Abstract

AgI-type pyrotechnics are widely used in the field of weather modification, as a kind of artificial ice nuclei. However, their precipitation yield remains an intensively studied area. In this paper, we present a study of AgI-type pyrotechnic nucleant-induced water condensation promoted by femtosecond laser filaments in a cloud chamber. It is found that when 50-ml sample was irradiated by the laser filaments, the particles condensed on the glass slide are more soluble and slightly larger (5–15 μm). The irradiation of the laser filament on the nucleant rarely induces the generation of particles of sizes larger than 1 μm; however, it increases the decay time of particles from 13 to 18 min by the creation of numerous small particles. The amount of snow on the cold bottom plate increases by 4.2–13.1% in 2 h, compared to that without the irradiation of the laser filament. These results are associated with the production of high-concentration HNO3 by the laser filament. The concentration of HNO3 in the melt water increases by more than ten times when the sample was irradiated by the laser filaments.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2018 (1)

S. Yuan, F. J. Liu, L. R. Wang, J. Y. Nan, M. Li, B. Q. He, and H. P. Zeng, “Highly extended filaments in aqueous gold nano-particle colloidals,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 5957 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (2)

J. Kong, G. Wang, W. Fang, and Z. Su, “Laboratory study on nucleation properties and microstructure of AgI pyrotechnics,” Meteor. Mon. 42(1), 74–79 (2016).

M. Matthews, F. Pomel, C. Wender, A. Kiselev, D. Duft, J. Kasparian, J.-P. Wolf, and T. Leisner, “Laser vaporization of cirrus-like ice particles with secondary ice multiplication,” Sci. Adv. 2(5), e1501912 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (2)

D. Mongin, J. G. Slowik, E. Schubert, J.-G. Brisset, N. Berti, M. Moret, A. S. H. Prévôt, U. Baltensperger, J. Kasparian, and J.-P. Wolf, “Non-linear photochemical pathways in laser-induced atmospheric aerosol formation,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 14978 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Sun, H. Liang, Y. Liu, J. Ju, Y. Wei, C. Wang, T. Wang, J. Liu, S. L. Chin, R. Li, and Z. Xu, “Different patterned airflows induced by 1-kHz femtosecond laser filaments in a cloud chamber,” Appl. Phys. B 121(2), 155–169 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (2)

A. Ryabtsev, S. Pouya, M. Koochesfahani, and M. Dantus, “Vortices in the wake of a femtosecond laser filament,” Opt. Express 22(21), 26098–26102 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Ju, T. Leisner, H. Sun, A. Sridharan, T. Wang, J. Wang, C. Wang, J. Liu, R. Li, Z. Xu, and S. L. Chin, “Laser-induced supersaturation and snow formation in a sub-saturated cloud chamber,” Appl. Phys. B 117(4), 1001–1007 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (5)

J. Ju, H. Sun, A. Sridharan, T. J. Wang, C. Wang, J. Liu, R. Li, Z. Xu, and S. L. Chin, “Laser-filament-induced snow formation in a subsaturated zone in a cloud chamber: experimental and theoretical study,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 88(6), 062803 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Saathoff, S. Henin, K. Stelmaszczyk, M. Petrarca, R. Delagrange, Z. Hao, J. Lüder, O. Möhler, Y. Petit, P. Rohwetter, M. Schnaiter, J. Kasparian, T. Leisner, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “Laser filament-induced aerosol formation,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 13(9), 4593–4604 (2013).
[Crossref]

L. Xue, S. A. Tessendorf, E. Nelson, R. Rasmussen, D. Breed, S. Parkinson, P. Holbrook, and D. Blestrud, “Implementation of a Silver Iodide Cloud-Seeding Parameterization in WRF. Part II: 3D Simulations of Actual Seeding Events and Sensitivity Tests,” J. Appl. Meteorol. Climatol. 52(6), 1458–1476 (2013).
[Crossref]

T. Leisner, D. Duft, O. Möhler, H. Saathoff, M. Schnaiter, S. Henin, K. Stelmaszczyk, M. Petrarca, R. Delagrange, Z. Hao, J. Lüder, Y. Petit, P. Rohwetter, J. Kasparian, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “Laser-induced plasma cloud interaction and ice multiplication under cirrus cloud conditions,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 110(25), 10106–10110 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Sun, J. Liu, C. Wang, J. Ju, Z. Wang, W. Wang, X. Ge, C. Li, S. L. Chin, R. Li, and Z. Xu, “Laser filamentation induced air-flow motion in a diffusion cloud chamber,” Opt. Express 21(8), 9255–9266 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (3)

2011 (2)

S. Henin, Y. Petit, P. Rohwetter, K. Stelmaszczyk, Z. Q. Hao, W. M. Nakaema, A. Vogel, T. Pohl, F. Schneider, J. Kasparian, K. Weber, L. Wöste, and J.-P. Wolf, “Field measurements suggest the mechanism of laser-assisted water condensation,” Nat. Commun. 2(1), 456 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Rohwetter, J. Kasparian, L. Wöste, and J.-P. Wolf, “Modelling of HNO3-mediated laser-induced condensation: a parametric study,” J. Chem. Phys. 135(13), 134703 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (2)

Y. Petit, S. Henin, J. Kasparian, and J.-P. Wolf, “Production of ozone and nitrogen oxides by laser filamentation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(2), 021108 (2010).
[Crossref]

P. Rohwetter, J. Kasparian, K. Stelmaszczyk, Z. Hao, S. Henin, N. Lascoux, W. M. Nakaema, Y. Petit, M. Queißer, R. Salamé, E. Salmon, L. Wöste, and J.-P. Wolf, “Laser-induced water condensation in air,” Nat. Photonics 4(7), 451–456 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

A. Sorokin and F. Arnold, “Analysis of experiments on ion-induced nucleation and aerosol formation in the presence of UV light and ionizing radiation,” Atmos. Environ. 43(24), 3799–3807 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

Z. Su, G. Zheng, L. Guan, J. Zhang, and G. Huang, “Particle sizing analysis on AgI pyrotechnics with the electron microscope,” J. Appl. Meteor. Sci. 19(2), 137–144 (2008).

2007 (3)

A. Korolev, “Limitations of the Wegener–Bergeron–Findeisen mechanism in the evolution of mixed-phase clouds,” J. Atmos. Sci. 64(9), 3372–3375 (2007).
[Crossref]

K. Yoshihara, Y. Takatori, K. Miyazaki, and Y. Kajii, “Ultraviolet light-induced water-droplet formation from wet ambient air from wet ambient air,” Proc. Jpn. Acad., Ser. B, Phys. Biol. Sci. 83(9-10), 320–325 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Salamé, N. Lascoux, E. Salmon, R. Ackermann, J. Kasparian, and J.-P. Wolf, “Propagation of laser filaments through an extended turbulent region,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(17), 171106 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

F. Théberge, W. Liu, P. T. Simard, A. Becker, and S. L. Chin, “Plasma density inside a femtosecond laser filament in air: strong dependence on external focusing,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 74(3), 036406 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (4)

G. Méchain, Y.-B. C.D’Amico, S. André, M. Tzortzakis, B. Franco, A. Prade, A. Mysyrowicz, E. Couairon, Salmon, and R. Sauerbrey, “Range of plasma filaments created in air by a multi-terawatt femtosecond laser,” Opt. Commun. 247(1-3), 171–180 (2005).
[Crossref]

K. Yoshihara, “Laser-induced Mist and Particle Formation from Ambient Air, A Possible New Cloud Seeding Method,” Chem. Lett. 34(10), 1370–1371 (2005).
[Crossref]

G. Méjean, J. Kasparian, J. Yu, E. Salmon, S. Frey, J.-P. Wolf, S. Skupin, A. Vinçotte, R. Nuter, S. Champeaux, and L. Bergé, “Multifilamentation transmission through fog,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 72(2), 026611 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Qu, M. Cheng, W. Huang, and X. Bao, “Formation of subsurface oxygen species and its high activity toward CO oxidation over silver catalysts,” J. Catal. 229(2), 446–458 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

M. Rodriguez, R. Bourayou, G. Méjean, J. Kasparian, J. Yu, E. Salmon, A. Scholz, B. Stecklum, J. Eislöffel, U. Laux, A. P. Hatzes, R. Sauerbrey, L. Wöste, and J.-P. Wolf, “Kilometer-range nonlinear propagation of femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 69(3), 036607 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (2)

F. Courvoisier, V. Boutou, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, G. Méjean, J. Yu, and J.-P. Wolf, “Ultraintense light filaments transmitted through clouds,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(2), 213–215 (2003).
[Crossref]

S. A. Hosseini, Q. Luo, B. Ferland, W. Liu, N. Aközbek, G. Roy, and S. L. Chin, “Effective length of filaments measurement using backscattered fluorescence from nitrogen molecules,” Appl. Phys. B 77(6–7), 697–702 (2003).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

A. Becker, N. Aközbek, K. Vijayalakshmi, E. Oral, C. M. Bowden, and S. L. Chin, “Intensity clamping and re-focusing of intense femtosecond laser pulses in nitrogen molecular gas,” Appl. Phys. B 73(3), 287–290 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (2)

S. Tzortzakis, B. Prade, M. Franco, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Time-evolution of the plasma channel at the trail of a self-guided IR femtosecond laser pulse in air,” Opt. Commun. 181(1–3), 123–127 (2000).
[Crossref]

J. Kasparian, R. Sauerbrey, and S. L. Chin, “The critical laser intensity of self-guided light filaments in air,” Appl. Phys. B 71(6), 877–879 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (3)

A. Chiron, B. Lamouroux, R. Lange, J.-F. Ripoche, M. Franco, B. Prade, G. Bonnaud, G. Riazuelo, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Numerical simulations of the nonlinear propagation of femtosecond optical pulses in gases,” Eur. Phys. J. D 6(3), 383–396 (1999).
[Crossref]

B. La Fontaine, F. Vidal, Z. Jiang, C. Y. Chien, D. Comtois, A. Desparois, T. W. Johnston, J.-C. Kieffer, H. Pépin, and H. P. Mercure, “Filamentation of ultrashort pulse laser beams resulting from their propagation over long distances in air,” Phys. Plasmas 6(5), 1615–1621 (1999).
[Crossref]

B. La Fontaine, F. Vidal, Z. Jiang, C. Y. Chien, D. Comtois, A. Desparois, T. W. Johnston, J.-C. Kieffer, H. Pépin, and H. P. Mercure, “Filamentation of ultrashort pulse laser beams resulting from their propagation over long distances in air,” Phys. Plasmas 6(5), 1615–1621 (1999).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

1997 (3)

A. Brodeur, C. Y. Chien, F. A. Ilkov, S. L. Chin, O. G. Kosareva, and V. P. Kandidov, “Moving focus in the propagation of ultrashort laser pulses in air,” Opt. Lett. 22(5), 304–306 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Anpo, M. Matsuoka, H. Mishima, and H. Yamashita, “The design of photocatalysts for the removal of NOX at normal temperatures-copper (I) and silver (I) ion catalysts anchored within zeolite cavities,” Res. Chem. Intermed. 23(3), 197–217 (1997).
[Crossref]

T. Miyadera, “Selective reduction of nitric oxide with ethanol over an alumina-supported silver catalyst,” Appl. Catal. B 13(2), 157–165 (1997).
[Crossref]

1981 (2)

B. Federer and A. Schneider, “Properties of pyrotechnic nucleants used in Grossversuch IV,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 20(9), 997–1005 (1981).
[Crossref]

A. Gagin and J. Neumann, “The second Israeli randomized cloud seeding experiment: evaluation of the results,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 20(11), 1301–1311 (1981).
[Crossref]

1979 (2)

R. I. Sax, D. M. Garvey, and F. P. Parungo, “Characteristics of AgI pyrotechnic nucleant used in NOAA’s Florida area cumulus experiment,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 18(2), 195–202 (1979).
[Crossref]

U. Sowada and R. A. Holroyd, “Laser photodetachment of electrons from in nonpolar liquids,” J. Chem. Phys. 70(8), 3586–3591 (1979).
[Crossref]

1899 (1)

C. T. R. Wilson, “On the Condensation Nuclei Produced in Gases by the Action of Rontgen Rays, Uranium Rays, Ultra-Violet Light, and Other Agents,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London Ser. A 192(0), 403–453 (1899).
[Crossref]

Ackermann, R.

R. Salamé, N. Lascoux, E. Salmon, R. Ackermann, J. Kasparian, and J.-P. Wolf, “Propagation of laser filaments through an extended turbulent region,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(17), 171106 (2007).
[Crossref]

Aközbek, N.

S. A. Hosseini, Q. Luo, B. Ferland, W. Liu, N. Aközbek, G. Roy, and S. L. Chin, “Effective length of filaments measurement using backscattered fluorescence from nitrogen molecules,” Appl. Phys. B 77(6–7), 697–702 (2003).
[Crossref]

A. Becker, N. Aközbek, K. Vijayalakshmi, E. Oral, C. M. Bowden, and S. L. Chin, “Intensity clamping and re-focusing of intense femtosecond laser pulses in nitrogen molecular gas,” Appl. Phys. B 73(3), 287–290 (2001).
[Crossref]

André, S.

G. Méchain, Y.-B. C.D’Amico, S. André, M. Tzortzakis, B. Franco, A. Prade, A. Mysyrowicz, E. Couairon, Salmon, and R. Sauerbrey, “Range of plasma filaments created in air by a multi-terawatt femtosecond laser,” Opt. Commun. 247(1-3), 171–180 (2005).
[Crossref]

Anpo, M.

M. Anpo, M. Matsuoka, H. Mishima, and H. Yamashita, “The design of photocatalysts for the removal of NOX at normal temperatures-copper (I) and silver (I) ion catalysts anchored within zeolite cavities,” Res. Chem. Intermed. 23(3), 197–217 (1997).
[Crossref]

Arnold, F.

A. Sorokin and F. Arnold, “Analysis of experiments on ion-induced nucleation and aerosol formation in the presence of UV light and ionizing radiation,” Atmos. Environ. 43(24), 3799–3807 (2009).
[Crossref]

Baltensperger, U.

D. Mongin, J. G. Slowik, E. Schubert, J.-G. Brisset, N. Berti, M. Moret, A. S. H. Prévôt, U. Baltensperger, J. Kasparian, and J.-P. Wolf, “Non-linear photochemical pathways in laser-induced atmospheric aerosol formation,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 14978 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bao, X.

Z. Qu, M. Cheng, W. Huang, and X. Bao, “Formation of subsurface oxygen species and its high activity toward CO oxidation over silver catalysts,” J. Catal. 229(2), 446–458 (2005).
[Crossref]

Becker, A.

F. Théberge, W. Liu, P. T. Simard, A. Becker, and S. L. Chin, “Plasma density inside a femtosecond laser filament in air: strong dependence on external focusing,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 74(3), 036406 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Becker, N. Aközbek, K. Vijayalakshmi, E. Oral, C. M. Bowden, and S. L. Chin, “Intensity clamping and re-focusing of intense femtosecond laser pulses in nitrogen molecular gas,” Appl. Phys. B 73(3), 287–290 (2001).
[Crossref]

Bergé, L.

G. Méjean, J. Kasparian, J. Yu, E. Salmon, S. Frey, J.-P. Wolf, S. Skupin, A. Vinçotte, R. Nuter, S. Champeaux, and L. Bergé, “Multifilamentation transmission through fog,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 72(2), 026611 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Berti, N.

D. Mongin, J. G. Slowik, E. Schubert, J.-G. Brisset, N. Berti, M. Moret, A. S. H. Prévôt, U. Baltensperger, J. Kasparian, and J.-P. Wolf, “Non-linear photochemical pathways in laser-induced atmospheric aerosol formation,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 14978 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Blestrud, D.

L. Xue, S. A. Tessendorf, E. Nelson, R. Rasmussen, D. Breed, S. Parkinson, P. Holbrook, and D. Blestrud, “Implementation of a Silver Iodide Cloud-Seeding Parameterization in WRF. Part II: 3D Simulations of Actual Seeding Events and Sensitivity Tests,” J. Appl. Meteorol. Climatol. 52(6), 1458–1476 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bonnaud, G.

A. Chiron, B. Lamouroux, R. Lange, J.-F. Ripoche, M. Franco, B. Prade, G. Bonnaud, G. Riazuelo, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Numerical simulations of the nonlinear propagation of femtosecond optical pulses in gases,” Eur. Phys. J. D 6(3), 383–396 (1999).
[Crossref]

Bourayou, R.

M. Rodriguez, R. Bourayou, G. Méjean, J. Kasparian, J. Yu, E. Salmon, A. Scholz, B. Stecklum, J. Eislöffel, U. Laux, A. P. Hatzes, R. Sauerbrey, L. Wöste, and J.-P. Wolf, “Kilometer-range nonlinear propagation of femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 69(3), 036607 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Boutou, V.

F. Courvoisier, V. Boutou, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, G. Méjean, J. Yu, and J.-P. Wolf, “Ultraintense light filaments transmitted through clouds,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(2), 213–215 (2003).
[Crossref]

Bowden, C. M.

A. Becker, N. Aközbek, K. Vijayalakshmi, E. Oral, C. M. Bowden, and S. L. Chin, “Intensity clamping and re-focusing of intense femtosecond laser pulses in nitrogen molecular gas,” Appl. Phys. B 73(3), 287–290 (2001).
[Crossref]

Breed, D.

L. Xue, S. A. Tessendorf, E. Nelson, R. Rasmussen, D. Breed, S. Parkinson, P. Holbrook, and D. Blestrud, “Implementation of a Silver Iodide Cloud-Seeding Parameterization in WRF. Part II: 3D Simulations of Actual Seeding Events and Sensitivity Tests,” J. Appl. Meteorol. Climatol. 52(6), 1458–1476 (2013).
[Crossref]

Brisset, J.-G.

D. Mongin, J. G. Slowik, E. Schubert, J.-G. Brisset, N. Berti, M. Moret, A. S. H. Prévôt, U. Baltensperger, J. Kasparian, and J.-P. Wolf, “Non-linear photochemical pathways in laser-induced atmospheric aerosol formation,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 14978 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brodeur, A.

C.D’Amico, Y.-B.

G. Méchain, Y.-B. C.D’Amico, S. André, M. Tzortzakis, B. Franco, A. Prade, A. Mysyrowicz, E. Couairon, Salmon, and R. Sauerbrey, “Range of plasma filaments created in air by a multi-terawatt femtosecond laser,” Opt. Commun. 247(1-3), 171–180 (2005).
[Crossref]

Champeaux, S.

G. Méjean, J. Kasparian, J. Yu, E. Salmon, S. Frey, J.-P. Wolf, S. Skupin, A. Vinçotte, R. Nuter, S. Champeaux, and L. Bergé, “Multifilamentation transmission through fog,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 72(2), 026611 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cheng, M.

Z. Qu, M. Cheng, W. Huang, and X. Bao, “Formation of subsurface oxygen species and its high activity toward CO oxidation over silver catalysts,” J. Catal. 229(2), 446–458 (2005).
[Crossref]

Chien, C. Y.

B. La Fontaine, F. Vidal, Z. Jiang, C. Y. Chien, D. Comtois, A. Desparois, T. W. Johnston, J.-C. Kieffer, H. Pépin, and H. P. Mercure, “Filamentation of ultrashort pulse laser beams resulting from their propagation over long distances in air,” Phys. Plasmas 6(5), 1615–1621 (1999).
[Crossref]

B. La Fontaine, F. Vidal, Z. Jiang, C. Y. Chien, D. Comtois, A. Desparois, T. W. Johnston, J.-C. Kieffer, H. Pépin, and H. P. Mercure, “Filamentation of ultrashort pulse laser beams resulting from their propagation over long distances in air,” Phys. Plasmas 6(5), 1615–1621 (1999).
[Crossref]

A. Brodeur, C. Y. Chien, F. A. Ilkov, S. L. Chin, O. G. Kosareva, and V. P. Kandidov, “Moving focus in the propagation of ultrashort laser pulses in air,” Opt. Lett. 22(5), 304–306 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chin, S. L.

H. Sun, H. Liang, Y. Liu, J. Ju, Y. Wei, C. Wang, T. Wang, J. Liu, S. L. Chin, R. Li, and Z. Xu, “Different patterned airflows induced by 1-kHz femtosecond laser filaments in a cloud chamber,” Appl. Phys. B 121(2), 155–169 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Ju, T. Leisner, H. Sun, A. Sridharan, T. Wang, J. Wang, C. Wang, J. Liu, R. Li, Z. Xu, and S. L. Chin, “Laser-induced supersaturation and snow formation in a sub-saturated cloud chamber,” Appl. Phys. B 117(4), 1001–1007 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Ju, H. Sun, A. Sridharan, T. J. Wang, C. Wang, J. Liu, R. Li, Z. Xu, and S. L. Chin, “Laser-filament-induced snow formation in a subsaturated zone in a cloud chamber: experimental and theoretical study,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 88(6), 062803 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Sun, J. Liu, C. Wang, J. Ju, Z. Wang, W. Wang, X. Ge, C. Li, S. L. Chin, R. Li, and Z. Xu, “Laser filamentation induced air-flow motion in a diffusion cloud chamber,” Opt. Express 21(8), 9255–9266 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Ju, J. Liu, C. Wang, H. Sun, W. Wang, X. Ge, C. Li, S. L. Chin, R. Li, and Z. Xu, “Laser-filamentation-induced condensation and snow formation in a cloud chamber,” Opt. Lett. 37(7), 1214–1216 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Théberge, W. Liu, P. T. Simard, A. Becker, and S. L. Chin, “Plasma density inside a femtosecond laser filament in air: strong dependence on external focusing,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 74(3), 036406 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. A. Hosseini, Q. Luo, B. Ferland, W. Liu, N. Aközbek, G. Roy, and S. L. Chin, “Effective length of filaments measurement using backscattered fluorescence from nitrogen molecules,” Appl. Phys. B 77(6–7), 697–702 (2003).
[Crossref]

A. Becker, N. Aközbek, K. Vijayalakshmi, E. Oral, C. M. Bowden, and S. L. Chin, “Intensity clamping and re-focusing of intense femtosecond laser pulses in nitrogen molecular gas,” Appl. Phys. B 73(3), 287–290 (2001).
[Crossref]

J. Kasparian, R. Sauerbrey, and S. L. Chin, “The critical laser intensity of self-guided light filaments in air,” Appl. Phys. B 71(6), 877–879 (2000).
[Crossref]

A. Brodeur, C. Y. Chien, F. A. Ilkov, S. L. Chin, O. G. Kosareva, and V. P. Kandidov, “Moving focus in the propagation of ultrashort laser pulses in air,” Opt. Lett. 22(5), 304–306 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chiron, A.

A. Chiron, B. Lamouroux, R. Lange, J.-F. Ripoche, M. Franco, B. Prade, G. Bonnaud, G. Riazuelo, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Numerical simulations of the nonlinear propagation of femtosecond optical pulses in gases,” Eur. Phys. J. D 6(3), 383–396 (1999).
[Crossref]

Comtois, D.

B. La Fontaine, F. Vidal, Z. Jiang, C. Y. Chien, D. Comtois, A. Desparois, T. W. Johnston, J.-C. Kieffer, H. Pépin, and H. P. Mercure, “Filamentation of ultrashort pulse laser beams resulting from their propagation over long distances in air,” Phys. Plasmas 6(5), 1615–1621 (1999).
[Crossref]

B. La Fontaine, F. Vidal, Z. Jiang, C. Y. Chien, D. Comtois, A. Desparois, T. W. Johnston, J.-C. Kieffer, H. Pépin, and H. P. Mercure, “Filamentation of ultrashort pulse laser beams resulting from their propagation over long distances in air,” Phys. Plasmas 6(5), 1615–1621 (1999).
[Crossref]

Couairon, E.

G. Méchain, Y.-B. C.D’Amico, S. André, M. Tzortzakis, B. Franco, A. Prade, A. Mysyrowicz, E. Couairon, Salmon, and R. Sauerbrey, “Range of plasma filaments created in air by a multi-terawatt femtosecond laser,” Opt. Commun. 247(1-3), 171–180 (2005).
[Crossref]

Courvoisier, F.

F. Courvoisier, V. Boutou, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, G. Méjean, J. Yu, and J.-P. Wolf, “Ultraintense light filaments transmitted through clouds,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(2), 213–215 (2003).
[Crossref]

Daigle, J.-F.

Dantus, M.

Delagrange, R.

H. Saathoff, S. Henin, K. Stelmaszczyk, M. Petrarca, R. Delagrange, Z. Hao, J. Lüder, O. Möhler, Y. Petit, P. Rohwetter, M. Schnaiter, J. Kasparian, T. Leisner, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “Laser filament-induced aerosol formation,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 13(9), 4593–4604 (2013).
[Crossref]

T. Leisner, D. Duft, O. Möhler, H. Saathoff, M. Schnaiter, S. Henin, K. Stelmaszczyk, M. Petrarca, R. Delagrange, Z. Hao, J. Lüder, Y. Petit, P. Rohwetter, J. Kasparian, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “Laser-induced plasma cloud interaction and ice multiplication under cirrus cloud conditions,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 110(25), 10106–10110 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Desparois, A.

B. La Fontaine, F. Vidal, Z. Jiang, C. Y. Chien, D. Comtois, A. Desparois, T. W. Johnston, J.-C. Kieffer, H. Pépin, and H. P. Mercure, “Filamentation of ultrashort pulse laser beams resulting from their propagation over long distances in air,” Phys. Plasmas 6(5), 1615–1621 (1999).
[Crossref]

B. La Fontaine, F. Vidal, Z. Jiang, C. Y. Chien, D. Comtois, A. Desparois, T. W. Johnston, J.-C. Kieffer, H. Pépin, and H. P. Mercure, “Filamentation of ultrashort pulse laser beams resulting from their propagation over long distances in air,” Phys. Plasmas 6(5), 1615–1621 (1999).
[Crossref]

Duft, D.

M. Matthews, F. Pomel, C. Wender, A. Kiselev, D. Duft, J. Kasparian, J.-P. Wolf, and T. Leisner, “Laser vaporization of cirrus-like ice particles with secondary ice multiplication,” Sci. Adv. 2(5), e1501912 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Leisner, D. Duft, O. Möhler, H. Saathoff, M. Schnaiter, S. Henin, K. Stelmaszczyk, M. Petrarca, R. Delagrange, Z. Hao, J. Lüder, Y. Petit, P. Rohwetter, J. Kasparian, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “Laser-induced plasma cloud interaction and ice multiplication under cirrus cloud conditions,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 110(25), 10106–10110 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Eislöffel, J.

M. Rodriguez, R. Bourayou, G. Méjean, J. Kasparian, J. Yu, E. Salmon, A. Scholz, B. Stecklum, J. Eislöffel, U. Laux, A. P. Hatzes, R. Sauerbrey, L. Wöste, and J.-P. Wolf, “Kilometer-range nonlinear propagation of femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 69(3), 036607 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Erel, Y.

A. Zipori, D. Rosenfeld, J. Shpund, D. M. Steinberg, and Y. Erel, “Targeting and impacts of AgI cloud seeding based on rain chemical composition and cloud top phase characterization,” Atmos. Res. 114–115, 119–130 (2012).
[Crossref]

Fang, W.

J. Kong, G. Wang, W. Fang, and Z. Su, “Laboratory study on nucleation properties and microstructure of AgI pyrotechnics,” Meteor. Mon. 42(1), 74–79 (2016).

Federer, B.

B. Federer and A. Schneider, “Properties of pyrotechnic nucleants used in Grossversuch IV,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 20(9), 997–1005 (1981).
[Crossref]

Ferland, B.

S. A. Hosseini, Q. Luo, B. Ferland, W. Liu, N. Aközbek, G. Roy, and S. L. Chin, “Effective length of filaments measurement using backscattered fluorescence from nitrogen molecules,” Appl. Phys. B 77(6–7), 697–702 (2003).
[Crossref]

Franco, B.

G. Méchain, Y.-B. C.D’Amico, S. André, M. Tzortzakis, B. Franco, A. Prade, A. Mysyrowicz, E. Couairon, Salmon, and R. Sauerbrey, “Range of plasma filaments created in air by a multi-terawatt femtosecond laser,” Opt. Commun. 247(1-3), 171–180 (2005).
[Crossref]

Franco, M.

S. Tzortzakis, B. Prade, M. Franco, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Time-evolution of the plasma channel at the trail of a self-guided IR femtosecond laser pulse in air,” Opt. Commun. 181(1–3), 123–127 (2000).
[Crossref]

A. Chiron, B. Lamouroux, R. Lange, J.-F. Ripoche, M. Franco, B. Prade, G. Bonnaud, G. Riazuelo, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Numerical simulations of the nonlinear propagation of femtosecond optical pulses in gases,” Eur. Phys. J. D 6(3), 383–396 (1999).
[Crossref]

Frey, S.

G. Méjean, J. Kasparian, J. Yu, E. Salmon, S. Frey, J.-P. Wolf, S. Skupin, A. Vinçotte, R. Nuter, S. Champeaux, and L. Bergé, “Multifilamentation transmission through fog,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 72(2), 026611 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gagin, A.

A. Gagin and J. Neumann, “The second Israeli randomized cloud seeding experiment: evaluation of the results,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 20(11), 1301–1311 (1981).
[Crossref]

Garvey, D. M.

R. I. Sax, D. M. Garvey, and F. P. Parungo, “Characteristics of AgI pyrotechnic nucleant used in NOAA’s Florida area cumulus experiment,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 18(2), 195–202 (1979).
[Crossref]

Ge, X.

Guan, L.

Z. Su, G. Zheng, L. Guan, J. Zhang, and G. Huang, “Particle sizing analysis on AgI pyrotechnics with the electron microscope,” J. Appl. Meteor. Sci. 19(2), 137–144 (2008).

Hao, Z.

T. Leisner, D. Duft, O. Möhler, H. Saathoff, M. Schnaiter, S. Henin, K. Stelmaszczyk, M. Petrarca, R. Delagrange, Z. Hao, J. Lüder, Y. Petit, P. Rohwetter, J. Kasparian, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “Laser-induced plasma cloud interaction and ice multiplication under cirrus cloud conditions,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 110(25), 10106–10110 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Saathoff, S. Henin, K. Stelmaszczyk, M. Petrarca, R. Delagrange, Z. Hao, J. Lüder, O. Möhler, Y. Petit, P. Rohwetter, M. Schnaiter, J. Kasparian, T. Leisner, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “Laser filament-induced aerosol formation,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 13(9), 4593–4604 (2013).
[Crossref]

P. Rohwetter, J. Kasparian, K. Stelmaszczyk, Z. Hao, S. Henin, N. Lascoux, W. M. Nakaema, Y. Petit, M. Queißer, R. Salamé, E. Salmon, L. Wöste, and J.-P. Wolf, “Laser-induced water condensation in air,” Nat. Photonics 4(7), 451–456 (2010).
[Crossref]

Hao, Z. Q.

S. Henin, Y. Petit, P. Rohwetter, K. Stelmaszczyk, Z. Q. Hao, W. M. Nakaema, A. Vogel, T. Pohl, F. Schneider, J. Kasparian, K. Weber, L. Wöste, and J.-P. Wolf, “Field measurements suggest the mechanism of laser-assisted water condensation,” Nat. Commun. 2(1), 456 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hatzes, A. P.

M. Rodriguez, R. Bourayou, G. Méjean, J. Kasparian, J. Yu, E. Salmon, A. Scholz, B. Stecklum, J. Eislöffel, U. Laux, A. P. Hatzes, R. Sauerbrey, L. Wöste, and J.-P. Wolf, “Kilometer-range nonlinear propagation of femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 69(3), 036607 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

He, B. Q.

S. Yuan, F. J. Liu, L. R. Wang, J. Y. Nan, M. Li, B. Q. He, and H. P. Zeng, “Highly extended filaments in aqueous gold nano-particle colloidals,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 5957 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Henin, S.

T. Leisner, D. Duft, O. Möhler, H. Saathoff, M. Schnaiter, S. Henin, K. Stelmaszczyk, M. Petrarca, R. Delagrange, Z. Hao, J. Lüder, Y. Petit, P. Rohwetter, J. Kasparian, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “Laser-induced plasma cloud interaction and ice multiplication under cirrus cloud conditions,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 110(25), 10106–10110 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Saathoff, S. Henin, K. Stelmaszczyk, M. Petrarca, R. Delagrange, Z. Hao, J. Lüder, O. Möhler, Y. Petit, P. Rohwetter, M. Schnaiter, J. Kasparian, T. Leisner, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “Laser filament-induced aerosol formation,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 13(9), 4593–4604 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Henin, Y. Petit, P. Rohwetter, K. Stelmaszczyk, Z. Q. Hao, W. M. Nakaema, A. Vogel, T. Pohl, F. Schneider, J. Kasparian, K. Weber, L. Wöste, and J.-P. Wolf, “Field measurements suggest the mechanism of laser-assisted water condensation,” Nat. Commun. 2(1), 456 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Rohwetter, J. Kasparian, K. Stelmaszczyk, Z. Hao, S. Henin, N. Lascoux, W. M. Nakaema, Y. Petit, M. Queißer, R. Salamé, E. Salmon, L. Wöste, and J.-P. Wolf, “Laser-induced water condensation in air,” Nat. Photonics 4(7), 451–456 (2010).
[Crossref]

Y. Petit, S. Henin, J. Kasparian, and J.-P. Wolf, “Production of ozone and nitrogen oxides by laser filamentation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(2), 021108 (2010).
[Crossref]

Holbrook, P.

L. Xue, S. A. Tessendorf, E. Nelson, R. Rasmussen, D. Breed, S. Parkinson, P. Holbrook, and D. Blestrud, “Implementation of a Silver Iodide Cloud-Seeding Parameterization in WRF. Part II: 3D Simulations of Actual Seeding Events and Sensitivity Tests,” J. Appl. Meteorol. Climatol. 52(6), 1458–1476 (2013).
[Crossref]

Holroyd, R. A.

U. Sowada and R. A. Holroyd, “Laser photodetachment of electrons from in nonpolar liquids,” J. Chem. Phys. 70(8), 3586–3591 (1979).
[Crossref]

Hosseini, S. A.

S. A. Hosseini, Q. Luo, B. Ferland, W. Liu, N. Aközbek, G. Roy, and S. L. Chin, “Effective length of filaments measurement using backscattered fluorescence from nitrogen molecules,” Appl. Phys. B 77(6–7), 697–702 (2003).
[Crossref]

Huang, G.

Z. Su, G. Zheng, L. Guan, J. Zhang, and G. Huang, “Particle sizing analysis on AgI pyrotechnics with the electron microscope,” J. Appl. Meteor. Sci. 19(2), 137–144 (2008).

Huang, W.

Z. Qu, M. Cheng, W. Huang, and X. Bao, “Formation of subsurface oxygen species and its high activity toward CO oxidation over silver catalysts,” J. Catal. 229(2), 446–458 (2005).
[Crossref]

Ilkov, F. A.

Jiang, Z.

B. La Fontaine, F. Vidal, Z. Jiang, C. Y. Chien, D. Comtois, A. Desparois, T. W. Johnston, J.-C. Kieffer, H. Pépin, and H. P. Mercure, “Filamentation of ultrashort pulse laser beams resulting from their propagation over long distances in air,” Phys. Plasmas 6(5), 1615–1621 (1999).
[Crossref]

B. La Fontaine, F. Vidal, Z. Jiang, C. Y. Chien, D. Comtois, A. Desparois, T. W. Johnston, J.-C. Kieffer, H. Pépin, and H. P. Mercure, “Filamentation of ultrashort pulse laser beams resulting from their propagation over long distances in air,” Phys. Plasmas 6(5), 1615–1621 (1999).
[Crossref]

Johnston, T. W.

B. La Fontaine, F. Vidal, Z. Jiang, C. Y. Chien, D. Comtois, A. Desparois, T. W. Johnston, J.-C. Kieffer, H. Pépin, and H. P. Mercure, “Filamentation of ultrashort pulse laser beams resulting from their propagation over long distances in air,” Phys. Plasmas 6(5), 1615–1621 (1999).
[Crossref]

B. La Fontaine, F. Vidal, Z. Jiang, C. Y. Chien, D. Comtois, A. Desparois, T. W. Johnston, J.-C. Kieffer, H. Pépin, and H. P. Mercure, “Filamentation of ultrashort pulse laser beams resulting from their propagation over long distances in air,” Phys. Plasmas 6(5), 1615–1621 (1999).
[Crossref]

Ju, J.

H. Sun, H. Liang, Y. Liu, J. Ju, Y. Wei, C. Wang, T. Wang, J. Liu, S. L. Chin, R. Li, and Z. Xu, “Different patterned airflows induced by 1-kHz femtosecond laser filaments in a cloud chamber,” Appl. Phys. B 121(2), 155–169 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Ju, T. Leisner, H. Sun, A. Sridharan, T. Wang, J. Wang, C. Wang, J. Liu, R. Li, Z. Xu, and S. L. Chin, “Laser-induced supersaturation and snow formation in a sub-saturated cloud chamber,” Appl. Phys. B 117(4), 1001–1007 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Ju, H. Sun, A. Sridharan, T. J. Wang, C. Wang, J. Liu, R. Li, Z. Xu, and S. L. Chin, “Laser-filament-induced snow formation in a subsaturated zone in a cloud chamber: experimental and theoretical study,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 88(6), 062803 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Sun, J. Liu, C. Wang, J. Ju, Z. Wang, W. Wang, X. Ge, C. Li, S. L. Chin, R. Li, and Z. Xu, “Laser filamentation induced air-flow motion in a diffusion cloud chamber,” Opt. Express 21(8), 9255–9266 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Ju, J. Liu, C. Wang, H. Sun, W. Wang, X. Ge, C. Li, S. L. Chin, R. Li, and Z. Xu, “Laser-filamentation-induced condensation and snow formation in a cloud chamber,” Opt. Lett. 37(7), 1214–1216 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kajii, Y.

K. Yoshihara, Y. Takatori, K. Miyazaki, and Y. Kajii, “Ultraviolet light-induced water-droplet formation from wet ambient air from wet ambient air,” Proc. Jpn. Acad., Ser. B, Phys. Biol. Sci. 83(9-10), 320–325 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kandidov, V. P.

Kasparian, J.

M. Matthews, F. Pomel, C. Wender, A. Kiselev, D. Duft, J. Kasparian, J.-P. Wolf, and T. Leisner, “Laser vaporization of cirrus-like ice particles with secondary ice multiplication,” Sci. Adv. 2(5), e1501912 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Mongin, J. G. Slowik, E. Schubert, J.-G. Brisset, N. Berti, M. Moret, A. S. H. Prévôt, U. Baltensperger, J. Kasparian, and J.-P. Wolf, “Non-linear photochemical pathways in laser-induced atmospheric aerosol formation,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 14978 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Saathoff, S. Henin, K. Stelmaszczyk, M. Petrarca, R. Delagrange, Z. Hao, J. Lüder, O. Möhler, Y. Petit, P. Rohwetter, M. Schnaiter, J. Kasparian, T. Leisner, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “Laser filament-induced aerosol formation,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 13(9), 4593–4604 (2013).
[Crossref]

T. Leisner, D. Duft, O. Möhler, H. Saathoff, M. Schnaiter, S. Henin, K. Stelmaszczyk, M. Petrarca, R. Delagrange, Z. Hao, J. Lüder, Y. Petit, P. Rohwetter, J. Kasparian, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “Laser-induced plasma cloud interaction and ice multiplication under cirrus cloud conditions,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 110(25), 10106–10110 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Henin, Y. Petit, P. Rohwetter, K. Stelmaszczyk, Z. Q. Hao, W. M. Nakaema, A. Vogel, T. Pohl, F. Schneider, J. Kasparian, K. Weber, L. Wöste, and J.-P. Wolf, “Field measurements suggest the mechanism of laser-assisted water condensation,” Nat. Commun. 2(1), 456 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Rohwetter, J. Kasparian, L. Wöste, and J.-P. Wolf, “Modelling of HNO3-mediated laser-induced condensation: a parametric study,” J. Chem. Phys. 135(13), 134703 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Petit, S. Henin, J. Kasparian, and J.-P. Wolf, “Production of ozone and nitrogen oxides by laser filamentation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(2), 021108 (2010).
[Crossref]

P. Rohwetter, J. Kasparian, K. Stelmaszczyk, Z. Hao, S. Henin, N. Lascoux, W. M. Nakaema, Y. Petit, M. Queißer, R. Salamé, E. Salmon, L. Wöste, and J.-P. Wolf, “Laser-induced water condensation in air,” Nat. Photonics 4(7), 451–456 (2010).
[Crossref]

R. Salamé, N. Lascoux, E. Salmon, R. Ackermann, J. Kasparian, and J.-P. Wolf, “Propagation of laser filaments through an extended turbulent region,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(17), 171106 (2007).
[Crossref]

G. Méjean, J. Kasparian, J. Yu, E. Salmon, S. Frey, J.-P. Wolf, S. Skupin, A. Vinçotte, R. Nuter, S. Champeaux, and L. Bergé, “Multifilamentation transmission through fog,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 72(2), 026611 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Rodriguez, R. Bourayou, G. Méjean, J. Kasparian, J. Yu, E. Salmon, A. Scholz, B. Stecklum, J. Eislöffel, U. Laux, A. P. Hatzes, R. Sauerbrey, L. Wöste, and J.-P. Wolf, “Kilometer-range nonlinear propagation of femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 69(3), 036607 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Courvoisier, V. Boutou, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, G. Méjean, J. Yu, and J.-P. Wolf, “Ultraintense light filaments transmitted through clouds,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(2), 213–215 (2003).
[Crossref]

J. Kasparian, R. Sauerbrey, and S. L. Chin, “The critical laser intensity of self-guided light filaments in air,” Appl. Phys. B 71(6), 877–879 (2000).
[Crossref]

Kieffer, J.-C.

B. La Fontaine, F. Vidal, Z. Jiang, C. Y. Chien, D. Comtois, A. Desparois, T. W. Johnston, J.-C. Kieffer, H. Pépin, and H. P. Mercure, “Filamentation of ultrashort pulse laser beams resulting from their propagation over long distances in air,” Phys. Plasmas 6(5), 1615–1621 (1999).
[Crossref]

B. La Fontaine, F. Vidal, Z. Jiang, C. Y. Chien, D. Comtois, A. Desparois, T. W. Johnston, J.-C. Kieffer, H. Pépin, and H. P. Mercure, “Filamentation of ultrashort pulse laser beams resulting from their propagation over long distances in air,” Phys. Plasmas 6(5), 1615–1621 (1999).
[Crossref]

Kiselev, A.

M. Matthews, F. Pomel, C. Wender, A. Kiselev, D. Duft, J. Kasparian, J.-P. Wolf, and T. Leisner, “Laser vaporization of cirrus-like ice particles with secondary ice multiplication,” Sci. Adv. 2(5), e1501912 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kong, J.

J. Kong, G. Wang, W. Fang, and Z. Su, “Laboratory study on nucleation properties and microstructure of AgI pyrotechnics,” Meteor. Mon. 42(1), 74–79 (2016).

Koochesfahani, M.

Korolev, A.

A. Korolev, “Limitations of the Wegener–Bergeron–Findeisen mechanism in the evolution of mixed-phase clouds,” J. Atmos. Sci. 64(9), 3372–3375 (2007).
[Crossref]

Kosareva, O. G.

La Fontaine, B.

B. La Fontaine, F. Vidal, Z. Jiang, C. Y. Chien, D. Comtois, A. Desparois, T. W. Johnston, J.-C. Kieffer, H. Pépin, and H. P. Mercure, “Filamentation of ultrashort pulse laser beams resulting from their propagation over long distances in air,” Phys. Plasmas 6(5), 1615–1621 (1999).
[Crossref]

B. La Fontaine, F. Vidal, Z. Jiang, C. Y. Chien, D. Comtois, A. Desparois, T. W. Johnston, J.-C. Kieffer, H. Pépin, and H. P. Mercure, “Filamentation of ultrashort pulse laser beams resulting from their propagation over long distances in air,” Phys. Plasmas 6(5), 1615–1621 (1999).
[Crossref]

Lamouroux, B.

A. Chiron, B. Lamouroux, R. Lange, J.-F. Ripoche, M. Franco, B. Prade, G. Bonnaud, G. Riazuelo, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Numerical simulations of the nonlinear propagation of femtosecond optical pulses in gases,” Eur. Phys. J. D 6(3), 383–396 (1999).
[Crossref]

Lange, R.

A. Chiron, B. Lamouroux, R. Lange, J.-F. Ripoche, M. Franco, B. Prade, G. Bonnaud, G. Riazuelo, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Numerical simulations of the nonlinear propagation of femtosecond optical pulses in gases,” Eur. Phys. J. D 6(3), 383–396 (1999).
[Crossref]

Lascoux, N.

P. Rohwetter, J. Kasparian, K. Stelmaszczyk, Z. Hao, S. Henin, N. Lascoux, W. M. Nakaema, Y. Petit, M. Queißer, R. Salamé, E. Salmon, L. Wöste, and J.-P. Wolf, “Laser-induced water condensation in air,” Nat. Photonics 4(7), 451–456 (2010).
[Crossref]

R. Salamé, N. Lascoux, E. Salmon, R. Ackermann, J. Kasparian, and J.-P. Wolf, “Propagation of laser filaments through an extended turbulent region,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(17), 171106 (2007).
[Crossref]

Laux, U.

M. Rodriguez, R. Bourayou, G. Méjean, J. Kasparian, J. Yu, E. Salmon, A. Scholz, B. Stecklum, J. Eislöffel, U. Laux, A. P. Hatzes, R. Sauerbrey, L. Wöste, and J.-P. Wolf, “Kilometer-range nonlinear propagation of femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 69(3), 036607 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Leang, S.

Leisner, T.

M. Matthews, F. Pomel, C. Wender, A. Kiselev, D. Duft, J. Kasparian, J.-P. Wolf, and T. Leisner, “Laser vaporization of cirrus-like ice particles with secondary ice multiplication,” Sci. Adv. 2(5), e1501912 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Ju, T. Leisner, H. Sun, A. Sridharan, T. Wang, J. Wang, C. Wang, J. Liu, R. Li, Z. Xu, and S. L. Chin, “Laser-induced supersaturation and snow formation in a sub-saturated cloud chamber,” Appl. Phys. B 117(4), 1001–1007 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Saathoff, S. Henin, K. Stelmaszczyk, M. Petrarca, R. Delagrange, Z. Hao, J. Lüder, O. Möhler, Y. Petit, P. Rohwetter, M. Schnaiter, J. Kasparian, T. Leisner, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “Laser filament-induced aerosol formation,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 13(9), 4593–4604 (2013).
[Crossref]

T. Leisner, D. Duft, O. Möhler, H. Saathoff, M. Schnaiter, S. Henin, K. Stelmaszczyk, M. Petrarca, R. Delagrange, Z. Hao, J. Lüder, Y. Petit, P. Rohwetter, J. Kasparian, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “Laser-induced plasma cloud interaction and ice multiplication under cirrus cloud conditions,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 110(25), 10106–10110 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, C.

Li, M.

S. Yuan, F. J. Liu, L. R. Wang, J. Y. Nan, M. Li, B. Q. He, and H. P. Zeng, “Highly extended filaments in aqueous gold nano-particle colloidals,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 5957 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, R.

H. Sun, H. Liang, Y. Liu, J. Ju, Y. Wei, C. Wang, T. Wang, J. Liu, S. L. Chin, R. Li, and Z. Xu, “Different patterned airflows induced by 1-kHz femtosecond laser filaments in a cloud chamber,” Appl. Phys. B 121(2), 155–169 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Ju, T. Leisner, H. Sun, A. Sridharan, T. Wang, J. Wang, C. Wang, J. Liu, R. Li, Z. Xu, and S. L. Chin, “Laser-induced supersaturation and snow formation in a sub-saturated cloud chamber,” Appl. Phys. B 117(4), 1001–1007 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Ju, H. Sun, A. Sridharan, T. J. Wang, C. Wang, J. Liu, R. Li, Z. Xu, and S. L. Chin, “Laser-filament-induced snow formation in a subsaturated zone in a cloud chamber: experimental and theoretical study,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 88(6), 062803 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Sun, J. Liu, C. Wang, J. Ju, Z. Wang, W. Wang, X. Ge, C. Li, S. L. Chin, R. Li, and Z. Xu, “Laser filamentation induced air-flow motion in a diffusion cloud chamber,” Opt. Express 21(8), 9255–9266 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Ju, J. Liu, C. Wang, H. Sun, W. Wang, X. Ge, C. Li, S. L. Chin, R. Li, and Z. Xu, “Laser-filamentation-induced condensation and snow formation in a cloud chamber,” Opt. Lett. 37(7), 1214–1216 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liang, H.

H. Sun, H. Liang, Y. Liu, J. Ju, Y. Wei, C. Wang, T. Wang, J. Liu, S. L. Chin, R. Li, and Z. Xu, “Different patterned airflows induced by 1-kHz femtosecond laser filaments in a cloud chamber,” Appl. Phys. B 121(2), 155–169 (2015).
[Crossref]

Liu, F. J.

S. Yuan, F. J. Liu, L. R. Wang, J. Y. Nan, M. Li, B. Q. He, and H. P. Zeng, “Highly extended filaments in aqueous gold nano-particle colloidals,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 5957 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, J.

H. Sun, H. Liang, Y. Liu, J. Ju, Y. Wei, C. Wang, T. Wang, J. Liu, S. L. Chin, R. Li, and Z. Xu, “Different patterned airflows induced by 1-kHz femtosecond laser filaments in a cloud chamber,” Appl. Phys. B 121(2), 155–169 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Ju, T. Leisner, H. Sun, A. Sridharan, T. Wang, J. Wang, C. Wang, J. Liu, R. Li, Z. Xu, and S. L. Chin, “Laser-induced supersaturation and snow formation in a sub-saturated cloud chamber,” Appl. Phys. B 117(4), 1001–1007 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Ju, H. Sun, A. Sridharan, T. J. Wang, C. Wang, J. Liu, R. Li, Z. Xu, and S. L. Chin, “Laser-filament-induced snow formation in a subsaturated zone in a cloud chamber: experimental and theoretical study,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 88(6), 062803 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Sun, J. Liu, C. Wang, J. Ju, Z. Wang, W. Wang, X. Ge, C. Li, S. L. Chin, R. Li, and Z. Xu, “Laser filamentation induced air-flow motion in a diffusion cloud chamber,” Opt. Express 21(8), 9255–9266 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Ju, J. Liu, C. Wang, H. Sun, W. Wang, X. Ge, C. Li, S. L. Chin, R. Li, and Z. Xu, “Laser-filamentation-induced condensation and snow formation in a cloud chamber,” Opt. Lett. 37(7), 1214–1216 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, W.

F. Théberge, W. Liu, P. T. Simard, A. Becker, and S. L. Chin, “Plasma density inside a femtosecond laser filament in air: strong dependence on external focusing,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 74(3), 036406 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. A. Hosseini, Q. Luo, B. Ferland, W. Liu, N. Aközbek, G. Roy, and S. L. Chin, “Effective length of filaments measurement using backscattered fluorescence from nitrogen molecules,” Appl. Phys. B 77(6–7), 697–702 (2003).
[Crossref]

Liu, Y.

H. Sun, H. Liang, Y. Liu, J. Ju, Y. Wei, C. Wang, T. Wang, J. Liu, S. L. Chin, R. Li, and Z. Xu, “Different patterned airflows induced by 1-kHz femtosecond laser filaments in a cloud chamber,” Appl. Phys. B 121(2), 155–169 (2015).
[Crossref]

Lüder, J.

H. Saathoff, S. Henin, K. Stelmaszczyk, M. Petrarca, R. Delagrange, Z. Hao, J. Lüder, O. Möhler, Y. Petit, P. Rohwetter, M. Schnaiter, J. Kasparian, T. Leisner, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “Laser filament-induced aerosol formation,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 13(9), 4593–4604 (2013).
[Crossref]

T. Leisner, D. Duft, O. Möhler, H. Saathoff, M. Schnaiter, S. Henin, K. Stelmaszczyk, M. Petrarca, R. Delagrange, Z. Hao, J. Lüder, Y. Petit, P. Rohwetter, J. Kasparian, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “Laser-induced plasma cloud interaction and ice multiplication under cirrus cloud conditions,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 110(25), 10106–10110 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Luo, Q.

S. A. Hosseini, Q. Luo, B. Ferland, W. Liu, N. Aközbek, G. Roy, and S. L. Chin, “Effective length of filaments measurement using backscattered fluorescence from nitrogen molecules,” Appl. Phys. B 77(6–7), 697–702 (2003).
[Crossref]

Matsuoka, M.

M. Anpo, M. Matsuoka, H. Mishima, and H. Yamashita, “The design of photocatalysts for the removal of NOX at normal temperatures-copper (I) and silver (I) ion catalysts anchored within zeolite cavities,” Res. Chem. Intermed. 23(3), 197–217 (1997).
[Crossref]

Matthews, M.

M. Matthews, F. Pomel, C. Wender, A. Kiselev, D. Duft, J. Kasparian, J.-P. Wolf, and T. Leisner, “Laser vaporization of cirrus-like ice particles with secondary ice multiplication,” Sci. Adv. 2(5), e1501912 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Méchain, G.

G. Méchain, Y.-B. C.D’Amico, S. André, M. Tzortzakis, B. Franco, A. Prade, A. Mysyrowicz, E. Couairon, Salmon, and R. Sauerbrey, “Range of plasma filaments created in air by a multi-terawatt femtosecond laser,” Opt. Commun. 247(1-3), 171–180 (2005).
[Crossref]

Méjean, G.

G. Méjean, J. Kasparian, J. Yu, E. Salmon, S. Frey, J.-P. Wolf, S. Skupin, A. Vinçotte, R. Nuter, S. Champeaux, and L. Bergé, “Multifilamentation transmission through fog,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 72(2), 026611 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Rodriguez, R. Bourayou, G. Méjean, J. Kasparian, J. Yu, E. Salmon, A. Scholz, B. Stecklum, J. Eislöffel, U. Laux, A. P. Hatzes, R. Sauerbrey, L. Wöste, and J.-P. Wolf, “Kilometer-range nonlinear propagation of femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 69(3), 036607 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Courvoisier, V. Boutou, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, G. Méjean, J. Yu, and J.-P. Wolf, “Ultraintense light filaments transmitted through clouds,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(2), 213–215 (2003).
[Crossref]

Mercure, H. P.

B. La Fontaine, F. Vidal, Z. Jiang, C. Y. Chien, D. Comtois, A. Desparois, T. W. Johnston, J.-C. Kieffer, H. Pépin, and H. P. Mercure, “Filamentation of ultrashort pulse laser beams resulting from their propagation over long distances in air,” Phys. Plasmas 6(5), 1615–1621 (1999).
[Crossref]

B. La Fontaine, F. Vidal, Z. Jiang, C. Y. Chien, D. Comtois, A. Desparois, T. W. Johnston, J.-C. Kieffer, H. Pépin, and H. P. Mercure, “Filamentation of ultrashort pulse laser beams resulting from their propagation over long distances in air,” Phys. Plasmas 6(5), 1615–1621 (1999).
[Crossref]

Mishima, H.

M. Anpo, M. Matsuoka, H. Mishima, and H. Yamashita, “The design of photocatalysts for the removal of NOX at normal temperatures-copper (I) and silver (I) ion catalysts anchored within zeolite cavities,” Res. Chem. Intermed. 23(3), 197–217 (1997).
[Crossref]

Miyadera, T.

T. Miyadera, “Selective reduction of nitric oxide with ethanol over an alumina-supported silver catalyst,” Appl. Catal. B 13(2), 157–165 (1997).
[Crossref]

Miyazaki, K.

K. Yoshihara, Y. Takatori, K. Miyazaki, and Y. Kajii, “Ultraviolet light-induced water-droplet formation from wet ambient air from wet ambient air,” Proc. Jpn. Acad., Ser. B, Phys. Biol. Sci. 83(9-10), 320–325 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mlejnek, M.

Möhler, O.

T. Leisner, D. Duft, O. Möhler, H. Saathoff, M. Schnaiter, S. Henin, K. Stelmaszczyk, M. Petrarca, R. Delagrange, Z. Hao, J. Lüder, Y. Petit, P. Rohwetter, J. Kasparian, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “Laser-induced plasma cloud interaction and ice multiplication under cirrus cloud conditions,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 110(25), 10106–10110 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Saathoff, S. Henin, K. Stelmaszczyk, M. Petrarca, R. Delagrange, Z. Hao, J. Lüder, O. Möhler, Y. Petit, P. Rohwetter, M. Schnaiter, J. Kasparian, T. Leisner, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “Laser filament-induced aerosol formation,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 13(9), 4593–4604 (2013).
[Crossref]

Moloney, J. V.

Mongin, D.

D. Mongin, J. G. Slowik, E. Schubert, J.-G. Brisset, N. Berti, M. Moret, A. S. H. Prévôt, U. Baltensperger, J. Kasparian, and J.-P. Wolf, “Non-linear photochemical pathways in laser-induced atmospheric aerosol formation,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 14978 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Moret, M.

D. Mongin, J. G. Slowik, E. Schubert, J.-G. Brisset, N. Berti, M. Moret, A. S. H. Prévôt, U. Baltensperger, J. Kasparian, and J.-P. Wolf, “Non-linear photochemical pathways in laser-induced atmospheric aerosol formation,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 14978 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mysyrowicz, A.

G. Méchain, Y.-B. C.D’Amico, S. André, M. Tzortzakis, B. Franco, A. Prade, A. Mysyrowicz, E. Couairon, Salmon, and R. Sauerbrey, “Range of plasma filaments created in air by a multi-terawatt femtosecond laser,” Opt. Commun. 247(1-3), 171–180 (2005).
[Crossref]

S. Tzortzakis, B. Prade, M. Franco, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Time-evolution of the plasma channel at the trail of a self-guided IR femtosecond laser pulse in air,” Opt. Commun. 181(1–3), 123–127 (2000).
[Crossref]

A. Chiron, B. Lamouroux, R. Lange, J.-F. Ripoche, M. Franco, B. Prade, G. Bonnaud, G. Riazuelo, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Numerical simulations of the nonlinear propagation of femtosecond optical pulses in gases,” Eur. Phys. J. D 6(3), 383–396 (1999).
[Crossref]

Nakaema, W. M.

S. Henin, Y. Petit, P. Rohwetter, K. Stelmaszczyk, Z. Q. Hao, W. M. Nakaema, A. Vogel, T. Pohl, F. Schneider, J. Kasparian, K. Weber, L. Wöste, and J.-P. Wolf, “Field measurements suggest the mechanism of laser-assisted water condensation,” Nat. Commun. 2(1), 456 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Rohwetter, J. Kasparian, K. Stelmaszczyk, Z. Hao, S. Henin, N. Lascoux, W. M. Nakaema, Y. Petit, M. Queißer, R. Salamé, E. Salmon, L. Wöste, and J.-P. Wolf, “Laser-induced water condensation in air,” Nat. Photonics 4(7), 451–456 (2010).
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Nan, J. Y.

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T. Leisner, D. Duft, O. Möhler, H. Saathoff, M. Schnaiter, S. Henin, K. Stelmaszczyk, M. Petrarca, R. Delagrange, Z. Hao, J. Lüder, Y. Petit, P. Rohwetter, J. Kasparian, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “Laser-induced plasma cloud interaction and ice multiplication under cirrus cloud conditions,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 110(25), 10106–10110 (2013).
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P. Rohwetter, J. Kasparian, L. Wöste, and J.-P. Wolf, “Modelling of HNO3-mediated laser-induced condensation: a parametric study,” J. Chem. Phys. 135(13), 134703 (2011).
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Xu, H.

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J. Ju, T. Leisner, H. Sun, A. Sridharan, T. Wang, J. Wang, C. Wang, J. Liu, R. Li, Z. Xu, and S. L. Chin, “Laser-induced supersaturation and snow formation in a sub-saturated cloud chamber,” Appl. Phys. B 117(4), 1001–1007 (2014).
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J. Ju, H. Sun, A. Sridharan, T. J. Wang, C. Wang, J. Liu, R. Li, Z. Xu, and S. L. Chin, “Laser-filament-induced snow formation in a subsaturated zone in a cloud chamber: experimental and theoretical study,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 88(6), 062803 (2013).
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J. Ju, J. Liu, C. Wang, H. Sun, W. Wang, X. Ge, C. Li, S. L. Chin, R. Li, and Z. Xu, “Laser-filamentation-induced condensation and snow formation in a cloud chamber,” Opt. Lett. 37(7), 1214–1216 (2012).
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K. Yoshihara, “Laser-induced Mist and Particle Formation from Ambient Air, A Possible New Cloud Seeding Method,” Chem. Lett. 34(10), 1370–1371 (2005).
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Zheng, G.

Z. Su, G. Zheng, L. Guan, J. Zhang, and G. Huang, “Particle sizing analysis on AgI pyrotechnics with the electron microscope,” J. Appl. Meteor. Sci. 19(2), 137–144 (2008).

Zipori, A.

A. Zipori, D. Rosenfeld, J. Shpund, D. M. Steinberg, and Y. Erel, “Targeting and impacts of AgI cloud seeding based on rain chemical composition and cloud top phase characterization,” Atmos. Res. 114–115, 119–130 (2012).
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J. Ju, T. Leisner, H. Sun, A. Sridharan, T. Wang, J. Wang, C. Wang, J. Liu, R. Li, Z. Xu, and S. L. Chin, “Laser-induced supersaturation and snow formation in a sub-saturated cloud chamber,” Appl. Phys. B 117(4), 1001–1007 (2014).
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R. Salamé, N. Lascoux, E. Salmon, R. Ackermann, J. Kasparian, and J.-P. Wolf, “Propagation of laser filaments through an extended turbulent region,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(17), 171106 (2007).
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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic of the experimental setup. The femtosecond laser beam (red line) was focused by an f = 400 mm lens, then it passed through an entrance window (25 mm × 25 mm, 1.2-mm-thick, fused silica), and exited at the opposite side through an exit window (25 mm × 25 mm, 1.2-mm-thick, fused silica) onto a beam block. The probe laser beam (green line) was used for the in situ light scattering measurements after its diameter was expanded using f = 300 mm and f = 30 mm lenses, and then focused by an f = 700 mm cylindrical lens.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Side Mie scattering images of the airflow and particles: (a) background after cooling for 1 h, (b) injection of 50-ml sample from the hole on the top plate of the cloud chamber following the 1-h cooling, (c) laser filament irradiating after the injection of 50-ml sample, (d) irradiating by the laser filament only after the cloud chamber was cooled for 1 h. The scale is the same in the four images. The arrow in (c) indicates propagation direction of the laser. The laser propagation direction is the same for (c) and (d). Pane (a) was captured by a Nikon D7000 camera with a shutter speed S = 1/50 s, an f number F = 3.2, and a light sensitivity ISO = 1600. Panes (b) - (d) were captured by video frames (40 laser shots, F = 3.2, ISO = 1600). The two light green regions labelled “downdraft” in (a) are the blurry images of two edges of the opposite window. The white horizontal line at the bottom of each image in (a)-(d) is the precipitated snow and condensate frost at the cold bottom plate of the cloud chamber.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Microscope images of particles condensed on the glass slide: (a) without laser filament and pyrotechnically generated nucleant (background), (b) with the addition of 50-ml sample, (c) when 50-ml sample was injected at first and the laser filament was shot subsequently, and (d) with the irradiation of the laser filament only. The scale is the same in all four images.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Snow on the cold bottom plate: (a) background without pyrotechnically generated nucleant and laser filament, (b) addition of 50-ml sample only, (c) laser filament irradiation after the addition of 50-ml sample, and (d) irradiation by the laser filament only. The scale is the same in all four images. The exposure conditions of the camera were S = 1/50 s, F = 5, and ISO = 1600 for (a), (b) and (d), S = 1/50 s, F = 5, ISO = 1000 for (c).
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Side fluorescence spectra when the laser filament irradiated on pyrotechnically generated nucleant with different doses, including 0- (red lines), 25-(green lines), 50- (blue lines), 100- (black lines), 200-ml (cyan lines) sample, and burning 0.3675 g AgI pyrotechnic by the laser filament directly [pink lines]. The plot legends are same in (a) and (b). (c) The enlarged spectra of (a) at 391.4 nm for N 2 + (marked with the black arrows). (d) The dependence of spectral intensity of 391.4 nm for N 2 + on the injected doses of nucleant. For comparison, the data of burning AgI pyrotechnic directly has also been added (the black arrow). The identification of spectral lines is obtained from Ref [40–42]. The spectra were collected by a grating spectrometer (Shamrock 303i, Andor) with a 300 grooves/mm grating, where the width of the slit was fixed at 100 µm. In pane (a), the integral time was 500 ms for 0-, 25-, and 50-ml sample, 10 ms for the cases of 100- and 200-ml sample, and when AgI pyrotechnic was burned by the laser filament directly. In pane (b), the integral time was 500 ms for 0- and 25-ml sample, 10 ms for the cases of 50-, 100-, and 200-ml sample, and when AgI pyrotechnic was burned by the laser filament directly.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Particle number density measured at diameters of 0.3 µm (black lines), 0.5 µm (red lines), 0.7 µm (green lines), 1.0 µm (blue lines), 2.0 µm (cyan lines), and 5.0 µm (peak lines) for the cases of laser filament irradiation (a), addition of 50-ml sample only (b), and the injection of 50-ml sample followed by an irradiation by the laser filament (c). The plot legends are the same in panes (a), (b), and (c).

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Concentration (mg/L) of several ions in the melt water

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