Abstract

Ocean-color remote sensing is routinely used to derive marine geophysical parameters from sensor-observed spectral water-leaving radiances. However, in clear geometrically shallow regions, traditional ocean-color algorithms can be confounded by light reflected from the seafloor. Such regions are typically referred to as “optically shallow”. When performing spatiotemporal analyses of ocean color datasets, optically shallow features such as submerged sand banks and coral reefs can lead to unexpected regional biases. Most contemporary approaches mask or flag suspected optically shallow pixels based on ancillary bathymetric data. However, the extent to which seafloor reflectance contaminates the water-leaving radiance is dependent on bathymetry, water clarity and seafloor albedo. In this paper, an approach for flagging optically shallow pixels has been developed that considers all three of these variables. In the method, the optical depth of the water column at 547 nm, ζ(547), is predicted from bathymetric data and estimated water-column optical properties. If ζ(547) is less then the pre-defined threshold, a pixel is flagged as potentially optically shallow. Radiative transfer modeling was used to identify a conservative threshold value of ζ(547) = 20 for a bright sand seafloor. In addition, pixels in waters shallower than 5 m are also flagged. We also examined how varying bathymetric datasets may affect the optically shallow flag using MODIS data. It is anticipated that the optically shallow flag will benefit end-users when quality controlling derived ocean color products. Further, the flag may prove useful as a mechanism for switching between optically deep and shallow algorithms during ocean color processing.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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2018 (2)

P. J. Werdell, L. I. W. McKinna, E. Boss, S. G. Ackleson, S. E. Craig, W. W. Gregg, Z. Lee, S. Maritorena, C. S. Roesler, C. S. Rousseaux, D. Stramski, J. M. Sullivan, M. S. Twardowski, M. Tzortziou, and X. Zhang, “An overview of approaches and challenges for retrieving marine inherent optical properties from ocean color remote sensing,” Prog. Oceanogr. 160, 186–212 (2018).
[Crossref]

B. B. Barnes, R. Garcia, C. Hu, and Z. Lee, “Multi-band spectral matching inversion algorithm to derive water column properties in optically shallow waters: An optimization of parameterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 204, 424–438 (2018).
[Crossref]

2015 (4)

L. I. W. McKinna, P. R. C. Fearns, S. J. Weeks, P. J. Werdell, M. Reichstetter, B. A. Franz, D. M. Shea, and G. C. Feldman, “A semianalytical ocean color inversion algorithm with explicit water-column depth and substrate reflectance parameterization,” J. Geophys. Res. Oceans 120(3), 1741–1770 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. Garcia, J. Hedley, H. Tin, and P. Fearns, “A Method to Analyze the Potential of Optical Remote Sensing for Benthic Habitat Mapping,” Remote Sens. 7(10), 13157–13189 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Reichstetter, P. Fearns, S. Weeks, L. McKinna, C. Roelfsema, and M. Furnas, “Bottom reflectance in ocean color satellite remote sensing for coral reef environments,” Remote Sens. 7(12), 16756–16777 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. Weatherall, K. M. Marks, M. Jakobsson, T. Schmitt, S. Tani, E. Arndt Jan, M. Rovere, D. Chayes, V. Ferrini, and R. Wigley, “A new digital bathymetric model of the world’s oceans,” Earth and Space Science 2(8), 331–345 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (1)

B. B. Barnes, C. Hu, J. P. Cannizzaro, S. E. Craig, P. Hallock, D. L. Jones, J. C. Lehrter, N. Melo, B. A. Schaeffer, and R. Zepp, “Estimation of diffuse attenuation of ultraviolet light in optically shallow Florida Keys waters from MODIS measurements,” Remote Sens. Environ. 140, 519–532 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (3)

J. Zhao, B. Barnes, N. Melo, D. English, B. Lapointe, F. Muller-Karger, B. Schaeffer, and C. Hu, “Assessment of satellite-derived diffuse attenuation coefficients and euphotic depths in south Florida coastal waters,” Remote Sens. Environ. 131, 38–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

B. B. Barnes, C. Hu, B. A. Schaeffer, Z. Lee, D. A. Palandro, and J. C. Lehrter, “MODIS-derived spatiotemporal water clarity patterns in optically shallow Florida Keys waters: A new approach to remove bottom contamination,” Remote Sens. Environ. 134, 377–391 (2013).
[Crossref]

P. J. Werdell, B. A. Franz, S. W. Bailey, G. C. Feldman, E. Boss, V. E. Brando, M. Dowell, T. Hirata, S. J. Lavender, Z. Lee, H. Loisel, S. Maritorena, F. Mélin, T. S. Moore, T. J. Smyth, D. Antoine, E. Devred, O. H. F. d’Andon, and A. Mangin, “Generalized ocean color inversion model for retrieving marine inherent optical properties,” Appl. Opt. 52(10), 2019–2037 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (1)

A. G. Dekker, S. R. Phinn, J. Anstee, P. Bissett, E. Brando Vittorio, B. Casey, P. Fearns, J. Hedley, W. Klonowski, Z. Lee, P. M. Lynch, M. Lyons, C. Mobley, and C. Roelfsema, “Intercomparison of shallow water bathymetry, hydro-optics, and benthos mapping techniques in Australian and Caribbean coastal environments,” Limnol. Oceanogr. Methods 9(9), 396–425 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

M. Zhang, J. Tang, Q. Song, and Q. Dong, “Backscattering ratio variation and its implications for studying particle composition: A case study in Yellow and East China seas,” J. Geophys. Res. Oceans 115(C12), C12014 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

D. McKee, M. Chami, I. Brown, V. S. Calzado, D. Doxaran, and A. Cunningham, “Role of measurement uncertainties in observed variability in the spectral backscattering ratio: a case study in mineral-rich coastal waters,” Appl. Opt. 48(24), 4663–4675 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Blondeau‐Patissier, V. E. Brando, K. Oubelkheir, A. G. Dekker, L. A. Clementson, and P. Daniel, “Bio‐optical variability of the absorption and scattering properties of the Queensland inshore and reef waters, Australia,” J. Geophys. Res. Oceans 114, C05003 (2009).

2007 (1)

2006 (3)

T. J. Smyth, G. F. Moore, T. Hirata, and J. Aiken, “Semianalytical model for the derivation of ocean color inherent optical properties: description, implementation, and performance assessment,” Appl. Opt. 45(31), 8116–8131 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. W. Bailey and P. J. Werdell, “A multi-sensor approach for the on-orbit validation of ocean color satellite data products,” Remote Sens. Environ. 102(1-2), 12–23 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. P. Cannizzaro and K. L. Carder, “Estimating chlorophyll a concentrations from remote-sensing reflectance in optically shallow waters,” Remote Sens. Environ. 101(1), 13–24 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

M. Chami, E. B. Shybanov, T. Y. Churilova, G. A. Khomenko, M. E. G. Lee, O. V. Martynov, G. A. Berseneva, and G. K. Korotaev, “Optical properties of the particles in the Crimea coastal waters (Black Sea),” J. Geophys. Res. Oceans 110(C11), C11020 (2005).
[Crossref]

2003 (2)

E. J. Hochberg, M. J. Atkinson, and S. Andréfouët, “Spectral reflectance of coral reef bottom-types worldwide and implications for coral reef remote sensing,” Remote Sens. Environ. 85(2), 159–173 (2003).
[Crossref]

S. G. Ackleson, “Light in shallow waters: A brief research review,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 48(1part2), 323–328 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (3)

1999 (3)

Z. Lee, K. L. Carder, C. D. Mobley, R. G. Steward, and J. S. Patch, “Hyperspectral remote sensing for shallow waters. 2. Deriving bottom depths and water properties by optimization,” Appl. Opt. 38(18), 3831–3843 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. R. Orpin, P. V. Ridd, and L. K. Stewart, “Assessment of the relative importance of major sediment transport mechanisms in the central Great Barrier Reef lagoon,” Aust. J. Earth Sci. 46(6), 883–896 (1999).
[Crossref]

K. L. Carder, F. R. Chen, Z. P. Lee, S. K. Hawes, and D. Kamykowski, “Semianalytic Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectrometer algorithms for chlorophyll a and absorption with bio-optical domains based on nitrate-depletion temperatures,” J. Geophys. Res. Oceans 104(C3), 5403–5421 (1999).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

F. E. Hoge and P. E. Lyon, “Satellite retrieval of inherent optical properties by linear matrix inversion of oceanic radiance models: An analysis of model and radiance measurement errors,” J. Geophys. Res. Oceans 101(C7), 16631–16648 (1996).
[Crossref]

1988 (1)

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, and D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 93(D9), 10909–10924 (1988).
[Crossref]

Ackleson, S. G.

P. J. Werdell, L. I. W. McKinna, E. Boss, S. G. Ackleson, S. E. Craig, W. W. Gregg, Z. Lee, S. Maritorena, C. S. Roesler, C. S. Rousseaux, D. Stramski, J. M. Sullivan, M. S. Twardowski, M. Tzortziou, and X. Zhang, “An overview of approaches and challenges for retrieving marine inherent optical properties from ocean color remote sensing,” Prog. Oceanogr. 160, 186–212 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. G. Ackleson, “Light in shallow waters: A brief research review,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 48(1part2), 323–328 (2003).
[Crossref]

Aiken, J.

Andréfouët, S.

E. J. Hochberg, M. J. Atkinson, and S. Andréfouët, “Spectral reflectance of coral reef bottom-types worldwide and implications for coral reef remote sensing,” Remote Sens. Environ. 85(2), 159–173 (2003).
[Crossref]

Anstee, J.

A. G. Dekker, S. R. Phinn, J. Anstee, P. Bissett, E. Brando Vittorio, B. Casey, P. Fearns, J. Hedley, W. Klonowski, Z. Lee, P. M. Lynch, M. Lyons, C. Mobley, and C. Roelfsema, “Intercomparison of shallow water bathymetry, hydro-optics, and benthos mapping techniques in Australian and Caribbean coastal environments,” Limnol. Oceanogr. Methods 9(9), 396–425 (2011).
[Crossref]

Antoine, D.

Arndt Jan, E.

P. Weatherall, K. M. Marks, M. Jakobsson, T. Schmitt, S. Tani, E. Arndt Jan, M. Rovere, D. Chayes, V. Ferrini, and R. Wigley, “A new digital bathymetric model of the world’s oceans,” Earth and Space Science 2(8), 331–345 (2015).
[Crossref]

Arnone, R. A.

Atkinson, M. J.

E. J. Hochberg, M. J. Atkinson, and S. Andréfouët, “Spectral reflectance of coral reef bottom-types worldwide and implications for coral reef remote sensing,” Remote Sens. Environ. 85(2), 159–173 (2003).
[Crossref]

Bailey, S. W.

Baker, K. S.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, and D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 93(D9), 10909–10924 (1988).
[Crossref]

Barnes, B.

J. Zhao, B. Barnes, N. Melo, D. English, B. Lapointe, F. Muller-Karger, B. Schaeffer, and C. Hu, “Assessment of satellite-derived diffuse attenuation coefficients and euphotic depths in south Florida coastal waters,” Remote Sens. Environ. 131, 38–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Barnes, B. B.

B. B. Barnes, R. Garcia, C. Hu, and Z. Lee, “Multi-band spectral matching inversion algorithm to derive water column properties in optically shallow waters: An optimization of parameterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 204, 424–438 (2018).
[Crossref]

B. B. Barnes, C. Hu, J. P. Cannizzaro, S. E. Craig, P. Hallock, D. L. Jones, J. C. Lehrter, N. Melo, B. A. Schaeffer, and R. Zepp, “Estimation of diffuse attenuation of ultraviolet light in optically shallow Florida Keys waters from MODIS measurements,” Remote Sens. Environ. 140, 519–532 (2014).
[Crossref]

B. B. Barnes, C. Hu, B. A. Schaeffer, Z. Lee, D. A. Palandro, and J. C. Lehrter, “MODIS-derived spatiotemporal water clarity patterns in optically shallow Florida Keys waters: A new approach to remove bottom contamination,” Remote Sens. Environ. 134, 377–391 (2013).
[Crossref]

Berseneva, G. A.

M. Chami, E. B. Shybanov, T. Y. Churilova, G. A. Khomenko, M. E. G. Lee, O. V. Martynov, G. A. Berseneva, and G. K. Korotaev, “Optical properties of the particles in the Crimea coastal waters (Black Sea),” J. Geophys. Res. Oceans 110(C11), C11020 (2005).
[Crossref]

Bissett, P.

A. G. Dekker, S. R. Phinn, J. Anstee, P. Bissett, E. Brando Vittorio, B. Casey, P. Fearns, J. Hedley, W. Klonowski, Z. Lee, P. M. Lynch, M. Lyons, C. Mobley, and C. Roelfsema, “Intercomparison of shallow water bathymetry, hydro-optics, and benthos mapping techniques in Australian and Caribbean coastal environments,” Limnol. Oceanogr. Methods 9(9), 396–425 (2011).
[Crossref]

Blondeau-Patissier, D.

D. Blondeau‐Patissier, V. E. Brando, K. Oubelkheir, A. G. Dekker, L. A. Clementson, and P. Daniel, “Bio‐optical variability of the absorption and scattering properties of the Queensland inshore and reef waters, Australia,” J. Geophys. Res. Oceans 114, C05003 (2009).

Boss, E.

Brando, V. E.

P. J. Werdell, B. A. Franz, S. W. Bailey, G. C. Feldman, E. Boss, V. E. Brando, M. Dowell, T. Hirata, S. J. Lavender, Z. Lee, H. Loisel, S. Maritorena, F. Mélin, T. S. Moore, T. J. Smyth, D. Antoine, E. Devred, O. H. F. d’Andon, and A. Mangin, “Generalized ocean color inversion model for retrieving marine inherent optical properties,” Appl. Opt. 52(10), 2019–2037 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Blondeau‐Patissier, V. E. Brando, K. Oubelkheir, A. G. Dekker, L. A. Clementson, and P. Daniel, “Bio‐optical variability of the absorption and scattering properties of the Queensland inshore and reef waters, Australia,” J. Geophys. Res. Oceans 114, C05003 (2009).

Brando Vittorio, E.

A. G. Dekker, S. R. Phinn, J. Anstee, P. Bissett, E. Brando Vittorio, B. Casey, P. Fearns, J. Hedley, W. Klonowski, Z. Lee, P. M. Lynch, M. Lyons, C. Mobley, and C. Roelfsema, “Intercomparison of shallow water bathymetry, hydro-optics, and benthos mapping techniques in Australian and Caribbean coastal environments,” Limnol. Oceanogr. Methods 9(9), 396–425 (2011).
[Crossref]

Brown, I.

Brown, J. W.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, and D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 93(D9), 10909–10924 (1988).
[Crossref]

Brown, O. B.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, and D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 93(D9), 10909–10924 (1988).
[Crossref]

Calzado, V. S.

Cannizzaro, J. P.

B. B. Barnes, C. Hu, J. P. Cannizzaro, S. E. Craig, P. Hallock, D. L. Jones, J. C. Lehrter, N. Melo, B. A. Schaeffer, and R. Zepp, “Estimation of diffuse attenuation of ultraviolet light in optically shallow Florida Keys waters from MODIS measurements,” Remote Sens. Environ. 140, 519–532 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. P. Cannizzaro and K. L. Carder, “Estimating chlorophyll a concentrations from remote-sensing reflectance in optically shallow waters,” Remote Sens. Environ. 101(1), 13–24 (2006).
[Crossref]

Carder, K. L.

J. P. Cannizzaro and K. L. Carder, “Estimating chlorophyll a concentrations from remote-sensing reflectance in optically shallow waters,” Remote Sens. Environ. 101(1), 13–24 (2006).
[Crossref]

Z. Lee, K. L. Carder, and R. A. Arnone, “Deriving inherent optical properties from water color: a multiband quasi-analytical algorithm for optically deep waters,” Appl. Opt. 41(27), 5755–5772 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Lee and K. L. Carder, “Effect of spectral band numbers on the retrieval of water column and bottom properties from ocean color data,” Appl. Opt. 41(12), 2191–2201 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Lee, K. L. Carder, C. D. Mobley, R. G. Steward, and J. S. Patch, “Hyperspectral remote sensing for shallow waters. 2. Deriving bottom depths and water properties by optimization,” Appl. Opt. 38(18), 3831–3843 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. L. Carder, F. R. Chen, Z. P. Lee, S. K. Hawes, and D. Kamykowski, “Semianalytic Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectrometer algorithms for chlorophyll a and absorption with bio-optical domains based on nitrate-depletion temperatures,” J. Geophys. Res. Oceans 104(C3), 5403–5421 (1999).
[Crossref]

Casey, B.

A. G. Dekker, S. R. Phinn, J. Anstee, P. Bissett, E. Brando Vittorio, B. Casey, P. Fearns, J. Hedley, W. Klonowski, Z. Lee, P. M. Lynch, M. Lyons, C. Mobley, and C. Roelfsema, “Intercomparison of shallow water bathymetry, hydro-optics, and benthos mapping techniques in Australian and Caribbean coastal environments,” Limnol. Oceanogr. Methods 9(9), 396–425 (2011).
[Crossref]

Chami, M.

D. McKee, M. Chami, I. Brown, V. S. Calzado, D. Doxaran, and A. Cunningham, “Role of measurement uncertainties in observed variability in the spectral backscattering ratio: a case study in mineral-rich coastal waters,” Appl. Opt. 48(24), 4663–4675 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Chami, E. B. Shybanov, T. Y. Churilova, G. A. Khomenko, M. E. G. Lee, O. V. Martynov, G. A. Berseneva, and G. K. Korotaev, “Optical properties of the particles in the Crimea coastal waters (Black Sea),” J. Geophys. Res. Oceans 110(C11), C11020 (2005).
[Crossref]

Chayes, D.

P. Weatherall, K. M. Marks, M. Jakobsson, T. Schmitt, S. Tani, E. Arndt Jan, M. Rovere, D. Chayes, V. Ferrini, and R. Wigley, “A new digital bathymetric model of the world’s oceans,” Earth and Space Science 2(8), 331–345 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chen, F. R.

K. L. Carder, F. R. Chen, Z. P. Lee, S. K. Hawes, and D. Kamykowski, “Semianalytic Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectrometer algorithms for chlorophyll a and absorption with bio-optical domains based on nitrate-depletion temperatures,” J. Geophys. Res. Oceans 104(C3), 5403–5421 (1999).
[Crossref]

Churilova, T. Y.

M. Chami, E. B. Shybanov, T. Y. Churilova, G. A. Khomenko, M. E. G. Lee, O. V. Martynov, G. A. Berseneva, and G. K. Korotaev, “Optical properties of the particles in the Crimea coastal waters (Black Sea),” J. Geophys. Res. Oceans 110(C11), C11020 (2005).
[Crossref]

Clark, D. K.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, and D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 93(D9), 10909–10924 (1988).
[Crossref]

Clementson, L. A.

D. Blondeau‐Patissier, V. E. Brando, K. Oubelkheir, A. G. Dekker, L. A. Clementson, and P. Daniel, “Bio‐optical variability of the absorption and scattering properties of the Queensland inshore and reef waters, Australia,” J. Geophys. Res. Oceans 114, C05003 (2009).

Cowles, T. J.

Craig, S. E.

P. J. Werdell, L. I. W. McKinna, E. Boss, S. G. Ackleson, S. E. Craig, W. W. Gregg, Z. Lee, S. Maritorena, C. S. Roesler, C. S. Rousseaux, D. Stramski, J. M. Sullivan, M. S. Twardowski, M. Tzortziou, and X. Zhang, “An overview of approaches and challenges for retrieving marine inherent optical properties from ocean color remote sensing,” Prog. Oceanogr. 160, 186–212 (2018).
[Crossref]

B. B. Barnes, C. Hu, J. P. Cannizzaro, S. E. Craig, P. Hallock, D. L. Jones, J. C. Lehrter, N. Melo, B. A. Schaeffer, and R. Zepp, “Estimation of diffuse attenuation of ultraviolet light in optically shallow Florida Keys waters from MODIS measurements,” Remote Sens. Environ. 140, 519–532 (2014).
[Crossref]

Cunningham, A.

d’Andon, O. H. F.

Daniel, P.

D. Blondeau‐Patissier, V. E. Brando, K. Oubelkheir, A. G. Dekker, L. A. Clementson, and P. Daniel, “Bio‐optical variability of the absorption and scattering properties of the Queensland inshore and reef waters, Australia,” J. Geophys. Res. Oceans 114, C05003 (2009).

Dekker, A. G.

A. G. Dekker, S. R. Phinn, J. Anstee, P. Bissett, E. Brando Vittorio, B. Casey, P. Fearns, J. Hedley, W. Klonowski, Z. Lee, P. M. Lynch, M. Lyons, C. Mobley, and C. Roelfsema, “Intercomparison of shallow water bathymetry, hydro-optics, and benthos mapping techniques in Australian and Caribbean coastal environments,” Limnol. Oceanogr. Methods 9(9), 396–425 (2011).
[Crossref]

D. Blondeau‐Patissier, V. E. Brando, K. Oubelkheir, A. G. Dekker, L. A. Clementson, and P. Daniel, “Bio‐optical variability of the absorption and scattering properties of the Queensland inshore and reef waters, Australia,” J. Geophys. Res. Oceans 114, C05003 (2009).

Devred, E.

Dong, Q.

M. Zhang, J. Tang, Q. Song, and Q. Dong, “Backscattering ratio variation and its implications for studying particle composition: A case study in Yellow and East China seas,” J. Geophys. Res. Oceans 115(C12), C12014 (2010).
[Crossref]

Dowell, M.

Doxaran, D.

English, D.

J. Zhao, B. Barnes, N. Melo, D. English, B. Lapointe, F. Muller-Karger, B. Schaeffer, and C. Hu, “Assessment of satellite-derived diffuse attenuation coefficients and euphotic depths in south Florida coastal waters,” Remote Sens. Environ. 131, 38–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Evans, R. H.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, and D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 93(D9), 10909–10924 (1988).
[Crossref]

Fearns, P.

R. Garcia, J. Hedley, H. Tin, and P. Fearns, “A Method to Analyze the Potential of Optical Remote Sensing for Benthic Habitat Mapping,” Remote Sens. 7(10), 13157–13189 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Reichstetter, P. Fearns, S. Weeks, L. McKinna, C. Roelfsema, and M. Furnas, “Bottom reflectance in ocean color satellite remote sensing for coral reef environments,” Remote Sens. 7(12), 16756–16777 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. G. Dekker, S. R. Phinn, J. Anstee, P. Bissett, E. Brando Vittorio, B. Casey, P. Fearns, J. Hedley, W. Klonowski, Z. Lee, P. M. Lynch, M. Lyons, C. Mobley, and C. Roelfsema, “Intercomparison of shallow water bathymetry, hydro-optics, and benthos mapping techniques in Australian and Caribbean coastal environments,” Limnol. Oceanogr. Methods 9(9), 396–425 (2011).
[Crossref]

Fearns, P. R. C.

L. I. W. McKinna, P. R. C. Fearns, S. J. Weeks, P. J. Werdell, M. Reichstetter, B. A. Franz, D. M. Shea, and G. C. Feldman, “A semianalytical ocean color inversion algorithm with explicit water-column depth and substrate reflectance parameterization,” J. Geophys. Res. Oceans 120(3), 1741–1770 (2015).
[Crossref]

Feldman, G. C.

L. I. W. McKinna, P. R. C. Fearns, S. J. Weeks, P. J. Werdell, M. Reichstetter, B. A. Franz, D. M. Shea, and G. C. Feldman, “A semianalytical ocean color inversion algorithm with explicit water-column depth and substrate reflectance parameterization,” J. Geophys. Res. Oceans 120(3), 1741–1770 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. J. Werdell, B. A. Franz, S. W. Bailey, G. C. Feldman, E. Boss, V. E. Brando, M. Dowell, T. Hirata, S. J. Lavender, Z. Lee, H. Loisel, S. Maritorena, F. Mélin, T. S. Moore, T. J. Smyth, D. Antoine, E. Devred, O. H. F. d’Andon, and A. Mangin, “Generalized ocean color inversion model for retrieving marine inherent optical properties,” Appl. Opt. 52(10), 2019–2037 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ferrini, V.

P. Weatherall, K. M. Marks, M. Jakobsson, T. Schmitt, S. Tani, E. Arndt Jan, M. Rovere, D. Chayes, V. Ferrini, and R. Wigley, “A new digital bathymetric model of the world’s oceans,” Earth and Space Science 2(8), 331–345 (2015).
[Crossref]

Franz, B. A.

L. I. W. McKinna, P. R. C. Fearns, S. J. Weeks, P. J. Werdell, M. Reichstetter, B. A. Franz, D. M. Shea, and G. C. Feldman, “A semianalytical ocean color inversion algorithm with explicit water-column depth and substrate reflectance parameterization,” J. Geophys. Res. Oceans 120(3), 1741–1770 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. J. Werdell, B. A. Franz, S. W. Bailey, G. C. Feldman, E. Boss, V. E. Brando, M. Dowell, T. Hirata, S. J. Lavender, Z. Lee, H. Loisel, S. Maritorena, F. Mélin, T. S. Moore, T. J. Smyth, D. Antoine, E. Devred, O. H. F. d’Andon, and A. Mangin, “Generalized ocean color inversion model for retrieving marine inherent optical properties,” Appl. Opt. 52(10), 2019–2037 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Furnas, M.

M. Reichstetter, P. Fearns, S. Weeks, L. McKinna, C. Roelfsema, and M. Furnas, “Bottom reflectance in ocean color satellite remote sensing for coral reef environments,” Remote Sens. 7(12), 16756–16777 (2015).
[Crossref]

Garcia, R.

B. B. Barnes, R. Garcia, C. Hu, and Z. Lee, “Multi-band spectral matching inversion algorithm to derive water column properties in optically shallow waters: An optimization of parameterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 204, 424–438 (2018).
[Crossref]

R. Garcia, J. Hedley, H. Tin, and P. Fearns, “A Method to Analyze the Potential of Optical Remote Sensing for Benthic Habitat Mapping,” Remote Sens. 7(10), 13157–13189 (2015).
[Crossref]

Gordon, H. R.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, and D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 93(D9), 10909–10924 (1988).
[Crossref]

Gregg, W. W.

P. J. Werdell, L. I. W. McKinna, E. Boss, S. G. Ackleson, S. E. Craig, W. W. Gregg, Z. Lee, S. Maritorena, C. S. Roesler, C. S. Rousseaux, D. Stramski, J. M. Sullivan, M. S. Twardowski, M. Tzortziou, and X. Zhang, “An overview of approaches and challenges for retrieving marine inherent optical properties from ocean color remote sensing,” Prog. Oceanogr. 160, 186–212 (2018).
[Crossref]

Hallock, P.

B. B. Barnes, C. Hu, J. P. Cannizzaro, S. E. Craig, P. Hallock, D. L. Jones, J. C. Lehrter, N. Melo, B. A. Schaeffer, and R. Zepp, “Estimation of diffuse attenuation of ultraviolet light in optically shallow Florida Keys waters from MODIS measurements,” Remote Sens. Environ. 140, 519–532 (2014).
[Crossref]

Hawes, S. K.

K. L. Carder, F. R. Chen, Z. P. Lee, S. K. Hawes, and D. Kamykowski, “Semianalytic Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectrometer algorithms for chlorophyll a and absorption with bio-optical domains based on nitrate-depletion temperatures,” J. Geophys. Res. Oceans 104(C3), 5403–5421 (1999).
[Crossref]

Hedley, J.

R. Garcia, J. Hedley, H. Tin, and P. Fearns, “A Method to Analyze the Potential of Optical Remote Sensing for Benthic Habitat Mapping,” Remote Sens. 7(10), 13157–13189 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. G. Dekker, S. R. Phinn, J. Anstee, P. Bissett, E. Brando Vittorio, B. Casey, P. Fearns, J. Hedley, W. Klonowski, Z. Lee, P. M. Lynch, M. Lyons, C. Mobley, and C. Roelfsema, “Intercomparison of shallow water bathymetry, hydro-optics, and benthos mapping techniques in Australian and Caribbean coastal environments,” Limnol. Oceanogr. Methods 9(9), 396–425 (2011).
[Crossref]

Hirata, T.

Hochberg, E. J.

E. J. Hochberg, M. J. Atkinson, and S. Andréfouët, “Spectral reflectance of coral reef bottom-types worldwide and implications for coral reef remote sensing,” Remote Sens. Environ. 85(2), 159–173 (2003).
[Crossref]

Hoge, F. E.

F. E. Hoge and P. E. Lyon, “Satellite retrieval of inherent optical properties by linear matrix inversion of oceanic radiance models: An analysis of model and radiance measurement errors,” J. Geophys. Res. Oceans 101(C7), 16631–16648 (1996).
[Crossref]

Hu, C.

B. B. Barnes, R. Garcia, C. Hu, and Z. Lee, “Multi-band spectral matching inversion algorithm to derive water column properties in optically shallow waters: An optimization of parameterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 204, 424–438 (2018).
[Crossref]

B. B. Barnes, C. Hu, J. P. Cannizzaro, S. E. Craig, P. Hallock, D. L. Jones, J. C. Lehrter, N. Melo, B. A. Schaeffer, and R. Zepp, “Estimation of diffuse attenuation of ultraviolet light in optically shallow Florida Keys waters from MODIS measurements,” Remote Sens. Environ. 140, 519–532 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Zhao, B. Barnes, N. Melo, D. English, B. Lapointe, F. Muller-Karger, B. Schaeffer, and C. Hu, “Assessment of satellite-derived diffuse attenuation coefficients and euphotic depths in south Florida coastal waters,” Remote Sens. Environ. 131, 38–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

B. B. Barnes, C. Hu, B. A. Schaeffer, Z. Lee, D. A. Palandro, and J. C. Lehrter, “MODIS-derived spatiotemporal water clarity patterns in optically shallow Florida Keys waters: A new approach to remove bottom contamination,” Remote Sens. Environ. 134, 377–391 (2013).
[Crossref]

Jakobsson, M.

P. Weatherall, K. M. Marks, M. Jakobsson, T. Schmitt, S. Tani, E. Arndt Jan, M. Rovere, D. Chayes, V. Ferrini, and R. Wigley, “A new digital bathymetric model of the world’s oceans,” Earth and Space Science 2(8), 331–345 (2015).
[Crossref]

Jones, D. L.

B. B. Barnes, C. Hu, J. P. Cannizzaro, S. E. Craig, P. Hallock, D. L. Jones, J. C. Lehrter, N. Melo, B. A. Schaeffer, and R. Zepp, “Estimation of diffuse attenuation of ultraviolet light in optically shallow Florida Keys waters from MODIS measurements,” Remote Sens. Environ. 140, 519–532 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kamykowski, D.

K. L. Carder, F. R. Chen, Z. P. Lee, S. K. Hawes, and D. Kamykowski, “Semianalytic Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectrometer algorithms for chlorophyll a and absorption with bio-optical domains based on nitrate-depletion temperatures,” J. Geophys. Res. Oceans 104(C3), 5403–5421 (1999).
[Crossref]

Khomenko, G. A.

M. Chami, E. B. Shybanov, T. Y. Churilova, G. A. Khomenko, M. E. G. Lee, O. V. Martynov, G. A. Berseneva, and G. K. Korotaev, “Optical properties of the particles in the Crimea coastal waters (Black Sea),” J. Geophys. Res. Oceans 110(C11), C11020 (2005).
[Crossref]

Klonowski, W.

A. G. Dekker, S. R. Phinn, J. Anstee, P. Bissett, E. Brando Vittorio, B. Casey, P. Fearns, J. Hedley, W. Klonowski, Z. Lee, P. M. Lynch, M. Lyons, C. Mobley, and C. Roelfsema, “Intercomparison of shallow water bathymetry, hydro-optics, and benthos mapping techniques in Australian and Caribbean coastal environments,” Limnol. Oceanogr. Methods 9(9), 396–425 (2011).
[Crossref]

Korotaev, G. K.

M. Chami, E. B. Shybanov, T. Y. Churilova, G. A. Khomenko, M. E. G. Lee, O. V. Martynov, G. A. Berseneva, and G. K. Korotaev, “Optical properties of the particles in the Crimea coastal waters (Black Sea),” J. Geophys. Res. Oceans 110(C11), C11020 (2005).
[Crossref]

Lapointe, B.

J. Zhao, B. Barnes, N. Melo, D. English, B. Lapointe, F. Muller-Karger, B. Schaeffer, and C. Hu, “Assessment of satellite-derived diffuse attenuation coefficients and euphotic depths in south Florida coastal waters,” Remote Sens. Environ. 131, 38–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lavender, S. J.

Lee, M. E. G.

M. Chami, E. B. Shybanov, T. Y. Churilova, G. A. Khomenko, M. E. G. Lee, O. V. Martynov, G. A. Berseneva, and G. K. Korotaev, “Optical properties of the particles in the Crimea coastal waters (Black Sea),” J. Geophys. Res. Oceans 110(C11), C11020 (2005).
[Crossref]

Lee, Z.

B. B. Barnes, R. Garcia, C. Hu, and Z. Lee, “Multi-band spectral matching inversion algorithm to derive water column properties in optically shallow waters: An optimization of parameterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 204, 424–438 (2018).
[Crossref]

P. J. Werdell, L. I. W. McKinna, E. Boss, S. G. Ackleson, S. E. Craig, W. W. Gregg, Z. Lee, S. Maritorena, C. S. Roesler, C. S. Rousseaux, D. Stramski, J. M. Sullivan, M. S. Twardowski, M. Tzortziou, and X. Zhang, “An overview of approaches and challenges for retrieving marine inherent optical properties from ocean color remote sensing,” Prog. Oceanogr. 160, 186–212 (2018).
[Crossref]

B. B. Barnes, C. Hu, B. A. Schaeffer, Z. Lee, D. A. Palandro, and J. C. Lehrter, “MODIS-derived spatiotemporal water clarity patterns in optically shallow Florida Keys waters: A new approach to remove bottom contamination,” Remote Sens. Environ. 134, 377–391 (2013).
[Crossref]

P. J. Werdell, B. A. Franz, S. W. Bailey, G. C. Feldman, E. Boss, V. E. Brando, M. Dowell, T. Hirata, S. J. Lavender, Z. Lee, H. Loisel, S. Maritorena, F. Mélin, T. S. Moore, T. J. Smyth, D. Antoine, E. Devred, O. H. F. d’Andon, and A. Mangin, “Generalized ocean color inversion model for retrieving marine inherent optical properties,” Appl. Opt. 52(10), 2019–2037 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. G. Dekker, S. R. Phinn, J. Anstee, P. Bissett, E. Brando Vittorio, B. Casey, P. Fearns, J. Hedley, W. Klonowski, Z. Lee, P. M. Lynch, M. Lyons, C. Mobley, and C. Roelfsema, “Intercomparison of shallow water bathymetry, hydro-optics, and benthos mapping techniques in Australian and Caribbean coastal environments,” Limnol. Oceanogr. Methods 9(9), 396–425 (2011).
[Crossref]

Z. Lee and K. L. Carder, “Effect of spectral band numbers on the retrieval of water column and bottom properties from ocean color data,” Appl. Opt. 41(12), 2191–2201 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Lee, K. L. Carder, and R. A. Arnone, “Deriving inherent optical properties from water color: a multiband quasi-analytical algorithm for optically deep waters,” Appl. Opt. 41(27), 5755–5772 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Lee, K. L. Carder, C. D. Mobley, R. G. Steward, and J. S. Patch, “Hyperspectral remote sensing for shallow waters. 2. Deriving bottom depths and water properties by optimization,” Appl. Opt. 38(18), 3831–3843 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, Z. P.

K. L. Carder, F. R. Chen, Z. P. Lee, S. K. Hawes, and D. Kamykowski, “Semianalytic Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectrometer algorithms for chlorophyll a and absorption with bio-optical domains based on nitrate-depletion temperatures,” J. Geophys. Res. Oceans 104(C3), 5403–5421 (1999).
[Crossref]

Lehrter, J. C.

B. B. Barnes, C. Hu, J. P. Cannizzaro, S. E. Craig, P. Hallock, D. L. Jones, J. C. Lehrter, N. Melo, B. A. Schaeffer, and R. Zepp, “Estimation of diffuse attenuation of ultraviolet light in optically shallow Florida Keys waters from MODIS measurements,” Remote Sens. Environ. 140, 519–532 (2014).
[Crossref]

B. B. Barnes, C. Hu, B. A. Schaeffer, Z. Lee, D. A. Palandro, and J. C. Lehrter, “MODIS-derived spatiotemporal water clarity patterns in optically shallow Florida Keys waters: A new approach to remove bottom contamination,” Remote Sens. Environ. 134, 377–391 (2013).
[Crossref]

Loisel, H.

Lynch, P. M.

A. G. Dekker, S. R. Phinn, J. Anstee, P. Bissett, E. Brando Vittorio, B. Casey, P. Fearns, J. Hedley, W. Klonowski, Z. Lee, P. M. Lynch, M. Lyons, C. Mobley, and C. Roelfsema, “Intercomparison of shallow water bathymetry, hydro-optics, and benthos mapping techniques in Australian and Caribbean coastal environments,” Limnol. Oceanogr. Methods 9(9), 396–425 (2011).
[Crossref]

Lyon, P. E.

F. E. Hoge and P. E. Lyon, “Satellite retrieval of inherent optical properties by linear matrix inversion of oceanic radiance models: An analysis of model and radiance measurement errors,” J. Geophys. Res. Oceans 101(C7), 16631–16648 (1996).
[Crossref]

Lyons, M.

A. G. Dekker, S. R. Phinn, J. Anstee, P. Bissett, E. Brando Vittorio, B. Casey, P. Fearns, J. Hedley, W. Klonowski, Z. Lee, P. M. Lynch, M. Lyons, C. Mobley, and C. Roelfsema, “Intercomparison of shallow water bathymetry, hydro-optics, and benthos mapping techniques in Australian and Caribbean coastal environments,” Limnol. Oceanogr. Methods 9(9), 396–425 (2011).
[Crossref]

Mangin, A.

Maritorena, S.

Marks, K. M.

P. Weatherall, K. M. Marks, M. Jakobsson, T. Schmitt, S. Tani, E. Arndt Jan, M. Rovere, D. Chayes, V. Ferrini, and R. Wigley, “A new digital bathymetric model of the world’s oceans,” Earth and Space Science 2(8), 331–345 (2015).
[Crossref]

Martynov, O. V.

M. Chami, E. B. Shybanov, T. Y. Churilova, G. A. Khomenko, M. E. G. Lee, O. V. Martynov, G. A. Berseneva, and G. K. Korotaev, “Optical properties of the particles in the Crimea coastal waters (Black Sea),” J. Geophys. Res. Oceans 110(C11), C11020 (2005).
[Crossref]

McKee, D.

McKinna, L.

M. Reichstetter, P. Fearns, S. Weeks, L. McKinna, C. Roelfsema, and M. Furnas, “Bottom reflectance in ocean color satellite remote sensing for coral reef environments,” Remote Sens. 7(12), 16756–16777 (2015).
[Crossref]

McKinna, L. I. W.

P. J. Werdell, L. I. W. McKinna, E. Boss, S. G. Ackleson, S. E. Craig, W. W. Gregg, Z. Lee, S. Maritorena, C. S. Roesler, C. S. Rousseaux, D. Stramski, J. M. Sullivan, M. S. Twardowski, M. Tzortziou, and X. Zhang, “An overview of approaches and challenges for retrieving marine inherent optical properties from ocean color remote sensing,” Prog. Oceanogr. 160, 186–212 (2018).
[Crossref]

L. I. W. McKinna, P. R. C. Fearns, S. J. Weeks, P. J. Werdell, M. Reichstetter, B. A. Franz, D. M. Shea, and G. C. Feldman, “A semianalytical ocean color inversion algorithm with explicit water-column depth and substrate reflectance parameterization,” J. Geophys. Res. Oceans 120(3), 1741–1770 (2015).
[Crossref]

Mélin, F.

Melo, N.

B. B. Barnes, C. Hu, J. P. Cannizzaro, S. E. Craig, P. Hallock, D. L. Jones, J. C. Lehrter, N. Melo, B. A. Schaeffer, and R. Zepp, “Estimation of diffuse attenuation of ultraviolet light in optically shallow Florida Keys waters from MODIS measurements,” Remote Sens. Environ. 140, 519–532 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Zhao, B. Barnes, N. Melo, D. English, B. Lapointe, F. Muller-Karger, B. Schaeffer, and C. Hu, “Assessment of satellite-derived diffuse attenuation coefficients and euphotic depths in south Florida coastal waters,” Remote Sens. Environ. 131, 38–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Mobley, C.

A. G. Dekker, S. R. Phinn, J. Anstee, P. Bissett, E. Brando Vittorio, B. Casey, P. Fearns, J. Hedley, W. Klonowski, Z. Lee, P. M. Lynch, M. Lyons, C. Mobley, and C. Roelfsema, “Intercomparison of shallow water bathymetry, hydro-optics, and benthos mapping techniques in Australian and Caribbean coastal environments,” Limnol. Oceanogr. Methods 9(9), 396–425 (2011).
[Crossref]

Mobley, C. D.

Moore, G. F.

Moore, T. S.

Muller-Karger, F.

J. Zhao, B. Barnes, N. Melo, D. English, B. Lapointe, F. Muller-Karger, B. Schaeffer, and C. Hu, “Assessment of satellite-derived diffuse attenuation coefficients and euphotic depths in south Florida coastal waters,” Remote Sens. Environ. 131, 38–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Orpin, A. R.

A. R. Orpin, P. V. Ridd, and L. K. Stewart, “Assessment of the relative importance of major sediment transport mechanisms in the central Great Barrier Reef lagoon,” Aust. J. Earth Sci. 46(6), 883–896 (1999).
[Crossref]

Oubelkheir, K.

D. Blondeau‐Patissier, V. E. Brando, K. Oubelkheir, A. G. Dekker, L. A. Clementson, and P. Daniel, “Bio‐optical variability of the absorption and scattering properties of the Queensland inshore and reef waters, Australia,” J. Geophys. Res. Oceans 114, C05003 (2009).

Palandro, D. A.

B. B. Barnes, C. Hu, B. A. Schaeffer, Z. Lee, D. A. Palandro, and J. C. Lehrter, “MODIS-derived spatiotemporal water clarity patterns in optically shallow Florida Keys waters: A new approach to remove bottom contamination,” Remote Sens. Environ. 134, 377–391 (2013).
[Crossref]

Patch, J. S.

Pegau, W. S.

Peterson, A. R.

Phinn, S. R.

A. G. Dekker, S. R. Phinn, J. Anstee, P. Bissett, E. Brando Vittorio, B. Casey, P. Fearns, J. Hedley, W. Klonowski, Z. Lee, P. M. Lynch, M. Lyons, C. Mobley, and C. Roelfsema, “Intercomparison of shallow water bathymetry, hydro-optics, and benthos mapping techniques in Australian and Caribbean coastal environments,” Limnol. Oceanogr. Methods 9(9), 396–425 (2011).
[Crossref]

Reichstetter, M.

L. I. W. McKinna, P. R. C. Fearns, S. J. Weeks, P. J. Werdell, M. Reichstetter, B. A. Franz, D. M. Shea, and G. C. Feldman, “A semianalytical ocean color inversion algorithm with explicit water-column depth and substrate reflectance parameterization,” J. Geophys. Res. Oceans 120(3), 1741–1770 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Reichstetter, P. Fearns, S. Weeks, L. McKinna, C. Roelfsema, and M. Furnas, “Bottom reflectance in ocean color satellite remote sensing for coral reef environments,” Remote Sens. 7(12), 16756–16777 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ridd, P. V.

A. R. Orpin, P. V. Ridd, and L. K. Stewart, “Assessment of the relative importance of major sediment transport mechanisms in the central Great Barrier Reef lagoon,” Aust. J. Earth Sci. 46(6), 883–896 (1999).
[Crossref]

Roelfsema, C.

M. Reichstetter, P. Fearns, S. Weeks, L. McKinna, C. Roelfsema, and M. Furnas, “Bottom reflectance in ocean color satellite remote sensing for coral reef environments,” Remote Sens. 7(12), 16756–16777 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. G. Dekker, S. R. Phinn, J. Anstee, P. Bissett, E. Brando Vittorio, B. Casey, P. Fearns, J. Hedley, W. Klonowski, Z. Lee, P. M. Lynch, M. Lyons, C. Mobley, and C. Roelfsema, “Intercomparison of shallow water bathymetry, hydro-optics, and benthos mapping techniques in Australian and Caribbean coastal environments,” Limnol. Oceanogr. Methods 9(9), 396–425 (2011).
[Crossref]

Roesler, C. S.

P. J. Werdell, L. I. W. McKinna, E. Boss, S. G. Ackleson, S. E. Craig, W. W. Gregg, Z. Lee, S. Maritorena, C. S. Roesler, C. S. Rousseaux, D. Stramski, J. M. Sullivan, M. S. Twardowski, M. Tzortziou, and X. Zhang, “An overview of approaches and challenges for retrieving marine inherent optical properties from ocean color remote sensing,” Prog. Oceanogr. 160, 186–212 (2018).
[Crossref]

Rousseaux, C. S.

P. J. Werdell, L. I. W. McKinna, E. Boss, S. G. Ackleson, S. E. Craig, W. W. Gregg, Z. Lee, S. Maritorena, C. S. Roesler, C. S. Rousseaux, D. Stramski, J. M. Sullivan, M. S. Twardowski, M. Tzortziou, and X. Zhang, “An overview of approaches and challenges for retrieving marine inherent optical properties from ocean color remote sensing,” Prog. Oceanogr. 160, 186–212 (2018).
[Crossref]

Rovere, M.

P. Weatherall, K. M. Marks, M. Jakobsson, T. Schmitt, S. Tani, E. Arndt Jan, M. Rovere, D. Chayes, V. Ferrini, and R. Wigley, “A new digital bathymetric model of the world’s oceans,” Earth and Space Science 2(8), 331–345 (2015).
[Crossref]

Schaeffer, B.

J. Zhao, B. Barnes, N. Melo, D. English, B. Lapointe, F. Muller-Karger, B. Schaeffer, and C. Hu, “Assessment of satellite-derived diffuse attenuation coefficients and euphotic depths in south Florida coastal waters,” Remote Sens. Environ. 131, 38–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Schaeffer, B. A.

B. B. Barnes, C. Hu, J. P. Cannizzaro, S. E. Craig, P. Hallock, D. L. Jones, J. C. Lehrter, N. Melo, B. A. Schaeffer, and R. Zepp, “Estimation of diffuse attenuation of ultraviolet light in optically shallow Florida Keys waters from MODIS measurements,” Remote Sens. Environ. 140, 519–532 (2014).
[Crossref]

B. B. Barnes, C. Hu, B. A. Schaeffer, Z. Lee, D. A. Palandro, and J. C. Lehrter, “MODIS-derived spatiotemporal water clarity patterns in optically shallow Florida Keys waters: A new approach to remove bottom contamination,” Remote Sens. Environ. 134, 377–391 (2013).
[Crossref]

Schmitt, T.

P. Weatherall, K. M. Marks, M. Jakobsson, T. Schmitt, S. Tani, E. Arndt Jan, M. Rovere, D. Chayes, V. Ferrini, and R. Wigley, “A new digital bathymetric model of the world’s oceans,” Earth and Space Science 2(8), 331–345 (2015).
[Crossref]

Shea, D. M.

L. I. W. McKinna, P. R. C. Fearns, S. J. Weeks, P. J. Werdell, M. Reichstetter, B. A. Franz, D. M. Shea, and G. C. Feldman, “A semianalytical ocean color inversion algorithm with explicit water-column depth and substrate reflectance parameterization,” J. Geophys. Res. Oceans 120(3), 1741–1770 (2015).
[Crossref]

Shybanov, E. B.

M. Chami, E. B. Shybanov, T. Y. Churilova, G. A. Khomenko, M. E. G. Lee, O. V. Martynov, G. A. Berseneva, and G. K. Korotaev, “Optical properties of the particles in the Crimea coastal waters (Black Sea),” J. Geophys. Res. Oceans 110(C11), C11020 (2005).
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Siegel, D. A.

Smith, R. C.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, and D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 93(D9), 10909–10924 (1988).
[Crossref]

Smyth, T. J.

Song, Q.

M. Zhang, J. Tang, Q. Song, and Q. Dong, “Backscattering ratio variation and its implications for studying particle composition: A case study in Yellow and East China seas,” J. Geophys. Res. Oceans 115(C12), C12014 (2010).
[Crossref]

Steward, R. G.

Stewart, L. K.

A. R. Orpin, P. V. Ridd, and L. K. Stewart, “Assessment of the relative importance of major sediment transport mechanisms in the central Great Barrier Reef lagoon,” Aust. J. Earth Sci. 46(6), 883–896 (1999).
[Crossref]

Stramski, D.

P. J. Werdell, L. I. W. McKinna, E. Boss, S. G. Ackleson, S. E. Craig, W. W. Gregg, Z. Lee, S. Maritorena, C. S. Roesler, C. S. Rousseaux, D. Stramski, J. M. Sullivan, M. S. Twardowski, M. Tzortziou, and X. Zhang, “An overview of approaches and challenges for retrieving marine inherent optical properties from ocean color remote sensing,” Prog. Oceanogr. 160, 186–212 (2018).
[Crossref]

Sullivan, J. M.

P. J. Werdell, L. I. W. McKinna, E. Boss, S. G. Ackleson, S. E. Craig, W. W. Gregg, Z. Lee, S. Maritorena, C. S. Roesler, C. S. Rousseaux, D. Stramski, J. M. Sullivan, M. S. Twardowski, M. Tzortziou, and X. Zhang, “An overview of approaches and challenges for retrieving marine inherent optical properties from ocean color remote sensing,” Prog. Oceanogr. 160, 186–212 (2018).
[Crossref]

Tang, J.

M. Zhang, J. Tang, Q. Song, and Q. Dong, “Backscattering ratio variation and its implications for studying particle composition: A case study in Yellow and East China seas,” J. Geophys. Res. Oceans 115(C12), C12014 (2010).
[Crossref]

Tani, S.

P. Weatherall, K. M. Marks, M. Jakobsson, T. Schmitt, S. Tani, E. Arndt Jan, M. Rovere, D. Chayes, V. Ferrini, and R. Wigley, “A new digital bathymetric model of the world’s oceans,” Earth and Space Science 2(8), 331–345 (2015).
[Crossref]

Tin, H.

R. Garcia, J. Hedley, H. Tin, and P. Fearns, “A Method to Analyze the Potential of Optical Remote Sensing for Benthic Habitat Mapping,” Remote Sens. 7(10), 13157–13189 (2015).
[Crossref]

Twardowski, M. S.

P. J. Werdell, L. I. W. McKinna, E. Boss, S. G. Ackleson, S. E. Craig, W. W. Gregg, Z. Lee, S. Maritorena, C. S. Roesler, C. S. Rousseaux, D. Stramski, J. M. Sullivan, M. S. Twardowski, M. Tzortziou, and X. Zhang, “An overview of approaches and challenges for retrieving marine inherent optical properties from ocean color remote sensing,” Prog. Oceanogr. 160, 186–212 (2018).
[Crossref]

Tzortziou, M.

P. J. Werdell, L. I. W. McKinna, E. Boss, S. G. Ackleson, S. E. Craig, W. W. Gregg, Z. Lee, S. Maritorena, C. S. Roesler, C. S. Rousseaux, D. Stramski, J. M. Sullivan, M. S. Twardowski, M. Tzortziou, and X. Zhang, “An overview of approaches and challenges for retrieving marine inherent optical properties from ocean color remote sensing,” Prog. Oceanogr. 160, 186–212 (2018).
[Crossref]

Weatherall, P.

P. Weatherall, K. M. Marks, M. Jakobsson, T. Schmitt, S. Tani, E. Arndt Jan, M. Rovere, D. Chayes, V. Ferrini, and R. Wigley, “A new digital bathymetric model of the world’s oceans,” Earth and Space Science 2(8), 331–345 (2015).
[Crossref]

Weeks, S.

M. Reichstetter, P. Fearns, S. Weeks, L. McKinna, C. Roelfsema, and M. Furnas, “Bottom reflectance in ocean color satellite remote sensing for coral reef environments,” Remote Sens. 7(12), 16756–16777 (2015).
[Crossref]

Weeks, S. J.

L. I. W. McKinna, P. R. C. Fearns, S. J. Weeks, P. J. Werdell, M. Reichstetter, B. A. Franz, D. M. Shea, and G. C. Feldman, “A semianalytical ocean color inversion algorithm with explicit water-column depth and substrate reflectance parameterization,” J. Geophys. Res. Oceans 120(3), 1741–1770 (2015).
[Crossref]

Werdell, P. J.

P. J. Werdell, L. I. W. McKinna, E. Boss, S. G. Ackleson, S. E. Craig, W. W. Gregg, Z. Lee, S. Maritorena, C. S. Roesler, C. S. Rousseaux, D. Stramski, J. M. Sullivan, M. S. Twardowski, M. Tzortziou, and X. Zhang, “An overview of approaches and challenges for retrieving marine inherent optical properties from ocean color remote sensing,” Prog. Oceanogr. 160, 186–212 (2018).
[Crossref]

L. I. W. McKinna, P. R. C. Fearns, S. J. Weeks, P. J. Werdell, M. Reichstetter, B. A. Franz, D. M. Shea, and G. C. Feldman, “A semianalytical ocean color inversion algorithm with explicit water-column depth and substrate reflectance parameterization,” J. Geophys. Res. Oceans 120(3), 1741–1770 (2015).
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P. J. Werdell, B. A. Franz, S. W. Bailey, G. C. Feldman, E. Boss, V. E. Brando, M. Dowell, T. Hirata, S. J. Lavender, Z. Lee, H. Loisel, S. Maritorena, F. Mélin, T. S. Moore, T. J. Smyth, D. Antoine, E. Devred, O. H. F. d’Andon, and A. Mangin, “Generalized ocean color inversion model for retrieving marine inherent optical properties,” Appl. Opt. 52(10), 2019–2037 (2013).
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S. W. Bailey and P. J. Werdell, “A multi-sensor approach for the on-orbit validation of ocean color satellite data products,” Remote Sens. Environ. 102(1-2), 12–23 (2006).
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Whitmire, A. L.

Wigley, R.

P. Weatherall, K. M. Marks, M. Jakobsson, T. Schmitt, S. Tani, E. Arndt Jan, M. Rovere, D. Chayes, V. Ferrini, and R. Wigley, “A new digital bathymetric model of the world’s oceans,” Earth and Space Science 2(8), 331–345 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zepp, R.

B. B. Barnes, C. Hu, J. P. Cannizzaro, S. E. Craig, P. Hallock, D. L. Jones, J. C. Lehrter, N. Melo, B. A. Schaeffer, and R. Zepp, “Estimation of diffuse attenuation of ultraviolet light in optically shallow Florida Keys waters from MODIS measurements,” Remote Sens. Environ. 140, 519–532 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhang, M.

M. Zhang, J. Tang, Q. Song, and Q. Dong, “Backscattering ratio variation and its implications for studying particle composition: A case study in Yellow and East China seas,” J. Geophys. Res. Oceans 115(C12), C12014 (2010).
[Crossref]

Zhang, X.

P. J. Werdell, L. I. W. McKinna, E. Boss, S. G. Ackleson, S. E. Craig, W. W. Gregg, Z. Lee, S. Maritorena, C. S. Roesler, C. S. Rousseaux, D. Stramski, J. M. Sullivan, M. S. Twardowski, M. Tzortziou, and X. Zhang, “An overview of approaches and challenges for retrieving marine inherent optical properties from ocean color remote sensing,” Prog. Oceanogr. 160, 186–212 (2018).
[Crossref]

Zhao, J.

J. Zhao, B. Barnes, N. Melo, D. English, B. Lapointe, F. Muller-Karger, B. Schaeffer, and C. Hu, “Assessment of satellite-derived diffuse attenuation coefficients and euphotic depths in south Florida coastal waters,” Remote Sens. Environ. 131, 38–50 (2013).
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Z. Lee, K. L. Carder, C. D. Mobley, R. G. Steward, and J. S. Patch, “Hyperspectral remote sensing for shallow waters. 2. Deriving bottom depths and water properties by optimization,” Appl. Opt. 38(18), 3831–3843 (1999).
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Z. Lee and K. L. Carder, “Effect of spectral band numbers on the retrieval of water column and bottom properties from ocean color data,” Appl. Opt. 41(12), 2191–2201 (2002).
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S. Maritorena, D. A. Siegel, and A. R. Peterson, “Optimization of a semianalytical ocean color model for global-scale applications,” Appl. Opt. 41(15), 2705–2714 (2002).
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Z. Lee, K. L. Carder, and R. A. Arnone, “Deriving inherent optical properties from water color: a multiband quasi-analytical algorithm for optically deep waters,” Appl. Opt. 41(27), 5755–5772 (2002).
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T. J. Smyth, G. F. Moore, T. Hirata, and J. Aiken, “Semianalytical model for the derivation of ocean color inherent optical properties: description, implementation, and performance assessment,” Appl. Opt. 45(31), 8116–8131 (2006).
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[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. J. Werdell, B. A. Franz, S. W. Bailey, G. C. Feldman, E. Boss, V. E. Brando, M. Dowell, T. Hirata, S. J. Lavender, Z. Lee, H. Loisel, S. Maritorena, F. Mélin, T. S. Moore, T. J. Smyth, D. Antoine, E. Devred, O. H. F. d’Andon, and A. Mangin, “Generalized ocean color inversion model for retrieving marine inherent optical properties,” Appl. Opt. 52(10), 2019–2037 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aust. J. Earth Sci. (1)

A. R. Orpin, P. V. Ridd, and L. K. Stewart, “Assessment of the relative importance of major sediment transport mechanisms in the central Great Barrier Reef lagoon,” Aust. J. Earth Sci. 46(6), 883–896 (1999).
[Crossref]

Earth and Space Science (1)

P. Weatherall, K. M. Marks, M. Jakobsson, T. Schmitt, S. Tani, E. Arndt Jan, M. Rovere, D. Chayes, V. Ferrini, and R. Wigley, “A new digital bathymetric model of the world’s oceans,” Earth and Space Science 2(8), 331–345 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. (1)

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, and D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 93(D9), 10909–10924 (1988).
[Crossref]

J. Geophys. Res. Oceans (6)

D. Blondeau‐Patissier, V. E. Brando, K. Oubelkheir, A. G. Dekker, L. A. Clementson, and P. Daniel, “Bio‐optical variability of the absorption and scattering properties of the Queensland inshore and reef waters, Australia,” J. Geophys. Res. Oceans 114, C05003 (2009).

M. Zhang, J. Tang, Q. Song, and Q. Dong, “Backscattering ratio variation and its implications for studying particle composition: A case study in Yellow and East China seas,” J. Geophys. Res. Oceans 115(C12), C12014 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. Chami, E. B. Shybanov, T. Y. Churilova, G. A. Khomenko, M. E. G. Lee, O. V. Martynov, G. A. Berseneva, and G. K. Korotaev, “Optical properties of the particles in the Crimea coastal waters (Black Sea),” J. Geophys. Res. Oceans 110(C11), C11020 (2005).
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K. L. Carder, F. R. Chen, Z. P. Lee, S. K. Hawes, and D. Kamykowski, “Semianalytic Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectrometer algorithms for chlorophyll a and absorption with bio-optical domains based on nitrate-depletion temperatures,” J. Geophys. Res. Oceans 104(C3), 5403–5421 (1999).
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L. I. W. McKinna, P. R. C. Fearns, S. J. Weeks, P. J. Werdell, M. Reichstetter, B. A. Franz, D. M. Shea, and G. C. Feldman, “A semianalytical ocean color inversion algorithm with explicit water-column depth and substrate reflectance parameterization,” J. Geophys. Res. Oceans 120(3), 1741–1770 (2015).
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F. E. Hoge and P. E. Lyon, “Satellite retrieval of inherent optical properties by linear matrix inversion of oceanic radiance models: An analysis of model and radiance measurement errors,” J. Geophys. Res. Oceans 101(C7), 16631–16648 (1996).
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S. G. Ackleson, “Light in shallow waters: A brief research review,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 48(1part2), 323–328 (2003).
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A. G. Dekker, S. R. Phinn, J. Anstee, P. Bissett, E. Brando Vittorio, B. Casey, P. Fearns, J. Hedley, W. Klonowski, Z. Lee, P. M. Lynch, M. Lyons, C. Mobley, and C. Roelfsema, “Intercomparison of shallow water bathymetry, hydro-optics, and benthos mapping techniques in Australian and Caribbean coastal environments,” Limnol. Oceanogr. Methods 9(9), 396–425 (2011).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (1)

Prog. Oceanogr. (1)

P. J. Werdell, L. I. W. McKinna, E. Boss, S. G. Ackleson, S. E. Craig, W. W. Gregg, Z. Lee, S. Maritorena, C. S. Roesler, C. S. Rousseaux, D. Stramski, J. M. Sullivan, M. S. Twardowski, M. Tzortziou, and X. Zhang, “An overview of approaches and challenges for retrieving marine inherent optical properties from ocean color remote sensing,” Prog. Oceanogr. 160, 186–212 (2018).
[Crossref]

Remote Sens. (2)

R. Garcia, J. Hedley, H. Tin, and P. Fearns, “A Method to Analyze the Potential of Optical Remote Sensing for Benthic Habitat Mapping,” Remote Sens. 7(10), 13157–13189 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Reichstetter, P. Fearns, S. Weeks, L. McKinna, C. Roelfsema, and M. Furnas, “Bottom reflectance in ocean color satellite remote sensing for coral reef environments,” Remote Sens. 7(12), 16756–16777 (2015).
[Crossref]

Remote Sens. Environ. (7)

S. W. Bailey and P. J. Werdell, “A multi-sensor approach for the on-orbit validation of ocean color satellite data products,” Remote Sens. Environ. 102(1-2), 12–23 (2006).
[Crossref]

E. J. Hochberg, M. J. Atkinson, and S. Andréfouët, “Spectral reflectance of coral reef bottom-types worldwide and implications for coral reef remote sensing,” Remote Sens. Environ. 85(2), 159–173 (2003).
[Crossref]

B. B. Barnes, C. Hu, B. A. Schaeffer, Z. Lee, D. A. Palandro, and J. C. Lehrter, “MODIS-derived spatiotemporal water clarity patterns in optically shallow Florida Keys waters: A new approach to remove bottom contamination,” Remote Sens. Environ. 134, 377–391 (2013).
[Crossref]

B. B. Barnes, C. Hu, J. P. Cannizzaro, S. E. Craig, P. Hallock, D. L. Jones, J. C. Lehrter, N. Melo, B. A. Schaeffer, and R. Zepp, “Estimation of diffuse attenuation of ultraviolet light in optically shallow Florida Keys waters from MODIS measurements,” Remote Sens. Environ. 140, 519–532 (2014).
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J. P. Cannizzaro and K. L. Carder, “Estimating chlorophyll a concentrations from remote-sensing reflectance in optically shallow waters,” Remote Sens. Environ. 101(1), 13–24 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. Zhao, B. Barnes, N. Melo, D. English, B. Lapointe, F. Muller-Karger, B. Schaeffer, and C. Hu, “Assessment of satellite-derived diffuse attenuation coefficients and euphotic depths in south Florida coastal waters,” Remote Sens. Environ. 131, 38–50 (2013).
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B. B. Barnes, R. Garcia, C. Hu, and Z. Lee, “Multi-band spectral matching inversion algorithm to derive water column properties in optically shallow waters: An optimization of parameterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 204, 424–438 (2018).
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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) A MODISA quasi true-color image of the region surrounding the island of Jamaica. The island of Jamaica has been masked over in grey and the shallow Pedro Bank appears as the milky-colored feature to the southwest of the island. (b) A bathymetry map of the region. (c) Derived chlorophyll-a concentration showing anomalously high values over the shallow Pedro Bank.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Relative contribution, RC, of benthic albedo to the total remote-sensing reflectance signal at MODISA sensor bands. Top, middle, bottom rows correspond to sand, coral, and seagrass albedos, respectively. Subplots (left-to-right) correspond to bands centered on 412, 443, 488, 531, 547, and 667 nm, respectively. Vertical axes are geometric depth (3-50 m), horizontal axes (log-scaled) are beam attenuation coefficients (0.13-1.5 m−1). Grey lines are optical depth contours.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Relative difference, RD, between optically deep and optically shallow remote-sensing reflectances at MODISA sensor bands. Top, middle, bottom rows correspond to sand, coral, and seagrass albedos, respectively. Subplots (left-to-right) correspond to bands centered on 412, 443, 488, 531, 547, and 667 nm, respectively. Vertical axes are geometric depth (3-50 m), horizontal axes (log-scaled) are beam attenuation coefficients (0.13-1.5 m-1). Grey lines are optical depth contours.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Scatter plots of RC(547) versus ζ(547) for sand, coral and seagrass benthic albedos, with a logistic curve shown in red.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Scatter plots of RD(547) versus ζ(547) for sand, coral and seagrass benthic albedos, with a hyperbolic cosecant function shown in in red.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Scatter plot of estimated ζ(547) versus actual values. Metrics included in the figure are the coefficient of determination (R2), root mean square error (RMSE), and regression slope (SLOPE) and intercept (INT). The one-to-one line is colored red, and the blue lines denote the ζ(547) threshold value of 20 beyond which the water column is deemed optically deep.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Top row: shelf bathymetry of the northern Great Barrier Reef, Australia, from ETOPO1 (left), GEBCO (center), and 3DGRB (right) datasets. Bottom row: the OPSHAL flag derived using ETOPO1 (left), GEBCO (center), and 3DGBR (right) for a MODISA scene captured on 22 May 2009. Note: dark blue color denotes offshore waters where the bathymetry exceeds 50 m.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Left-hand column shows MODISA true color imagery of the northern Great Barrier Reef, Australia captured on four different dates spanning two weeks. Central column: MODISA imagery with optically shallow pixels colored orange. Clouds over water or pixels with invalid values of Rrs(667) (e.g. negative or atmospheric correction failure) values are colored red. Black ellipses indicate non-flagged pixels that lie parallel to the coast. Right-hand column: daily-averaged wind speed and direction measured by the AIMS weather station located on Lizard Island.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Right-hand side shows the frequency of MODISA pixels flagged by OPSHAL for the year of 2015. Left-hand side shows the spatial extent of the temporally invariant COASTZ flag. Gray pixels indicate land, black pixel indicate non-shelf pixels (bathymetry > 200 m), and white patches indicate non-flagged pixels.

Tables (4)

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Table 1 Hydrolight-Ecolight radiative transfer code parameterization specifics

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Table 2 Specifications of bathymetry datasets tested as inputs to the optically shallow flag

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Table 3 Threshold values of ζ(547) as RC(547) and RD(547) vary

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Table 4 Number of pixels flagged as optically shallow for varying bathymetry datasets.

Equations (6)

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ζ(λ)= 0 z c(λ, z )d z .
ζ(λ)=c(λ)Δz.
RC=[ R rs,Ref (λ) R rs,Blk (λ) R rs,Ref (λ) ]×100%.
RD=[ R rs,Ref (λ) R rs,Deep (λ) R rs,Deep (λ) ]×100%.
c(547)=a(547)+ b bp (547)/ η p + b bw (547)/ η w .
ζ E (547)=c(547)Δz.

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