Abstract

Gradient metasurfaces provide a novel approach to the phase manipulation of incident electromagnetic waves. Thus, they have the potential to create compact, light-weight optical solutions. An attractive feature of metasurfaces is the ability to integrate multiple optical functionalities into a single surface design. Here we demonstrate a high-efficiency (up to ~60%), reflective meta-hologram for visible light by using an ultra-thin (~λ/4 thick) gap surface plasmon-based metasurface. By precisely sampling the predesigned image phase and amplitude to the unit cells of our device, polarization-controlled dual images are reconstructed with a high polarization extinction ratio and high fidelity. The proposed technique expands the range of possibilities for high-quality hologram generation by using ultra-thin nanophotonic devices and paves the way for variousholography-related applications across the visible band.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2018 (5)

D. K. Nikolov, F. Cheng, N. Basaran, A. Bauer, J. P. Rolland, and A. N. Vamivakas, “Long-term efficiency preservation for gradient phase metasurface diffraction gratings in the visible,” Opt. Mater. Express 8(8), 2125–2130 (2018).
[Crossref]

G. Yoon, D. Lee, K. T. Nam, and J. Rho, “Pragmatic metasurface hologram at visible wavelength: the balance between diffraction efficiency and fabrication compatibility,” ACS Photonics 5(5), 1643–1647 (2018).
[Crossref]

Q. Wang, Q. Xu, X. Zhang, C. Tian, Y. Xu, J. Gu, Z. Tian, C. Ouyang, X. Zhang, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “All-dielectric meta-holograms with holographic images transforming longitudinally,” ACS Photonics 5(2), 599–606 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. Boroviks, R. A. Deshpande, N. A. Mortensen, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Multifunctional metamirror: polarization splitting and focusing,” ACS Photonics 5(5), 1648–1653 (2018).
[Crossref]

R. Deshpande, V. A. Zenin, F. Ding, N. A. Mortensen, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Direct characterization of near-field coupling in gap plasmon-based metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 18(10), 6265–6270 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2017 (3)

Z. Xie, T. Lei, G. Si, X. Wang, J. Lin, C. Min, and X. Yuan, “Meta-holograms with full parameter control of wavefront over a 1000 nm bandwidth,” ACS Photonics 4(9), 2158–2164 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Zhang, F. Yue, D. Wen, M. Chen, Z. Zhang, W. Wang, and X. Chen, “Multichannel metasurface for simultaneous control of holograms and twisted light beams,” ACS Photonics 4(8), 1906–1912 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. P. Balthasar Mueller, N. A. Rubin, R. C. Devlin, B. Groever, and F. Capasso, “Metasurface polarization optics: independent phase control of arbitrary orthogonal states of polarization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 118(11), 113901 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (3)

E. Almeida, O. Bitton, and Y. Prior, “Nonlinear metamaterials for holography,” Nat. Commun. 7, 12533 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. M. Shaltout, N. Kinsey, J. Kim, R. Chandrasekar, J. C. Ndukaife, A. Boltasseva, and V. M. Shalaev, “Development of optical metasurfaces: emerging concepts and new materials,” Proc. IEEE 104(12), 2270–2287 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. T. Chen, A. J. Taylor, and N. Yu, “A review of metasurfaces: physics and applications,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 79(7), 076401 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (5)

A. L. Kitt, J. P. Rolland, and A. N. Vamivakas, “Visible metasurfaces and ruled diffraction gratings: a comparison,” Opt. Mater. Express 5(12), 2895–2901 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. Genevet and F. Capasso, “Holographic optical metasurfaces: a review of current progress,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 78(2), 024401 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Zheng, H. Mühlenbernd, M. Kenney, G. Li, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Metasurface holograms reaching 80% efficiency,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(4), 308–312 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Arbabi, Y. Horie, M. Bagheri, and A. Faraon, “Dielectric metasurfaces for complete control of phase and polarization with subwavelength spatial resolution and high transmission,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(11), 937–943 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Wen, F. Yue, G. Li, G. Zheng, K. Chan, S. Chen, M. Chen, K. F. Li, P. W. H. Wong, K. W. Cheah, E. Y Pun, S. Zhang, and X Chen, “Helicity multiplexed broadband metasurface holograms,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 8241 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (5)

Y. Yifat, M. Eitan, Z. Iluz, Y. Hanein, A. Boag, and J. Scheuer, “Highly efficient and broadband wide-angle holography using patch-dipole nanoantenna reflectarrays,” Nano Lett. 14(5), 2485–2490 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. T. Chen, K.-Y. Yang, C.-M. Wang, Y.-W. Huang, G. Sun, I. D. Chiang, C. Y. Liao, W.-L. Hsu, H. T. Lin, S. Sun, L. Zhou, A. Q. Liu, and D. P. Tsai, “High-efficiency broadband meta-hologram with polarization-controlled dual images,” Nano Lett. 14(1), 225–230 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Yu and F. Capasso, “Flat optics with designer metasurfaces,” Nat. Mater. 13(2), 139–150 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

. Zhao, X.-X. Liu, and A. Alù, “Recent advances on optical metasurfaces,” J. Opt. 16(12), 123001 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. K. Yetisen, H. Butt, F. da Cruz Vasconcellos, Y. Montelongo, C. A. B. Davidson, J. Blyth, L. Chan, J. B. Carmody, S. Vignolini, U. Steiner, J. J. Baumberg, T. D. Wilkinson, and C. R. Lowe, “Light-Directed Writing of Chemically Tunable Narrow-Band Holographic Sensors,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 2(3), 250–254 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (9)

A. V. Kildishev, A. Boltasseva, and V. M. Shalaev, “Planar Photonics with Metasurfaces,” Science 339(6125), 1232009 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Ni, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Metasurface holograms for visible light,” Nat. Commun. 4(1), 2807 (2013).
[Crossref]

L. Huang, X. Chen, H. Mühlenbernd, H. Zhang, S. Chen, B. Bai, Q. Tan, G. Jin, K.-W. Cheah, C.-W. Qiu, J. Li, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical holography using a plasmonic metasurface,” Nat. Commun. 4(1), 2808 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Lin, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, N. Antoniou, and F. Capasso, “Nanostructured holograms for broadband manipulation of vector beams,” Nano Lett. 13(9), 4269–4274 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Pors, O. Albrektsen, I. P. Radko, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Gap plasmon-based metasurfaces for total control of reflected light,” Sci. Rep. 3(1), 2155 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Pors and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Plasmonic metasurfaces for efficient phase control in reflection,” Opt. Express 21(22), 27438–27451 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Pors and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Efficient and broadband quarter-wave plates by gap-plasmon resonators,” Opt. Express 21(3), 2942–2952 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Pors, M. G. Nielsen, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Broadband plasmonic half-wave plates in reflection,” Opt. Lett. 38(4), 513–515 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Pors, M. G. Nielsen, R. L. Eriksen, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Broadband focusing flat mirrors based on plasmonic gradient metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 13(2), 829–834 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (1)

S. Larouche, Y.-J. Tsai, T. Tyler, N. M. Jokerst, and D. R. Smith, “Infrared metamaterial phase holograms,” Nat. Mater. 11(5), 450–454 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (1)

J. L. Martínez-Hurtado, C. A. B. Davidson, J. Blyth, and C. R. Lowe, “Holographic detection of hydrocarbon gases and other volatile organic compounds,” Langmuir 26(19), 15694–15699 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

2006 (1)

1994 (1)

J. F. Heanue, M. C. Bashaw, and L. Hesselink, “Volume holographic storage and retrieval of digital data,” Science 265(5173), 749–752 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1969 (1)

L. B. Lesem, P. M. Hirsch, and J. A. Jordan, “The Kinoform: a new wavefront reconstruction device,” IBM J. Res. Develop. 13(2), 150–155 (1969).
[Crossref]

1968 (1)

L. B. Lesem, P. M. Hirsch, and J. J. A. Jordan, “Scientific applications: computer synthesis of holograms for 3-d display,” Commun. ACM 11(10), 661–674 (1968).
[Crossref]

1962 (1)

1948 (1)

D. Gabor, “A new microscopic principle,” Nature 161(4098), 777–778 (1948).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Albrektsen, O.

A. Pors, O. Albrektsen, I. P. Radko, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Gap plasmon-based metasurfaces for total control of reflected light,” Sci. Rep. 3(1), 2155 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Almeida, E.

E. Almeida, O. Bitton, and Y. Prior, “Nonlinear metamaterials for holography,” Nat. Commun. 7, 12533 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Alù, A.

. Zhao, X.-X. Liu, and A. Alù, “Recent advances on optical metasurfaces,” J. Opt. 16(12), 123001 (2014).
[Crossref]

Antoniou, N.

J. Lin, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, N. Antoniou, and F. Capasso, “Nanostructured holograms for broadband manipulation of vector beams,” Nano Lett. 13(9), 4269–4274 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Arbabi, A.

A. Arbabi, Y. Horie, M. Bagheri, and A. Faraon, “Dielectric metasurfaces for complete control of phase and polarization with subwavelength spatial resolution and high transmission,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(11), 937–943 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bagheri, M.

A. Arbabi, Y. Horie, M. Bagheri, and A. Faraon, “Dielectric metasurfaces for complete control of phase and polarization with subwavelength spatial resolution and high transmission,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(11), 937–943 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bai, B.

L. Huang, X. Chen, H. Mühlenbernd, H. Zhang, S. Chen, B. Bai, Q. Tan, G. Jin, K.-W. Cheah, C.-W. Qiu, J. Li, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical holography using a plasmonic metasurface,” Nat. Commun. 4(1), 2808 (2013).
[Crossref]

Balthasar Mueller, J. P.

J. P. Balthasar Mueller, N. A. Rubin, R. C. Devlin, B. Groever, and F. Capasso, “Metasurface polarization optics: independent phase control of arbitrary orthogonal states of polarization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 118(11), 113901 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Basaran, N.

Bashaw, M. C.

J. F. Heanue, M. C. Bashaw, and L. Hesselink, “Volume holographic storage and retrieval of digital data,” Science 265(5173), 749–752 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bauer, A.

Baumberg, J. J.

A. K. Yetisen, H. Butt, F. da Cruz Vasconcellos, Y. Montelongo, C. A. B. Davidson, J. Blyth, L. Chan, J. B. Carmody, S. Vignolini, U. Steiner, J. J. Baumberg, T. D. Wilkinson, and C. R. Lowe, “Light-Directed Writing of Chemically Tunable Narrow-Band Holographic Sensors,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 2(3), 250–254 (2014).
[Crossref]

Bitton, O.

E. Almeida, O. Bitton, and Y. Prior, “Nonlinear metamaterials for holography,” Nat. Commun. 7, 12533 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Blyth, J.

A. K. Yetisen, H. Butt, F. da Cruz Vasconcellos, Y. Montelongo, C. A. B. Davidson, J. Blyth, L. Chan, J. B. Carmody, S. Vignolini, U. Steiner, J. J. Baumberg, T. D. Wilkinson, and C. R. Lowe, “Light-Directed Writing of Chemically Tunable Narrow-Band Holographic Sensors,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 2(3), 250–254 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. L. Martínez-Hurtado, C. A. B. Davidson, J. Blyth, and C. R. Lowe, “Holographic detection of hydrocarbon gases and other volatile organic compounds,” Langmuir 26(19), 15694–15699 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Boag, A.

Y. Yifat, M. Eitan, Z. Iluz, Y. Hanein, A. Boag, and J. Scheuer, “Highly efficient and broadband wide-angle holography using patch-dipole nanoantenna reflectarrays,” Nano Lett. 14(5), 2485–2490 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Boltasseva, A.

A. M. Shaltout, N. Kinsey, J. Kim, R. Chandrasekar, J. C. Ndukaife, A. Boltasseva, and V. M. Shalaev, “Development of optical metasurfaces: emerging concepts and new materials,” Proc. IEEE 104(12), 2270–2287 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. V. Kildishev, A. Boltasseva, and V. M. Shalaev, “Planar Photonics with Metasurfaces,” Science 339(6125), 1232009 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Boroviks, S.

S. Boroviks, R. A. Deshpande, N. A. Mortensen, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Multifunctional metamirror: polarization splitting and focusing,” ACS Photonics 5(5), 1648–1653 (2018).
[Crossref]

Bozhevolnyi, S. I.

S. Boroviks, R. A. Deshpande, N. A. Mortensen, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Multifunctional metamirror: polarization splitting and focusing,” ACS Photonics 5(5), 1648–1653 (2018).
[Crossref]

R. Deshpande, V. A. Zenin, F. Ding, N. A. Mortensen, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Direct characterization of near-field coupling in gap plasmon-based metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 18(10), 6265–6270 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Pors, M. G. Nielsen, R. L. Eriksen, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Broadband focusing flat mirrors based on plasmonic gradient metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 13(2), 829–834 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Pors, M. G. Nielsen, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Broadband plasmonic half-wave plates in reflection,” Opt. Lett. 38(4), 513–515 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Pors, O. Albrektsen, I. P. Radko, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Gap plasmon-based metasurfaces for total control of reflected light,” Sci. Rep. 3(1), 2155 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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[Crossref] [PubMed]

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L. Huang, X. Chen, H. Mühlenbernd, H. Zhang, S. Chen, B. Bai, Q. Tan, G. Jin, K.-W. Cheah, C.-W. Qiu, J. Li, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical holography using a plasmonic metasurface,” Nat. Commun. 4(1), 2808 (2013).
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A. Pors, O. Albrektsen, I. P. Radko, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Gap plasmon-based metasurfaces for total control of reflected light,” Sci. Rep. 3(1), 2155 (2013).
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G. Yoon, D. Lee, K. T. Nam, and J. Rho, “Pragmatic metasurface hologram at visible wavelength: the balance between diffraction efficiency and fabrication compatibility,” ACS Photonics 5(5), 1643–1647 (2018).
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Rubin, N. A.

J. P. Balthasar Mueller, N. A. Rubin, R. C. Devlin, B. Groever, and F. Capasso, “Metasurface polarization optics: independent phase control of arbitrary orthogonal states of polarization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 118(11), 113901 (2017).
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Y. Yifat, M. Eitan, Z. Iluz, Y. Hanein, A. Boag, and J. Scheuer, “Highly efficient and broadband wide-angle holography using patch-dipole nanoantenna reflectarrays,” Nano Lett. 14(5), 2485–2490 (2014).
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A. M. Shaltout, N. Kinsey, J. Kim, R. Chandrasekar, J. C. Ndukaife, A. Boltasseva, and V. M. Shalaev, “Development of optical metasurfaces: emerging concepts and new materials,” Proc. IEEE 104(12), 2270–2287 (2016).
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X. Ni, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Metasurface holograms for visible light,” Nat. Commun. 4(1), 2807 (2013).
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A. V. Kildishev, A. Boltasseva, and V. M. Shalaev, “Planar Photonics with Metasurfaces,” Science 339(6125), 1232009 (2013).
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A. M. Shaltout, N. Kinsey, J. Kim, R. Chandrasekar, J. C. Ndukaife, A. Boltasseva, and V. M. Shalaev, “Development of optical metasurfaces: emerging concepts and new materials,” Proc. IEEE 104(12), 2270–2287 (2016).
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Z. Xie, T. Lei, G. Si, X. Wang, J. Lin, C. Min, and X. Yuan, “Meta-holograms with full parameter control of wavefront over a 1000 nm bandwidth,” ACS Photonics 4(9), 2158–2164 (2017).
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S. Larouche, Y.-J. Tsai, T. Tyler, N. M. Jokerst, and D. R. Smith, “Infrared metamaterial phase holograms,” Nat. Mater. 11(5), 450–454 (2012).
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A. K. Yetisen, H. Butt, F. da Cruz Vasconcellos, Y. Montelongo, C. A. B. Davidson, J. Blyth, L. Chan, J. B. Carmody, S. Vignolini, U. Steiner, J. J. Baumberg, T. D. Wilkinson, and C. R. Lowe, “Light-Directed Writing of Chemically Tunable Narrow-Band Holographic Sensors,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 2(3), 250–254 (2014).
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W. T. Chen, K.-Y. Yang, C.-M. Wang, Y.-W. Huang, G. Sun, I. D. Chiang, C. Y. Liao, W.-L. Hsu, H. T. Lin, S. Sun, L. Zhou, A. Q. Liu, and D. P. Tsai, “High-efficiency broadband meta-hologram with polarization-controlled dual images,” Nano Lett. 14(1), 225–230 (2014).
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L. Huang, X. Chen, H. Mühlenbernd, H. Zhang, S. Chen, B. Bai, Q. Tan, G. Jin, K.-W. Cheah, C.-W. Qiu, J. Li, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical holography using a plasmonic metasurface,” Nat. Commun. 4(1), 2808 (2013).
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H. T. Chen, A. J. Taylor, and N. Yu, “A review of metasurfaces: physics and applications,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 79(7), 076401 (2016).
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Q. Wang, Q. Xu, X. Zhang, C. Tian, Y. Xu, J. Gu, Z. Tian, C. Ouyang, X. Zhang, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “All-dielectric meta-holograms with holographic images transforming longitudinally,” ACS Photonics 5(2), 599–606 (2018).
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Q. Wang, Q. Xu, X. Zhang, C. Tian, Y. Xu, J. Gu, Z. Tian, C. Ouyang, X. Zhang, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “All-dielectric meta-holograms with holographic images transforming longitudinally,” ACS Photonics 5(2), 599–606 (2018).
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W. T. Chen, K.-Y. Yang, C.-M. Wang, Y.-W. Huang, G. Sun, I. D. Chiang, C. Y. Liao, W.-L. Hsu, H. T. Lin, S. Sun, L. Zhou, A. Q. Liu, and D. P. Tsai, “High-efficiency broadband meta-hologram with polarization-controlled dual images,” Nano Lett. 14(1), 225–230 (2014).
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S. Larouche, Y.-J. Tsai, T. Tyler, N. M. Jokerst, and D. R. Smith, “Infrared metamaterial phase holograms,” Nat. Mater. 11(5), 450–454 (2012).
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C. Zhang, F. Yue, D. Wen, M. Chen, Z. Zhang, W. Wang, and X. Chen, “Multichannel metasurface for simultaneous control of holograms and twisted light beams,” ACS Photonics 4(8), 1906–1912 (2017).
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Wang, X.

Z. Xie, T. Lei, G. Si, X. Wang, J. Lin, C. Min, and X. Yuan, “Meta-holograms with full parameter control of wavefront over a 1000 nm bandwidth,” ACS Photonics 4(9), 2158–2164 (2017).
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C. Zhang, F. Yue, D. Wen, M. Chen, Z. Zhang, W. Wang, and X. Chen, “Multichannel metasurface for simultaneous control of holograms and twisted light beams,” ACS Photonics 4(8), 1906–1912 (2017).
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D. Wen, F. Yue, G. Li, G. Zheng, K. Chan, S. Chen, M. Chen, K. F. Li, P. W. H. Wong, K. W. Cheah, E. Y Pun, S. Zhang, and X Chen, “Helicity multiplexed broadband metasurface holograms,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 8241 (2015).
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A. K. Yetisen, H. Butt, F. da Cruz Vasconcellos, Y. Montelongo, C. A. B. Davidson, J. Blyth, L. Chan, J. B. Carmody, S. Vignolini, U. Steiner, J. J. Baumberg, T. D. Wilkinson, and C. R. Lowe, “Light-Directed Writing of Chemically Tunable Narrow-Band Holographic Sensors,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 2(3), 250–254 (2014).
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D. Wen, F. Yue, G. Li, G. Zheng, K. Chan, S. Chen, M. Chen, K. F. Li, P. W. H. Wong, K. W. Cheah, E. Y Pun, S. Zhang, and X Chen, “Helicity multiplexed broadband metasurface holograms,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 8241 (2015).
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Z. Xie, T. Lei, G. Si, X. Wang, J. Lin, C. Min, and X. Yuan, “Meta-holograms with full parameter control of wavefront over a 1000 nm bandwidth,” ACS Photonics 4(9), 2158–2164 (2017).
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G. Yoon, D. Lee, K. T. Nam, and J. Rho, “Pragmatic metasurface hologram at visible wavelength: the balance between diffraction efficiency and fabrication compatibility,” ACS Photonics 5(5), 1643–1647 (2018).
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H. T. Chen, A. J. Taylor, and N. Yu, “A review of metasurfaces: physics and applications,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 79(7), 076401 (2016).
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N. Yu and F. Capasso, “Flat optics with designer metasurfaces,” Nat. Mater. 13(2), 139–150 (2014).
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Yuan, X.

Z. Xie, T. Lei, G. Si, X. Wang, J. Lin, C. Min, and X. Yuan, “Meta-holograms with full parameter control of wavefront over a 1000 nm bandwidth,” ACS Photonics 4(9), 2158–2164 (2017).
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Yue, F.

C. Zhang, F. Yue, D. Wen, M. Chen, Z. Zhang, W. Wang, and X. Chen, “Multichannel metasurface for simultaneous control of holograms and twisted light beams,” ACS Photonics 4(8), 1906–1912 (2017).
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D. Wen, F. Yue, G. Li, G. Zheng, K. Chan, S. Chen, M. Chen, K. F. Li, P. W. H. Wong, K. W. Cheah, E. Y Pun, S. Zhang, and X Chen, “Helicity multiplexed broadband metasurface holograms,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 8241 (2015).
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R. Deshpande, V. A. Zenin, F. Ding, N. A. Mortensen, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Direct characterization of near-field coupling in gap plasmon-based metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 18(10), 6265–6270 (2018).
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Zentgraf, T.

G. Zheng, H. Mühlenbernd, M. Kenney, G. Li, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Metasurface holograms reaching 80% efficiency,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(4), 308–312 (2015).
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L. Huang, X. Chen, H. Mühlenbernd, H. Zhang, S. Chen, B. Bai, Q. Tan, G. Jin, K.-W. Cheah, C.-W. Qiu, J. Li, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical holography using a plasmonic metasurface,” Nat. Commun. 4(1), 2808 (2013).
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Zhang, C.

C. Zhang, F. Yue, D. Wen, M. Chen, Z. Zhang, W. Wang, and X. Chen, “Multichannel metasurface for simultaneous control of holograms and twisted light beams,” ACS Photonics 4(8), 1906–1912 (2017).
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Zhang, H.

L. Huang, X. Chen, H. Mühlenbernd, H. Zhang, S. Chen, B. Bai, Q. Tan, G. Jin, K.-W. Cheah, C.-W. Qiu, J. Li, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical holography using a plasmonic metasurface,” Nat. Commun. 4(1), 2808 (2013).
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Zhang, S.

G. Zheng, H. Mühlenbernd, M. Kenney, G. Li, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Metasurface holograms reaching 80% efficiency,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(4), 308–312 (2015).
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D. Wen, F. Yue, G. Li, G. Zheng, K. Chan, S. Chen, M. Chen, K. F. Li, P. W. H. Wong, K. W. Cheah, E. Y Pun, S. Zhang, and X Chen, “Helicity multiplexed broadband metasurface holograms,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 8241 (2015).
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Zhang, W.

Q. Wang, Q. Xu, X. Zhang, C. Tian, Y. Xu, J. Gu, Z. Tian, C. Ouyang, X. Zhang, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “All-dielectric meta-holograms with holographic images transforming longitudinally,” ACS Photonics 5(2), 599–606 (2018).
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Q. Wang, Q. Xu, X. Zhang, C. Tian, Y. Xu, J. Gu, Z. Tian, C. Ouyang, X. Zhang, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “All-dielectric meta-holograms with holographic images transforming longitudinally,” ACS Photonics 5(2), 599–606 (2018).
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Q. Wang, Q. Xu, X. Zhang, C. Tian, Y. Xu, J. Gu, Z. Tian, C. Ouyang, X. Zhang, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “All-dielectric meta-holograms with holographic images transforming longitudinally,” ACS Photonics 5(2), 599–606 (2018).
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C. Zhang, F. Yue, D. Wen, M. Chen, Z. Zhang, W. Wang, and X. Chen, “Multichannel metasurface for simultaneous control of holograms and twisted light beams,” ACS Photonics 4(8), 1906–1912 (2017).
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Q. Wang, Q. Xu, X. Zhang, C. Tian, Y. Xu, J. Gu, Z. Tian, C. Ouyang, X. Zhang, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “All-dielectric meta-holograms with holographic images transforming longitudinally,” ACS Photonics 5(2), 599–606 (2018).
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Z. Xie, T. Lei, G. Si, X. Wang, J. Lin, C. Min, and X. Yuan, “Meta-holograms with full parameter control of wavefront over a 1000 nm bandwidth,” ACS Photonics 4(9), 2158–2164 (2017).
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[Crossref] [PubMed]

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“Lumerical Inc. FDTD Solutions,” Lumerical Solutions, Inc.

T. Deyu, L. Ming, S. Liwei, X. Changqing, and Z. Xiaoli, “A ZEP520-LOR bilayer resist lift-off process by e-beam lithography for nanometer pattern transfer,” in 2007 7th IEEE Conference on Nanotechnology (IEEE NANO), 2007), 624–627.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Illustration of a multifunctional metasurface and its working principle (artistic rendering). Our device imparts an engineered phase and amplitude response on the reflected light, generating on the image plane a hologram of the letters under x-polarized illumination and a hologram of a logo under y-polarized illumination. The white double-headed arrows represent the incident light polarization. (b). Design of the hologram detailed in the text. The virtual image (right shield logo) radiate spherical waves from each point (indicated by points 1 and 2) and their superimposed effect results in the two-dimensional (2D) field profile (illustrated in 1D for simplicity) on the metasurface plane. By sampling the correct phase and amplitude values at each pixel of the metasurface and following the law of reversibility, the required real image is construct right at the location of virtual image.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Sketch of the unit cell geometry used in our experiments and simulation. The pitch is fixed at 280 nm, and the thickness for top Ag nanoantenna, SiO2 spacer and ground Ag layer are 30nm, 55nm and 100 nm, respectively. (b) The simulated complex reflection coefficients r = |r|e for a unit cell of GSP triple-layer configuration under S-polarized light (E field along y axis, wavelength λ = 670 nm). Top panel: the contour map of reflectance |r| as a function of the nanoantenna lateral dimensions from 21 to 240 nm. Bottom panel: the contour map of reflected phase ϕ = arg(r) as a function of the nanoantenna lateral dimensions. The reflected phase and amplitude corresponding to x-polarized light (E field along x axis) are obtained directly by transposing their respective contour maps shown here. (c) An SEM image of a selected area on our sample. Scale bar: 200 nm.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Schematic diagram of the measurement setup for capturing the holographic images of the 50 × 50 μm2 metasurface. The filter, polarizers and waveplates are selectively used. The captured images under (b) x-polarized, (c) 45°-polarized, and (d) y-polarized illuminations with the laser wavelength of 670 nm. Scale bar: 10 μm. The theoretical holographic images under (e) x-polarized, (f) 45°-polarized, and (g) y-polarized illuminations assuming that each pixel of the virtual image is an ideal point source. Scale bar: 10 μm. The calculated holographic images under (h) x-polarized, (i) 45°-polarized, and (j) y-polarized illuminations obtained by FDTD simulation. Here the size of metasurface is chosen to be 14 × 14 μm2 due to a limited calculation capability. Scale bar: 2 μm.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Captured holographic images obtained under x-polarized illumination by using three bandpass filters with their central wavelength spanning the red range of visible light: (a) λ = 600 ± 10 nm, (b) λ = 670 ± 10 nm (target wavelength) and (c) λ = 700 ± 10 nm. Scale bar: 10 μm. (d) Measured image efficiencies at the above three wavelengths and numerical values of the sample from 550 to 740 nm.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 The captured image of the letters ‘UR’ under x-polarized illumination (a) and the shield logo of University of Rochester under y-polarized illumination (b). (c) Overlapped image containing both the logo and ‘UR’ under the 45°-polarized illumination. (d) A magnified image of (b) showing details of the shield logo pattern. The shield logo is used with permission from the University of Rochester.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 The captured images of the shield logo of University of Rochester under y-(a) and 45°- (b) polarized illumination and the letters ‘UR’ under x- (c) and 45°- (d) polarized illumination. Figure (a) and (b) are taken at the image plane of the shield logo (120 μm) while (c) and (d) are taken at the image plane of the letters (80 μm). The shield logo is used with permission from the University of Rochester.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 The captured images of the shield logo of University of Rochester under x-polarized illumination. Three bandpass filters are used for (a) λ = 600 ± 10 nm, (b) λ = 670 ± 10 nm and (c) λ = 700 ± 10 nm, respectively. The shield logo is used with permission from the University of Rochester.

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