Abstract

We perform contactless bulk mobility measurements for ZnSe, ZnTe, GaP, CdS, and GaSe in an optical pump THz probe experiment. As opposed to above-gap excitation or contact methods, two-photon absorption excites the entire sample thickness producing measurable signals with 1013 carriers/cm3 and higher density. For ZnTe and GaSe samples, the measured mobility using two-photon excitation is higher than that measured with one-photon excitation.

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References

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  1. L. J. van der Pauw, “A method of measuring specific resistivity and Hall effect of discs of arbitrary shape,” Phillips Res. Rep. 13, 1–9 (1958).
  2. M. C. Beard, G. M. Turner, and C. A. Schmuttenmaer, “Terahertz spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. B 106(29), 7146–7159 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  3. F. A. Hegmann, O. Ostroverkhova, and D. G. Cooke, “Probing organic semiconductors with terahertz pulses,” in Photophysics of Molecular Materials (Wiley-WCH, 2006), pp. 367–428.
  4. B. G. Alberding, W. R. Thurber, and E. J. Heilweil, “Direct comparison of time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy and Hall Van der Pauw methods for measurement of carrier conductivity and mobility in bulk semiconductors,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 34(7), 1392–1406 (2017).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. D. McMorrow, W. T. Lotshaw, J. S. Melinger, S. Buchner, and R. L. Pease, “Subbandgap laser-induced single event effects: Carrier generation via two-photon absorption,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 49(6), 3002–3008 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  6. B. G. Alberding, A. J. Biacchi, A. R. Hight Walker, and E. J. Heilweil, “Charge carrier dynamics and mobility determined by time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy on films of nano-to-micrometer-sized colloidal Tin(II) monosulfide,” J. Phys. Chem. C 120(88), 15395–15406 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. S. Adachi and T. Taguchi, “Optical properties of ZnSe,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 43(12), 9569–9577 (1991).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. K. Sato and S. Adachi, “Optical properties of ZnTe,” J. Appl. Phys. 73(2), 926–931 (1993).
    [Crossref]
  9. D. E. Aspnes and A. A. Studna, “Dielectric functions and optical parameters of Si, Ge, GaP, GaAs, GaSb, InP, InAs, and InSb from 1.5 to 6.0 eV,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 27(2), 985–1009 (1983).
    [Crossref]
  10. R. E. Treharne, A. Seymour-Pierce, K. Durose, K. Hutchings, S. Roncallo, and D. Lane, “Optical design and fabrication of fully sputtered CdTe/CdS solar cells,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 286, 012038 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  11. R. Le Toullec, N. Piccioli, M. Mejatty, and M. Balkanski, “Optical constants of ε-GaSe,” Nuovo Cimento B 38(2), 159–167 (1977).
    [Crossref]
  12. M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(4), 760–769 (1990).
    [Crossref]
  13. E. W. van Stryland, M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, and D. J. Hagan, “Characterization of nonlinear optical absorption and refraction,” Prog. Cryst. Growth Charact. Mater. 27(3-4), 279–311 (1993).
    [Crossref]
  14. E. W. Van Stryland, H. Vanherzeele, M. A. Woodall, M. J. Soileau, A. L. Smirl, S. Guha, and T. F. Boggess, “Two-photon absorption, nonlinear refraction, and optical limiting in semiconductors,” Opt. Eng. 24(4), 613–623 (1985).
    [Crossref]
  15. T. D. Krauss and F. W. Wise, “Femtosecond measurement of nonlinear absorption and refraction in CdS, ZnSe, and ZnS,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65(14), 1739–1741 (1994).
    [Crossref]
  16. W.-Q. He, C.-M. Gu, and W.-Z. Shen, “Direct evidence of Kerr-like nonlinearity by femtosecond Z-scan technique,” Opt. Express 14(12), 5476–5483 (2006).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  17. R. C. Hoffman and A. G. Mott, “Measurement of the two-photon absorption coefficient of gallium phosphide (GaP) using a dispersion-minimized sub-10 femtosecond Z-scan measurement system,” Army Research Laboratory Report No. ARL-TR-6157, 2012 (unpublished).
  18. I. B. Zotova and Y. J. Ding, “Spectral measurements of two-photon absorption coefficients for CdSe and GaSe crystals,” Appl. Opt. 40(36), 6654–6658 (2001).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2017 (1)

2016 (1)

B. G. Alberding, A. J. Biacchi, A. R. Hight Walker, and E. J. Heilweil, “Charge carrier dynamics and mobility determined by time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy on films of nano-to-micrometer-sized colloidal Tin(II) monosulfide,” J. Phys. Chem. C 120(88), 15395–15406 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (1)

R. E. Treharne, A. Seymour-Pierce, K. Durose, K. Hutchings, S. Roncallo, and D. Lane, “Optical design and fabrication of fully sputtered CdTe/CdS solar cells,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 286, 012038 (2011).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

2002 (2)

D. McMorrow, W. T. Lotshaw, J. S. Melinger, S. Buchner, and R. L. Pease, “Subbandgap laser-induced single event effects: Carrier generation via two-photon absorption,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 49(6), 3002–3008 (2002).
[Crossref]

M. C. Beard, G. M. Turner, and C. A. Schmuttenmaer, “Terahertz spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. B 106(29), 7146–7159 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

1994 (1)

T. D. Krauss and F. W. Wise, “Femtosecond measurement of nonlinear absorption and refraction in CdS, ZnSe, and ZnS,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65(14), 1739–1741 (1994).
[Crossref]

1993 (2)

E. W. van Stryland, M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, and D. J. Hagan, “Characterization of nonlinear optical absorption and refraction,” Prog. Cryst. Growth Charact. Mater. 27(3-4), 279–311 (1993).
[Crossref]

K. Sato and S. Adachi, “Optical properties of ZnTe,” J. Appl. Phys. 73(2), 926–931 (1993).
[Crossref]

1991 (1)

S. Adachi and T. Taguchi, “Optical properties of ZnSe,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 43(12), 9569–9577 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1990 (1)

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(4), 760–769 (1990).
[Crossref]

1985 (1)

E. W. Van Stryland, H. Vanherzeele, M. A. Woodall, M. J. Soileau, A. L. Smirl, S. Guha, and T. F. Boggess, “Two-photon absorption, nonlinear refraction, and optical limiting in semiconductors,” Opt. Eng. 24(4), 613–623 (1985).
[Crossref]

1983 (1)

D. E. Aspnes and A. A. Studna, “Dielectric functions and optical parameters of Si, Ge, GaP, GaAs, GaSb, InP, InAs, and InSb from 1.5 to 6.0 eV,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 27(2), 985–1009 (1983).
[Crossref]

1977 (1)

R. Le Toullec, N. Piccioli, M. Mejatty, and M. Balkanski, “Optical constants of ε-GaSe,” Nuovo Cimento B 38(2), 159–167 (1977).
[Crossref]

1958 (1)

L. J. van der Pauw, “A method of measuring specific resistivity and Hall effect of discs of arbitrary shape,” Phillips Res. Rep. 13, 1–9 (1958).

Adachi, S.

K. Sato and S. Adachi, “Optical properties of ZnTe,” J. Appl. Phys. 73(2), 926–931 (1993).
[Crossref]

S. Adachi and T. Taguchi, “Optical properties of ZnSe,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 43(12), 9569–9577 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Alberding, B. G.

B. G. Alberding, W. R. Thurber, and E. J. Heilweil, “Direct comparison of time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy and Hall Van der Pauw methods for measurement of carrier conductivity and mobility in bulk semiconductors,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 34(7), 1392–1406 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. G. Alberding, A. J. Biacchi, A. R. Hight Walker, and E. J. Heilweil, “Charge carrier dynamics and mobility determined by time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy on films of nano-to-micrometer-sized colloidal Tin(II) monosulfide,” J. Phys. Chem. C 120(88), 15395–15406 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aspnes, D. E.

D. E. Aspnes and A. A. Studna, “Dielectric functions and optical parameters of Si, Ge, GaP, GaAs, GaSb, InP, InAs, and InSb from 1.5 to 6.0 eV,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 27(2), 985–1009 (1983).
[Crossref]

Balkanski, M.

R. Le Toullec, N. Piccioli, M. Mejatty, and M. Balkanski, “Optical constants of ε-GaSe,” Nuovo Cimento B 38(2), 159–167 (1977).
[Crossref]

Beard, M. C.

M. C. Beard, G. M. Turner, and C. A. Schmuttenmaer, “Terahertz spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. B 106(29), 7146–7159 (2002).
[Crossref]

Biacchi, A. J.

B. G. Alberding, A. J. Biacchi, A. R. Hight Walker, and E. J. Heilweil, “Charge carrier dynamics and mobility determined by time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy on films of nano-to-micrometer-sized colloidal Tin(II) monosulfide,” J. Phys. Chem. C 120(88), 15395–15406 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Boggess, T. F.

E. W. Van Stryland, H. Vanherzeele, M. A. Woodall, M. J. Soileau, A. L. Smirl, S. Guha, and T. F. Boggess, “Two-photon absorption, nonlinear refraction, and optical limiting in semiconductors,” Opt. Eng. 24(4), 613–623 (1985).
[Crossref]

Buchner, S.

D. McMorrow, W. T. Lotshaw, J. S. Melinger, S. Buchner, and R. L. Pease, “Subbandgap laser-induced single event effects: Carrier generation via two-photon absorption,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 49(6), 3002–3008 (2002).
[Crossref]

Ding, Y. J.

Durose, K.

R. E. Treharne, A. Seymour-Pierce, K. Durose, K. Hutchings, S. Roncallo, and D. Lane, “Optical design and fabrication of fully sputtered CdTe/CdS solar cells,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 286, 012038 (2011).
[Crossref]

Gu, C.-M.

Guha, S.

E. W. Van Stryland, H. Vanherzeele, M. A. Woodall, M. J. Soileau, A. L. Smirl, S. Guha, and T. F. Boggess, “Two-photon absorption, nonlinear refraction, and optical limiting in semiconductors,” Opt. Eng. 24(4), 613–623 (1985).
[Crossref]

Hagan, D. J.

E. W. van Stryland, M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, and D. J. Hagan, “Characterization of nonlinear optical absorption and refraction,” Prog. Cryst. Growth Charact. Mater. 27(3-4), 279–311 (1993).
[Crossref]

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(4), 760–769 (1990).
[Crossref]

He, W.-Q.

Heilweil, E. J.

B. G. Alberding, W. R. Thurber, and E. J. Heilweil, “Direct comparison of time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy and Hall Van der Pauw methods for measurement of carrier conductivity and mobility in bulk semiconductors,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 34(7), 1392–1406 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. G. Alberding, A. J. Biacchi, A. R. Hight Walker, and E. J. Heilweil, “Charge carrier dynamics and mobility determined by time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy on films of nano-to-micrometer-sized colloidal Tin(II) monosulfide,” J. Phys. Chem. C 120(88), 15395–15406 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hight Walker, A. R.

B. G. Alberding, A. J. Biacchi, A. R. Hight Walker, and E. J. Heilweil, “Charge carrier dynamics and mobility determined by time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy on films of nano-to-micrometer-sized colloidal Tin(II) monosulfide,” J. Phys. Chem. C 120(88), 15395–15406 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hutchings, K.

R. E. Treharne, A. Seymour-Pierce, K. Durose, K. Hutchings, S. Roncallo, and D. Lane, “Optical design and fabrication of fully sputtered CdTe/CdS solar cells,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 286, 012038 (2011).
[Crossref]

Krauss, T. D.

T. D. Krauss and F. W. Wise, “Femtosecond measurement of nonlinear absorption and refraction in CdS, ZnSe, and ZnS,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65(14), 1739–1741 (1994).
[Crossref]

Lane, D.

R. E. Treharne, A. Seymour-Pierce, K. Durose, K. Hutchings, S. Roncallo, and D. Lane, “Optical design and fabrication of fully sputtered CdTe/CdS solar cells,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 286, 012038 (2011).
[Crossref]

Le Toullec, R.

R. Le Toullec, N. Piccioli, M. Mejatty, and M. Balkanski, “Optical constants of ε-GaSe,” Nuovo Cimento B 38(2), 159–167 (1977).
[Crossref]

Lotshaw, W. T.

D. McMorrow, W. T. Lotshaw, J. S. Melinger, S. Buchner, and R. L. Pease, “Subbandgap laser-induced single event effects: Carrier generation via two-photon absorption,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 49(6), 3002–3008 (2002).
[Crossref]

McMorrow, D.

D. McMorrow, W. T. Lotshaw, J. S. Melinger, S. Buchner, and R. L. Pease, “Subbandgap laser-induced single event effects: Carrier generation via two-photon absorption,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 49(6), 3002–3008 (2002).
[Crossref]

Mejatty, M.

R. Le Toullec, N. Piccioli, M. Mejatty, and M. Balkanski, “Optical constants of ε-GaSe,” Nuovo Cimento B 38(2), 159–167 (1977).
[Crossref]

Melinger, J. S.

D. McMorrow, W. T. Lotshaw, J. S. Melinger, S. Buchner, and R. L. Pease, “Subbandgap laser-induced single event effects: Carrier generation via two-photon absorption,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 49(6), 3002–3008 (2002).
[Crossref]

Pease, R. L.

D. McMorrow, W. T. Lotshaw, J. S. Melinger, S. Buchner, and R. L. Pease, “Subbandgap laser-induced single event effects: Carrier generation via two-photon absorption,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 49(6), 3002–3008 (2002).
[Crossref]

Piccioli, N.

R. Le Toullec, N. Piccioli, M. Mejatty, and M. Balkanski, “Optical constants of ε-GaSe,” Nuovo Cimento B 38(2), 159–167 (1977).
[Crossref]

Roncallo, S.

R. E. Treharne, A. Seymour-Pierce, K. Durose, K. Hutchings, S. Roncallo, and D. Lane, “Optical design and fabrication of fully sputtered CdTe/CdS solar cells,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 286, 012038 (2011).
[Crossref]

Said, A. A.

E. W. van Stryland, M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, and D. J. Hagan, “Characterization of nonlinear optical absorption and refraction,” Prog. Cryst. Growth Charact. Mater. 27(3-4), 279–311 (1993).
[Crossref]

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(4), 760–769 (1990).
[Crossref]

Sato, K.

K. Sato and S. Adachi, “Optical properties of ZnTe,” J. Appl. Phys. 73(2), 926–931 (1993).
[Crossref]

Schmuttenmaer, C. A.

M. C. Beard, G. M. Turner, and C. A. Schmuttenmaer, “Terahertz spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. B 106(29), 7146–7159 (2002).
[Crossref]

Seymour-Pierce, A.

R. E. Treharne, A. Seymour-Pierce, K. Durose, K. Hutchings, S. Roncallo, and D. Lane, “Optical design and fabrication of fully sputtered CdTe/CdS solar cells,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 286, 012038 (2011).
[Crossref]

Sheik-Bahae, M.

E. W. van Stryland, M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, and D. J. Hagan, “Characterization of nonlinear optical absorption and refraction,” Prog. Cryst. Growth Charact. Mater. 27(3-4), 279–311 (1993).
[Crossref]

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(4), 760–769 (1990).
[Crossref]

Shen, W.-Z.

Smirl, A. L.

E. W. Van Stryland, H. Vanherzeele, M. A. Woodall, M. J. Soileau, A. L. Smirl, S. Guha, and T. F. Boggess, “Two-photon absorption, nonlinear refraction, and optical limiting in semiconductors,” Opt. Eng. 24(4), 613–623 (1985).
[Crossref]

Soileau, M. J.

E. W. Van Stryland, H. Vanherzeele, M. A. Woodall, M. J. Soileau, A. L. Smirl, S. Guha, and T. F. Boggess, “Two-photon absorption, nonlinear refraction, and optical limiting in semiconductors,” Opt. Eng. 24(4), 613–623 (1985).
[Crossref]

Studna, A. A.

D. E. Aspnes and A. A. Studna, “Dielectric functions and optical parameters of Si, Ge, GaP, GaAs, GaSb, InP, InAs, and InSb from 1.5 to 6.0 eV,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 27(2), 985–1009 (1983).
[Crossref]

Taguchi, T.

S. Adachi and T. Taguchi, “Optical properties of ZnSe,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 43(12), 9569–9577 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Thurber, W. R.

Treharne, R. E.

R. E. Treharne, A. Seymour-Pierce, K. Durose, K. Hutchings, S. Roncallo, and D. Lane, “Optical design and fabrication of fully sputtered CdTe/CdS solar cells,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 286, 012038 (2011).
[Crossref]

Turner, G. M.

M. C. Beard, G. M. Turner, and C. A. Schmuttenmaer, “Terahertz spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. B 106(29), 7146–7159 (2002).
[Crossref]

van der Pauw, L. J.

L. J. van der Pauw, “A method of measuring specific resistivity and Hall effect of discs of arbitrary shape,” Phillips Res. Rep. 13, 1–9 (1958).

van Stryland, E. W.

E. W. van Stryland, M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, and D. J. Hagan, “Characterization of nonlinear optical absorption and refraction,” Prog. Cryst. Growth Charact. Mater. 27(3-4), 279–311 (1993).
[Crossref]

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(4), 760–769 (1990).
[Crossref]

E. W. Van Stryland, H. Vanherzeele, M. A. Woodall, M. J. Soileau, A. L. Smirl, S. Guha, and T. F. Boggess, “Two-photon absorption, nonlinear refraction, and optical limiting in semiconductors,” Opt. Eng. 24(4), 613–623 (1985).
[Crossref]

Vanherzeele, H.

E. W. Van Stryland, H. Vanherzeele, M. A. Woodall, M. J. Soileau, A. L. Smirl, S. Guha, and T. F. Boggess, “Two-photon absorption, nonlinear refraction, and optical limiting in semiconductors,” Opt. Eng. 24(4), 613–623 (1985).
[Crossref]

Wei, T. H.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(4), 760–769 (1990).
[Crossref]

Wise, F. W.

T. D. Krauss and F. W. Wise, “Femtosecond measurement of nonlinear absorption and refraction in CdS, ZnSe, and ZnS,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65(14), 1739–1741 (1994).
[Crossref]

Woodall, M. A.

E. W. Van Stryland, H. Vanherzeele, M. A. Woodall, M. J. Soileau, A. L. Smirl, S. Guha, and T. F. Boggess, “Two-photon absorption, nonlinear refraction, and optical limiting in semiconductors,” Opt. Eng. 24(4), 613–623 (1985).
[Crossref]

Zotova, I. B.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

T. D. Krauss and F. W. Wise, “Femtosecond measurement of nonlinear absorption and refraction in CdS, ZnSe, and ZnS,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65(14), 1739–1741 (1994).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(4), 760–769 (1990).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. (1)

D. McMorrow, W. T. Lotshaw, J. S. Melinger, S. Buchner, and R. L. Pease, “Subbandgap laser-induced single event effects: Carrier generation via two-photon absorption,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 49(6), 3002–3008 (2002).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

K. Sato and S. Adachi, “Optical properties of ZnTe,” J. Appl. Phys. 73(2), 926–931 (1993).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Phys. Chem. B (1)

M. C. Beard, G. M. Turner, and C. A. Schmuttenmaer, “Terahertz spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. B 106(29), 7146–7159 (2002).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. Chem. C (1)

B. G. Alberding, A. J. Biacchi, A. R. Hight Walker, and E. J. Heilweil, “Charge carrier dynamics and mobility determined by time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy on films of nano-to-micrometer-sized colloidal Tin(II) monosulfide,” J. Phys. Chem. C 120(88), 15395–15406 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Phys. Conf. Ser. (1)

R. E. Treharne, A. Seymour-Pierce, K. Durose, K. Hutchings, S. Roncallo, and D. Lane, “Optical design and fabrication of fully sputtered CdTe/CdS solar cells,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 286, 012038 (2011).
[Crossref]

Nuovo Cimento B (1)

R. Le Toullec, N. Piccioli, M. Mejatty, and M. Balkanski, “Optical constants of ε-GaSe,” Nuovo Cimento B 38(2), 159–167 (1977).
[Crossref]

Opt. Eng. (1)

E. W. Van Stryland, H. Vanherzeele, M. A. Woodall, M. J. Soileau, A. L. Smirl, S. Guha, and T. F. Boggess, “Two-photon absorption, nonlinear refraction, and optical limiting in semiconductors,” Opt. Eng. 24(4), 613–623 (1985).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (1)

Phillips Res. Rep. (1)

L. J. van der Pauw, “A method of measuring specific resistivity and Hall effect of discs of arbitrary shape,” Phillips Res. Rep. 13, 1–9 (1958).

Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter (2)

S. Adachi and T. Taguchi, “Optical properties of ZnSe,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 43(12), 9569–9577 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. E. Aspnes and A. A. Studna, “Dielectric functions and optical parameters of Si, Ge, GaP, GaAs, GaSb, InP, InAs, and InSb from 1.5 to 6.0 eV,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 27(2), 985–1009 (1983).
[Crossref]

Prog. Cryst. Growth Charact. Mater. (1)

E. W. van Stryland, M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, and D. J. Hagan, “Characterization of nonlinear optical absorption and refraction,” Prog. Cryst. Growth Charact. Mater. 27(3-4), 279–311 (1993).
[Crossref]

Other (2)

F. A. Hegmann, O. Ostroverkhova, and D. G. Cooke, “Probing organic semiconductors with terahertz pulses,” in Photophysics of Molecular Materials (Wiley-WCH, 2006), pp. 367–428.

R. C. Hoffman and A. G. Mott, “Measurement of the two-photon absorption coefficient of gallium phosphide (GaP) using a dispersion-minimized sub-10 femtosecond Z-scan measurement system,” Army Research Laboratory Report No. ARL-TR-6157, 2012 (unpublished).

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 THz measurement results: Each row shows data for a different sample. In the left column, typical THz traces are shown for 400 nm pump wavelength (blue) and 800 nm pump wavelength (red). In the middle and right columns, the peak change in peak THz field amplitude is shown as a function of input power for 400 nm pump wavelength (middle column) and 800 nm pump wavelength (right column).
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Measurements of two-photon absorption coefficient β. (a) Z-scan measurements using 81 MHz laser system. Typical experimental data (dots) and fits to Eq. (4) (lines) are shown for ZnSe (red), GaP (blue), and CdS (green). (b) Power-dependent transmission measurements using the same laser used in THz measurements. Experimental data (dots) and fits (lines) are shown for GaP (red) and GaSe (blue).

Tables (3)

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Table 1 One-photon (400 nm) measurements of mobility

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Table 2 Sample lengths and measured two-photon (800 nm) absorption coefficients

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Table 3 Mobilities measured using two-photon (800 nm) excitation

Equations (4)

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ΔE E 0 = Z 0 d 1+n σ
Δσ=e N p ( μ e + μ h ),
ΔE E 0 = Z 0 L 2n σ.
ΔT T =1 q 0 2 2 1 1+ (z z c ) 2 / z 0 2

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