Abstract

We report on the first erbium (Er3+) doped double tungstate waveguide laser. As a gain material, we studied a monoclinic Er3+:KLu(WO4)2 crystal. A depressed-index buried channel waveguide formed by a 60 µm-diameter circular cladding was fabricated by 3D femtosecond direct laser writing. The waveguide was characterized by confocal laser microscopy, µ-Raman and µ-luminescence mapping, confirming that the crystallinity of the core is preserved. The waveguide laser, diode pumped at 981 nm, generated 8.9 mW at 1533.6 nm with a slope efficiency of 20.9% in the continuous-wave regime. The laser polarization was linear (E || Nm). The laser threshold was at 93 mW of absorbed pump power.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2018 (2)

2017 (4)

2016 (2)

2015 (2)

P. Loiko, J. M. Serres, X. Mateos, K. Yumashev, N. Kuleshov, V. Petrov, U. Griebner, M. Aguiló, and F. Díaz, “In-band-pumped Ho:KLu(WO4)2 microchip laser with 84% slope efficiency,” Opt. Lett. 40(3), 344–347 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Moglia, S. Müller, F. Reichert, P. W. Metz, T. Calmano, C. Kränkel, E. Heumann, and G. Huber, “Efficient upconversion-pumped continuous wave Er3+:LiLuF4 lasers,” Opt. Mater. 42, 167–173 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (3)

2013 (1)

J. Hoyo, V. Berdejo, T. T. Fernandez, A. Ferrer, A. Ruiz, J. A. Valles, M. A. Rebolledo, I. Ortega-Feliu, and J. Solis, “Femtosecond laser written 16.5 mm long glass-waveguide amplifier and laser with 5.2 dB cm−1 internal gain at 1534 nm,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(10), 105802 (2013).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

J. D. B. Bradley and M. Pollnau, “Erbium-doped integrated waveguide amplifiers and lasers,” Laser Photonics Rev. 5(3), 368–403 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (3)

2009 (4)

W. Bolaños, J. J. Carvajal, M. C. Pujol, X. Mateos, G. Lifante, M. Aguiló, and F. Díaz, “Epitaxial growth of lattice matched KY1-x-yGdxLuy(WO4)2 thin films on KY(WO4)2 substrates for waveguiding applications,” Cryst. Growth Des. 9(8), 3525–3531 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. Ams, G. D. Marshall, P. Dekker, J. A. Piper, and M. J. Withford, “Ultrafast laser written active devices,” Laser Photonics Rev. 3(6), 535–544 (2009).
[Crossref]

F. M. Bain, A. A. Lagatsky, R. R. Thomson, N. D. Psaila, N. V. Kuleshov, A. K. Kar, W. Sibbett, and C. T. A. Brown, “Ultrafast laser inscribed Yb:KGd(WO4)2 and Yb:KY(WO4)2 channel waveguide lasers,” Opt. Express 17(25), 22417–22422 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Ródenas, G. A. Torchia, G. Lifante, E. Cantelar, J. Lamela, F. Jaque, L. Roso, and D. Jaque, “Refractive index change mechanisms in femtosecond laser written ceramic Nd:YAG waveguides: micro-spectroscopy experiments and beam propagation calculations,” Appl. Phys. B 95(1), 85–96 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (6)

A. Ródenas, A. H. Nejadmalayeri, D. Jaque, and P. Herman, “Confocal Raman imaging of optical waveguides in LiNbO3 fabricated by ultrafast high-repetition rate laser-writing,” Opt. Express 16(18), 13979–13989 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. M. Eaton, C. A. Merchant, R. Iyer, A. J. Zilkie, A. S. Helmy, J. S. Aitchison, P. R. Herman, D. Kraemer, R. J. D. Miller, C. Hnatovsky, and R. S. Taylor, “Raman gain from waveguides inscribed in KGd(WO4)2 by high repetition rate femtosecond laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(8), 081105 (2008).
[Crossref]

R. Osellame, G. Della Valle, N. Chiodo, S. Taccheo, P. Laporta, O. Svelto, and G. Cerullo, “Lasing in femtosecond laser written optical waveguides,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 93(1), 17–26 (2008).
[Crossref]

S. García-Revilla, R. Valiente, Y. E. Romanyuk, and M. Pollnau, “Temporal dynamics of upconversion luminescence in Er3+, Yb3+ co-doped crystalline KY(WO4)2 thin films,” J. Lumin. 128(5–6), 934–936 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. W. Kim, D. Y. Shen, J. K. Sahu, and W. A. Clarkson, “High-power in-band pumped Er:YAG laser at 1617 nm,” Opt. Express 16(8), 5807–5812 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. D. Psaila, R. R. Thomson, H. T. Bookey, N. Chiodo, S. Shen, R. Osellame, G. Cerullo, A. Jha, and A. K. Kar, “Er:Yb-doped oxyfluoride silicate glass waveguide laser fabricated using ultrafast laser inscription,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20(2), 126–128 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (3)

2005 (1)

2004 (1)

2003 (2)

F. Vetrone, J.-C. Boyer, J. A. Capobianco, A. Speghini, and M. Bettinelli, “Concentration-dependent near-infrared to visible upconversion in nanocrystalline and bulk Y2O3:Er3+,” Chem. Mater. 15(14), 2737–2743 (2003).
[Crossref]

F. Vetrone, J. C. Boyer, J. A. Capobianco, A. Speghini, and M. Bettinelli, “Effect of Yb3+ codoping on the upconversion emission in nanocrystalline Y2O3: Er3+,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107(5), 1107–1112 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (2)

G. Karlsson, F. Laurell, J. Tellefsen, B. Denker, B. Galagan, V. Osiko, and S. Sverchkov, “Development and characterization of Yb-Er laser glass for high average power laser diode pumping,” Appl. Phys. B 75(1), 41–46 (2002).
[Crossref]

K. A. Subbotin, E. V. Zharikov, and V. A. Smirnov, “Yb- and Er-doped single crystals of double tungstates NaGd(WO4)2, NaLa(WO4)2, and NaBi(WO4)2 as active media for lasers operating in the 1.0 and 1.5 μm ranges,” Opt. Spectrosc. 92(4), 601–608 (2002).
[Crossref]

1998 (2)

S. Jiang, M. Myers, and N. Peyghambarian, “Er3+ doped phosphate glasses and lasers,” J. Non-Cryst. Sol. 239(1–3), 143–148 (1998).

K.-M. Wang, B.-R. Shi, N. Cue, Y.-Y. Zhu, R.-F. Xiao, F. Lu, W. Li, and Y.-G. Liu, “Waveguide laser film in erbium-doped KTiOPO4 by pulsed laser deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(8), 1020–1022 (1998).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

N. V. Kuleshov, A. A. Lagatsky, V. G. Shcherbitsky, V. P. Mikhailov, E. Heumann, T. Jensen, A. Diening, and G. Huber, “CW laser performance of Yb and Er, Yb doped tungstates,” Appl. Phys. B 64(4), 409–413 (1997).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

S. Taccheo, P. Laporta, S. Longhi, O. Svelto, and C. Svelto, “Diode-pumped bulk erbium–ytterbium lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 63(5), 425–436 (1996).
[Crossref]

1992 (1)

T. Feuchter, E. K. Mwarania, J. Wang, L. Reekie, and J. S. Wilkinson, “Erbium-doped ion-exchanged waveguide lasers in BK-7 glass,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 4(6), 542–544 (1992).
[Crossref]

1991 (1)

R. Brinkmann, W. Sohler, and H. Suche, “Continuous-wave erbium-diffused LiNbO3 waveguide laser,” Electron. Lett. 27(5), 415–417 (1991).
[Crossref]

1988 (1)

J. A. Caird, S. A. Payne, P. R. Staber, A. J. Ramponi, L. L. Chase, and W. F. Krupke, “Quantum electronic properties of the Na3Ga2Li3F12:Cr3+ laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24(6), 1077–1099 (1988).
[Crossref]

Agazzi, L.

Aguilo, M.

V. Petrov, M. C. Pujol, X. Mateos, O. Silvestre, S. Rivier, M. Aguilo, R. M. Sole, J. Liu, U. Griebner, and F. Diaz, “Growth and properties of KLu(WO4)2, and novel ytterbium and thulium lasers based on this monoclinic crystalline host,” Laser Photonics Rev. 1(2), 179–212 (2007).
[Crossref]

Aguiló, M.

J. M. Serres, P. Loiko, V. Jambunathan, X. Mateos, V. Vitkin, A. Lucianetti, T. Mocek, M. Aguiló, F. Díaz, U. Griebner, and V. Petrov, “Efficient diode-pumped Er:KLu(WO4)2 laser at ∼1.61 μm,” Opt. Lett. 43(2), 218–221 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Kifle, P. Loiko, X. Mateos, J. R. Vázquez de Aldana, A. Ródenas, U. Griebner, V. Petrov, M. Aguiló, and F. Díaz, “Femtosecond-laser-written hexagonal cladding waveguide in Tm:KLu(WO4)2: µ-Raman study and laser operation,” Opt. Mater. Express 7(12), 4258–4268 (2017).
[Crossref]

E. Kifle, X. Mateos, J. R. de Aldana, A. Ródenas, P. Loiko, S. Y. Choi, F. Rotermund, U. Griebner, V. Petrov, M. Aguiló, and F. Díaz, “Femtosecond-laser-written Tm:KLu(WO4)2 waveguide lasers,” Opt. Lett. 42(6), 1169–1172 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Loiko, P. Segonds, P. L. Inácio, A. Peña, J. Debray, D. Rytz, V. Filippov, K. Yumashev, M. C. Pujol, X. Mateos, M. Aguiló, F. Díaz, M. Eichhorn, and B. Boulanger, “Refined orientation of the optical axes as a function of wavelength in three monoclinic double tungstate crystals KRE(WO4)2 (RE = Gd, Y or Lu),” Opt. Mater. Express 6(9), 2984–2990 (2016).
[Crossref]

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J. M. Serres, X. Mateos, P. Loiko, K. Yumashev, N. Kuleshov, V. Petrov, U. Griebner, M. Aguiló, and F. Díaz, “Diode-pumped microchip Tm:KLu(WO4)2 laser with more than 3 W of output power,” Opt. Lett. 39(14), 4247–4250 (2014).
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J. M. Serres, X. Mateos, P. Loiko, K. Yumashev, N. Kuleshov, V. Petrov, U. Griebner, M. Aguiló, and F. Díaz, “Diode-pumped microchip Tm:KLu(WO4)2 laser with more than 3 W of output power,” Opt. Lett. 39(14), 4247–4250 (2014).
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W. Bolaños, J. J. Carvajal, X. Mateos, M. C. Pujol, N. Thilmann, V. Pasiskevicius, G. Lifante, M. Aguiló, and F. Díaz, “Epitaxial layers of KY1−x−yGdxLuy(WO4)2 doped with Er3+ and Tm3+ for planar waveguide lasers,” Opt. Mater. 32(3), 469–474 (2010).
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W. Bolaños, J. J. Carvajal, M. C. Pujol, X. Mateos, G. Lifante, M. Aguiló, and F. Díaz, “Epitaxial growth of lattice matched KY1-x-yGdxLuy(WO4)2 thin films on KY(WO4)2 substrates for waveguiding applications,” Cryst. Growth Des. 9(8), 3525–3531 (2009).
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E. Kifle, P. Loiko, X. Mateos, J. R. Vázquez de Aldana, A. Ródenas, U. Griebner, V. Petrov, M. Aguiló, and F. Díaz, “Femtosecond-laser-written hexagonal cladding waveguide in Tm:KLu(WO4)2: µ-Raman study and laser operation,” Opt. Mater. Express 7(12), 4258–4268 (2017).
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E. Kifle, X. Mateos, J. R. de Aldana, A. Ródenas, P. Loiko, S. Y. Choi, F. Rotermund, U. Griebner, V. Petrov, M. Aguiló, and F. Díaz, “Femtosecond-laser-written Tm:KLu(WO4)2 waveguide lasers,” Opt. Lett. 42(6), 1169–1172 (2017).
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[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. M. Serres, X. Mateos, P. Loiko, K. Yumashev, N. Kuleshov, V. Petrov, U. Griebner, M. Aguiló, and F. Díaz, “Diode-pumped microchip Tm:KLu(WO4)2 laser with more than 3 W of output power,” Opt. Lett. 39(14), 4247–4250 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Petrov, M. C. Pujol, X. Mateos, O. Silvestre, S. Rivier, M. Aguilo, R. M. Sole, J. Liu, U. Griebner, and F. Diaz, “Growth and properties of KLu(WO4)2, and novel ytterbium and thulium lasers based on this monoclinic crystalline host,” Laser Photonics Rev. 1(2), 179–212 (2007).
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Herman, P.

Herman, P. R.

S. M. Eaton, C. A. Merchant, R. Iyer, A. J. Zilkie, A. S. Helmy, J. S. Aitchison, P. R. Herman, D. Kraemer, R. J. D. Miller, C. Hnatovsky, and R. S. Taylor, “Raman gain from waveguides inscribed in KGd(WO4)2 by high repetition rate femtosecond laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(8), 081105 (2008).
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F. Moglia, S. Müller, F. Reichert, P. W. Metz, T. Calmano, C. Kränkel, E. Heumann, and G. Huber, “Efficient upconversion-pumped continuous wave Er3+:LiLuF4 lasers,” Opt. Mater. 42, 167–173 (2015).
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N. V. Kuleshov, A. A. Lagatsky, V. G. Shcherbitsky, V. P. Mikhailov, E. Heumann, T. Jensen, A. Diening, and G. Huber, “CW laser performance of Yb and Er, Yb doped tungstates,” Appl. Phys. B 64(4), 409–413 (1997).
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S. M. Eaton, C. A. Merchant, R. Iyer, A. J. Zilkie, A. S. Helmy, J. S. Aitchison, P. R. Herman, D. Kraemer, R. J. D. Miller, C. Hnatovsky, and R. S. Taylor, “Raman gain from waveguides inscribed in KGd(WO4)2 by high repetition rate femtosecond laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(8), 081105 (2008).
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J. Hoyo, V. Berdejo, T. T. Fernandez, A. Ferrer, A. Ruiz, J. A. Valles, M. A. Rebolledo, I. Ortega-Feliu, and J. Solis, “Femtosecond laser written 16.5 mm long glass-waveguide amplifier and laser with 5.2 dB cm−1 internal gain at 1534 nm,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(10), 105802 (2013).
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F. Moglia, S. Müller, F. Reichert, P. W. Metz, T. Calmano, C. Kränkel, E. Heumann, and G. Huber, “Efficient upconversion-pumped continuous wave Er3+:LiLuF4 lasers,” Opt. Mater. 42, 167–173 (2015).
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N. V. Kuleshov, A. A. Lagatsky, V. G. Shcherbitsky, V. P. Mikhailov, E. Heumann, T. Jensen, A. Diening, and G. Huber, “CW laser performance of Yb and Er, Yb doped tungstates,” Appl. Phys. B 64(4), 409–413 (1997).
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Iyer, R.

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Jaque, D.

A. Ródenas, G. A. Torchia, G. Lifante, E. Cantelar, J. Lamela, F. Jaque, L. Roso, and D. Jaque, “Refractive index change mechanisms in femtosecond laser written ceramic Nd:YAG waveguides: micro-spectroscopy experiments and beam propagation calculations,” Appl. Phys. B 95(1), 85–96 (2009).
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N. V. Kuleshov, A. A. Lagatsky, V. G. Shcherbitsky, V. P. Mikhailov, E. Heumann, T. Jensen, A. Diening, and G. Huber, “CW laser performance of Yb and Er, Yb doped tungstates,” Appl. Phys. B 64(4), 409–413 (1997).
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N. D. Psaila, R. R. Thomson, H. T. Bookey, N. Chiodo, S. Shen, R. Osellame, G. Cerullo, A. Jha, and A. K. Kar, “Er:Yb-doped oxyfluoride silicate glass waveguide laser fabricated using ultrafast laser inscription,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20(2), 126–128 (2008).
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S. Jiang, M. Myers, and N. Peyghambarian, “Er3+ doped phosphate glasses and lasers,” J. Non-Cryst. Sol. 239(1–3), 143–148 (1998).

Kar, A. K.

F. M. Bain, A. A. Lagatsky, R. R. Thomson, N. D. Psaila, N. V. Kuleshov, A. K. Kar, W. Sibbett, and C. T. A. Brown, “Ultrafast laser inscribed Yb:KGd(WO4)2 and Yb:KY(WO4)2 channel waveguide lasers,” Opt. Express 17(25), 22417–22422 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. D. Psaila, R. R. Thomson, H. T. Bookey, N. Chiodo, S. Shen, R. Osellame, G. Cerullo, A. Jha, and A. K. Kar, “Er:Yb-doped oxyfluoride silicate glass waveguide laser fabricated using ultrafast laser inscription,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20(2), 126–128 (2008).
[Crossref]

Karlsson, G.

G. Karlsson, F. Laurell, J. Tellefsen, B. Denker, B. Galagan, V. Osiko, and S. Sverchkov, “Development and characterization of Yb-Er laser glass for high average power laser diode pumping,” Appl. Phys. B 75(1), 41–46 (2002).
[Crossref]

Khan, M. R. H.

Kifle, E.

Killi, A.

Kim, J. W.

Kisel, V.

Kolesova, I.

Kopf, D.

Kraemer, D.

S. M. Eaton, C. A. Merchant, R. Iyer, A. J. Zilkie, A. S. Helmy, J. S. Aitchison, P. R. Herman, D. Kraemer, R. J. D. Miller, C. Hnatovsky, and R. S. Taylor, “Raman gain from waveguides inscribed in KGd(WO4)2 by high repetition rate femtosecond laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(8), 081105 (2008).
[Crossref]

Kränkel, C.

F. Moglia, S. Müller, F. Reichert, P. W. Metz, T. Calmano, C. Kränkel, E. Heumann, and G. Huber, “Efficient upconversion-pumped continuous wave Er3+:LiLuF4 lasers,” Opt. Mater. 42, 167–173 (2015).
[Crossref]

Kravtsov, A.

Krupke, W. F.

J. A. Caird, S. A. Payne, P. R. Staber, A. J. Ramponi, L. L. Chase, and W. F. Krupke, “Quantum electronic properties of the Na3Ga2Li3F12:Cr3+ laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24(6), 1077–1099 (1988).
[Crossref]

Kuleshov, N.

Kuleshov, N. V.

F. M. Bain, A. A. Lagatsky, R. R. Thomson, N. D. Psaila, N. V. Kuleshov, A. K. Kar, W. Sibbett, and C. T. A. Brown, “Ultrafast laser inscribed Yb:KGd(WO4)2 and Yb:KY(WO4)2 channel waveguide lasers,” Opt. Express 17(25), 22417–22422 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. V. Kuleshov, A. A. Lagatsky, V. G. Shcherbitsky, V. P. Mikhailov, E. Heumann, T. Jensen, A. Diening, and G. Huber, “CW laser performance of Yb and Er, Yb doped tungstates,” Appl. Phys. B 64(4), 409–413 (1997).
[Crossref]

Kurilchik, S.

Lagatsky, A. A.

F. M. Bain, A. A. Lagatsky, R. R. Thomson, N. D. Psaila, N. V. Kuleshov, A. K. Kar, W. Sibbett, and C. T. A. Brown, “Ultrafast laser inscribed Yb:KGd(WO4)2 and Yb:KY(WO4)2 channel waveguide lasers,” Opt. Express 17(25), 22417–22422 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. V. Kuleshov, A. A. Lagatsky, V. G. Shcherbitsky, V. P. Mikhailov, E. Heumann, T. Jensen, A. Diening, and G. Huber, “CW laser performance of Yb and Er, Yb doped tungstates,” Appl. Phys. B 64(4), 409–413 (1997).
[Crossref]

Lamela, J.

A. Ródenas, G. A. Torchia, G. Lifante, E. Cantelar, J. Lamela, F. Jaque, L. Roso, and D. Jaque, “Refractive index change mechanisms in femtosecond laser written ceramic Nd:YAG waveguides: micro-spectroscopy experiments and beam propagation calculations,” Appl. Phys. B 95(1), 85–96 (2009).
[Crossref]

Laporta, P.

Laurell, F.

G. Karlsson, F. Laurell, J. Tellefsen, B. Denker, B. Galagan, V. Osiko, and S. Sverchkov, “Development and characterization of Yb-Er laser glass for high average power laser diode pumping,” Appl. Phys. B 75(1), 41–46 (2002).
[Crossref]

Lederer, M.

Li, W.

K.-M. Wang, B.-R. Shi, N. Cue, Y.-Y. Zhu, R.-F. Xiao, F. Lu, W. Li, and Y.-G. Liu, “Waveguide laser film in erbium-doped KTiOPO4 by pulsed laser deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(8), 1020–1022 (1998).
[Crossref]

Lifante, G.

W. Bolaños, J. J. Carvajal, X. Mateos, M. C. Pujol, N. Thilmann, V. Pasiskevicius, G. Lifante, M. Aguiló, and F. Díaz, “Epitaxial layers of KY1−x−yGdxLuy(WO4)2 doped with Er3+ and Tm3+ for planar waveguide lasers,” Opt. Mater. 32(3), 469–474 (2010).
[Crossref]

A. Ródenas, G. A. Torchia, G. Lifante, E. Cantelar, J. Lamela, F. Jaque, L. Roso, and D. Jaque, “Refractive index change mechanisms in femtosecond laser written ceramic Nd:YAG waveguides: micro-spectroscopy experiments and beam propagation calculations,” Appl. Phys. B 95(1), 85–96 (2009).
[Crossref]

W. Bolaños, J. J. Carvajal, M. C. Pujol, X. Mateos, G. Lifante, M. Aguiló, and F. Díaz, “Epitaxial growth of lattice matched KY1-x-yGdxLuy(WO4)2 thin films on KY(WO4)2 substrates for waveguiding applications,” Cryst. Growth Des. 9(8), 3525–3531 (2009).
[Crossref]

Liu, J.

V. Petrov, M. C. Pujol, X. Mateos, O. Silvestre, S. Rivier, M. Aguilo, R. M. Sole, J. Liu, U. Griebner, and F. Diaz, “Growth and properties of KLu(WO4)2, and novel ytterbium and thulium lasers based on this monoclinic crystalline host,” Laser Photonics Rev. 1(2), 179–212 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. Liu, V. Petrov, X. Mateos, H. Zhang, and J. Wang, “Efficient high-power laser operation of Yb:KLu(WO4)2 crystals cut along the principal optical axes,” Opt. Lett. 32(14), 2016–2018 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, Y.-G.

K.-M. Wang, B.-R. Shi, N. Cue, Y.-Y. Zhu, R.-F. Xiao, F. Lu, W. Li, and Y.-G. Liu, “Waveguide laser film in erbium-doped KTiOPO4 by pulsed laser deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(8), 1020–1022 (1998).
[Crossref]

Loiko, P.

J. M. Serres, P. Loiko, V. Jambunathan, X. Mateos, V. Vitkin, A. Lucianetti, T. Mocek, M. Aguiló, F. Díaz, U. Griebner, and V. Petrov, “Efficient diode-pumped Er:KLu(WO4)2 laser at ∼1.61 μm,” Opt. Lett. 43(2), 218–221 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Kifle, P. Loiko, X. Mateos, J. R. Vázquez de Aldana, A. Ródenas, U. Griebner, V. Petrov, M. Aguiló, and F. Díaz, “Femtosecond-laser-written hexagonal cladding waveguide in Tm:KLu(WO4)2: µ-Raman study and laser operation,” Opt. Mater. Express 7(12), 4258–4268 (2017).
[Crossref]

E. Kifle, X. Mateos, J. R. de Aldana, A. Ródenas, P. Loiko, S. Y. Choi, F. Rotermund, U. Griebner, V. Petrov, M. Aguiló, and F. Díaz, “Femtosecond-laser-written Tm:KLu(WO4)2 waveguide lasers,” Opt. Lett. 42(6), 1169–1172 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Loiko, P. Segonds, P. L. Inácio, A. Peña, J. Debray, D. Rytz, V. Filippov, K. Yumashev, M. C. Pujol, X. Mateos, M. Aguiló, F. Díaz, M. Eichhorn, and B. Boulanger, “Refined orientation of the optical axes as a function of wavelength in three monoclinic double tungstate crystals KRE(WO4)2 (RE = Gd, Y or Lu),” Opt. Mater. Express 6(9), 2984–2990 (2016).
[Crossref]

P. Loiko, J. M. Serres, X. Mateos, K. Yumashev, N. Kuleshov, V. Petrov, U. Griebner, M. Aguiló, and F. Díaz, “In-band-pumped Ho:KLu(WO4)2 microchip laser with 84% slope efficiency,” Opt. Lett. 40(3), 344–347 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. M. Serres, X. Mateos, P. Loiko, K. Yumashev, N. Kuleshov, V. Petrov, U. Griebner, M. Aguiló, and F. Díaz, “Diode-pumped microchip Tm:KLu(WO4)2 laser with more than 3 W of output power,” Opt. Lett. 39(14), 4247–4250 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Longhi, S.

S. Taccheo, P. Laporta, S. Longhi, O. Svelto, and C. Svelto, “Diode-pumped bulk erbium–ytterbium lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 63(5), 425–436 (1996).
[Crossref]

Lu, F.

K.-M. Wang, B.-R. Shi, N. Cue, Y.-Y. Zhu, R.-F. Xiao, F. Lu, W. Li, and Y.-G. Liu, “Waveguide laser film in erbium-doped KTiOPO4 by pulsed laser deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(8), 1020–1022 (1998).
[Crossref]

Lucianetti, A.

Marshall, G. D.

M. Ams, G. D. Marshall, P. Dekker, J. A. Piper, and M. J. Withford, “Ultrafast laser written active devices,” Laser Photonics Rev. 3(6), 535–544 (2009).
[Crossref]

Martínez, J.

Mateos, X.

J. M. Serres, P. Loiko, V. Jambunathan, X. Mateos, V. Vitkin, A. Lucianetti, T. Mocek, M. Aguiló, F. Díaz, U. Griebner, and V. Petrov, “Efficient diode-pumped Er:KLu(WO4)2 laser at ∼1.61 μm,” Opt. Lett. 43(2), 218–221 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Kifle, X. Mateos, J. R. de Aldana, A. Ródenas, P. Loiko, S. Y. Choi, F. Rotermund, U. Griebner, V. Petrov, M. Aguiló, and F. Díaz, “Femtosecond-laser-written Tm:KLu(WO4)2 waveguide lasers,” Opt. Lett. 42(6), 1169–1172 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Kifle, P. Loiko, X. Mateos, J. R. Vázquez de Aldana, A. Ródenas, U. Griebner, V. Petrov, M. Aguiló, and F. Díaz, “Femtosecond-laser-written hexagonal cladding waveguide in Tm:KLu(WO4)2: µ-Raman study and laser operation,” Opt. Mater. Express 7(12), 4258–4268 (2017).
[Crossref]

P. Loiko, P. Segonds, P. L. Inácio, A. Peña, J. Debray, D. Rytz, V. Filippov, K. Yumashev, M. C. Pujol, X. Mateos, M. Aguiló, F. Díaz, M. Eichhorn, and B. Boulanger, “Refined orientation of the optical axes as a function of wavelength in three monoclinic double tungstate crystals KRE(WO4)2 (RE = Gd, Y or Lu),” Opt. Mater. Express 6(9), 2984–2990 (2016).
[Crossref]

P. Loiko, J. M. Serres, X. Mateos, K. Yumashev, N. Kuleshov, V. Petrov, U. Griebner, M. Aguiló, and F. Díaz, “In-band-pumped Ho:KLu(WO4)2 microchip laser with 84% slope efficiency,” Opt. Lett. 40(3), 344–347 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. M. Serres, X. Mateos, P. Loiko, K. Yumashev, N. Kuleshov, V. Petrov, U. Griebner, M. Aguiló, and F. Díaz, “Diode-pumped microchip Tm:KLu(WO4)2 laser with more than 3 W of output power,” Opt. Lett. 39(14), 4247–4250 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Bolaños, J. J. Carvajal, X. Mateos, M. C. Pujol, N. Thilmann, V. Pasiskevicius, G. Lifante, M. Aguiló, and F. Díaz, “Epitaxial layers of KY1−x−yGdxLuy(WO4)2 doped with Er3+ and Tm3+ for planar waveguide lasers,” Opt. Mater. 32(3), 469–474 (2010).
[Crossref]

W. Bolaños, J. J. Carvajal, M. C. Pujol, X. Mateos, G. Lifante, M. Aguiló, and F. Díaz, “Epitaxial growth of lattice matched KY1-x-yGdxLuy(WO4)2 thin films on KY(WO4)2 substrates for waveguiding applications,” Cryst. Growth Des. 9(8), 3525–3531 (2009).
[Crossref]

V. Petrov, M. C. Pujol, X. Mateos, O. Silvestre, S. Rivier, M. Aguilo, R. M. Sole, J. Liu, U. Griebner, and F. Diaz, “Growth and properties of KLu(WO4)2, and novel ytterbium and thulium lasers based on this monoclinic crystalline host,” Laser Photonics Rev. 1(2), 179–212 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. Liu, V. Petrov, X. Mateos, H. Zhang, and J. Wang, “Efficient high-power laser operation of Yb:KLu(WO4)2 crystals cut along the principal optical axes,” Opt. Lett. 32(14), 2016–2018 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Merchant, C. A.

S. M. Eaton, C. A. Merchant, R. Iyer, A. J. Zilkie, A. S. Helmy, J. S. Aitchison, P. R. Herman, D. Kraemer, R. J. D. Miller, C. Hnatovsky, and R. S. Taylor, “Raman gain from waveguides inscribed in KGd(WO4)2 by high repetition rate femtosecond laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(8), 081105 (2008).
[Crossref]

Metz, P. W.

F. Moglia, S. Müller, F. Reichert, P. W. Metz, T. Calmano, C. Kränkel, E. Heumann, and G. Huber, “Efficient upconversion-pumped continuous wave Er3+:LiLuF4 lasers,” Opt. Mater. 42, 167–173 (2015).
[Crossref]

Mikhailov, V. P.

N. V. Kuleshov, A. A. Lagatsky, V. G. Shcherbitsky, V. P. Mikhailov, E. Heumann, T. Jensen, A. Diening, and G. Huber, “CW laser performance of Yb and Er, Yb doped tungstates,” Appl. Phys. B 64(4), 409–413 (1997).
[Crossref]

Miller, R. J. D.

S. M. Eaton, C. A. Merchant, R. Iyer, A. J. Zilkie, A. S. Helmy, J. S. Aitchison, P. R. Herman, D. Kraemer, R. J. D. Miller, C. Hnatovsky, and R. S. Taylor, “Raman gain from waveguides inscribed in KGd(WO4)2 by high repetition rate femtosecond laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(8), 081105 (2008).
[Crossref]

Mocek, T.

Moglia, F.

F. Moglia, S. Müller, F. Reichert, P. W. Metz, T. Calmano, C. Kränkel, E. Heumann, and G. Huber, “Efficient upconversion-pumped continuous wave Er3+:LiLuF4 lasers,” Opt. Mater. 42, 167–173 (2015).
[Crossref]

Moreno-Zárate, P.

Morgner, U.

Müller, S.

F. Moglia, S. Müller, F. Reichert, P. W. Metz, T. Calmano, C. Kränkel, E. Heumann, and G. Huber, “Efficient upconversion-pumped continuous wave Er3+:LiLuF4 lasers,” Opt. Mater. 42, 167–173 (2015).
[Crossref]

Mwarania, E. K.

T. Feuchter, E. K. Mwarania, J. Wang, L. Reekie, and J. S. Wilkinson, “Erbium-doped ion-exchanged waveguide lasers in BK-7 glass,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 4(6), 542–544 (1992).
[Crossref]

Myers, M.

S. Jiang, M. Myers, and N. Peyghambarian, “Er3+ doped phosphate glasses and lasers,” J. Non-Cryst. Sol. 239(1–3), 143–148 (1998).

Nejadmalayeri, A. H.

Nguyen, H.-D.

Ortega-Feliu, I.

J. Hoyo, V. Berdejo, T. T. Fernandez, A. Ferrer, A. Ruiz, J. A. Valles, M. A. Rebolledo, I. Ortega-Feliu, and J. Solis, “Femtosecond laser written 16.5 mm long glass-waveguide amplifier and laser with 5.2 dB cm−1 internal gain at 1534 nm,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(10), 105802 (2013).
[Crossref]

Osellame, R.

Osiko, V.

G. Karlsson, F. Laurell, J. Tellefsen, B. Denker, B. Galagan, V. Osiko, and S. Sverchkov, “Development and characterization of Yb-Er laser glass for high average power laser diode pumping,” Appl. Phys. B 75(1), 41–46 (2002).
[Crossref]

Pasiskevicius, V.

W. Bolaños, J. J. Carvajal, X. Mateos, M. C. Pujol, N. Thilmann, V. Pasiskevicius, G. Lifante, M. Aguiló, and F. Díaz, “Epitaxial layers of KY1−x−yGdxLuy(WO4)2 doped with Er3+ and Tm3+ for planar waveguide lasers,” Opt. Mater. 32(3), 469–474 (2010).
[Crossref]

Payne, S. A.

J. A. Caird, S. A. Payne, P. R. Staber, A. J. Ramponi, L. L. Chase, and W. F. Krupke, “Quantum electronic properties of the Na3Ga2Li3F12:Cr3+ laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24(6), 1077–1099 (1988).
[Crossref]

Peña, A.

Petrov, V.

J. M. Serres, P. Loiko, V. Jambunathan, X. Mateos, V. Vitkin, A. Lucianetti, T. Mocek, M. Aguiló, F. Díaz, U. Griebner, and V. Petrov, “Efficient diode-pumped Er:KLu(WO4)2 laser at ∼1.61 μm,” Opt. Lett. 43(2), 218–221 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Kifle, P. Loiko, X. Mateos, J. R. Vázquez de Aldana, A. Ródenas, U. Griebner, V. Petrov, M. Aguiló, and F. Díaz, “Femtosecond-laser-written hexagonal cladding waveguide in Tm:KLu(WO4)2: µ-Raman study and laser operation,” Opt. Mater. Express 7(12), 4258–4268 (2017).
[Crossref]

E. Kifle, X. Mateos, J. R. de Aldana, A. Ródenas, P. Loiko, S. Y. Choi, F. Rotermund, U. Griebner, V. Petrov, M. Aguiló, and F. Díaz, “Femtosecond-laser-written Tm:KLu(WO4)2 waveguide lasers,” Opt. Lett. 42(6), 1169–1172 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Loiko, J. M. Serres, X. Mateos, K. Yumashev, N. Kuleshov, V. Petrov, U. Griebner, M. Aguiló, and F. Díaz, “In-band-pumped Ho:KLu(WO4)2 microchip laser with 84% slope efficiency,” Opt. Lett. 40(3), 344–347 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. M. Serres, X. Mateos, P. Loiko, K. Yumashev, N. Kuleshov, V. Petrov, U. Griebner, M. Aguiló, and F. Díaz, “Diode-pumped microchip Tm:KLu(WO4)2 laser with more than 3 W of output power,” Opt. Lett. 39(14), 4247–4250 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Liu, V. Petrov, X. Mateos, H. Zhang, and J. Wang, “Efficient high-power laser operation of Yb:KLu(WO4)2 crystals cut along the principal optical axes,” Opt. Lett. 32(14), 2016–2018 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Petrov, M. C. Pujol, X. Mateos, O. Silvestre, S. Rivier, M. Aguilo, R. M. Sole, J. Liu, U. Griebner, and F. Diaz, “Growth and properties of KLu(WO4)2, and novel ytterbium and thulium lasers based on this monoclinic crystalline host,” Laser Photonics Rev. 1(2), 179–212 (2007).
[Crossref]

Peyghambarian, N.

S. Jiang, M. Myers, and N. Peyghambarian, “Er3+ doped phosphate glasses and lasers,” J. Non-Cryst. Sol. 239(1–3), 143–148 (1998).

Piper, J. A.

M. Ams, G. D. Marshall, P. Dekker, J. A. Piper, and M. J. Withford, “Ultrafast laser written active devices,” Laser Photonics Rev. 3(6), 535–544 (2009).
[Crossref]

Pollnau, M.

Psaila, N. D.

F. M. Bain, A. A. Lagatsky, R. R. Thomson, N. D. Psaila, N. V. Kuleshov, A. K. Kar, W. Sibbett, and C. T. A. Brown, “Ultrafast laser inscribed Yb:KGd(WO4)2 and Yb:KY(WO4)2 channel waveguide lasers,” Opt. Express 17(25), 22417–22422 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. D. Psaila, R. R. Thomson, H. T. Bookey, N. Chiodo, S. Shen, R. Osellame, G. Cerullo, A. Jha, and A. K. Kar, “Er:Yb-doped oxyfluoride silicate glass waveguide laser fabricated using ultrafast laser inscription,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20(2), 126–128 (2008).
[Crossref]

Pujol, M. C.

H.-D. Nguyen, A. Ródenas, J. R. Vázquez de Aldana, J. Martínez, F. Chen, M. Aguiló, M. C. Pujol, and F. Díaz, “Heuristic modelling of laser written mid-infrared LiNbO3 stressed-cladding waveguides,” Opt. Express 24(7), 7777–7791 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Loiko, P. Segonds, P. L. Inácio, A. Peña, J. Debray, D. Rytz, V. Filippov, K. Yumashev, M. C. Pujol, X. Mateos, M. Aguiló, F. Díaz, M. Eichhorn, and B. Boulanger, “Refined orientation of the optical axes as a function of wavelength in three monoclinic double tungstate crystals KRE(WO4)2 (RE = Gd, Y or Lu),” Opt. Mater. Express 6(9), 2984–2990 (2016).
[Crossref]

W. Bolaños, J. J. Carvajal, X. Mateos, M. C. Pujol, N. Thilmann, V. Pasiskevicius, G. Lifante, M. Aguiló, and F. Díaz, “Epitaxial layers of KY1−x−yGdxLuy(WO4)2 doped with Er3+ and Tm3+ for planar waveguide lasers,” Opt. Mater. 32(3), 469–474 (2010).
[Crossref]

W. Bolaños, J. J. Carvajal, M. C. Pujol, X. Mateos, G. Lifante, M. Aguiló, and F. Díaz, “Epitaxial growth of lattice matched KY1-x-yGdxLuy(WO4)2 thin films on KY(WO4)2 substrates for waveguiding applications,” Cryst. Growth Des. 9(8), 3525–3531 (2009).
[Crossref]

V. Petrov, M. C. Pujol, X. Mateos, O. Silvestre, S. Rivier, M. Aguilo, R. M. Sole, J. Liu, U. Griebner, and F. Diaz, “Growth and properties of KLu(WO4)2, and novel ytterbium and thulium lasers based on this monoclinic crystalline host,” Laser Photonics Rev. 1(2), 179–212 (2007).
[Crossref]

Ramponi, A. J.

J. A. Caird, S. A. Payne, P. R. Staber, A. J. Ramponi, L. L. Chase, and W. F. Krupke, “Quantum electronic properties of the Na3Ga2Li3F12:Cr3+ laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24(6), 1077–1099 (1988).
[Crossref]

Rebolledo, M. A.

J. Hoyo, V. Berdejo, T. T. Fernandez, A. Ferrer, A. Ruiz, J. A. Valles, M. A. Rebolledo, I. Ortega-Feliu, and J. Solis, “Femtosecond laser written 16.5 mm long glass-waveguide amplifier and laser with 5.2 dB cm−1 internal gain at 1534 nm,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(10), 105802 (2013).
[Crossref]

Reekie, L.

T. Feuchter, E. K. Mwarania, J. Wang, L. Reekie, and J. S. Wilkinson, “Erbium-doped ion-exchanged waveguide lasers in BK-7 glass,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 4(6), 542–544 (1992).
[Crossref]

Reichert, F.

F. Moglia, S. Müller, F. Reichert, P. W. Metz, T. Calmano, C. Kränkel, E. Heumann, and G. Huber, “Efficient upconversion-pumped continuous wave Er3+:LiLuF4 lasers,” Opt. Mater. 42, 167–173 (2015).
[Crossref]

Rivier, S.

V. Petrov, M. C. Pujol, X. Mateos, O. Silvestre, S. Rivier, M. Aguilo, R. M. Sole, J. Liu, U. Griebner, and F. Diaz, “Growth and properties of KLu(WO4)2, and novel ytterbium and thulium lasers based on this monoclinic crystalline host,” Laser Photonics Rev. 1(2), 179–212 (2007).
[Crossref]

Ródenas, A.

Roeloffzen, C. G. H.

Romanyuk, Y. E.

S. García-Revilla, R. Valiente, Y. E. Romanyuk, and M. Pollnau, “Temporal dynamics of upconversion luminescence in Er3+, Yb3+ co-doped crystalline KY(WO4)2 thin films,” J. Lumin. 128(5–6), 934–936 (2008).
[Crossref]

Roso, L.

A. Ródenas, G. A. Torchia, G. Lifante, E. Cantelar, J. Lamela, F. Jaque, L. Roso, and D. Jaque, “Refractive index change mechanisms in femtosecond laser written ceramic Nd:YAG waveguides: micro-spectroscopy experiments and beam propagation calculations,” Appl. Phys. B 95(1), 85–96 (2009).
[Crossref]

Rotermund, F.

Ruiz, A.

J. Hoyo, V. Berdejo, T. T. Fernandez, A. Ferrer, A. Ruiz, J. A. Valles, M. A. Rebolledo, I. Ortega-Feliu, and J. Solis, “Femtosecond laser written 16.5 mm long glass-waveguide amplifier and laser with 5.2 dB cm−1 internal gain at 1534 nm,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(10), 105802 (2013).
[Crossref]

Rytz, D.

Sahu, J. K.

Segonds, P.

Serres, J. M.

Shcherbitsky, V. G.

N. V. Kuleshov, A. A. Lagatsky, V. G. Shcherbitsky, V. P. Mikhailov, E. Heumann, T. Jensen, A. Diening, and G. Huber, “CW laser performance of Yb and Er, Yb doped tungstates,” Appl. Phys. B 64(4), 409–413 (1997).
[Crossref]

Shen, D. Y.

Shen, S.

N. D. Psaila, R. R. Thomson, H. T. Bookey, N. Chiodo, S. Shen, R. Osellame, G. Cerullo, A. Jha, and A. K. Kar, “Er:Yb-doped oxyfluoride silicate glass waveguide laser fabricated using ultrafast laser inscription,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20(2), 126–128 (2008).
[Crossref]

Shi, B.-R.

K.-M. Wang, B.-R. Shi, N. Cue, Y.-Y. Zhu, R.-F. Xiao, F. Lu, W. Li, and Y.-G. Liu, “Waveguide laser film in erbium-doped KTiOPO4 by pulsed laser deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(8), 1020–1022 (1998).
[Crossref]

Sibbett, W.

Silvestre, O.

V. Petrov, M. C. Pujol, X. Mateos, O. Silvestre, S. Rivier, M. Aguilo, R. M. Sole, J. Liu, U. Griebner, and F. Diaz, “Growth and properties of KLu(WO4)2, and novel ytterbium and thulium lasers based on this monoclinic crystalline host,” Laser Photonics Rev. 1(2), 179–212 (2007).
[Crossref]

Smirnov, V. A.

K. A. Subbotin, E. V. Zharikov, and V. A. Smirnov, “Yb- and Er-doped single crystals of double tungstates NaGd(WO4)2, NaLa(WO4)2, and NaBi(WO4)2 as active media for lasers operating in the 1.0 and 1.5 μm ranges,” Opt. Spectrosc. 92(4), 601–608 (2002).
[Crossref]

Sohler, W.

R. Brinkmann, W. Sohler, and H. Suche, “Continuous-wave erbium-diffused LiNbO3 waveguide laser,” Electron. Lett. 27(5), 415–417 (1991).
[Crossref]

Sole, R. M.

V. Petrov, M. C. Pujol, X. Mateos, O. Silvestre, S. Rivier, M. Aguilo, R. M. Sole, J. Liu, U. Griebner, and F. Diaz, “Growth and properties of KLu(WO4)2, and novel ytterbium and thulium lasers based on this monoclinic crystalline host,” Laser Photonics Rev. 1(2), 179–212 (2007).
[Crossref]

Solis, J.

J. Hoyo, V. Berdejo, T. T. Fernandez, A. Ferrer, A. Ruiz, J. A. Valles, M. A. Rebolledo, I. Ortega-Feliu, and J. Solis, “Femtosecond laser written 16.5 mm long glass-waveguide amplifier and laser with 5.2 dB cm−1 internal gain at 1534 nm,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(10), 105802 (2013).
[Crossref]

Solís, J.

Speghini, A.

F. Vetrone, J. C. Boyer, J. A. Capobianco, A. Speghini, and M. Bettinelli, “Effect of Yb3+ codoping on the upconversion emission in nanocrystalline Y2O3: Er3+,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107(5), 1107–1112 (2003).
[Crossref]

F. Vetrone, J.-C. Boyer, J. A. Capobianco, A. Speghini, and M. Bettinelli, “Concentration-dependent near-infrared to visible upconversion in nanocrystalline and bulk Y2O3:Er3+,” Chem. Mater. 15(14), 2737–2743 (2003).
[Crossref]

Staber, P. R.

J. A. Caird, S. A. Payne, P. R. Staber, A. J. Ramponi, L. L. Chase, and W. F. Krupke, “Quantum electronic properties of the Na3Ga2Li3F12:Cr3+ laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24(6), 1077–1099 (1988).
[Crossref]

Subbotin, K. A.

K. A. Subbotin, E. V. Zharikov, and V. A. Smirnov, “Yb- and Er-doped single crystals of double tungstates NaGd(WO4)2, NaLa(WO4)2, and NaBi(WO4)2 as active media for lasers operating in the 1.0 and 1.5 μm ranges,” Opt. Spectrosc. 92(4), 601–608 (2002).
[Crossref]

Suche, H.

R. Brinkmann, W. Sohler, and H. Suche, “Continuous-wave erbium-diffused LiNbO3 waveguide laser,” Electron. Lett. 27(5), 415–417 (1991).
[Crossref]

Svelto, C.

S. Taccheo, P. Laporta, S. Longhi, O. Svelto, and C. Svelto, “Diode-pumped bulk erbium–ytterbium lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 63(5), 425–436 (1996).
[Crossref]

Svelto, O.

R. Osellame, G. Della Valle, N. Chiodo, S. Taccheo, P. Laporta, O. Svelto, and G. Cerullo, “Lasing in femtosecond laser written optical waveguides,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 93(1), 17–26 (2008).
[Crossref]

S. Taccheo, G. Della Valle, R. Osellame, G. Cerullo, N. Chiodo, P. Laporta, O. Svelto, A. Killi, U. Morgner, M. Lederer, and D. Kopf, “Er:Yb-doped waveguide laser fabricated by femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Lett. 29(22), 2626–2628 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Taccheo, P. Laporta, S. Longhi, O. Svelto, and C. Svelto, “Diode-pumped bulk erbium–ytterbium lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 63(5), 425–436 (1996).
[Crossref]

Sverchkov, S.

G. Karlsson, F. Laurell, J. Tellefsen, B. Denker, B. Galagan, V. Osiko, and S. Sverchkov, “Development and characterization of Yb-Er laser glass for high average power laser diode pumping,” Appl. Phys. B 75(1), 41–46 (2002).
[Crossref]

Taccheo, S.

Taylor, R. S.

S. M. Eaton, C. A. Merchant, R. Iyer, A. J. Zilkie, A. S. Helmy, J. S. Aitchison, P. R. Herman, D. Kraemer, R. J. D. Miller, C. Hnatovsky, and R. S. Taylor, “Raman gain from waveguides inscribed in KGd(WO4)2 by high repetition rate femtosecond laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(8), 081105 (2008).
[Crossref]

Tellefsen, J.

G. Karlsson, F. Laurell, J. Tellefsen, B. Denker, B. Galagan, V. Osiko, and S. Sverchkov, “Development and characterization of Yb-Er laser glass for high average power laser diode pumping,” Appl. Phys. B 75(1), 41–46 (2002).
[Crossref]

Thilmann, N.

W. Bolaños, J. J. Carvajal, X. Mateos, M. C. Pujol, N. Thilmann, V. Pasiskevicius, G. Lifante, M. Aguiló, and F. Díaz, “Epitaxial layers of KY1−x−yGdxLuy(WO4)2 doped with Er3+ and Tm3+ for planar waveguide lasers,” Opt. Mater. 32(3), 469–474 (2010).
[Crossref]

Thomson, R. R.

F. M. Bain, A. A. Lagatsky, R. R. Thomson, N. D. Psaila, N. V. Kuleshov, A. K. Kar, W. Sibbett, and C. T. A. Brown, “Ultrafast laser inscribed Yb:KGd(WO4)2 and Yb:KY(WO4)2 channel waveguide lasers,” Opt. Express 17(25), 22417–22422 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. D. Psaila, R. R. Thomson, H. T. Bookey, N. Chiodo, S. Shen, R. Osellame, G. Cerullo, A. Jha, and A. K. Kar, “Er:Yb-doped oxyfluoride silicate glass waveguide laser fabricated using ultrafast laser inscription,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20(2), 126–128 (2008).
[Crossref]

Torchia, G. A.

A. Ródenas, G. A. Torchia, G. Lifante, E. Cantelar, J. Lamela, F. Jaque, L. Roso, and D. Jaque, “Refractive index change mechanisms in femtosecond laser written ceramic Nd:YAG waveguides: micro-spectroscopy experiments and beam propagation calculations,” Appl. Phys. B 95(1), 85–96 (2009).
[Crossref]

Valiente, R.

S. García-Revilla, R. Valiente, Y. E. Romanyuk, and M. Pollnau, “Temporal dynamics of upconversion luminescence in Er3+, Yb3+ co-doped crystalline KY(WO4)2 thin films,” J. Lumin. 128(5–6), 934–936 (2008).
[Crossref]

Valles, J. A.

J. Hoyo, V. Berdejo, T. T. Fernandez, A. Ferrer, A. Ruiz, J. A. Valles, M. A. Rebolledo, I. Ortega-Feliu, and J. Solis, “Femtosecond laser written 16.5 mm long glass-waveguide amplifier and laser with 5.2 dB cm−1 internal gain at 1534 nm,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(10), 105802 (2013).
[Crossref]

Vallés, J. A.

van Dalfsen, K.

van Wolferen, H. A. G. M.

Vázquez de Aldana, J. R.

Vázquez-Córdova, S. A.

Vetrone, F.

F. Vetrone, J. C. Boyer, J. A. Capobianco, A. Speghini, and M. Bettinelli, “Effect of Yb3+ codoping on the upconversion emission in nanocrystalline Y2O3: Er3+,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107(5), 1107–1112 (2003).
[Crossref]

F. Vetrone, J.-C. Boyer, J. A. Capobianco, A. Speghini, and M. Bettinelli, “Concentration-dependent near-infrared to visible upconversion in nanocrystalline and bulk Y2O3:Er3+,” Chem. Mater. 15(14), 2737–2743 (2003).
[Crossref]

Vitkin, V.

Wang, J.

J. Liu, V. Petrov, X. Mateos, H. Zhang, and J. Wang, “Efficient high-power laser operation of Yb:KLu(WO4)2 crystals cut along the principal optical axes,” Opt. Lett. 32(14), 2016–2018 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Feuchter, E. K. Mwarania, J. Wang, L. Reekie, and J. S. Wilkinson, “Erbium-doped ion-exchanged waveguide lasers in BK-7 glass,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 4(6), 542–544 (1992).
[Crossref]

Wang, K.-M.

K.-M. Wang, B.-R. Shi, N. Cue, Y.-Y. Zhu, R.-F. Xiao, F. Lu, W. Li, and Y.-G. Liu, “Waveguide laser film in erbium-doped KTiOPO4 by pulsed laser deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(8), 1020–1022 (1998).
[Crossref]

Wilkinson, J. S.

T. Feuchter, E. K. Mwarania, J. Wang, L. Reekie, and J. S. Wilkinson, “Erbium-doped ion-exchanged waveguide lasers in BK-7 glass,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 4(6), 542–544 (1992).
[Crossref]

Withford, M. J.

M. Ams, G. D. Marshall, P. Dekker, J. A. Piper, and M. J. Withford, “Ultrafast laser written active devices,” Laser Photonics Rev. 3(6), 535–544 (2009).
[Crossref]

Wörhoff, K.

Xiao, R.-F.

K.-M. Wang, B.-R. Shi, N. Cue, Y.-Y. Zhu, R.-F. Xiao, F. Lu, W. Li, and Y.-G. Liu, “Waveguide laser film in erbium-doped KTiOPO4 by pulsed laser deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(8), 1020–1022 (1998).
[Crossref]

Yong, Y.-S.

Yumashev, K.

Zhang, H.

Zharikov, E. V.

K. A. Subbotin, E. V. Zharikov, and V. A. Smirnov, “Yb- and Er-doped single crystals of double tungstates NaGd(WO4)2, NaLa(WO4)2, and NaBi(WO4)2 as active media for lasers operating in the 1.0 and 1.5 μm ranges,” Opt. Spectrosc. 92(4), 601–608 (2002).
[Crossref]

Zhu, Y.-Y.

K.-M. Wang, B.-R. Shi, N. Cue, Y.-Y. Zhu, R.-F. Xiao, F. Lu, W. Li, and Y.-G. Liu, “Waveguide laser film in erbium-doped KTiOPO4 by pulsed laser deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(8), 1020–1022 (1998).
[Crossref]

Zilkie, A. J.

S. M. Eaton, C. A. Merchant, R. Iyer, A. J. Zilkie, A. S. Helmy, J. S. Aitchison, P. R. Herman, D. Kraemer, R. J. D. Miller, C. Hnatovsky, and R. S. Taylor, “Raman gain from waveguides inscribed in KGd(WO4)2 by high repetition rate femtosecond laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(8), 081105 (2008).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. B (4)

S. Taccheo, P. Laporta, S. Longhi, O. Svelto, and C. Svelto, “Diode-pumped bulk erbium–ytterbium lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 63(5), 425–436 (1996).
[Crossref]

G. Karlsson, F. Laurell, J. Tellefsen, B. Denker, B. Galagan, V. Osiko, and S. Sverchkov, “Development and characterization of Yb-Er laser glass for high average power laser diode pumping,” Appl. Phys. B 75(1), 41–46 (2002).
[Crossref]

N. V. Kuleshov, A. A. Lagatsky, V. G. Shcherbitsky, V. P. Mikhailov, E. Heumann, T. Jensen, A. Diening, and G. Huber, “CW laser performance of Yb and Er, Yb doped tungstates,” Appl. Phys. B 64(4), 409–413 (1997).
[Crossref]

A. Ródenas, G. A. Torchia, G. Lifante, E. Cantelar, J. Lamela, F. Jaque, L. Roso, and D. Jaque, “Refractive index change mechanisms in femtosecond laser written ceramic Nd:YAG waveguides: micro-spectroscopy experiments and beam propagation calculations,” Appl. Phys. B 95(1), 85–96 (2009).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

S. M. Eaton, C. A. Merchant, R. Iyer, A. J. Zilkie, A. S. Helmy, J. S. Aitchison, P. R. Herman, D. Kraemer, R. J. D. Miller, C. Hnatovsky, and R. S. Taylor, “Raman gain from waveguides inscribed in KGd(WO4)2 by high repetition rate femtosecond laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(8), 081105 (2008).
[Crossref]

K.-M. Wang, B.-R. Shi, N. Cue, Y.-Y. Zhu, R.-F. Xiao, F. Lu, W. Li, and Y.-G. Liu, “Waveguide laser film in erbium-doped KTiOPO4 by pulsed laser deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(8), 1020–1022 (1998).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. (1)

R. Osellame, G. Della Valle, N. Chiodo, S. Taccheo, P. Laporta, O. Svelto, and G. Cerullo, “Lasing in femtosecond laser written optical waveguides,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 93(1), 17–26 (2008).
[Crossref]

Chem. Mater. (1)

F. Vetrone, J.-C. Boyer, J. A. Capobianco, A. Speghini, and M. Bettinelli, “Concentration-dependent near-infrared to visible upconversion in nanocrystalline and bulk Y2O3:Er3+,” Chem. Mater. 15(14), 2737–2743 (2003).
[Crossref]

Cryst. Growth Des. (1)

W. Bolaños, J. J. Carvajal, M. C. Pujol, X. Mateos, G. Lifante, M. Aguiló, and F. Díaz, “Epitaxial growth of lattice matched KY1-x-yGdxLuy(WO4)2 thin films on KY(WO4)2 substrates for waveguiding applications,” Cryst. Growth Des. 9(8), 3525–3531 (2009).
[Crossref]

Electron. Lett. (1)

R. Brinkmann, W. Sohler, and H. Suche, “Continuous-wave erbium-diffused LiNbO3 waveguide laser,” Electron. Lett. 27(5), 415–417 (1991).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

J. A. Caird, S. A. Payne, P. R. Staber, A. J. Ramponi, L. L. Chase, and W. F. Krupke, “Quantum electronic properties of the Na3Ga2Li3F12:Cr3+ laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24(6), 1077–1099 (1988).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (2)

N. D. Psaila, R. R. Thomson, H. T. Bookey, N. Chiodo, S. Shen, R. Osellame, G. Cerullo, A. Jha, and A. K. Kar, “Er:Yb-doped oxyfluoride silicate glass waveguide laser fabricated using ultrafast laser inscription,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20(2), 126–128 (2008).
[Crossref]

T. Feuchter, E. K. Mwarania, J. Wang, L. Reekie, and J. S. Wilkinson, “Erbium-doped ion-exchanged waveguide lasers in BK-7 glass,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 4(6), 542–544 (1992).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

J. Lumin. (1)

S. García-Revilla, R. Valiente, Y. E. Romanyuk, and M. Pollnau, “Temporal dynamics of upconversion luminescence in Er3+, Yb3+ co-doped crystalline KY(WO4)2 thin films,” J. Lumin. 128(5–6), 934–936 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Non-Cryst. Sol. (1)

S. Jiang, M. Myers, and N. Peyghambarian, “Er3+ doped phosphate glasses and lasers,” J. Non-Cryst. Sol. 239(1–3), 143–148 (1998).

J. Phys. Chem. B (1)

F. Vetrone, J. C. Boyer, J. A. Capobianco, A. Speghini, and M. Bettinelli, “Effect of Yb3+ codoping on the upconversion emission in nanocrystalline Y2O3: Er3+,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107(5), 1107–1112 (2003).
[Crossref]

Laser Photonics Rev. (4)

J. D. B. Bradley and M. Pollnau, “Erbium-doped integrated waveguide amplifiers and lasers,” Laser Photonics Rev. 5(3), 368–403 (2011).
[Crossref]

V. Petrov, M. C. Pujol, X. Mateos, O. Silvestre, S. Rivier, M. Aguilo, R. M. Sole, J. Liu, U. Griebner, and F. Diaz, “Growth and properties of KLu(WO4)2, and novel ytterbium and thulium lasers based on this monoclinic crystalline host,” Laser Photonics Rev. 1(2), 179–212 (2007).
[Crossref]

M. Ams, G. D. Marshall, P. Dekker, J. A. Piper, and M. J. Withford, “Ultrafast laser written active devices,” Laser Photonics Rev. 3(6), 535–544 (2009).
[Crossref]

F. Chen and J. R. Vázquez de Aldana, “Optical waveguides in crystalline dielectric materials produced by femtosecond-laser micromachining,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(2), 251–275 (2014).
[Crossref]

Laser Phys. Lett. (1)

J. Hoyo, V. Berdejo, T. T. Fernandez, A. Ferrer, A. Ruiz, J. A. Valles, M. A. Rebolledo, I. Ortega-Feliu, and J. Solis, “Femtosecond laser written 16.5 mm long glass-waveguide amplifier and laser with 5.2 dB cm−1 internal gain at 1534 nm,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(10), 105802 (2013).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (8)

F. M. Bain, A. A. Lagatsky, R. R. Thomson, N. D. Psaila, N. V. Kuleshov, A. K. Kar, W. Sibbett, and C. T. A. Brown, “Ultrafast laser inscribed Yb:KGd(WO4)2 and Yb:KY(WO4)2 channel waveguide lasers,” Opt. Express 17(25), 22417–22422 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Della Valle, R. Osellame, N. Chiodo, S. Taccheo, G. Cerullo, P. Laporta, A. Killi, U. Morgner, M. Lederer, and D. Kopf, “C-band waveguide amplifier produced by femtosecond laser writing,” Opt. Express 13(16), 5976–5982 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Geskus, S. Aravazhi, K. Wörhoff, and M. Pollnau, “High-power, broadly tunable, and low-quantum-defect KGd1-xLux(WO4)2:Yb3+ channel waveguide lasers,” Opt. Express 18(25), 26107–26112 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. W. Kim, D. Y. Shen, J. K. Sahu, and W. A. Clarkson, “High-power in-band pumped Er:YAG laser at 1617 nm,” Opt. Express 16(8), 5807–5812 (2008).
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S. A. Vázquez-Córdova, S. Aravazhi, C. Grivas, Y.-S. Yong, S. M. García-Blanco, J. L. Herek, and M. Pollnau, “High optical gain in erbium-doped potassium double tungstate channel waveguide amplifiers,” Opt. Express 26(5), 6260–6266 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Della Valle, S. Taccheo, R. Osellame, A. Festa, G. Cerullo, and P. Laporta, “1.5 mum single longitudinal mode waveguide laser fabricated by femtosecond laser writing,” Opt. Express 15(6), 3190–3194 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H.-D. Nguyen, A. Ródenas, J. R. Vázquez de Aldana, J. Martínez, F. Chen, M. Aguiló, M. C. Pujol, and F. Díaz, “Heuristic modelling of laser written mid-infrared LiNbO3 stressed-cladding waveguides,” Opt. Express 24(7), 7777–7791 (2016).
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A. Ródenas, A. H. Nejadmalayeri, D. Jaque, and P. Herman, “Confocal Raman imaging of optical waveguides in LiNbO3 fabricated by ultrafast high-repetition rate laser-writing,” Opt. Express 16(18), 13979–13989 (2008).
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Opt. Lett. (9)

S. Taccheo, G. Della Valle, R. Osellame, G. Cerullo, N. Chiodo, P. Laporta, O. Svelto, A. Killi, U. Morgner, M. Lederer, and D. Kopf, “Er:Yb-doped waveguide laser fabricated by femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Lett. 29(22), 2626–2628 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. H. Bernhardi, H. A. G. M. van Wolferen, L. Agazzi, M. R. H. Khan, C. G. H. Roeloffzen, K. Wörhoff, M. Pollnau, and R. M. de Ridder, “Ultra-narrow-linewidth, single-frequency distributed feedback waveguide laser in Al2O3:Er3+ on silicon,” Opt. Lett. 35(14), 2394–2396 (2010).
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J. M. Serres, P. Loiko, V. Jambunathan, X. Mateos, V. Vitkin, A. Lucianetti, T. Mocek, M. Aguiló, F. Díaz, U. Griebner, and V. Petrov, “Efficient diode-pumped Er:KLu(WO4)2 laser at ∼1.61 μm,” Opt. Lett. 43(2), 218–221 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Liu, V. Petrov, X. Mateos, H. Zhang, and J. Wang, “Efficient high-power laser operation of Yb:KLu(WO4)2 crystals cut along the principal optical axes,” Opt. Lett. 32(14), 2016–2018 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. M. Serres, X. Mateos, P. Loiko, K. Yumashev, N. Kuleshov, V. Petrov, U. Griebner, M. Aguiló, and F. Díaz, “Diode-pumped microchip Tm:KLu(WO4)2 laser with more than 3 W of output power,” Opt. Lett. 39(14), 4247–4250 (2014).
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P. Loiko, J. M. Serres, X. Mateos, K. Yumashev, N. Kuleshov, V. Petrov, U. Griebner, M. Aguiló, and F. Díaz, “In-band-pumped Ho:KLu(WO4)2 microchip laser with 84% slope efficiency,” Opt. Lett. 40(3), 344–347 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. van Dalfsen, S. Aravazhi, C. Grivas, S. M. García-Blanco, and M. Pollnau, “Thulium channel waveguide laser with 1.6 W of output power and ∼80% slope efficiency,” Opt. Lett. 39(15), 4380–4383 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Kurilchik, O. Dernovich, K. Gorbachenya, V. Kisel, I. Kolesova, A. Kravtsov, S. Guretsky, and N. Kuleshov, “Growth, spectroscopy, and laser characterization of Er:KGdxYbyY1-x-y(WO4)2 epitaxial layers,” Opt. Lett. 42(21), 4565–4568 (2017).
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E. Kifle, X. Mateos, J. R. de Aldana, A. Ródenas, P. Loiko, S. Y. Choi, F. Rotermund, U. Griebner, V. Petrov, M. Aguiló, and F. Díaz, “Femtosecond-laser-written Tm:KLu(WO4)2 waveguide lasers,” Opt. Lett. 42(6), 1169–1172 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Mater. (2)

F. Moglia, S. Müller, F. Reichert, P. W. Metz, T. Calmano, C. Kränkel, E. Heumann, and G. Huber, “Efficient upconversion-pumped continuous wave Er3+:LiLuF4 lasers,” Opt. Mater. 42, 167–173 (2015).
[Crossref]

W. Bolaños, J. J. Carvajal, X. Mateos, M. C. Pujol, N. Thilmann, V. Pasiskevicius, G. Lifante, M. Aguiló, and F. Díaz, “Epitaxial layers of KY1−x−yGdxLuy(WO4)2 doped with Er3+ and Tm3+ for planar waveguide lasers,” Opt. Mater. 32(3), 469–474 (2010).
[Crossref]

Opt. Mater. Express (2)

Opt. Spectrosc. (1)

K. A. Subbotin, E. V. Zharikov, and V. A. Smirnov, “Yb- and Er-doped single crystals of double tungstates NaGd(WO4)2, NaLa(WO4)2, and NaBi(WO4)2 as active media for lasers operating in the 1.0 and 1.5 μm ranges,” Opt. Spectrosc. 92(4), 601–608 (2002).
[Crossref]

Other (2)

K. Gorbachenya, V. E. Kisel, S. V. Kurilchik, A. S. Yasukevich, S. Korableva, V. V. Semashko, A. A. Pavlyuk, and N. V. Kuleshov, “Er:KY(WO4)2 and Er:LiYF4 crystals for eye-safe in-band pumped lasers,” in Advanced Solid State Lasers (Optical Society of America, 2015), P. AM5A.14.

A. Okhrimchuk, “Femtosecond fabrication of waveguides in ion-doped laser crystals,” in Coherence and Ultrashort Pulse Laser Emission, F. J. Duarte, Ed. (InTech, 2010), pp. 519–542.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Scheme of the 3D femtosecond direct laser writing of the channel waveguide in Er:KLuW.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Laser set-up: CL – collimating lenses, FL -focusing lens, PM – pump mirror, OC – output coupler, F – filter; (b) photograph of the green upconversion from the pumped fs-DLW Er:KLuW waveguide.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Transmission-mode confocal microscope images of the fs-DLW Er:KLuW waveguide: (a,b) end-facet view, (c,d) top view. (a,c) polarized (P) light, (a) P || Np, (c) P || Ng, λ = 405 nm, (b,d) with crossed polarizer (P) and analyzer (A), (b) P || Np, A || Nm, (d) P || Ng, A || Nm, λ = 488 nm.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 µ-Raman mapping of the polished end-facet of a fs-DLW Er:KLuW waveguide, g(mm)g geometry, monitoring the ~908 cm−1 Raman peak: (a) peak Raman intensity, (b) peak position, (c) peak width, λexc = 632.8 nm.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Spectra of the Er3+ luminescence due to the 2H11/2 + 4S3/24I15/2 transitions measured from the bulk, core and cladding regions of the end-facet of a fs-DLW Er:KLuW waveguide, λexc = 514 nm, excitation / detection light polarization is E || Nm.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 µ-luminescence mapping of the polished end-facet of a fs-DLW Er:KLuW waveguide on the 4S3/24I15/2 Er3+ transition: (a) luminescence intensity, (b) peak position, (c) peak width, λexc = 514 nm, λlum = 552.8 nm, excitation / detection light polarization is E || Nm.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 4I13/24I15/2 emission from the fs-DLW Er:KLuW waveguide: (a) photo luminescence (PL) spectra for light polarizations E || Nm and E || Np, arrow indicates the laser wavelength; (b) luminescence decay curve: symbols – experimental data, line – single-exponential fit, λexc = 981 nm, λlum = 1534 nm.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Diode-pumped fs-DLW Er:KLuW waveguide laser: (a) input-output dependences, η – slope efficiency; (b) typical laser emission spectra measured at Pabs = 116 mW; (c) calibrated spatial profiles of the laser mode corresponding to the output facet of the WG: symbols – experimental data, curves – their Gaussian fits, inset – 2D profile, TOC = 5%, Pabs = 116 mW.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Output Characteristics of Er fs-DLW Waveguide Lasers Reported So Far