Abstract

The interest in black silicon structures as an anti-reflective interface at the front side of silicon solar cells increased strongly with the rise of diamond wire sawing. The application of optical modeling in order to predict optimal structure parameters could be highly valuable. However, due to the random nature of the structure as well as dimensions in the range of the wavelengths of interest, optical modeling is still a challenge. Within this work, the stitching method of rigorously calculated fields is extended and applied to a black silicon structure. A Fourier transform is used to determine the angular intensity distribution in the far field. In combination with the OPTOS formalism, this allows modeling of silicon substrates with black silicon front side and shows a reasonably good agreement with optical measurement results. Implementing the investigated structure into a solar cell configuration reveals not only a low reflectance but also a very good light trapping performance close to that of a Lambertian scatterer.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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    [Crossref]
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2017 (3)

M. M. Plakhotnyuk, M. Gaudig, R. S. Davidsen, J. M. Lindhard, J. Hirsch, D. Lausch, M. S. Schmidt, E. Stamate, and O. Hansen, “Low surface damage dry etched black silicon,” J. Appl. Phys. 122(14), 143101 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Benick, A. Richter, R. Müller, H. Hauser, F. Feldmann, P. Krenckel, S. Riepe, F. Schindler, M. C. Schubert, M. Hermle, A. W. Bett, and S. W. Glunz, “High-Efficiency n-Type HP mc Silicon Solar Cells,” IEEE J. Photovoltaics 7(5), 1171–1175 (2017).
[Crossref]

N. Tucher, B. Müller, P. Jakob, J. Eisenlohr, O. Höhn, H. Hauser, J. C. Goldschmidt, M. Hermle, and B. Bläsi, “Optical performance of the honeycomb texture – a cell and module level analysis using the OPTOS formalism,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 173, 66–71 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (2)

Y. F. Zhuang, S. H. Zhong, Z. G. Huang, and W. Z. Shen, “Versatile strategies for improving the performance of diamond wire sawn mc-Si solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 153, 18–24 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. J. Bett, J. Eisenlohr, O. Höhn, P. Repo, H. Savin, B. Bläsi, and J. C. Goldschmidt, “Wave optical simulation of the light trapping properties of black silicon surface textures,” Opt. Express 24(6), A434–A445 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (3)

2012 (1)

S. Duttagupta, F. Ma, B. Hoex, T. Mueller, and A. G. Aberle, “Optimised Antireflection Coatings using Silicon Nitride on Textured Silicon Surfaces based on Measurements and Multidimensional Modelling,” Energy Procedia 15, 78–83 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

Z. Huang, N. Geyer, P. Werner, J. de Boor, and U. Gösele, “Metal-assisted chemical etching of silicon: A review,” Adv. Mater. 23(2), 285–308 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

1999 (1)

1997 (1)

1996 (1)

1994 (1)

Abbott, M. D.

D. Payne, M. D. Abbott, A. C. Lopez, Y. Zeng, T. H. Fung, K. R. McIntosh, J. L. Cruz-Campa, R. Davidson, M. Plakhotnyuk, and D. M. Bagnall, “Rapid Optical Modelling Of Plasma Textured Silicon,” in Proceedings of the 33rd European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference and Exhibition (EUPVSEC) (2017).

Aberle, A. G.

S. Duttagupta, F. Ma, B. Hoex, T. Mueller, and A. G. Aberle, “Optimised Antireflection Coatings using Silicon Nitride on Textured Silicon Surfaces based on Measurements and Multidimensional Modelling,” Energy Procedia 15, 78–83 (2012).
[Crossref]

Algasinger, M.

M. Otto, M. Algasinger, H. Branz, B. Gesemann, T. Gimpel, K. Füchsel, T. Käsebier, S. Kontermann, S. Koynov, X. Li, V. Naumann, J. Oh, A. N. Sprafke, J. Ziegler, M. Zilk, and R. B. Wehrspohn, “Black Silicon Photovoltaics,” Advanced Optical Materials 3(2), 147–164 (2015).
[Crossref]

Bagnall, D. M.

D. Payne, M. D. Abbott, A. C. Lopez, Y. Zeng, T. H. Fung, K. R. McIntosh, J. L. Cruz-Campa, R. Davidson, M. Plakhotnyuk, and D. M. Bagnall, “Rapid Optical Modelling Of Plasma Textured Silicon,” in Proceedings of the 33rd European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference and Exhibition (EUPVSEC) (2017).

Benick, J.

J. Benick, A. Richter, R. Müller, H. Hauser, F. Feldmann, P. Krenckel, S. Riepe, F. Schindler, M. C. Schubert, M. Hermle, A. W. Bett, and S. W. Glunz, “High-Efficiency n-Type HP mc Silicon Solar Cells,” IEEE J. Photovoltaics 7(5), 1171–1175 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. Bett, J. Eisenlohr, O. Höhn, B. Bläsi, J. Benick, P. Repo, H. Savin, J. C. Goldschmidt, and M. Hermle, “Front Side Antireflection Concepts for Silicon Solar Cells with Diffractive Rear Side Structures,” in Proceedings of the 29th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference and Exhibition (EUPVSEC) (2014), pp. 987–991.

Bergey, J. S.

Bett, A.

A. Bett, J. Eisenlohr, O. Höhn, B. Bläsi, J. Benick, P. Repo, H. Savin, J. C. Goldschmidt, and M. Hermle, “Front Side Antireflection Concepts for Silicon Solar Cells with Diffractive Rear Side Structures,” in Proceedings of the 29th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference and Exhibition (EUPVSEC) (2014), pp. 987–991.

Bett, A. J.

Bett, A. W.

J. Benick, A. Richter, R. Müller, H. Hauser, F. Feldmann, P. Krenckel, S. Riepe, F. Schindler, M. C. Schubert, M. Hermle, A. W. Bett, and S. W. Glunz, “High-Efficiency n-Type HP mc Silicon Solar Cells,” IEEE J. Photovoltaics 7(5), 1171–1175 (2017).
[Crossref]

Bläsi, B.

N. Tucher, B. Müller, P. Jakob, J. Eisenlohr, O. Höhn, H. Hauser, J. C. Goldschmidt, M. Hermle, and B. Bläsi, “Optical performance of the honeycomb texture – a cell and module level analysis using the OPTOS formalism,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 173, 66–71 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. J. Bett, J. Eisenlohr, O. Höhn, P. Repo, H. Savin, B. Bläsi, and J. C. Goldschmidt, “Wave optical simulation of the light trapping properties of black silicon surface textures,” Opt. Express 24(6), A434–A445 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Tucher, J. Eisenlohr, P. Kiefel, O. Höhn, H. Hauser, M. Peters, C. Müller, J. C. Goldschmidt, and B. Bläsi, “3D optical simulation formalism OPTOS for textured silicon solar cells,” Opt. Express 23(24), A1720–A1734 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Eisenlohr, N. Tucher, O. Höhn, H. Hauser, M. Peters, P. Kiefel, J. C. Goldschmidt, and B. Bläsi, “Matrix formalism for light propagation and absorption in thick textured optical sheets,” Opt. Express 23(11), A502–A518 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Bett, J. Eisenlohr, O. Höhn, B. Bläsi, J. Benick, P. Repo, H. Savin, J. C. Goldschmidt, and M. Hermle, “Front Side Antireflection Concepts for Silicon Solar Cells with Diffractive Rear Side Structures,” in Proceedings of the 29th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference and Exhibition (EUPVSEC) (2014), pp. 987–991.

Branz, H.

M. Otto, M. Algasinger, H. Branz, B. Gesemann, T. Gimpel, K. Füchsel, T. Käsebier, S. Kontermann, S. Koynov, X. Li, V. Naumann, J. Oh, A. N. Sprafke, J. Ziegler, M. Zilk, and R. B. Wehrspohn, “Black Silicon Photovoltaics,” Advanced Optical Materials 3(2), 147–164 (2015).
[Crossref]

Cruz-Campa, J. L.

D. Payne, M. D. Abbott, A. C. Lopez, Y. Zeng, T. H. Fung, K. R. McIntosh, J. L. Cruz-Campa, R. Davidson, M. Plakhotnyuk, and D. M. Bagnall, “Rapid Optical Modelling Of Plasma Textured Silicon,” in Proceedings of the 33rd European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference and Exhibition (EUPVSEC) (2017).

Davidsen, R. S.

M. M. Plakhotnyuk, M. Gaudig, R. S. Davidsen, J. M. Lindhard, J. Hirsch, D. Lausch, M. S. Schmidt, E. Stamate, and O. Hansen, “Low surface damage dry etched black silicon,” J. Appl. Phys. 122(14), 143101 (2017).
[Crossref]

Davidson, R.

D. Payne, M. D. Abbott, A. C. Lopez, Y. Zeng, T. H. Fung, K. R. McIntosh, J. L. Cruz-Campa, R. Davidson, M. Plakhotnyuk, and D. M. Bagnall, “Rapid Optical Modelling Of Plasma Textured Silicon,” in Proceedings of the 33rd European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference and Exhibition (EUPVSEC) (2017).

de Boor, J.

Z. Huang, N. Geyer, P. Werner, J. de Boor, and U. Gösele, “Metal-assisted chemical etching of silicon: A review,” Adv. Mater. 23(2), 285–308 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Duttagupta, S.

S. Duttagupta, F. Ma, B. Hoex, T. Mueller, and A. G. Aberle, “Optimised Antireflection Coatings using Silicon Nitride on Textured Silicon Surfaces based on Measurements and Multidimensional Modelling,” Energy Procedia 15, 78–83 (2012).
[Crossref]

Eisenlohr, J.

N. Tucher, B. Müller, P. Jakob, J. Eisenlohr, O. Höhn, H. Hauser, J. C. Goldschmidt, M. Hermle, and B. Bläsi, “Optical performance of the honeycomb texture – a cell and module level analysis using the OPTOS formalism,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 173, 66–71 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. J. Bett, J. Eisenlohr, O. Höhn, P. Repo, H. Savin, B. Bläsi, and J. C. Goldschmidt, “Wave optical simulation of the light trapping properties of black silicon surface textures,” Opt. Express 24(6), A434–A445 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Tucher, J. Eisenlohr, P. Kiefel, O. Höhn, H. Hauser, M. Peters, C. Müller, J. C. Goldschmidt, and B. Bläsi, “3D optical simulation formalism OPTOS for textured silicon solar cells,” Opt. Express 23(24), A1720–A1734 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Eisenlohr, N. Tucher, O. Höhn, H. Hauser, M. Peters, P. Kiefel, J. C. Goldschmidt, and B. Bläsi, “Matrix formalism for light propagation and absorption in thick textured optical sheets,” Opt. Express 23(11), A502–A518 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Bett, J. Eisenlohr, O. Höhn, B. Bläsi, J. Benick, P. Repo, H. Savin, J. C. Goldschmidt, and M. Hermle, “Front Side Antireflection Concepts for Silicon Solar Cells with Diffractive Rear Side Structures,” in Proceedings of the 29th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference and Exhibition (EUPVSEC) (2014), pp. 987–991.

Feldmann, F.

J. Benick, A. Richter, R. Müller, H. Hauser, F. Feldmann, P. Krenckel, S. Riepe, F. Schindler, M. C. Schubert, M. Hermle, A. W. Bett, and S. W. Glunz, “High-Efficiency n-Type HP mc Silicon Solar Cells,” IEEE J. Photovoltaics 7(5), 1171–1175 (2017).
[Crossref]

Füchsel, K.

M. Otto, M. Algasinger, H. Branz, B. Gesemann, T. Gimpel, K. Füchsel, T. Käsebier, S. Kontermann, S. Koynov, X. Li, V. Naumann, J. Oh, A. N. Sprafke, J. Ziegler, M. Zilk, and R. B. Wehrspohn, “Black Silicon Photovoltaics,” Advanced Optical Materials 3(2), 147–164 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Kroll, M. Otto, T. Käsebier, K. Füchsel, R. Wehrspohn, E.-B. Kley, A. Tünnermann, and T. Pertsch, “Black silicon for solar cell applications,” in Proc. of SPIE, Proceedings of SPIE (SPIE, 2012), p. 843817.
[Crossref]

Fung, T. H.

D. Payne, M. D. Abbott, A. C. Lopez, Y. Zeng, T. H. Fung, K. R. McIntosh, J. L. Cruz-Campa, R. Davidson, M. Plakhotnyuk, and D. M. Bagnall, “Rapid Optical Modelling Of Plasma Textured Silicon,” in Proceedings of the 33rd European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference and Exhibition (EUPVSEC) (2017).

Gaudig, M.

M. M. Plakhotnyuk, M. Gaudig, R. S. Davidsen, J. M. Lindhard, J. Hirsch, D. Lausch, M. S. Schmidt, E. Stamate, and O. Hansen, “Low surface damage dry etched black silicon,” J. Appl. Phys. 122(14), 143101 (2017).
[Crossref]

Gesemann, B.

M. Otto, M. Algasinger, H. Branz, B. Gesemann, T. Gimpel, K. Füchsel, T. Käsebier, S. Kontermann, S. Koynov, X. Li, V. Naumann, J. Oh, A. N. Sprafke, J. Ziegler, M. Zilk, and R. B. Wehrspohn, “Black Silicon Photovoltaics,” Advanced Optical Materials 3(2), 147–164 (2015).
[Crossref]

Geyer, N.

Z. Huang, N. Geyer, P. Werner, J. de Boor, and U. Gösele, “Metal-assisted chemical etching of silicon: A review,” Adv. Mater. 23(2), 285–308 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gimpel, T.

M. Otto, M. Algasinger, H. Branz, B. Gesemann, T. Gimpel, K. Füchsel, T. Käsebier, S. Kontermann, S. Koynov, X. Li, V. Naumann, J. Oh, A. N. Sprafke, J. Ziegler, M. Zilk, and R. B. Wehrspohn, “Black Silicon Photovoltaics,” Advanced Optical Materials 3(2), 147–164 (2015).
[Crossref]

Glunz, S. W.

J. Benick, A. Richter, R. Müller, H. Hauser, F. Feldmann, P. Krenckel, S. Riepe, F. Schindler, M. C. Schubert, M. Hermle, A. W. Bett, and S. W. Glunz, “High-Efficiency n-Type HP mc Silicon Solar Cells,” IEEE J. Photovoltaics 7(5), 1171–1175 (2017).
[Crossref]

Goldschmidt, J. C.

N. Tucher, B. Müller, P. Jakob, J. Eisenlohr, O. Höhn, H. Hauser, J. C. Goldschmidt, M. Hermle, and B. Bläsi, “Optical performance of the honeycomb texture – a cell and module level analysis using the OPTOS formalism,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 173, 66–71 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. J. Bett, J. Eisenlohr, O. Höhn, P. Repo, H. Savin, B. Bläsi, and J. C. Goldschmidt, “Wave optical simulation of the light trapping properties of black silicon surface textures,” Opt. Express 24(6), A434–A445 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Tucher, J. Eisenlohr, P. Kiefel, O. Höhn, H. Hauser, M. Peters, C. Müller, J. C. Goldschmidt, and B. Bläsi, “3D optical simulation formalism OPTOS for textured silicon solar cells,” Opt. Express 23(24), A1720–A1734 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Eisenlohr, N. Tucher, O. Höhn, H. Hauser, M. Peters, P. Kiefel, J. C. Goldschmidt, and B. Bläsi, “Matrix formalism for light propagation and absorption in thick textured optical sheets,” Opt. Express 23(11), A502–A518 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Bett, J. Eisenlohr, O. Höhn, B. Bläsi, J. Benick, P. Repo, H. Savin, J. C. Goldschmidt, and M. Hermle, “Front Side Antireflection Concepts for Silicon Solar Cells with Diffractive Rear Side Structures,” in Proceedings of the 29th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference and Exhibition (EUPVSEC) (2014), pp. 987–991.

Gösele, U.

Z. Huang, N. Geyer, P. Werner, J. de Boor, and U. Gösele, “Metal-assisted chemical etching of silicon: A review,” Adv. Mater. 23(2), 285–308 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Grann, E. B.

Hansen, O.

M. M. Plakhotnyuk, M. Gaudig, R. S. Davidsen, J. M. Lindhard, J. Hirsch, D. Lausch, M. S. Schmidt, E. Stamate, and O. Hansen, “Low surface damage dry etched black silicon,” J. Appl. Phys. 122(14), 143101 (2017).
[Crossref]

Hauser, H.

J. Benick, A. Richter, R. Müller, H. Hauser, F. Feldmann, P. Krenckel, S. Riepe, F. Schindler, M. C. Schubert, M. Hermle, A. W. Bett, and S. W. Glunz, “High-Efficiency n-Type HP mc Silicon Solar Cells,” IEEE J. Photovoltaics 7(5), 1171–1175 (2017).
[Crossref]

N. Tucher, B. Müller, P. Jakob, J. Eisenlohr, O. Höhn, H. Hauser, J. C. Goldschmidt, M. Hermle, and B. Bläsi, “Optical performance of the honeycomb texture – a cell and module level analysis using the OPTOS formalism,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 173, 66–71 (2017).
[Crossref]

N. Tucher, J. Eisenlohr, P. Kiefel, O. Höhn, H. Hauser, M. Peters, C. Müller, J. C. Goldschmidt, and B. Bläsi, “3D optical simulation formalism OPTOS for textured silicon solar cells,” Opt. Express 23(24), A1720–A1734 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Eisenlohr, N. Tucher, O. Höhn, H. Hauser, M. Peters, P. Kiefel, J. C. Goldschmidt, and B. Bläsi, “Matrix formalism for light propagation and absorption in thick textured optical sheets,” Opt. Express 23(11), A502–A518 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hermle, M.

N. Tucher, B. Müller, P. Jakob, J. Eisenlohr, O. Höhn, H. Hauser, J. C. Goldschmidt, M. Hermle, and B. Bläsi, “Optical performance of the honeycomb texture – a cell and module level analysis using the OPTOS formalism,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 173, 66–71 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Benick, A. Richter, R. Müller, H. Hauser, F. Feldmann, P. Krenckel, S. Riepe, F. Schindler, M. C. Schubert, M. Hermle, A. W. Bett, and S. W. Glunz, “High-Efficiency n-Type HP mc Silicon Solar Cells,” IEEE J. Photovoltaics 7(5), 1171–1175 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. Bett, J. Eisenlohr, O. Höhn, B. Bläsi, J. Benick, P. Repo, H. Savin, J. C. Goldschmidt, and M. Hermle, “Front Side Antireflection Concepts for Silicon Solar Cells with Diffractive Rear Side Structures,” in Proceedings of the 29th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference and Exhibition (EUPVSEC) (2014), pp. 987–991.

Hirsch, J.

M. M. Plakhotnyuk, M. Gaudig, R. S. Davidsen, J. M. Lindhard, J. Hirsch, D. Lausch, M. S. Schmidt, E. Stamate, and O. Hansen, “Low surface damage dry etched black silicon,” J. Appl. Phys. 122(14), 143101 (2017).
[Crossref]

Hoex, B.

S. Duttagupta, F. Ma, B. Hoex, T. Mueller, and A. G. Aberle, “Optimised Antireflection Coatings using Silicon Nitride on Textured Silicon Surfaces based on Measurements and Multidimensional Modelling,” Energy Procedia 15, 78–83 (2012).
[Crossref]

Höhn, O.

N. Tucher, B. Müller, P. Jakob, J. Eisenlohr, O. Höhn, H. Hauser, J. C. Goldschmidt, M. Hermle, and B. Bläsi, “Optical performance of the honeycomb texture – a cell and module level analysis using the OPTOS formalism,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 173, 66–71 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. J. Bett, J. Eisenlohr, O. Höhn, P. Repo, H. Savin, B. Bläsi, and J. C. Goldschmidt, “Wave optical simulation of the light trapping properties of black silicon surface textures,” Opt. Express 24(6), A434–A445 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Eisenlohr, N. Tucher, O. Höhn, H. Hauser, M. Peters, P. Kiefel, J. C. Goldschmidt, and B. Bläsi, “Matrix formalism for light propagation and absorption in thick textured optical sheets,” Opt. Express 23(11), A502–A518 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Tucher, J. Eisenlohr, P. Kiefel, O. Höhn, H. Hauser, M. Peters, C. Müller, J. C. Goldschmidt, and B. Bläsi, “3D optical simulation formalism OPTOS for textured silicon solar cells,” Opt. Express 23(24), A1720–A1734 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Bett, J. Eisenlohr, O. Höhn, B. Bläsi, J. Benick, P. Repo, H. Savin, J. C. Goldschmidt, and M. Hermle, “Front Side Antireflection Concepts for Silicon Solar Cells with Diffractive Rear Side Structures,” in Proceedings of the 29th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference and Exhibition (EUPVSEC) (2014), pp. 987–991.

Huang, Z.

Z. Huang, N. Geyer, P. Werner, J. de Boor, and U. Gösele, “Metal-assisted chemical etching of silicon: A review,” Adv. Mater. 23(2), 285–308 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huang, Z. G.

Y. F. Zhuang, S. H. Zhong, Z. G. Huang, and W. Z. Shen, “Versatile strategies for improving the performance of diamond wire sawn mc-Si solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 153, 18–24 (2016).
[Crossref]

Hudelist, F.

Jakob, P.

N. Tucher, B. Müller, P. Jakob, J. Eisenlohr, O. Höhn, H. Hauser, J. C. Goldschmidt, M. Hermle, and B. Bläsi, “Optical performance of the honeycomb texture – a cell and module level analysis using the OPTOS formalism,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 173, 66–71 (2017).
[Crossref]

Käsebier, T.

M. Otto, M. Algasinger, H. Branz, B. Gesemann, T. Gimpel, K. Füchsel, T. Käsebier, S. Kontermann, S. Koynov, X. Li, V. Naumann, J. Oh, A. N. Sprafke, J. Ziegler, M. Zilk, and R. B. Wehrspohn, “Black Silicon Photovoltaics,” Advanced Optical Materials 3(2), 147–164 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Kroll, M. Otto, T. Käsebier, K. Füchsel, R. Wehrspohn, E.-B. Kley, A. Tünnermann, and T. Pertsch, “Black silicon for solar cell applications,” in Proc. of SPIE, Proceedings of SPIE (SPIE, 2012), p. 843817.
[Crossref]

Kiefel, P.

Kley, E.-B.

M. Kroll, M. Otto, T. Käsebier, K. Füchsel, R. Wehrspohn, E.-B. Kley, A. Tünnermann, and T. Pertsch, “Black silicon for solar cell applications,” in Proc. of SPIE, Proceedings of SPIE (SPIE, 2012), p. 843817.
[Crossref]

Kontermann, S.

M. Otto, M. Algasinger, H. Branz, B. Gesemann, T. Gimpel, K. Füchsel, T. Käsebier, S. Kontermann, S. Koynov, X. Li, V. Naumann, J. Oh, A. N. Sprafke, J. Ziegler, M. Zilk, and R. B. Wehrspohn, “Black Silicon Photovoltaics,” Advanced Optical Materials 3(2), 147–164 (2015).
[Crossref]

Koynov, S.

M. Otto, M. Algasinger, H. Branz, B. Gesemann, T. Gimpel, K. Füchsel, T. Käsebier, S. Kontermann, S. Koynov, X. Li, V. Naumann, J. Oh, A. N. Sprafke, J. Ziegler, M. Zilk, and R. B. Wehrspohn, “Black Silicon Photovoltaics,” Advanced Optical Materials 3(2), 147–164 (2015).
[Crossref]

Krenckel, P.

J. Benick, A. Richter, R. Müller, H. Hauser, F. Feldmann, P. Krenckel, S. Riepe, F. Schindler, M. C. Schubert, M. Hermle, A. W. Bett, and S. W. Glunz, “High-Efficiency n-Type HP mc Silicon Solar Cells,” IEEE J. Photovoltaics 7(5), 1171–1175 (2017).
[Crossref]

Kroll, M.

M. Kroll, M. Otto, T. Käsebier, K. Füchsel, R. Wehrspohn, E.-B. Kley, A. Tünnermann, and T. Pertsch, “Black silicon for solar cell applications,” in Proc. of SPIE, Proceedings of SPIE (SPIE, 2012), p. 843817.
[Crossref]

Lausch, D.

M. M. Plakhotnyuk, M. Gaudig, R. S. Davidsen, J. M. Lindhard, J. Hirsch, D. Lausch, M. S. Schmidt, E. Stamate, and O. Hansen, “Low surface damage dry etched black silicon,” J. Appl. Phys. 122(14), 143101 (2017).
[Crossref]

Layet, B.

Li, X.

M. Otto, M. Algasinger, H. Branz, B. Gesemann, T. Gimpel, K. Füchsel, T. Käsebier, S. Kontermann, S. Koynov, X. Li, V. Naumann, J. Oh, A. N. Sprafke, J. Ziegler, M. Zilk, and R. B. Wehrspohn, “Black Silicon Photovoltaics,” Advanced Optical Materials 3(2), 147–164 (2015).
[Crossref]

Lindhard, J. M.

M. M. Plakhotnyuk, M. Gaudig, R. S. Davidsen, J. M. Lindhard, J. Hirsch, D. Lausch, M. S. Schmidt, E. Stamate, and O. Hansen, “Low surface damage dry etched black silicon,” J. Appl. Phys. 122(14), 143101 (2017).
[Crossref]

Lopez, A. C.

D. Payne, M. D. Abbott, A. C. Lopez, Y. Zeng, T. H. Fung, K. R. McIntosh, J. L. Cruz-Campa, R. Davidson, M. Plakhotnyuk, and D. M. Bagnall, “Rapid Optical Modelling Of Plasma Textured Silicon,” in Proceedings of the 33rd European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference and Exhibition (EUPVSEC) (2017).

Ma, F.

S. Duttagupta, F. Ma, B. Hoex, T. Mueller, and A. G. Aberle, “Optimised Antireflection Coatings using Silicon Nitride on Textured Silicon Surfaces based on Measurements and Multidimensional Modelling,” Energy Procedia 15, 78–83 (2012).
[Crossref]

McIntosh, K. R.

D. Payne, M. D. Abbott, A. C. Lopez, Y. Zeng, T. H. Fung, K. R. McIntosh, J. L. Cruz-Campa, R. Davidson, M. Plakhotnyuk, and D. M. Bagnall, “Rapid Optical Modelling Of Plasma Textured Silicon,” in Proceedings of the 33rd European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference and Exhibition (EUPVSEC) (2017).

Moharam, M. G.

Mueller, T.

S. Duttagupta, F. Ma, B. Hoex, T. Mueller, and A. G. Aberle, “Optimised Antireflection Coatings using Silicon Nitride on Textured Silicon Surfaces based on Measurements and Multidimensional Modelling,” Energy Procedia 15, 78–83 (2012).
[Crossref]

Müller, B.

N. Tucher, B. Müller, P. Jakob, J. Eisenlohr, O. Höhn, H. Hauser, J. C. Goldschmidt, M. Hermle, and B. Bläsi, “Optical performance of the honeycomb texture – a cell and module level analysis using the OPTOS formalism,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 173, 66–71 (2017).
[Crossref]

Müller, C.

Müller, R.

J. Benick, A. Richter, R. Müller, H. Hauser, F. Feldmann, P. Krenckel, S. Riepe, F. Schindler, M. C. Schubert, M. Hermle, A. W. Bett, and S. W. Glunz, “High-Efficiency n-Type HP mc Silicon Solar Cells,” IEEE J. Photovoltaics 7(5), 1171–1175 (2017).
[Crossref]

Naumann, V.

M. Otto, M. Algasinger, H. Branz, B. Gesemann, T. Gimpel, K. Füchsel, T. Käsebier, S. Kontermann, S. Koynov, X. Li, V. Naumann, J. Oh, A. N. Sprafke, J. Ziegler, M. Zilk, and R. B. Wehrspohn, “Black Silicon Photovoltaics,” Advanced Optical Materials 3(2), 147–164 (2015).
[Crossref]

Oh, J.

M. Otto, M. Algasinger, H. Branz, B. Gesemann, T. Gimpel, K. Füchsel, T. Käsebier, S. Kontermann, S. Koynov, X. Li, V. Naumann, J. Oh, A. N. Sprafke, J. Ziegler, M. Zilk, and R. B. Wehrspohn, “Black Silicon Photovoltaics,” Advanced Optical Materials 3(2), 147–164 (2015).
[Crossref]

Otto, M.

M. Otto, M. Algasinger, H. Branz, B. Gesemann, T. Gimpel, K. Füchsel, T. Käsebier, S. Kontermann, S. Koynov, X. Li, V. Naumann, J. Oh, A. N. Sprafke, J. Ziegler, M. Zilk, and R. B. Wehrspohn, “Black Silicon Photovoltaics,” Advanced Optical Materials 3(2), 147–164 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Kroll, M. Otto, T. Käsebier, K. Füchsel, R. Wehrspohn, E.-B. Kley, A. Tünnermann, and T. Pertsch, “Black silicon for solar cell applications,” in Proc. of SPIE, Proceedings of SPIE (SPIE, 2012), p. 843817.
[Crossref]

Payne, D.

D. Payne, M. D. Abbott, A. C. Lopez, Y. Zeng, T. H. Fung, K. R. McIntosh, J. L. Cruz-Campa, R. Davidson, M. Plakhotnyuk, and D. M. Bagnall, “Rapid Optical Modelling Of Plasma Textured Silicon,” in Proceedings of the 33rd European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference and Exhibition (EUPVSEC) (2017).

Pertsch, T.

M. Kroll, M. Otto, T. Käsebier, K. Füchsel, R. Wehrspohn, E.-B. Kley, A. Tünnermann, and T. Pertsch, “Black silicon for solar cell applications,” in Proc. of SPIE, Proceedings of SPIE (SPIE, 2012), p. 843817.
[Crossref]

Peters, M.

Plakhotnyuk, M.

D. Payne, M. D. Abbott, A. C. Lopez, Y. Zeng, T. H. Fung, K. R. McIntosh, J. L. Cruz-Campa, R. Davidson, M. Plakhotnyuk, and D. M. Bagnall, “Rapid Optical Modelling Of Plasma Textured Silicon,” in Proceedings of the 33rd European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference and Exhibition (EUPVSEC) (2017).

Plakhotnyuk, M. M.

M. M. Plakhotnyuk, M. Gaudig, R. S. Davidsen, J. M. Lindhard, J. Hirsch, D. Lausch, M. S. Schmidt, E. Stamate, and O. Hansen, “Low surface damage dry etched black silicon,” J. Appl. Phys. 122(14), 143101 (2017).
[Crossref]

Pommet, D. A.

Prather, D. W.

Repo, P.

A. J. Bett, J. Eisenlohr, O. Höhn, P. Repo, H. Savin, B. Bläsi, and J. C. Goldschmidt, “Wave optical simulation of the light trapping properties of black silicon surface textures,” Opt. Express 24(6), A434–A445 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Bett, J. Eisenlohr, O. Höhn, B. Bläsi, J. Benick, P. Repo, H. Savin, J. C. Goldschmidt, and M. Hermle, “Front Side Antireflection Concepts for Silicon Solar Cells with Diffractive Rear Side Structures,” in Proceedings of the 29th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference and Exhibition (EUPVSEC) (2014), pp. 987–991.

Richter, A.

J. Benick, A. Richter, R. Müller, H. Hauser, F. Feldmann, P. Krenckel, S. Riepe, F. Schindler, M. C. Schubert, M. Hermle, A. W. Bett, and S. W. Glunz, “High-Efficiency n-Type HP mc Silicon Solar Cells,” IEEE J. Photovoltaics 7(5), 1171–1175 (2017).
[Crossref]

Riepe, S.

J. Benick, A. Richter, R. Müller, H. Hauser, F. Feldmann, P. Krenckel, S. Riepe, F. Schindler, M. C. Schubert, M. Hermle, A. W. Bett, and S. W. Glunz, “High-Efficiency n-Type HP mc Silicon Solar Cells,” IEEE J. Photovoltaics 7(5), 1171–1175 (2017).
[Crossref]

Savin, H.

A. J. Bett, J. Eisenlohr, O. Höhn, P. Repo, H. Savin, B. Bläsi, and J. C. Goldschmidt, “Wave optical simulation of the light trapping properties of black silicon surface textures,” Opt. Express 24(6), A434–A445 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Bett, J. Eisenlohr, O. Höhn, B. Bläsi, J. Benick, P. Repo, H. Savin, J. C. Goldschmidt, and M. Hermle, “Front Side Antireflection Concepts for Silicon Solar Cells with Diffractive Rear Side Structures,” in Proceedings of the 29th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference and Exhibition (EUPVSEC) (2014), pp. 987–991.

Schindler, F.

J. Benick, A. Richter, R. Müller, H. Hauser, F. Feldmann, P. Krenckel, S. Riepe, F. Schindler, M. C. Schubert, M. Hermle, A. W. Bett, and S. W. Glunz, “High-Efficiency n-Type HP mc Silicon Solar Cells,” IEEE J. Photovoltaics 7(5), 1171–1175 (2017).
[Crossref]

Schmidt, M. S.

M. M. Plakhotnyuk, M. Gaudig, R. S. Davidsen, J. M. Lindhard, J. Hirsch, D. Lausch, M. S. Schmidt, E. Stamate, and O. Hansen, “Low surface damage dry etched black silicon,” J. Appl. Phys. 122(14), 143101 (2017).
[Crossref]

Schubert, M. C.

J. Benick, A. Richter, R. Müller, H. Hauser, F. Feldmann, P. Krenckel, S. Riepe, F. Schindler, M. C. Schubert, M. Hermle, A. W. Bett, and S. W. Glunz, “High-Efficiency n-Type HP mc Silicon Solar Cells,” IEEE J. Photovoltaics 7(5), 1171–1175 (2017).
[Crossref]

Shen, W. Z.

Y. F. Zhuang, S. H. Zhong, Z. G. Huang, and W. Z. Shen, “Versatile strategies for improving the performance of diamond wire sawn mc-Si solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 153, 18–24 (2016).
[Crossref]

Shi, S.

Sprafke, A. N.

M. Otto, M. Algasinger, H. Branz, B. Gesemann, T. Gimpel, K. Füchsel, T. Käsebier, S. Kontermann, S. Koynov, X. Li, V. Naumann, J. Oh, A. N. Sprafke, J. Ziegler, M. Zilk, and R. B. Wehrspohn, “Black Silicon Photovoltaics,” Advanced Optical Materials 3(2), 147–164 (2015).
[Crossref]

Stamate, E.

M. M. Plakhotnyuk, M. Gaudig, R. S. Davidsen, J. M. Lindhard, J. Hirsch, D. Lausch, M. S. Schmidt, E. Stamate, and O. Hansen, “Low surface damage dry etched black silicon,” J. Appl. Phys. 122(14), 143101 (2017).
[Crossref]

Taghizadeh, M. R.

Tucher, N.

Tünnermann, A.

M. Kroll, M. Otto, T. Käsebier, K. Füchsel, R. Wehrspohn, E.-B. Kley, A. Tünnermann, and T. Pertsch, “Black silicon for solar cell applications,” in Proc. of SPIE, Proceedings of SPIE (SPIE, 2012), p. 843817.
[Crossref]

Waddie, A. J.

Wehrspohn, R.

M. Kroll, M. Otto, T. Käsebier, K. Füchsel, R. Wehrspohn, E.-B. Kley, A. Tünnermann, and T. Pertsch, “Black silicon for solar cell applications,” in Proc. of SPIE, Proceedings of SPIE (SPIE, 2012), p. 843817.
[Crossref]

Wehrspohn, R. B.

M. Otto, M. Algasinger, H. Branz, B. Gesemann, T. Gimpel, K. Füchsel, T. Käsebier, S. Kontermann, S. Koynov, X. Li, V. Naumann, J. Oh, A. N. Sprafke, J. Ziegler, M. Zilk, and R. B. Wehrspohn, “Black Silicon Photovoltaics,” Advanced Optical Materials 3(2), 147–164 (2015).
[Crossref]

Werner, P.

Z. Huang, N. Geyer, P. Werner, J. de Boor, and U. Gösele, “Metal-assisted chemical etching of silicon: A review,” Adv. Mater. 23(2), 285–308 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zeng, Y.

D. Payne, M. D. Abbott, A. C. Lopez, Y. Zeng, T. H. Fung, K. R. McIntosh, J. L. Cruz-Campa, R. Davidson, M. Plakhotnyuk, and D. M. Bagnall, “Rapid Optical Modelling Of Plasma Textured Silicon,” in Proceedings of the 33rd European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference and Exhibition (EUPVSEC) (2017).

Zhong, S. H.

Y. F. Zhuang, S. H. Zhong, Z. G. Huang, and W. Z. Shen, “Versatile strategies for improving the performance of diamond wire sawn mc-Si solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 153, 18–24 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zhuang, Y. F.

Y. F. Zhuang, S. H. Zhong, Z. G. Huang, and W. Z. Shen, “Versatile strategies for improving the performance of diamond wire sawn mc-Si solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 153, 18–24 (2016).
[Crossref]

Ziegler, J.

M. Otto, M. Algasinger, H. Branz, B. Gesemann, T. Gimpel, K. Füchsel, T. Käsebier, S. Kontermann, S. Koynov, X. Li, V. Naumann, J. Oh, A. N. Sprafke, J. Ziegler, M. Zilk, and R. B. Wehrspohn, “Black Silicon Photovoltaics,” Advanced Optical Materials 3(2), 147–164 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zilk, M.

M. Otto, M. Algasinger, H. Branz, B. Gesemann, T. Gimpel, K. Füchsel, T. Käsebier, S. Kontermann, S. Koynov, X. Li, V. Naumann, J. Oh, A. N. Sprafke, J. Ziegler, M. Zilk, and R. B. Wehrspohn, “Black Silicon Photovoltaics,” Advanced Optical Materials 3(2), 147–164 (2015).
[Crossref]

Adv. Mater. (1)

Z. Huang, N. Geyer, P. Werner, J. de Boor, and U. Gösele, “Metal-assisted chemical etching of silicon: A review,” Adv. Mater. 23(2), 285–308 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Advanced Optical Materials (1)

M. Otto, M. Algasinger, H. Branz, B. Gesemann, T. Gimpel, K. Füchsel, T. Käsebier, S. Kontermann, S. Koynov, X. Li, V. Naumann, J. Oh, A. N. Sprafke, J. Ziegler, M. Zilk, and R. B. Wehrspohn, “Black Silicon Photovoltaics,” Advanced Optical Materials 3(2), 147–164 (2015).
[Crossref]

Energy Procedia (1)

S. Duttagupta, F. Ma, B. Hoex, T. Mueller, and A. G. Aberle, “Optimised Antireflection Coatings using Silicon Nitride on Textured Silicon Surfaces based on Measurements and Multidimensional Modelling,” Energy Procedia 15, 78–83 (2012).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Photovoltaics (1)

J. Benick, A. Richter, R. Müller, H. Hauser, F. Feldmann, P. Krenckel, S. Riepe, F. Schindler, M. C. Schubert, M. Hermle, A. W. Bett, and S. W. Glunz, “High-Efficiency n-Type HP mc Silicon Solar Cells,” IEEE J. Photovoltaics 7(5), 1171–1175 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

M. M. Plakhotnyuk, M. Gaudig, R. S. Davidsen, J. M. Lindhard, J. Hirsch, D. Lausch, M. S. Schmidt, E. Stamate, and O. Hansen, “Low surface damage dry etched black silicon,” J. Appl. Phys. 122(14), 143101 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (3)

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells (2)

N. Tucher, B. Müller, P. Jakob, J. Eisenlohr, O. Höhn, H. Hauser, J. C. Goldschmidt, M. Hermle, and B. Bläsi, “Optical performance of the honeycomb texture – a cell and module level analysis using the OPTOS formalism,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 173, 66–71 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. F. Zhuang, S. H. Zhong, Z. G. Huang, and W. Z. Shen, “Versatile strategies for improving the performance of diamond wire sawn mc-Si solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 153, 18–24 (2016).
[Crossref]

Other (6)

A. Bett, J. Eisenlohr, O. Höhn, B. Bläsi, J. Benick, P. Repo, H. Savin, J. C. Goldschmidt, and M. Hermle, “Front Side Antireflection Concepts for Silicon Solar Cells with Diffractive Rear Side Structures,” in Proceedings of the 29th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference and Exhibition (EUPVSEC) (2014), pp. 987–991.

W. Joseph, Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics, second (McGraw-Hill Companies, 1996).

J. P. Hugonin and P. Lalanne, Reticolo Software for Grating Analysis (Institut d'Optique, 2005).

M. Kroll, M. Otto, T. Käsebier, K. Füchsel, R. Wehrspohn, E.-B. Kley, A. Tünnermann, and T. Pertsch, “Black silicon for solar cell applications,” in Proc. of SPIE, Proceedings of SPIE (SPIE, 2012), p. 843817.
[Crossref]

P. Lalanne and M. C. Hutley, “Artificial Media Optical Properties—Subwavelength Scale,” in Encyclopedia of Optical Engineering (Taylor & Francis, 2003), pp. 62–71.

D. Payne, M. D. Abbott, A. C. Lopez, Y. Zeng, T. H. Fung, K. R. McIntosh, J. L. Cruz-Campa, R. Davidson, M. Plakhotnyuk, and D. M. Bagnall, “Rapid Optical Modelling Of Plasma Textured Silicon,” in Proceedings of the 33rd European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference and Exhibition (EUPVSEC) (2017).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 a,b) SEM images showing a tilted view of the investigated black silicon structure in different resolutions. c) Tilted view of the modeled 2.4 µm × 2.4 µm structure unit cell, created by placing 130 cones with a maximum height of 1 µm in random positions based on the randomized cone approximation by Bett et al. [17].
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 a) Transmitted field amplitude of 2.4 µm × 2.4 µm unit cell, calculated at once with the RCWA. b) Depiction of two neighboring subcells which were modeled individually for the FSM. The grey overlay visualizes the overlapping areas. The position of those subcells in the complete unit cell is indicated by the overlapping squares in (a).
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Reconstructed electrical field (a) and phase (d) without averaging in the overlapping region and b,e) with weighted averaging in the overlapping region. c,f) Results of the RCWA modeling of the complete unit cell at once.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Polar angle dependency of the AID for normally incident light with a wavelength of 800 nm transmitted through a black silicon surface. Compared is the RCWA result of the complete 2.4 µm × 2.4 µm unit cell with the FSM.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 a) Top view of the 5 × 5 µm2 unit cell used for calculating the redistribution matrices. b) Representation of the transmission redistribution matrix for normal light incidence from air and an exemplary wavelength of 1100 nm.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Measured reflectance, absorptance and transmittance of a 250 µm thick experimental sample with black silicon front side structure in comparison to simulation results, which were obtained using the FSM in combination with the OPOTS formalism.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Comparison of solar cell absorption simulations with different front side textures and a planar silicon silver rear side mirror. The black silicon structure does not only show a very low reflectance but also extremely good light trapping properties, which are due to the strong scattering behavior.

Equations (1)

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η(ϑ,φ)= I Tot |u(ϑ,φ) | 2 |u(ϑ,φ) | 2 ,

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