 1800649 (2018).
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C. K. Jeong, K. I. Park, J. H. Son, G. T. Hwang, S. H. Lee, D. Y. Park, H. E. Lee, H. K. Lee, M. Byuna, and K. J. Lee, “Self-powered fully-flexible light-emitting system enabled by flexible energy harvester, ” Energy Environ. Sci. 7(12), 4035–4043 (2014).
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C. K. Jeong, K. I. Park, J. H. Son, G. T. Hwang, S. H. Lee, D. Y. Park, H. E. Lee, H. K. Lee, M. Byuna, and K. J. Lee, “Self-powered fully-flexible light-emitting system enabled by flexible energy harvester, ” Energy Environ. Sci. 7(12), 4035–4043 (2014).
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Lee, J.

R-H. Kim, S. Kim, Y. M. Song, H. Jeong, T. Kim, J. Lee, X. Li, K. D. Choquette, and J. A. Rogers, “Flexible vertical light emitting diodes,” Small 8(20), 3123–3128 (2012).
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Lee, J. H.

H. E. Lee, J. Choi, S. H. Lee, M. Jeong, J. H. Shin, D. J. Joe, D. Kim, C. W. Kim, J. H. Park, J. H. Lee, D. Kim, C. S. Shin, and K. J. Lee, “Monolithic flexible vertical GaN light-emitting diodes for a transparent wireless brain optical stimulator,” Adv. Mater.  30, 1800649 (2018).
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Lee, K. J.

S. H. Lee, J. Kim, J. H. Shin, H. E. Lee, I. S. Kang, K. Gwak, D. S. Kim, D. Kim, and K. J. Lee, “Optogenetic control of body movements via flexible vertical light-emitting diodes on brain surface,” Nano Energy 44, 447–455 (2018).
[Crossref]

H. E. Lee, J. Choi, S. H. Lee, M. Jeong, J. H. Shin, D. J. Joe, D. Kim, C. W. Kim, J. H. Park, J. H. Lee, D. Kim, C. S. Shin, and K. J. Lee, “Monolithic flexible vertical GaN light-emitting diodes for a transparent wireless brain optical stimulator,” Adv. Mater.  30, 1800649 (2018).
[Crossref]

H. E. Lee, S. H. Lee, M. Jeong, J. H. Shin, Y. Ahn, D. Kim, S. H. Oh, S. H. Yun, and K. J. Lee, “Trichogenic photostimulation using monolithic flexible vertical AlGaInP light-emitting diodes,” ACS Nano 12(12), 9587–9595 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. K. Jeong, K. I. Park, J. H. Son, G. T. Hwang, S. H. Lee, D. Y. Park, H. E. Lee, H. K. Lee, M. Byuna, and K. J. Lee, “Self-powered fully-flexible light-emitting system enabled by flexible energy harvester, ” Energy Environ. Sci. 7(12), 4035–4043 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. H. Lee, K. I. Park, C. Huh, M. Koo, H. G. Yoo, S. Kim, C. S. Ah, G. Y. Sung, and K. J. Lee, “Water-resistant flexible GaN LED on a liquid crystal polymer substrate for implantable biomedical applications,” Nano Energy 1, 145–152 (2012).
[Crossref]

Lee, S. H.

S. H. Lee, J. Kim, J. H. Shin, H. E. Lee, I. S. Kang, K. Gwak, D. S. Kim, D. Kim, and K. J. Lee, “Optogenetic control of body movements via flexible vertical light-emitting diodes on brain surface,” Nano Energy 44, 447–455 (2018).
[Crossref]

H. E. Lee, S. H. Lee, M. Jeong, J. H. Shin, Y. Ahn, D. Kim, S. H. Oh, S. H. Yun, and K. J. Lee, “Trichogenic photostimulation using monolithic flexible vertical AlGaInP light-emitting diodes,” ACS Nano 12(12), 9587–9595 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. E. Lee, J. Choi, S. H. Lee, M. Jeong, J. H. Shin, D. J. Joe, D. Kim, C. W. Kim, J. H. Park, J. H. Lee, D. Kim, C. S. Shin, and K. J. Lee, “Monolithic flexible vertical GaN light-emitting diodes for a transparent wireless brain optical stimulator,” Adv. Mater.  30, 1800649 (2018).
[Crossref]

C. K. Jeong, K. I. Park, J. H. Son, G. T. Hwang, S. H. Lee, D. Y. Park, H. E. Lee, H. K. Lee, M. Byuna, and K. J. Lee, “Self-powered fully-flexible light-emitting system enabled by flexible energy harvester, ” Energy Environ. Sci. 7(12), 4035–4043 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. H. Lee, K. I. Park, C. Huh, M. Koo, H. G. Yoo, S. Kim, C. S. Ah, G. Y. Sung, and K. J. Lee, “Water-resistant flexible GaN LED on a liquid crystal polymer substrate for implantable biomedical applications,” Nano Energy 1, 145–152 (2012).
[Crossref]

Lee, S. M.

D. Kang, B. Gai, B. Thompson, S. M. Lee, N. Malmstadt, and J. Yoon, “Flexible opto–fluidic fluorescence sensors based on heterogeneously integrated micro–VCSELs and silicon photodiodes,” ACS Photonics 3(6), 912–918 (2016).
[Crossref]

Li, X.

R-H. Kim, S. Kim, Y. M. Song, H. Jeong, T. Kim, J. Lee, X. Li, K. D. Choquette, and J. A. Rogers, “Flexible vertical light emitting diodes,” Small 8(20), 3123–3128 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S-I. Park, Y. Xiong, R. H. Kim, P. Elvikis, M. Meitl, D. H. Kim, J. Wu, J. Yoon, C. J. Yu, Z. Liu, Y. Huang, K. C. Hwang, P. Ferreira, X. Li, K. Choquette, and J. A. Rogers, “Printed assemblies of inorganic light-emitting diodes for deformable and semitransparent displays,” Science 325(5943), 977–981 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, Y.

T-I. Kim, Y. H. Jung, J. Song, D. Kim, Y. Li, H-S. Kim, I-S. Song, J. J. Wierer, H. A. Pao, Y. Huang, and J. A. Rogers, “High–efficiency, microscale GaN light–emitting diodes and their thermal properties on unusual substrates,” Small 8(11), 1643–1649 (2012).
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C. H. Cheng, T. W. Huang, C. L. Wu, M. K. Chen, C. H. Chu, Y. R. Wu, M. H. Shih, C. K. Lee, H. C. Kuo, D. P. Tsai, and G. R. Lin, “Transferring the bendable substrateless GaN LED grown on a thin C-rich SiC buffer layer to flexible dielectric and metallic plates,” J. Mater. Chem. C 5(3), 607–617 (2016).
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Liu, X.

Liu, Z.

S-I. Park, Y. Xiong, R. H. Kim, P. Elvikis, M. Meitl, D. H. Kim, J. Wu, J. Yoon, C. J. Yu, Z. Liu, Y. Huang, K. C. Hwang, P. Ferreira, X. Li, K. Choquette, and J. A. Rogers, “Printed assemblies of inorganic light-emitting diodes for deformable and semitransparent displays,” Science 325(5943), 977–981 (2009).
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Lu, N.

D. H. Kim, R. Ghaffari, N. Lu, and J. A. Rogers, “Flexible and stretchable electronics for biointegrated devices,” Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng. 14, 113–128 (2012).
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Lu, Z.

Malmstadt, N.

D. Kang, B. Gai, B. Thompson, S. M. Lee, N. Malmstadt, and J. Yoon, “Flexible opto–fluidic fluorescence sensors based on heterogeneously integrated micro–VCSELs and silicon photodiodes,” ACS Photonics 3(6), 912–918 (2016).
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Manousiadis, P. P.

Massoubre, D.

A. J. Trindade, B. Guilhabert, D. Massoubre, D. Zhu, N. Lauarand, E. Gu, I. M. Watson, C. J. Humphreys, and M. D. Dawson, “Nanoscale-accuracy transfer printing of ultra-thin AlInGaN light-emitting diodes onto mechanically flexible substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(25), 253302 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. J. D. McKendry, R. P. Green, A. E. Kelly, Z. Gong, B. Guilhabert, D. Massoubre, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson,, “High-speed visible light communications using individual pixels in a micro light-emitting diode array,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(18), 1346–1348 (2010).
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McKendry, J. J. D.

S. Rajbhandari, A. V. N. Jalajakumari, H. Chun, G. Faulkner, K. Cameron, R. Henderson, D. Tsonev, H. Haas, E. Xie, J. J. D. McKendry, J. Herrnsdorf, R. Ferreira, E. Gu, M. D. Dawson, and D. O’Brien, “A multigigabit per second integrated multiple-input multiple-output VLC demonstrator,” J. Light. Technol. 35(20), 4358–4365 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Rajbhandari, J. J. D. McKendry, J. Herrnsdorf, H. Chun, G. Faulkner, H. Haas, I. M. Watson, D. O’Brien, and M. D. Dawson, “A review of Gallium Nitride LEDs for multi-gigabit-per-second visible light data communications,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 32(2), 1–44 (2016).

A. J. Trindade, B. Guilhabert, E. Xie, R. Ferreira, J. J. D. McKendry, D. Zhu, N. Lauarand, E. Gu, D. J. Wallis, I. M. Watson, C. J. Humphreys, and M. D. Dawson, “Heterogeneous integration of gallium nitride light-emitting diodes on diamond and silica by transfer printing,” Opt. Express 23(7), 9329–9338 (2015).
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P. Tian, J. J. D. McKendry, Z. Gong, S. Zhang, S. Watson, D. Zhu, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, A. E. Kelly, C. J. Humphreys, and M. D. Dawson, “Characteristics and applications of micro-pixelated GaN-based light emitting diodes on Si substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 115, 033112 (2014).
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D. Tsonev, H. Chun, S. Rajbhandari, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Videv, E. Gu, M. Haji, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, G. Faulkner, M. D. Dawson, H. Haas, and D. O’Brien, “A 3-Gb/s single-LED OFDM-based wireless VLC link using a Gallium Nitride micro-LED,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26(7), 637–640 (2014).
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J. J. D. McKendry, R. P. Green, A. E. Kelly, Z. Gong, B. Guilhabert, D. Massoubre, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson,, “High-speed visible light communications using individual pixels in a micro light-emitting diode array,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(18), 1346–1348 (2010).
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Meitl, M.

S-I. Park, Y. Xiong, R. H. Kim, P. Elvikis, M. Meitl, D. H. Kim, J. Wu, J. Yoon, C. J. Yu, Z. Liu, Y. Huang, K. C. Hwang, P. Ferreira, X. Li, K. Choquette, and J. A. Rogers, “Printed assemblies of inorganic light-emitting diodes for deformable and semitransparent displays,” Science 325(5943), 977–981 (2009).
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Mulyawan, R.

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S. Rajbhandari, A. V. N. Jalajakumari, H. Chun, G. Faulkner, K. Cameron, R. Henderson, D. Tsonev, H. Haas, E. Xie, J. J. D. McKendry, J. Herrnsdorf, R. Ferreira, E. Gu, M. D. Dawson, and D. O’Brien, “A multigigabit per second integrated multiple-input multiple-output VLC demonstrator,” J. Light. Technol. 35(20), 4358–4365 (2017).
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S. Rajbhandari, J. J. D. McKendry, J. Herrnsdorf, H. Chun, G. Faulkner, H. Haas, I. M. Watson, D. O’Brien, and M. D. Dawson, “A review of Gallium Nitride LEDs for multi-gigabit-per-second visible light data communications,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 32(2), 1–44 (2016).

D. Tsonev, H. Chun, S. Rajbhandari, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Videv, E. Gu, M. Haji, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, G. Faulkner, M. D. Dawson, H. Haas, and D. O’Brien, “A 3-Gb/s single-LED OFDM-based wireless VLC link using a Gallium Nitride micro-LED,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26(7), 637–640 (2014).
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O’Brien, D. C.

Oh, S. H.

H. E. Lee, S. H. Lee, M. Jeong, J. H. Shin, Y. Ahn, D. Kim, S. H. Oh, S. H. Yun, and K. J. Lee, “Trichogenic photostimulation using monolithic flexible vertical AlGaInP light-emitting diodes,” ACS Nano 12(12), 9587–9595 (2018).
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Oliver, R. A.

Pao, H. A.

T-I. Kim, Y. H. Jung, J. Song, D. Kim, Y. Li, H-S. Kim, I-S. Song, J. J. Wierer, H. A. Pao, Y. Huang, and J. A. Rogers, “High–efficiency, microscale GaN light–emitting diodes and their thermal properties on unusual substrates,” Small 8(11), 1643–1649 (2012).
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Park, D. Y.

C. K. Jeong, K. I. Park, J. H. Son, G. T. Hwang, S. H. Lee, D. Y. Park, H. E. Lee, H. K. Lee, M. Byuna, and K. J. Lee, “Self-powered fully-flexible light-emitting system enabled by flexible energy harvester, ” Energy Environ. Sci. 7(12), 4035–4043 (2014).
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Park, J. H.

H. E. Lee, J. Choi, S. H. Lee, M. Jeong, J. H. Shin, D. J. Joe, D. Kim, C. W. Kim, J. H. Park, J. H. Lee, D. Kim, C. S. Shin, and K. J. Lee, “Monolithic flexible vertical GaN light-emitting diodes for a transparent wireless brain optical stimulator,” Adv. Mater.  30, 1800649 (2018).
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Park, K. I.

C. K. Jeong, K. I. Park, J. H. Son, G. T. Hwang, S. H. Lee, D. Y. Park, H. E. Lee, H. K. Lee, M. Byuna, and K. J. Lee, “Self-powered fully-flexible light-emitting system enabled by flexible energy harvester, ” Energy Environ. Sci. 7(12), 4035–4043 (2014).
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S. H. Lee, K. I. Park, C. Huh, M. Koo, H. G. Yoo, S. Kim, C. S. Ah, G. Y. Sung, and K. J. Lee, “Water-resistant flexible GaN LED on a liquid crystal polymer substrate for implantable biomedical applications,” Nano Energy 1, 145–152 (2012).
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Park, S-I.

S-I. Park, Y. Xiong, R. H. Kim, P. Elvikis, M. Meitl, D. H. Kim, J. Wu, J. Yoon, C. J. Yu, Z. Liu, Y. Huang, K. C. Hwang, P. Ferreira, X. Li, K. Choquette, and J. A. Rogers, “Printed assemblies of inorganic light-emitting diodes for deformable and semitransparent displays,” Science 325(5943), 977–981 (2009).
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Parmentier, A. B.

P. F. Smet, A. B. Parmentier, and D. Poelman, “Selecting conversion phosphors for white light-emitting diodes,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 158(6), R37–R54 (2011).
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Peyronel, T.

Plenty, P. V.

Poelman, D.

P. F. Smet, A. B. Parmentier, and D. Poelman, “Selecting conversion phosphors for white light-emitting diodes,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 158(6), R37–R54 (2011).
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Quirk, K. J.

Rae, K.

K. Rae, C. Foucher, B. Guilhabert, M. S. Islim, L. Yin, D. Zhu, R. A. Oliver, D. J. Wallis, H. Haas, N. Laurand, and M. D. Dawson, “InGaN micro-LEDs integrated onto an ultra-thin , colloidal quantum dot functionalized glass platform,” Opt. Express 25(16) 19179–19184 (2017).
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K. Rae, E. Y. Xie, A. J. Trindade, B. Guilhabert, R. X. Ferreira, J. J. D. McKendry, D. Zhu, N. Laurand, E. Gu, I. M. Watson, C. J. Humphreys, D. J. Wallis, and M. D. Dawson, “Integrated dual-color InGaN light-emitting diode array through transfer printing,” in the proceedings of IEEE conference on Photonics (IPC, 2015), pp. 390–391.

Rajbhandari, S.

S. Rajbhandari, A. V. N. Jalajakumari, H. Chun, G. Faulkner, K. Cameron, R. Henderson, D. Tsonev, H. Haas, E. Xie, J. J. D. McKendry, J. Herrnsdorf, R. Ferreira, E. Gu, M. D. Dawson, and D. O’Brien, “A multigigabit per second integrated multiple-input multiple-output VLC demonstrator,” J. Light. Technol. 35(20), 4358–4365 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Rajbhandari, J. J. D. McKendry, J. Herrnsdorf, H. Chun, G. Faulkner, H. Haas, I. M. Watson, D. O’Brien, and M. D. Dawson, “A review of Gallium Nitride LEDs for multi-gigabit-per-second visible light data communications,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 32(2), 1–44 (2016).

J. M. M. Santos, S. Rajbhandari, D. Tsonev, H. Chun, B. Guilhabert, A. B. Krysa, A. E. Kelly, H. Haas, D. C. O’Brien, N. Laurand, and M. D. Dawson, “Visible light communication using InGaN optical sources with AlInGaP nanomembrane downconverters,” Opt. Express 24(9), 10020–10029 (2016).
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P. P. Manousiadis, S. Rajbhandari, R. Mulyawan, D. A. Vithanage, H. Chun, G. Faulkner, D. O’Brien, G. A. Turnbull, S. Collins, and I. D. W. Samuels, “Wide field-of-view fluorescent antenna for visible light communications beyond the étendue limit,” Optica 3(7), 702–706 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. Tsonev, H. Chun, S. Rajbhandari, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Videv, E. Gu, M. Haji, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, G. Faulkner, M. D. Dawson, H. Haas, and D. O’Brien, “A 3-Gb/s single-LED OFDM-based wireless VLC link using a Gallium Nitride micro-LED,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26(7), 637–640 (2014).
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Roelkens, G.

Rogers, J. A.

D. H. Kim, R. Ghaffari, N. Lu, and J. A. Rogers, “Flexible and stretchable electronics for biointegrated devices,” Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng. 14, 113–128 (2012).
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T-I. Kim, Y. H. Jung, J. Song, D. Kim, Y. Li, H-S. Kim, I-S. Song, J. J. Wierer, H. A. Pao, Y. Huang, and J. A. Rogers, “High–efficiency, microscale GaN light–emitting diodes and their thermal properties on unusual substrates,” Small 8(11), 1643–1649 (2012).
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R-H. Kim, S. Kim, Y. M. Song, H. Jeong, T. Kim, J. Lee, X. Li, K. D. Choquette, and J. A. Rogers, “Flexible vertical light emitting diodes,” Small 8(20), 3123–3128 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S-I. Park, Y. Xiong, R. H. Kim, P. Elvikis, M. Meitl, D. H. Kim, J. Wu, J. Yoon, C. J. Yu, Z. Liu, Y. Huang, K. C. Hwang, P. Ferreira, X. Li, K. Choquette, and J. A. Rogers, “Printed assemblies of inorganic light-emitting diodes for deformable and semitransparent displays,” Science 325(5943), 977–981 (2009).
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Samuels, I. D. W.

Santos, J. M. M.

Shih, M. H.

C. H. Cheng, T. W. Huang, C. L. Wu, M. K. Chen, C. H. Chu, Y. R. Wu, M. H. Shih, C. K. Lee, H. C. Kuo, D. P. Tsai, and G. R. Lin, “Transferring the bendable substrateless GaN LED grown on a thin C-rich SiC buffer layer to flexible dielectric and metallic plates,” J. Mater. Chem. C 5(3), 607–617 (2016).
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Shin, C. S.

H. E. Lee, J. Choi, S. H. Lee, M. Jeong, J. H. Shin, D. J. Joe, D. Kim, C. W. Kim, J. H. Park, J. H. Lee, D. Kim, C. S. Shin, and K. J. Lee, “Monolithic flexible vertical GaN light-emitting diodes for a transparent wireless brain optical stimulator,” Adv. Mater.  30, 1800649 (2018).
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Shin, J. H.

H. E. Lee, J. Choi, S. H. Lee, M. Jeong, J. H. Shin, D. J. Joe, D. Kim, C. W. Kim, J. H. Park, J. H. Lee, D. Kim, C. S. Shin, and K. J. Lee, “Monolithic flexible vertical GaN light-emitting diodes for a transparent wireless brain optical stimulator,” Adv. Mater.  30, 1800649 (2018).
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S. H. Lee, J. Kim, J. H. Shin, H. E. Lee, I. S. Kang, K. Gwak, D. S. Kim, D. Kim, and K. J. Lee, “Optogenetic control of body movements via flexible vertical light-emitting diodes on brain surface,” Nano Energy 44, 447–455 (2018).
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H. E. Lee, S. H. Lee, M. Jeong, J. H. Shin, Y. Ahn, D. Kim, S. H. Oh, S. H. Yun, and K. J. Lee, “Trichogenic photostimulation using monolithic flexible vertical AlGaInP light-emitting diodes,” ACS Nano 12(12), 9587–9595 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Smet, P. F.

P. F. Smet, A. B. Parmentier, and D. Poelman, “Selecting conversion phosphors for white light-emitting diodes,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 158(6), R37–R54 (2011).
[Crossref]

Son, J. H.

C. K. Jeong, K. I. Park, J. H. Son, G. T. Hwang, S. H. Lee, D. Y. Park, H. E. Lee, H. K. Lee, M. Byuna, and K. J. Lee, “Self-powered fully-flexible light-emitting system enabled by flexible energy harvester, ” Energy Environ. Sci. 7(12), 4035–4043 (2014).
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Song, I-S.

T-I. Kim, Y. H. Jung, J. Song, D. Kim, Y. Li, H-S. Kim, I-S. Song, J. J. Wierer, H. A. Pao, Y. Huang, and J. A. Rogers, “High–efficiency, microscale GaN light–emitting diodes and their thermal properties on unusual substrates,” Small 8(11), 1643–1649 (2012).
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T-I. Kim, Y. H. Jung, J. Song, D. Kim, Y. Li, H-S. Kim, I-S. Song, J. J. Wierer, H. A. Pao, Y. Huang, and J. A. Rogers, “High–efficiency, microscale GaN light–emitting diodes and their thermal properties on unusual substrates,” Small 8(11), 1643–1649 (2012).
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Song, Y. M.

R-H. Kim, S. Kim, Y. M. Song, H. Jeong, T. Kim, J. Lee, X. Li, K. D. Choquette, and J. A. Rogers, “Flexible vertical light emitting diodes,” Small 8(20), 3123–3128 (2012).
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Subramanian, A. Z.

Sung, G. Y.

S. H. Lee, K. I. Park, C. Huh, M. Koo, H. G. Yoo, S. Kim, C. S. Ah, G. Y. Sung, and K. J. Lee, “Water-resistant flexible GaN LED on a liquid crystal polymer substrate for implantable biomedical applications,” Nano Energy 1, 145–152 (2012).
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Tamelier, J.

S. Chary, J. Tamelier, and K. Turner, “A microfabricated gecko-inspired controllable and reusable dry adhesive,” Smart Mater. Struct. 22(2), 25013 (2013)
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B. Guilhabert, A. Hurtado, D. Jevtics, Q. Gao, H. H. Tan, C. Jagadish, and M. D. Dawson, “Transfer printing of semiconductor nanowires with lasing emission for controllable nanophotonic device fabrication,” ACS Nano 10(4), 3951–3958 (2016).
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D. Kang, B. Gai, B. Thompson, S. M. Lee, N. Malmstadt, and J. Yoon, “Flexible opto–fluidic fluorescence sensors based on heterogeneously integrated micro–VCSELs and silicon photodiodes,” ACS Photonics 3(6), 912–918 (2016).
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Z. Lu, P. Tian, H. Chen, I. Baranowski, H. Fu, X. Huang, J. Montes, Y. Fan, H. Wang, X. Liu, R. Liu, and Y. Zhao, “Active tracking system for visible light communication using a GaN-based micro-LED and NRZ-OOK,” Opt. Express 25(15), 17971–17981 (2017).
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P. Tian, J. J. D. McKendry, Z. Gong, S. Zhang, S. Watson, D. Zhu, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, A. E. Kelly, C. J. Humphreys, and M. D. Dawson, “Characteristics and applications of micro-pixelated GaN-based light emitting diodes on Si substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 115, 033112 (2014).
[Crossref]

Tieke, T. G.

Trindade, A. J.

A. J. Trindade, B. Guilhabert, E. Xie, R. Ferreira, J. J. D. McKendry, D. Zhu, N. Lauarand, E. Gu, D. J. Wallis, I. M. Watson, C. J. Humphreys, and M. D. Dawson, “Heterogeneous integration of gallium nitride light-emitting diodes on diamond and silica by transfer printing,” Opt. Express 23(7), 9329–9338 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. J. Trindade, B. Guilhabert, D. Massoubre, D. Zhu, N. Lauarand, E. Gu, I. M. Watson, C. J. Humphreys, and M. D. Dawson, “Nanoscale-accuracy transfer printing of ultra-thin AlInGaN light-emitting diodes onto mechanically flexible substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(25), 253302 (2013).
[Crossref]

K. Rae, E. Y. Xie, A. J. Trindade, B. Guilhabert, R. X. Ferreira, J. J. D. McKendry, D. Zhu, N. Laurand, E. Gu, I. M. Watson, C. J. Humphreys, D. J. Wallis, and M. D. Dawson, “Integrated dual-color InGaN light-emitting diode array through transfer printing,” in the proceedings of IEEE conference on Photonics (IPC, 2015), pp. 390–391.

Tsai, D. P.

C. H. Cheng, T. W. Huang, C. L. Wu, M. K. Chen, C. H. Chu, Y. R. Wu, M. H. Shih, C. K. Lee, H. C. Kuo, D. P. Tsai, and G. R. Lin, “Transferring the bendable substrateless GaN LED grown on a thin C-rich SiC buffer layer to flexible dielectric and metallic plates,” J. Mater. Chem. C 5(3), 607–617 (2016).
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Tsonev, D.

S. Rajbhandari, A. V. N. Jalajakumari, H. Chun, G. Faulkner, K. Cameron, R. Henderson, D. Tsonev, H. Haas, E. Xie, J. J. D. McKendry, J. Herrnsdorf, R. Ferreira, E. Gu, M. D. Dawson, and D. O’Brien, “A multigigabit per second integrated multiple-input multiple-output VLC demonstrator,” J. Light. Technol. 35(20), 4358–4365 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. M. M. Santos, S. Rajbhandari, D. Tsonev, H. Chun, B. Guilhabert, A. B. Krysa, A. E. Kelly, H. Haas, D. C. O’Brien, N. Laurand, and M. D. Dawson, “Visible light communication using InGaN optical sources with AlInGaP nanomembrane downconverters,” Opt. Express 24(9), 10020–10029 (2016).
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D. Tsonev, H. Chun, S. Rajbhandari, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Videv, E. Gu, M. Haji, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, G. Faulkner, M. D. Dawson, H. Haas, and D. O’Brien, “A 3-Gb/s single-LED OFDM-based wireless VLC link using a Gallium Nitride micro-LED,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26(7), 637–640 (2014).
[Crossref]

Turnbull, G. A.

Turner, K.

S. Chary, J. Tamelier, and K. Turner, “A microfabricated gecko-inspired controllable and reusable dry adhesive,” Smart Mater. Struct. 22(2), 25013 (2013)
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Videv, S.

M. S. Islim, R. X. Ferreira, X. He, E. Xie, S. Videv, S. Viola, S. Watson, N. Bamiedakis, P. V. Plenty, I. H. White, A. E. kelly, E. Gu, H. Haas, and M. D. Dawson, “Towards 10 Gb/s OFDM-based visible light communication using a GaN violet micro-LED,” Photon. Res. 5(2), A35–A43 (2017).
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D. Tsonev, H. Chun, S. Rajbhandari, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Videv, E. Gu, M. Haji, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, G. Faulkner, M. D. Dawson, H. Haas, and D. O’Brien, “A 3-Gb/s single-LED OFDM-based wireless VLC link using a Gallium Nitride micro-LED,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26(7), 637–640 (2014).
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Viola, S.

Vithanage, D. A.

Wallis, D. J.

Wang, G. T.

Wang, H.

Wang, S. C.

Wang, Y.

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Watson, I. M.

S. Rajbhandari, J. J. D. McKendry, J. Herrnsdorf, H. Chun, G. Faulkner, H. Haas, I. M. Watson, D. O’Brien, and M. D. Dawson, “A review of Gallium Nitride LEDs for multi-gigabit-per-second visible light data communications,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 32(2), 1–44 (2016).

A. J. Trindade, B. Guilhabert, E. Xie, R. Ferreira, J. J. D. McKendry, D. Zhu, N. Lauarand, E. Gu, D. J. Wallis, I. M. Watson, C. J. Humphreys, and M. D. Dawson, “Heterogeneous integration of gallium nitride light-emitting diodes on diamond and silica by transfer printing,” Opt. Express 23(7), 9329–9338 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Tian, J. J. D. McKendry, Z. Gong, S. Zhang, S. Watson, D. Zhu, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, A. E. Kelly, C. J. Humphreys, and M. D. Dawson, “Characteristics and applications of micro-pixelated GaN-based light emitting diodes on Si substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 115, 033112 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. J. Trindade, B. Guilhabert, D. Massoubre, D. Zhu, N. Lauarand, E. Gu, I. M. Watson, C. J. Humphreys, and M. D. Dawson, “Nanoscale-accuracy transfer printing of ultra-thin AlInGaN light-emitting diodes onto mechanically flexible substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(25), 253302 (2013).
[Crossref]

K. Rae, E. Y. Xie, A. J. Trindade, B. Guilhabert, R. X. Ferreira, J. J. D. McKendry, D. Zhu, N. Laurand, E. Gu, I. M. Watson, C. J. Humphreys, D. J. Wallis, and M. D. Dawson, “Integrated dual-color InGaN light-emitting diode array through transfer printing,” in the proceedings of IEEE conference on Photonics (IPC, 2015), pp. 390–391.

Watson, S.

M. S. Islim, R. X. Ferreira, X. He, E. Xie, S. Videv, S. Viola, S. Watson, N. Bamiedakis, P. V. Plenty, I. H. White, A. E. kelly, E. Gu, H. Haas, and M. D. Dawson, “Towards 10 Gb/s OFDM-based visible light communication using a GaN violet micro-LED,” Photon. Res. 5(2), A35–A43 (2017).
[Crossref]

D. Tsonev, H. Chun, S. Rajbhandari, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Videv, E. Gu, M. Haji, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, G. Faulkner, M. D. Dawson, H. Haas, and D. O’Brien, “A 3-Gb/s single-LED OFDM-based wireless VLC link using a Gallium Nitride micro-LED,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26(7), 637–640 (2014).
[Crossref]

P. Tian, J. J. D. McKendry, Z. Gong, S. Zhang, S. Watson, D. Zhu, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, A. E. Kelly, C. J. Humphreys, and M. D. Dawson, “Characteristics and applications of micro-pixelated GaN-based light emitting diodes on Si substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 115, 033112 (2014).
[Crossref]

White, I. H.

Wierer, J. J.

T-I. Kim, Y. H. Jung, J. Song, D. Kim, Y. Li, H-S. Kim, I-S. Song, J. J. Wierer, H. A. Pao, Y. Huang, and J. A. Rogers, “High–efficiency, microscale GaN light–emitting diodes and their thermal properties on unusual substrates,” Small 8(11), 1643–1649 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wu, C. L.

C. H. Cheng, T. W. Huang, C. L. Wu, M. K. Chen, C. H. Chu, Y. R. Wu, M. H. Shih, C. K. Lee, H. C. Kuo, D. P. Tsai, and G. R. Lin, “Transferring the bendable substrateless GaN LED grown on a thin C-rich SiC buffer layer to flexible dielectric and metallic plates,” J. Mater. Chem. C 5(3), 607–617 (2016).
[Crossref]

Wu, J.

S-I. Park, Y. Xiong, R. H. Kim, P. Elvikis, M. Meitl, D. H. Kim, J. Wu, J. Yoon, C. J. Yu, Z. Liu, Y. Huang, K. C. Hwang, P. Ferreira, X. Li, K. Choquette, and J. A. Rogers, “Printed assemblies of inorganic light-emitting diodes for deformable and semitransparent displays,” Science 325(5943), 977–981 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wu, Y. R.

C. H. Cheng, T. W. Huang, C. L. Wu, M. K. Chen, C. H. Chu, Y. R. Wu, M. H. Shih, C. K. Lee, H. C. Kuo, D. P. Tsai, and G. R. Lin, “Transferring the bendable substrateless GaN LED grown on a thin C-rich SiC buffer layer to flexible dielectric and metallic plates,” J. Mater. Chem. C 5(3), 607–617 (2016).
[Crossref]

Xie, E.

Xie, E. Y.

K. Rae, E. Y. Xie, A. J. Trindade, B. Guilhabert, R. X. Ferreira, J. J. D. McKendry, D. Zhu, N. Laurand, E. Gu, I. M. Watson, C. J. Humphreys, D. J. Wallis, and M. D. Dawson, “Integrated dual-color InGaN light-emitting diode array through transfer printing,” in the proceedings of IEEE conference on Photonics (IPC, 2015), pp. 390–391.

Xiong, Y.

S-I. Park, Y. Xiong, R. H. Kim, P. Elvikis, M. Meitl, D. H. Kim, J. Wu, J. Yoon, C. J. Yu, Z. Liu, Y. Huang, K. C. Hwang, P. Ferreira, X. Li, K. Choquette, and J. A. Rogers, “Printed assemblies of inorganic light-emitting diodes for deformable and semitransparent displays,” Science 325(5943), 977–981 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yin, L.

Yoo, H. G.

S. H. Lee, K. I. Park, C. Huh, M. Koo, H. G. Yoo, S. Kim, C. S. Ah, G. Y. Sung, and K. J. Lee, “Water-resistant flexible GaN LED on a liquid crystal polymer substrate for implantable biomedical applications,” Nano Energy 1, 145–152 (2012).
[Crossref]

Yoon, J.

D. Kang, B. Gai, B. Thompson, S. M. Lee, N. Malmstadt, and J. Yoon, “Flexible opto–fluidic fluorescence sensors based on heterogeneously integrated micro–VCSELs and silicon photodiodes,” ACS Photonics 3(6), 912–918 (2016).
[Crossref]

S-I. Park, Y. Xiong, R. H. Kim, P. Elvikis, M. Meitl, D. H. Kim, J. Wu, J. Yoon, C. J. Yu, Z. Liu, Y. Huang, K. C. Hwang, P. Ferreira, X. Li, K. Choquette, and J. A. Rogers, “Printed assemblies of inorganic light-emitting diodes for deformable and semitransparent displays,” Science 325(5943), 977–981 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yu, C. J.

S-I. Park, Y. Xiong, R. H. Kim, P. Elvikis, M. Meitl, D. H. Kim, J. Wu, J. Yoon, C. J. Yu, Z. Liu, Y. Huang, K. C. Hwang, P. Ferreira, X. Li, K. Choquette, and J. A. Rogers, “Printed assemblies of inorganic light-emitting diodes for deformable and semitransparent displays,” Science 325(5943), 977–981 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yun, S. H.

H. E. Lee, S. H. Lee, M. Jeong, J. H. Shin, Y. Ahn, D. Kim, S. H. Oh, S. H. Yun, and K. J. Lee, “Trichogenic photostimulation using monolithic flexible vertical AlGaInP light-emitting diodes,” ACS Nano 12(12), 9587–9595 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, S.

P. Tian, J. J. D. McKendry, Z. Gong, S. Zhang, S. Watson, D. Zhu, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, A. E. Kelly, C. J. Humphreys, and M. D. Dawson, “Characteristics and applications of micro-pixelated GaN-based light emitting diodes on Si substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 115, 033112 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhao, Y.

Zhu, D.

K. Rae, C. Foucher, B. Guilhabert, M. S. Islim, L. Yin, D. Zhu, R. A. Oliver, D. J. Wallis, H. Haas, N. Laurand, and M. D. Dawson, “InGaN micro-LEDs integrated onto an ultra-thin , colloidal quantum dot functionalized glass platform,” Opt. Express 25(16) 19179–19184 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. J. Trindade, B. Guilhabert, E. Xie, R. Ferreira, J. J. D. McKendry, D. Zhu, N. Lauarand, E. Gu, D. J. Wallis, I. M. Watson, C. J. Humphreys, and M. D. Dawson, “Heterogeneous integration of gallium nitride light-emitting diodes on diamond and silica by transfer printing,” Opt. Express 23(7), 9329–9338 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Tian, J. J. D. McKendry, Z. Gong, S. Zhang, S. Watson, D. Zhu, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, A. E. Kelly, C. J. Humphreys, and M. D. Dawson, “Characteristics and applications of micro-pixelated GaN-based light emitting diodes on Si substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 115, 033112 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. J. Trindade, B. Guilhabert, D. Massoubre, D. Zhu, N. Lauarand, E. Gu, I. M. Watson, C. J. Humphreys, and M. D. Dawson, “Nanoscale-accuracy transfer printing of ultra-thin AlInGaN light-emitting diodes onto mechanically flexible substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(25), 253302 (2013).
[Crossref]

K. Rae, E. Y. Xie, A. J. Trindade, B. Guilhabert, R. X. Ferreira, J. J. D. McKendry, D. Zhu, N. Laurand, E. Gu, I. M. Watson, C. J. Humphreys, D. J. Wallis, and M. D. Dawson, “Integrated dual-color InGaN light-emitting diode array through transfer printing,” in the proceedings of IEEE conference on Photonics (IPC, 2015), pp. 390–391.

ACS Nano (2)

B. Guilhabert, A. Hurtado, D. Jevtics, Q. Gao, H. H. Tan, C. Jagadish, and M. D. Dawson, “Transfer printing of semiconductor nanowires with lasing emission for controllable nanophotonic device fabrication,” ACS Nano 10(4), 3951–3958 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. E. Lee, S. H. Lee, M. Jeong, J. H. Shin, Y. Ahn, D. Kim, S. H. Oh, S. H. Yun, and K. J. Lee, “Trichogenic photostimulation using monolithic flexible vertical AlGaInP light-emitting diodes,” ACS Nano 12(12), 9587–9595 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

ACS Photonics (1)

D. Kang, B. Gai, B. Thompson, S. M. Lee, N. Malmstadt, and J. Yoon, “Flexible opto–fluidic fluorescence sensors based on heterogeneously integrated micro–VCSELs and silicon photodiodes,” ACS Photonics 3(6), 912–918 (2016).
[Crossref]

Adv. Mater (1)

H. E. Lee, J. Choi, S. H. Lee, M. Jeong, J. H. Shin, D. J. Joe, D. Kim, C. W. Kim, J. H. Park, J. H. Lee, D. Kim, C. S. Shin, and K. J. Lee, “Monolithic flexible vertical GaN light-emitting diodes for a transparent wireless brain optical stimulator,” Adv. Mater.  30, 1800649 (2018).
[Crossref]

Adv. Opt. Photon. (1)

Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng. (1)

D. H. Kim, R. Ghaffari, N. Lu, and J. A. Rogers, “Flexible and stretchable electronics for biointegrated devices,” Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng. 14, 113–128 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

A. J. Trindade, B. Guilhabert, D. Massoubre, D. Zhu, N. Lauarand, E. Gu, I. M. Watson, C. J. Humphreys, and M. D. Dawson, “Nanoscale-accuracy transfer printing of ultra-thin AlInGaN light-emitting diodes onto mechanically flexible substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(25), 253302 (2013).
[Crossref]

Energy Environ. Sci. (1)

C. K. Jeong, K. I. Park, J. H. Son, G. T. Hwang, S. H. Lee, D. Y. Park, H. E. Lee, H. K. Lee, M. Byuna, and K. J. Lee, “Self-powered fully-flexible light-emitting system enabled by flexible energy harvester, ” Energy Environ. Sci. 7(12), 4035–4043 (2014).
[Crossref]

IEEE Commun. Mag. (1)

F. Chang and V. S. Corp, “Forward error correction for 100 G transport networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 48, (3)48–55 (2010).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

D. Tsonev, H. Chun, S. Rajbhandari, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Videv, E. Gu, M. Haji, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, G. Faulkner, M. D. Dawson, H. Haas, and D. O’Brien, “A 3-Gb/s single-LED OFDM-based wireless VLC link using a Gallium Nitride micro-LED,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26(7), 637–640 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. J. D. McKendry, R. P. Green, A. E. Kelly, Z. Gong, B. Guilhabert, D. Massoubre, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson,, “High-speed visible light communications using individual pixels in a micro light-emitting diode array,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(18), 1346–1348 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

P. Tian, J. J. D. McKendry, Z. Gong, S. Zhang, S. Watson, D. Zhu, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, A. E. Kelly, C. J. Humphreys, and M. D. Dawson, “Characteristics and applications of micro-pixelated GaN-based light emitting diodes on Si substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 115, 033112 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Electrochem. Soc. (1)

P. F. Smet, A. B. Parmentier, and D. Poelman, “Selecting conversion phosphors for white light-emitting diodes,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 158(6), R37–R54 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Light. Technol. (2)

S. Rajbhandari, A. V. N. Jalajakumari, H. Chun, G. Faulkner, K. Cameron, R. Henderson, D. Tsonev, H. Haas, E. Xie, J. J. D. McKendry, J. Herrnsdorf, R. Ferreira, E. Gu, M. D. Dawson, and D. O’Brien, “A multigigabit per second integrated multiple-input multiple-output VLC demonstrator,” J. Light. Technol. 35(20), 4358–4365 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. Haas, L. Yin, Y. Wang, and C. Chen, “What is LiFi?” J. Light. Technol. 34(6), 1533–1544 (2015)
[Crossref]

J. Mater. Chem. C (1)

C. H. Cheng, T. W. Huang, C. L. Wu, M. K. Chen, C. H. Chu, Y. R. Wu, M. H. Shih, C. K. Lee, H. C. Kuo, D. P. Tsai, and G. R. Lin, “Transferring the bendable substrateless GaN LED grown on a thin C-rich SiC buffer layer to flexible dielectric and metallic plates,” J. Mater. Chem. C 5(3), 607–617 (2016).
[Crossref]

Nano Energy (2)

S. H. Lee, K. I. Park, C. Huh, M. Koo, H. G. Yoo, S. Kim, C. S. Ah, G. Y. Sung, and K. J. Lee, “Water-resistant flexible GaN LED on a liquid crystal polymer substrate for implantable biomedical applications,” Nano Energy 1, 145–152 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. H. Lee, J. Kim, J. H. Shin, H. E. Lee, I. S. Kang, K. Gwak, D. S. Kim, D. Kim, and K. J. Lee, “Optogenetic control of body movements via flexible vertical light-emitting diodes on brain surface,” Nano Energy 44, 447–455 (2018).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (5)

Z. Lu, P. Tian, H. Chen, I. Baranowski, H. Fu, X. Huang, J. Montes, Y. Fan, H. Wang, X. Liu, R. Liu, and Y. Zhao, “Active tracking system for visible light communication using a GaN-based micro-LED and NRZ-OOK,” Opt. Express 25(15), 17971–17981 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. De Groote, P. Cardile, A. Z. Subramanian, A. M. Fecioru, C. Bower, D. Delbeke, R. Baets, and G. Roelkens, “Transfer-printing-based integration of single-mode waveguide-coupled III-V-on-silicon broadband light emitters,” Opt. Express 24(13), 13754–13762 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. M. M. Santos, S. Rajbhandari, D. Tsonev, H. Chun, B. Guilhabert, A. B. Krysa, A. E. Kelly, H. Haas, D. C. O’Brien, N. Laurand, and M. D. Dawson, “Visible light communication using InGaN optical sources with AlInGaP nanomembrane downconverters,” Opt. Express 24(9), 10020–10029 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Rae, C. Foucher, B. Guilhabert, M. S. Islim, L. Yin, D. Zhu, R. A. Oliver, D. J. Wallis, H. Haas, N. Laurand, and M. D. Dawson, “InGaN micro-LEDs integrated onto an ultra-thin , colloidal quantum dot functionalized glass platform,” Opt. Express 25(16) 19179–19184 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. J. Trindade, B. Guilhabert, E. Xie, R. Ferreira, J. J. D. McKendry, D. Zhu, N. Lauarand, E. Gu, D. J. Wallis, I. M. Watson, C. J. Humphreys, and M. D. Dawson, “Heterogeneous integration of gallium nitride light-emitting diodes on diamond and silica by transfer printing,” Opt. Express 23(7), 9329–9338 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Optica (2)

Photon. Res. (1)

Proceedings of the IEEE (1)

S. Nakamura and M. R. Krames, “History of gallium-nitride-based light-emitting diodes for illumination,” Proceedings of the IEEE 101(10), 2211–2220 (2013).
[Crossref]

Science (1)

S-I. Park, Y. Xiong, R. H. Kim, P. Elvikis, M. Meitl, D. H. Kim, J. Wu, J. Yoon, C. J. Yu, Z. Liu, Y. Huang, K. C. Hwang, P. Ferreira, X. Li, K. Choquette, and J. A. Rogers, “Printed assemblies of inorganic light-emitting diodes for deformable and semitransparent displays,” Science 325(5943), 977–981 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Semicond. Sci. Technol. (1)

S. Rajbhandari, J. J. D. McKendry, J. Herrnsdorf, H. Chun, G. Faulkner, H. Haas, I. M. Watson, D. O’Brien, and M. D. Dawson, “A review of Gallium Nitride LEDs for multi-gigabit-per-second visible light data communications,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 32(2), 1–44 (2016).

Small (2)

T-I. Kim, Y. H. Jung, J. Song, D. Kim, Y. Li, H-S. Kim, I-S. Song, J. J. Wierer, H. A. Pao, Y. Huang, and J. A. Rogers, “High–efficiency, microscale GaN light–emitting diodes and their thermal properties on unusual substrates,” Small 8(11), 1643–1649 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R-H. Kim, S. Kim, Y. M. Song, H. Jeong, T. Kim, J. Lee, X. Li, K. D. Choquette, and J. A. Rogers, “Flexible vertical light emitting diodes,” Small 8(20), 3123–3128 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Smart Mater. Struct. (1)

S. Chary, J. Tamelier, and K. Turner, “A microfabricated gecko-inspired controllable and reusable dry adhesive,” Smart Mater. Struct. 22(2), 25013 (2013)
[Crossref]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Illustration of the optical transceiver concept. External modulated light is collected and concentrated by the optical antenna (fluorescent concentrator). This concentrated light is detected by an avalanche photodiode (APD) on the edge of the transceiver. For operation as a repeater, this signal is then demodulated, before being re-modulated and used to drive the transfer printed µLED transmitter.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Illustration of the transfer printing process. (b) Schematic representation of the structure of the device. The inset shows the different layers of the fluorescent concentrator (Glass/Epoxy/Fluorescent medium/Glass). (c) Photograph of the setup used to characterize the optical transceiver device.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) and (b) photographs of the TP µLED and metal tracks on the fluorescent concentrator. (c) Photograph of TP µLED illuminating. (d) Current-voltage curve, (e) power-current curve, and (f) spectral characteristics of the TP µLED on the microscope slide.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Optical power – current characteristic of the 3 violet µLED pixels in series used in the optical repeater demonstration.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Optical spectrum of the light at the receiver (position B). The spectrum of the light transmitted by the device (at position A) can be seen in Fig. 3f).
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Transceiver mode operation; (a) The SNR of external µLED (Link A) and TP µLED (Link B). (b) BER vs data transmission rates for link A and link B. (c) The BER results for link A and link B when the device is working as an optical relay. The dip in the SNR of both links seen in (a) around 35 MHz is an artefact from the measurement equipment used in this demonstration, and is not caused by the devices.

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