Abstract

Optical vortex beams that carry orbital angular momentum (OAM), also known as OAM modes, have attracted considerable interest in recent years as they can comprise an additional degree of freedom for a variety of advanced classical and quantum optical applications. While canonical methods of OAM mode generation are effective, a method that can simultaneously generate and multiplex OAM modes with low loss and over broad spectral range is still in great demand. Here, via novel design of an optical fiber device referred to as a photonic lantern, where the radial mode index (“m”) is neglected, for the first time we demonstrate the simultaneous generation and multiplexing of OAM modes with low loss and over the broadest spectral range to date (550 nm). We further confirm the potential of this approach to preserve the quality of studied OAM modes by fusion splicing the end-facet of the fabricated device to a delivery ring-core fiber (RCF).

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2018 (2)

K. Morgan, Y. Li, W. Li, J. K. Miller, R. J. Watkins, and E. G. Johnson, “Multilevel quadrature amplitude multiplexing using coherently coupled orbital angular momentum modes,” Opt. Express 26(9), 12180–12190 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. M. Velázquez-Benítez, J. E. Antonio-López, J. C. Alvarado-Zacarías, N. K. Fontaine, R. Ryf, H. Chen, J. Hernández-Cordero, P. Sillard, C. Okonkwo, S. G. Leon-Saval, and R. Amezcua-Correa, “Scaling photonic lanterns for space-division multiplexing,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 8897 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2017 (2)

Z. S. Eznaveh, J. E. Antonio-Lopez, J. C. A. Zacarias, A. Schülzgen, C. M. Okonkwo, and R. A. Correa, “All-fiber few-mode multicore photonic lantern mode multiplexer,” Opt. Express 25(14), 16701–16707 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. G. Leon-Saval, N. K. Fontaine, and R. Amezcua-Correa, “Photonic lantern as mode multiplexer for multimode optical communications,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 35, 46–55 (2017).
[Crossref]

2015 (5)

B. Huang, N. K. Fontaine, R. Ryf, B. Guan, S. G. Leon-Saval, R. Shubochkin, Y. Sun, R. Lingle, and G. Li, “All-fiber mode-group-selective photonic lantern using graded-index multimode fibers,” Opt. Express 23(1), 224–234 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. A. Birks, I. Gris-Sánchez, S. Yerolatsitis, S. G. Leon-Saval, and R. R. Thomson, “The photonic lantern,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7, 107–167 (2015).

H. Huang, G. Milione, M. P. J. Lavery, G. Xie, Y. Ren, Y. Cao, N. Ahmed, T. An Nguyen, D. A. Nolan, M.-J. Li, M. Tur, R. R. Alfano, and A. E. Willner, “Mode division multiplexing using an orbital angular momentum mode sorter and MIMO-DSP over a graded-index few-mode optical fibre,” Sci. Rep. 5, 14931 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Cvijetic, G. Milione, E. Ip, and T. Wang, “Detecting Lateral Motion using Light’s Orbital Angular Momentum,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 15422 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. M. Velazquez-Benitez, J. C. Alvarado, G. Lopez-Galmiche, J. E. Antonio-Lopez, J. Hernández-Cordero, J. Sanchez-Mondragon, P. Sillard, C. M. Okonkwo, and R. Amezcua-Correa, “Six mode selective fiber optic spatial multiplexer,” Opt. Lett. 40(8), 1663–1666 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (4)

G. Vallone, V. D’Ambrosio, A. Sponselli, S. Slussarenko, L. Marrucci, F. Sciarrino, and P. Villoresi, “Free-Space Quantum Key Distribution by Rotation-Invariant Twisted Photons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113(6), 060503 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Yan, G. Xie, M. P. J. Lavery, H. Huang, N. Ahmed, C. Bao, Y. Ren, Y. Cao, L. Li, Z. Zhao, A. F. Molisch, M. Tur, M. J. Padgett, and A. E. Willner, “High-capacity millimetre-wave communications with orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 4876 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. G. Leon-Saval, N. K. Fontaine, J. R. Salazar-Gil, B. Ercan, R. Ryf, and J. Bland-Hawthorn, “Mode-selective photonic lanterns for space-division multiplexing,” Opt. Express 22(1), 1036–1044 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Yerolatsitis, I. Gris-Sánchez, and T. A. Birks, “Adiabatically-tapered fiber mode multiplexers,” Opt. Express 22(1), 608–617 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (5)

V. D’Ambrosio, N. Spagnolo, L. Del Re, S. Slussarenko, Y. Li, L. C. Kwek, L. Marrucci, S. P. Walborn, L. Aolita, and F. Sciarrino, “Photonic polarization gears for ultra-sensitive angular measurements,” Nat. Commun. 4(1), 2432 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. P. J. Lavery, F. C. Speirits, S. M. Barnett, and M. J. Padgett, “Detection of a Spinning Object Using Light’s Orbital Angular Momentum,” Science 341(6145), 537–540 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-Scale Orbital Angular Momentum Mode Division Multiplexing in Fibers,” Science 340(6140), 1545–1548 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Ramachandran and P. Kristensen, “Optical vortices in fiber,” Nanophotonics 2(5-6), 455–474 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. G. Leon-Saval, A. Argyros, and J. Bland-Hawthorn, “Photonic lanterns,” Nanophotonics 2(5-6), 429–440 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (5)

Y. Yue, Y. Yan, N. Ahmed, J. Y. Yang, L. Zhang, Y. Ren, H. Huang, K. M. Birnbaum, B. I. Erkmen, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Mode Properties and Propagation Effects of Optical Orbital Angular Momentum (OAM) Modes in a Ring Fiber,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(2), 535–543 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

R. Fickler, R. Lapkiewicz, W. N. Plick, M. Krenn, C. Schaeff, S. Ramelow, and A. Zeilinger, “Quantum Entanglement of High Angular Momenta,” Science 338(6107), 640–643 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Cai, J. Wang, M. J. Strain, B. Johnson-Morris, J. Zhu, M. Sorel, J. L. O’Brien, M. G. Thompson, and S. Yu, “Integrated compact optical vortex beam emitters,” Science 338(6105), 363–366 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. K. Fontaine, R. Ryf, J. Bland-Hawthorn, and S. G. Leon-Saval, “Geometric requirements for photonic lanterns in space division multiplexing,” Opt. Express 20(24), 27123–27132 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (3)

2010 (2)

Y. F. Yu, Y. H. Fu, X. M. Zhang, A. Q. Liu, T. Bourouina, T. Mei, Z. X. Shen, and D. P. Tsai, “Pure angular momentum generator using a ring resonator,” Opt. Express 18(21), 21651–21662 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Leach, B. Jack, J. Romero, A. K. Jha, A. M. Yao, S. Franke-Arnold, D. G. Ireland, R. W. Boyd, S. M. Barnett, and M. J. Padgett, “Quantum Correlations in Optical Angle-Orbital Angular Momentum Variables,” Science 329(5992), 662–665 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

E. Karimi, B. Piccirillo, E. Nagali, L. Marrucci, and E. Santamato, “Efficient generation and sorting of orbital angular momentum eigenmodes of light by thermally tuned q-plates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(23), 231124 (2009).
[Crossref]

S. Ramachandran, P. Kristensen, and M. F. Yan, “Generation and propagation of radially polarized beams in optical fibers,” Opt. Lett. 34(16), 2525–2527 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

J. T. Barreiro, T.-C. Wei, and P. G. Kwiat, “Beating the channel capacity limit for linear photonic superdense coding,” Nat. Phys. 4(4), 282–286 (2008).
[Crossref]

2005 (2)

2004 (1)

2002 (1)

J. Leach, M. J. Padgett, S. M. Barnett, S. Franke-Arnold, and J. Courtial, “Measuring the Orbital Angular Momentum of a Single Photon,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(25), 257901 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

A. Mair, A. Vaziri, G. Weihs, and A. Zeilinger, “Entanglement of the orbital angular momentum states of photons,” Nature 412(6844), 313–316 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

H. Bechmann-Pasquinucci and W. Tittel, “Quantum cryptography using larger alphabets,” Phys. Rev. A 61(6), 062308 (2000).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

J. Courtial, K. Dholakia, L. Allen, and M. J. Padgett, “Gaussian beams with very high orbital angular momentum,” Opt. Commun. 144(4-6), 210–213 (1997).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

1992 (1)

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, “Orbital angular momentum of light and the transformation of Laguerre-Gaussian laser modes,” Phys. Rev. A 45(11), 8185–8189 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ahmed, N.

H. Huang, G. Milione, M. P. J. Lavery, G. Xie, Y. Ren, Y. Cao, N. Ahmed, T. An Nguyen, D. A. Nolan, M.-J. Li, M. Tur, R. R. Alfano, and A. E. Willner, “Mode division multiplexing using an orbital angular momentum mode sorter and MIMO-DSP over a graded-index few-mode optical fibre,” Sci. Rep. 5, 14931 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Yan, G. Xie, M. P. J. Lavery, H. Huang, N. Ahmed, C. Bao, Y. Ren, Y. Cao, L. Li, Z. Zhao, A. F. Molisch, M. Tur, M. J. Padgett, and A. E. Willner, “High-capacity millimetre-wave communications with orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 4876 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. Yue, Y. Yan, N. Ahmed, J. Y. Yang, L. Zhang, Y. Ren, H. Huang, K. M. Birnbaum, B. I. Erkmen, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Mode Properties and Propagation Effects of Optical Orbital Angular Momentum (OAM) Modes in a Ring Fiber,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(2), 535–543 (2012).
[Crossref]

Alfano, R. R.

H. Huang, G. Milione, M. P. J. Lavery, G. Xie, Y. Ren, Y. Cao, N. Ahmed, T. An Nguyen, D. A. Nolan, M.-J. Li, M. Tur, R. R. Alfano, and A. E. Willner, “Mode division multiplexing using an orbital angular momentum mode sorter and MIMO-DSP over a graded-index few-mode optical fibre,” Sci. Rep. 5, 14931 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Allen, L.

J. Courtial, K. Dholakia, L. Allen, and M. J. Padgett, “Gaussian beams with very high orbital angular momentum,” Opt. Commun. 144(4-6), 210–213 (1997).
[Crossref]

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, “Orbital angular momentum of light and the transformation of Laguerre-Gaussian laser modes,” Phys. Rev. A 45(11), 8185–8189 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Alvarado, J. C.

Alvarado-Zacarías, J. C.

A. M. Velázquez-Benítez, J. E. Antonio-López, J. C. Alvarado-Zacarías, N. K. Fontaine, R. Ryf, H. Chen, J. Hernández-Cordero, P. Sillard, C. Okonkwo, S. G. Leon-Saval, and R. Amezcua-Correa, “Scaling photonic lanterns for space-division multiplexing,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 8897 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Amezcua-Correa, R.

A. M. Velázquez-Benítez, J. E. Antonio-López, J. C. Alvarado-Zacarías, N. K. Fontaine, R. Ryf, H. Chen, J. Hernández-Cordero, P. Sillard, C. Okonkwo, S. G. Leon-Saval, and R. Amezcua-Correa, “Scaling photonic lanterns for space-division multiplexing,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 8897 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. G. Leon-Saval, N. K. Fontaine, and R. Amezcua-Correa, “Photonic lantern as mode multiplexer for multimode optical communications,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 35, 46–55 (2017).
[Crossref]

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N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-Scale Orbital Angular Momentum Mode Division Multiplexing in Fibers,” Science 340(6140), 1545–1548 (2013).
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J. T. Barreiro, T.-C. Wei, and P. G. Kwiat, “Beating the channel capacity limit for linear photonic superdense coding,” Nat. Phys. 4(4), 282–286 (2008).
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Y. Yue, Y. Yan, N. Ahmed, J. Y. Yang, L. Zhang, Y. Ren, H. Huang, K. M. Birnbaum, B. I. Erkmen, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Mode Properties and Propagation Effects of Optical Orbital Angular Momentum (OAM) Modes in a Ring Fiber,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(2), 535–543 (2012).
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Woerdman, J. P.

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, “Orbital angular momentum of light and the transformation of Laguerre-Gaussian laser modes,” Phys. Rev. A 45(11), 8185–8189 (1992).
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Y. Yan, G. Xie, M. P. J. Lavery, H. Huang, N. Ahmed, C. Bao, Y. Ren, Y. Cao, L. Li, Z. Zhao, A. F. Molisch, M. Tur, M. J. Padgett, and A. E. Willner, “High-capacity millimetre-wave communications with orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 4876 (2014).
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K. Shi, Y. Jung, Z. S. Eznaveh, J. C. A. Zacarias, J. E. A. Lopez, H. Zhou, R. Zhang, S. Chen, H. Wang, Y. Yang, R. A. Correa, D. J. Richardson, and B. C. Thomsen, “10×10 MDM Transmission over 24 km of Ring-Core Fibre using Mode Selective Photonic Lanterns and Sparse Equalization,” in 2017 European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC) (2017), pp. 1–3.
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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Superposition of degenerate L P l 1 modes of a 5-mode MSPL to generates OAM modes and their corresponding +/− helical phase patterns with (a) l = 1, (b) l = 2 and (c) l = 0 corresponding to L P 01   mode.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Microscope image of the cross section of the fabricated RCF with ring inner/outer diameter of 7   μm / 18   μm and fiber outer diameter of 123   μm . (b) Measured refractive index profile of the RCF at 660 nm. (c) Calculated effective index differences of the supported vector modes with respect to the LP01 mode at 980 nm-1015 nm and (d) across the C-band (1530 nm-1565 nm).
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Microscope image of the cross section of the OAM mode MUX. (Inset) Schematic cross section of the fabricated device, a = 6 μm, R = 28 μm, ID = 90 μm and OD = 125 μm. (b) Measured, and (c) simulated near field mode profiles of the OAM mode MUX at 1000 nm. (d) Measured, and (e) simulated near field mode profiles of the OAM mode MUX at 1550 nm.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Schematic of the experimental setup for generation and detection of OAM modes. LD, laser diode; SMF, single-mode fiber; OC, 3-dB optical coupler; PC, polarization controller; Mode-Mux, OAM mode multiplexer; M, mirror; BS, beam splitter.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Near field Intensity profiles and phase patterns of the generated OAM modes at the output of the fabricated OAM mode MUX at (a, b) 1000 nm and (c, d) 1550 nm. Intensity profiles and phase patterns of the generated OAM beams after 1 m propagation in a RCF at (e, f) 1000 nm and (g, h) 1550 nm.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Experimental setup and DSP algorithms for channel estimation. ECL: external cavity laser, IQ-Mod: in-phase and quadrature modulator, Pol-MUX: polarization multiplexer, DAC: digital-to-analogue converter, LS: least square
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 (a) Channel impulse response of the transmission system over 1 km RCF using the photonic lanterns as the mode MUX and DEMUX. (b) Coupling matrices of the mode MUX and DEMUX.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 (a, c) Measured, and (b, d) simulated near field mode profiles and interferograms of the generated OAM modes after multiplexing OAM+1 and OAM-2, at 1000 nm and 1550 nm, respectively.

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