Abstract

We propose and demonstrate a 64-channel event-driven encoder based on single-flux quantum (SFQ) circuits for application to a multi-pixel superconducting nanowire single-photon detector (SSPD) system. Multi-pixel SSPD systems were developed to improve maximum count rates and realize ultra-sensitive imaging systems. An intelligent signal processor is required, which we designed based on SFQ circuits. We were able to obtain an address based on the reserve timing information for the photon detection that occurs in the SSPD, as well as read the time-tagged address information for the SSPDs through the SFQ encoder. The overall observed FWHM jitter was 56.5 ps.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  19. A. Kirmani, D. Venkatraman, D. Shin, A. Colaço, F. N. C. Wong, J. H. Shapiro, and V. K. Goyal, “First-Photon Imaging,” Science 343(6166), 58–61 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  20. H. Terai, Z. Wang, Y. Hishimoto, S. Yorozu, A. Fujimaki, and N. Yoshikawa, “Timing jitter measurement of single-flux-quantum pulse in Josephson transmission line,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(12), 2133–2135 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  21. M. Terabe, A. Sekiya, T. Yamada, and A. Fujimaki, “Timing jitter measurement in single-flux-quantum circuits based on time-to-digital converters with high time-resolution,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 17(2), 552–555 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  22. T. Ortlepp and F. H. Uhlmann, “Technology related timing jitter in superconducting electronics,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 17(2), 534–537 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  23. H. Terai, T. Yamashita, S. Miki, K. Makise, and Z. Wang, “Low-jitter single flux quantum signal readout from superconducting single photon detector,” Opt. Express 20(18), 20115–20123 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  24. S. Miyajima, S. Miki, M. Yabuno, T. Yamashita, and H. Terai, “Timing discriminator based on single-flux-quantum circuit toward high time-resolved photon detection,” Supercond. Sci. Technol. 30(12), 12LT01 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  25. S. Nagasawa, Y. Hashimoto, H. Numata, and S. Tahara, “A 380 ps, 9.5 mW Josephson 4-Kbit RAM operated at a high bit yield,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 5(2), 2447–2452 (1995).
    [Crossref]
  26. S. Yorozu, Y. Kameda, H. Terai, A. Fujimaki, T. Yamada, and S. Tahara, “A single flux quantum standard logic cell library,” Physica C 378–381, 1471–1474 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  27. E. A. Dauler, M. E. Grein, A. J. Kerman, F. Marsili, S. Miki, S. W. Nam, M. D. Shaw, H. Terai, V. B. Verma, and T. Yamashita, “Review of superconducting nanowire single-photon detector system design options and demonstrated performance,” Opt. Eng. 53(8), 081907 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  28. J. C. Bardin, P. Ravindran, S.-W. Chang, R. Kumar, J. A. Stern, M. D. Shaw, D. S. Russell, and W. H. Farr, “A high-speed cryogenic SiGe channel combiner IC for large photon-starved SNSPD array,” in Proc. IEEE Bipolar/BiCMOS Circuits and Technology Meeting, (IEEE, 2013), pp. 215–218.
    [Crossref]
  29. S. Miki, T. Yamashita, Z. Wang, and H. Terai, “A 64-pixel NbTiN superconducting nanowire single-photon detector array for spatially resolved photon detection,” Opt. Express 22(7), 7811–7820 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  30. H. Terai, Y. Kameda, S. Yorozu, A. Fujimaki, and Z. Wang, “The effects of DC bias current in large-scale SFQ circuits,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 13(2), 502–506 (2003).
    [Crossref]

2018 (1)

M. O’Toole, D. B. Lindell, and G. Wetzstein, “Confocal non-line-of-sight imaging based on the light-cone transform,” Nature 555(7696), 338–341 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2017 (3)

S. Miyajima, S. Miki, M. Yabuno, T. Yamashita, and H. Terai, “Timing discriminator based on single-flux-quantum circuit toward high time-resolved photon detection,” Supercond. Sci. Technol. 30(12), 12LT01 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Doerner, A. Kuzmin, S. Wuensch, I. Charaev, F. Boes, T. Zwick, and M. Siegel, “Frequency-multiplexed bias and readout of a 16-pixel superconducting nanowire single-photon detector array,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(3), 032603 (2017).
[Crossref]

Q.-Y. Zhao, D. Zhu, N. Calandri, A. E. Dane, A. N. McCaughan, F. Bellei, H.-Z. Wang, D. G. Santavicca, and K. K. Berggren, “Single-photon imager based on a superconducting nanowire delay line,” Nat. Photonics 11(4), 247–251 (2017).
[Crossref]

2015 (1)

M. S. Allman, V. B. Verma, M. Stevens, T. Gerrits, R. D. Horansky, A. E. Lita, F. Marsili, A. Beyer, M. D. Shaw, D. Kumor, R. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “A near-infrared 64-pixel superconducting nanowire single photon detector array with integrated multiplexed readout,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(19), 192601 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (4)

V. B. Verma, R. Horansky, F. Marsili, J. A. Stern, M. D. Shaw, A. E. Lita, R. P. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “A four-pixel single-photon pulse-position array fabricated from WSi superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(5), 051115 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Kirmani, D. Venkatraman, D. Shin, A. Colaço, F. N. C. Wong, J. H. Shapiro, and V. K. Goyal, “First-Photon Imaging,” Science 343(6166), 58–61 (2014).
[Crossref]

E. A. Dauler, M. E. Grein, A. J. Kerman, F. Marsili, S. Miki, S. W. Nam, M. D. Shaw, H. Terai, V. B. Verma, and T. Yamashita, “Review of superconducting nanowire single-photon detector system design options and demonstrated performance,” Opt. Eng. 53(8), 081907 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Miki, T. Yamashita, Z. Wang, and H. Terai, “A 64-pixel NbTiN superconducting nanowire single-photon detector array for spatially resolved photon detection,” Opt. Express 22(7), 7811–7820 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (2)

M. Hofherr, M. Arndt, K. Il’in, D. Henrich, M. Siegel, J. Toussaint, T. May, and H.-G. Meyer, “Time-tagged multiplexing of serially biased superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 23(3), 2501205 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. McCarthy, N. J. Krichel, N. R. Gemmell, X. Ren, M. G. Tanner, S. N. Dorenbos, V. Zwiller, R. H. Hadfield, and G. S. Buller, “Kilometer-range, high resolution depth imaging via 1560 nm wavelength single-photon detection,” Opt. Express 21(7), 8904–8915 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (2)

2011 (1)

B. Baek, A. E. Lita, V. Verma, and S. W. Nam, “Superconducting a-WxSi1-x nanowire single-photon detector with saturated internal quantum efficiency from visible to 1850 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(25), 251105 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

H. Terai, S. Miki, T. Yamashita, K. Makise, and Z. Wang, “Demonstration of single-flux-quantum readout operation for superconducting single-photon detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(11), 112510 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

R. D. Younger, K. A. McIntosh, J. W. Chludzinski, D. C. Oakley, L. J. Mahoney, J. E. Funk, J. P. Donnelly, and S. Verghese, “Crosstalk Analysis of Integrated Geiger-mode Avalanche Photodiode Focal Plane Arrays,” Proc. SPIE 7320, 73200Q (2009).
[Crossref]

R. H. Hadfield, “Single-photon detectors for optical quantum information applications,” Nat. Photonics 3(12), 696–705 (2009).
[Crossref]

2007 (3)

Z. L. Yuan, B. E. Kardynal, A. W. Sharpe, and A. J. Shields, “High speed single photon detection in the near infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(4), 041114 (2007).

M. Terabe, A. Sekiya, T. Yamada, and A. Fujimaki, “Timing jitter measurement in single-flux-quantum circuits based on time-to-digital converters with high time-resolution,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 17(2), 552–555 (2007).
[Crossref]

T. Ortlepp and F. H. Uhlmann, “Technology related timing jitter in superconducting electronics,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 17(2), 534–537 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

2005 (1)

A. N. Otte, J. Barral, B. Dolgoshein, J. Hose, S. Klemin, E. Lorenz, R. Mirzoyan, E. Popova, and M. Teshima, “A test of silicon photomultipliers as readout for PET,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 545(3), 705–715 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

H. Terai, Z. Wang, Y. Hishimoto, S. Yorozu, A. Fujimaki, and N. Yoshikawa, “Timing jitter measurement of single-flux-quantum pulse in Josephson transmission line,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(12), 2133–2135 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

H. Terai, Y. Kameda, S. Yorozu, A. Fujimaki, and Z. Wang, “The effects of DC bias current in large-scale SFQ circuits,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 13(2), 502–506 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

S. Yorozu, Y. Kameda, H. Terai, A. Fujimaki, T. Yamada, and S. Tahara, “A single flux quantum standard logic cell library,” Physica C 378–381, 1471–1474 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (2)

L. Struder, U. Briel, K. Dennerl, R. Hartmann, E. Kendziorra, N. Meidinger, E. Pfeffermann, C. Reppin, B. Schenbach, W. Bornemann, H. Brauninger, W. Burkert, M. Elender, M. Freyberg, F. Haberl, G. Hartner, F. Heuschmann, H. Hippmann, E. Kastelic, S. Kemmer, G. Kettenring, W. Kink, N. Krause, S. Muller, A. Oppitz, W. Pietsch, M. Popp, P. Predehl, A. Read, K. H. Stephan, D. Stotter, J. Trumper, P. Holl, J. Kemmer, H. Soltau, R. Stotter, U. Weber, U. Weichert, C. von Zanthier, D. Carathanassis, G. Lutz, R. H. Richter, P. Solc, H. Bottcher, M. Kuster, R. Staubert, A. Abbey, A. Holland, M. Turner, M. Balasini, G. F. Bignami, N. La Palombara, G. Villa, W. Buttler, F. Gianini, R. Laine, D. Lumb, and P. Dhez, “The European Photon Imaging Camera on XMM-Newton: The pn-CCD camera,” Astron. Astrophys. 365(1), L18–L26 (2001).

G. N. Gol’tsman, O. Okunev, G. Chulkova, A. Lipatov, A. Semenov, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, A. Dzardanov, C. Williams, and R. Sobolewski, “Picosecond superconducting single-photon optical detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(6), 705–707 (2001).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

S. Nagasawa, Y. Hashimoto, H. Numata, and S. Tahara, “A 380 ps, 9.5 mW Josephson 4-Kbit RAM operated at a high bit yield,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 5(2), 2447–2452 (1995).
[Crossref]

1991 (1)

K. K. Likharev and V. K. Semenov, “RSFQ logic/memory family: A new Josephson-junction technology for sub-teraherts-clock-frequency digital systems,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 1(1), 3–28 (1991).
[Crossref]

Abbey, A.

L. Struder, U. Briel, K. Dennerl, R. Hartmann, E. Kendziorra, N. Meidinger, E. Pfeffermann, C. Reppin, B. Schenbach, W. Bornemann, H. Brauninger, W. Burkert, M. Elender, M. Freyberg, F. Haberl, G. Hartner, F. Heuschmann, H. Hippmann, E. Kastelic, S. Kemmer, G. Kettenring, W. Kink, N. Krause, S. Muller, A. Oppitz, W. Pietsch, M. Popp, P. Predehl, A. Read, K. H. Stephan, D. Stotter, J. Trumper, P. Holl, J. Kemmer, H. Soltau, R. Stotter, U. Weber, U. Weichert, C. von Zanthier, D. Carathanassis, G. Lutz, R. H. Richter, P. Solc, H. Bottcher, M. Kuster, R. Staubert, A. Abbey, A. Holland, M. Turner, M. Balasini, G. F. Bignami, N. La Palombara, G. Villa, W. Buttler, F. Gianini, R. Laine, D. Lumb, and P. Dhez, “The European Photon Imaging Camera on XMM-Newton: The pn-CCD camera,” Astron. Astrophys. 365(1), L18–L26 (2001).

Allman, M. S.

M. S. Allman, V. B. Verma, M. Stevens, T. Gerrits, R. D. Horansky, A. E. Lita, F. Marsili, A. Beyer, M. D. Shaw, D. Kumor, R. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “A near-infrared 64-pixel superconducting nanowire single photon detector array with integrated multiplexed readout,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(19), 192601 (2015).
[Crossref]

Arndt, M.

M. Hofherr, M. Arndt, K. Il’in, D. Henrich, M. Siegel, J. Toussaint, T. May, and H.-G. Meyer, “Time-tagged multiplexing of serially biased superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 23(3), 2501205 (2013).
[Crossref]

Baek, B.

B. Baek, A. E. Lita, V. Verma, and S. W. Nam, “Superconducting a-WxSi1-x nanowire single-photon detector with saturated internal quantum efficiency from visible to 1850 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(25), 251105 (2011).
[Crossref]

Balasini, M.

L. Struder, U. Briel, K. Dennerl, R. Hartmann, E. Kendziorra, N. Meidinger, E. Pfeffermann, C. Reppin, B. Schenbach, W. Bornemann, H. Brauninger, W. Burkert, M. Elender, M. Freyberg, F. Haberl, G. Hartner, F. Heuschmann, H. Hippmann, E. Kastelic, S. Kemmer, G. Kettenring, W. Kink, N. Krause, S. Muller, A. Oppitz, W. Pietsch, M. Popp, P. Predehl, A. Read, K. H. Stephan, D. Stotter, J. Trumper, P. Holl, J. Kemmer, H. Soltau, R. Stotter, U. Weber, U. Weichert, C. von Zanthier, D. Carathanassis, G. Lutz, R. H. Richter, P. Solc, H. Bottcher, M. Kuster, R. Staubert, A. Abbey, A. Holland, M. Turner, M. Balasini, G. F. Bignami, N. La Palombara, G. Villa, W. Buttler, F. Gianini, R. Laine, D. Lumb, and P. Dhez, “The European Photon Imaging Camera on XMM-Newton: The pn-CCD camera,” Astron. Astrophys. 365(1), L18–L26 (2001).

Bardin, J. C.

J. C. Bardin, P. Ravindran, S.-W. Chang, R. Kumar, J. A. Stern, M. D. Shaw, D. S. Russell, and W. H. Farr, “A high-speed cryogenic SiGe channel combiner IC for large photon-starved SNSPD array,” in Proc. IEEE Bipolar/BiCMOS Circuits and Technology Meeting, (IEEE, 2013), pp. 215–218.
[Crossref]

Barral, J.

A. N. Otte, J. Barral, B. Dolgoshein, J. Hose, S. Klemin, E. Lorenz, R. Mirzoyan, E. Popova, and M. Teshima, “A test of silicon photomultipliers as readout for PET,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 545(3), 705–715 (2005).
[Crossref]

Barron, R. J.

Bellei, F.

Q.-Y. Zhao, D. Zhu, N. Calandri, A. E. Dane, A. N. McCaughan, F. Bellei, H.-Z. Wang, D. G. Santavicca, and K. K. Berggren, “Single-photon imager based on a superconducting nanowire delay line,” Nat. Photonics 11(4), 247–251 (2017).
[Crossref]

Berggren, K. K.

Q.-Y. Zhao, D. Zhu, N. Calandri, A. E. Dane, A. N. McCaughan, F. Bellei, H.-Z. Wang, D. G. Santavicca, and K. K. Berggren, “Single-photon imager based on a superconducting nanowire delay line,” Nat. Photonics 11(4), 247–251 (2017).
[Crossref]

B. S. Robinson, A. J. Kerman, E. A. Dauler, R. J. Barron, D. O. Caplan, M. L. Stevens, J. J. Carney, S. A. Hamilton, J. K. W. Yang, and K. K. Berggren, “781 Mbit/s photon-counting optical communications using a superconducting nanowire detector,” Opt. Lett. 31(4), 444–446 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Beyer, A.

M. S. Allman, V. B. Verma, M. Stevens, T. Gerrits, R. D. Horansky, A. E. Lita, F. Marsili, A. Beyer, M. D. Shaw, D. Kumor, R. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “A near-infrared 64-pixel superconducting nanowire single photon detector array with integrated multiplexed readout,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(19), 192601 (2015).
[Crossref]

Bignami, G. F.

L. Struder, U. Briel, K. Dennerl, R. Hartmann, E. Kendziorra, N. Meidinger, E. Pfeffermann, C. Reppin, B. Schenbach, W. Bornemann, H. Brauninger, W. Burkert, M. Elender, M. Freyberg, F. Haberl, G. Hartner, F. Heuschmann, H. Hippmann, E. Kastelic, S. Kemmer, G. Kettenring, W. Kink, N. Krause, S. Muller, A. Oppitz, W. Pietsch, M. Popp, P. Predehl, A. Read, K. H. Stephan, D. Stotter, J. Trumper, P. Holl, J. Kemmer, H. Soltau, R. Stotter, U. Weber, U. Weichert, C. von Zanthier, D. Carathanassis, G. Lutz, R. H. Richter, P. Solc, H. Bottcher, M. Kuster, R. Staubert, A. Abbey, A. Holland, M. Turner, M. Balasini, G. F. Bignami, N. La Palombara, G. Villa, W. Buttler, F. Gianini, R. Laine, D. Lumb, and P. Dhez, “The European Photon Imaging Camera on XMM-Newton: The pn-CCD camera,” Astron. Astrophys. 365(1), L18–L26 (2001).

Boes, F.

S. Doerner, A. Kuzmin, S. Wuensch, I. Charaev, F. Boes, T. Zwick, and M. Siegel, “Frequency-multiplexed bias and readout of a 16-pixel superconducting nanowire single-photon detector array,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(3), 032603 (2017).
[Crossref]

Bornemann, W.

L. Struder, U. Briel, K. Dennerl, R. Hartmann, E. Kendziorra, N. Meidinger, E. Pfeffermann, C. Reppin, B. Schenbach, W. Bornemann, H. Brauninger, W. Burkert, M. Elender, M. Freyberg, F. Haberl, G. Hartner, F. Heuschmann, H. Hippmann, E. Kastelic, S. Kemmer, G. Kettenring, W. Kink, N. Krause, S. Muller, A. Oppitz, W. Pietsch, M. Popp, P. Predehl, A. Read, K. H. Stephan, D. Stotter, J. Trumper, P. Holl, J. Kemmer, H. Soltau, R. Stotter, U. Weber, U. Weichert, C. von Zanthier, D. Carathanassis, G. Lutz, R. H. Richter, P. Solc, H. Bottcher, M. Kuster, R. Staubert, A. Abbey, A. Holland, M. Turner, M. Balasini, G. F. Bignami, N. La Palombara, G. Villa, W. Buttler, F. Gianini, R. Laine, D. Lumb, and P. Dhez, “The European Photon Imaging Camera on XMM-Newton: The pn-CCD camera,” Astron. Astrophys. 365(1), L18–L26 (2001).

Bottcher, H.

L. Struder, U. Briel, K. Dennerl, R. Hartmann, E. Kendziorra, N. Meidinger, E. Pfeffermann, C. Reppin, B. Schenbach, W. Bornemann, H. Brauninger, W. Burkert, M. Elender, M. Freyberg, F. Haberl, G. Hartner, F. Heuschmann, H. Hippmann, E. Kastelic, S. Kemmer, G. Kettenring, W. Kink, N. Krause, S. Muller, A. Oppitz, W. Pietsch, M. Popp, P. Predehl, A. Read, K. H. Stephan, D. Stotter, J. Trumper, P. Holl, J. Kemmer, H. Soltau, R. Stotter, U. Weber, U. Weichert, C. von Zanthier, D. Carathanassis, G. Lutz, R. H. Richter, P. Solc, H. Bottcher, M. Kuster, R. Staubert, A. Abbey, A. Holland, M. Turner, M. Balasini, G. F. Bignami, N. La Palombara, G. Villa, W. Buttler, F. Gianini, R. Laine, D. Lumb, and P. Dhez, “The European Photon Imaging Camera on XMM-Newton: The pn-CCD camera,” Astron. Astrophys. 365(1), L18–L26 (2001).

Brauninger, H.

L. Struder, U. Briel, K. Dennerl, R. Hartmann, E. Kendziorra, N. Meidinger, E. Pfeffermann, C. Reppin, B. Schenbach, W. Bornemann, H. Brauninger, W. Burkert, M. Elender, M. Freyberg, F. Haberl, G. Hartner, F. Heuschmann, H. Hippmann, E. Kastelic, S. Kemmer, G. Kettenring, W. Kink, N. Krause, S. Muller, A. Oppitz, W. Pietsch, M. Popp, P. Predehl, A. Read, K. H. Stephan, D. Stotter, J. Trumper, P. Holl, J. Kemmer, H. Soltau, R. Stotter, U. Weber, U. Weichert, C. von Zanthier, D. Carathanassis, G. Lutz, R. H. Richter, P. Solc, H. Bottcher, M. Kuster, R. Staubert, A. Abbey, A. Holland, M. Turner, M. Balasini, G. F. Bignami, N. La Palombara, G. Villa, W. Buttler, F. Gianini, R. Laine, D. Lumb, and P. Dhez, “The European Photon Imaging Camera on XMM-Newton: The pn-CCD camera,” Astron. Astrophys. 365(1), L18–L26 (2001).

Briel, U.

L. Struder, U. Briel, K. Dennerl, R. Hartmann, E. Kendziorra, N. Meidinger, E. Pfeffermann, C. Reppin, B. Schenbach, W. Bornemann, H. Brauninger, W. Burkert, M. Elender, M. Freyberg, F. Haberl, G. Hartner, F. Heuschmann, H. Hippmann, E. Kastelic, S. Kemmer, G. Kettenring, W. Kink, N. Krause, S. Muller, A. Oppitz, W. Pietsch, M. Popp, P. Predehl, A. Read, K. H. Stephan, D. Stotter, J. Trumper, P. Holl, J. Kemmer, H. Soltau, R. Stotter, U. Weber, U. Weichert, C. von Zanthier, D. Carathanassis, G. Lutz, R. H. Richter, P. Solc, H. Bottcher, M. Kuster, R. Staubert, A. Abbey, A. Holland, M. Turner, M. Balasini, G. F. Bignami, N. La Palombara, G. Villa, W. Buttler, F. Gianini, R. Laine, D. Lumb, and P. Dhez, “The European Photon Imaging Camera on XMM-Newton: The pn-CCD camera,” Astron. Astrophys. 365(1), L18–L26 (2001).

Buller, G. S.

Burkert, W.

L. Struder, U. Briel, K. Dennerl, R. Hartmann, E. Kendziorra, N. Meidinger, E. Pfeffermann, C. Reppin, B. Schenbach, W. Bornemann, H. Brauninger, W. Burkert, M. Elender, M. Freyberg, F. Haberl, G. Hartner, F. Heuschmann, H. Hippmann, E. Kastelic, S. Kemmer, G. Kettenring, W. Kink, N. Krause, S. Muller, A. Oppitz, W. Pietsch, M. Popp, P. Predehl, A. Read, K. H. Stephan, D. Stotter, J. Trumper, P. Holl, J. Kemmer, H. Soltau, R. Stotter, U. Weber, U. Weichert, C. von Zanthier, D. Carathanassis, G. Lutz, R. H. Richter, P. Solc, H. Bottcher, M. Kuster, R. Staubert, A. Abbey, A. Holland, M. Turner, M. Balasini, G. F. Bignami, N. La Palombara, G. Villa, W. Buttler, F. Gianini, R. Laine, D. Lumb, and P. Dhez, “The European Photon Imaging Camera on XMM-Newton: The pn-CCD camera,” Astron. Astrophys. 365(1), L18–L26 (2001).

Buttler, W.

L. Struder, U. Briel, K. Dennerl, R. Hartmann, E. Kendziorra, N. Meidinger, E. Pfeffermann, C. Reppin, B. Schenbach, W. Bornemann, H. Brauninger, W. Burkert, M. Elender, M. Freyberg, F. Haberl, G. Hartner, F. Heuschmann, H. Hippmann, E. Kastelic, S. Kemmer, G. Kettenring, W. Kink, N. Krause, S. Muller, A. Oppitz, W. Pietsch, M. Popp, P. Predehl, A. Read, K. H. Stephan, D. Stotter, J. Trumper, P. Holl, J. Kemmer, H. Soltau, R. Stotter, U. Weber, U. Weichert, C. von Zanthier, D. Carathanassis, G. Lutz, R. H. Richter, P. Solc, H. Bottcher, M. Kuster, R. Staubert, A. Abbey, A. Holland, M. Turner, M. Balasini, G. F. Bignami, N. La Palombara, G. Villa, W. Buttler, F. Gianini, R. Laine, D. Lumb, and P. Dhez, “The European Photon Imaging Camera on XMM-Newton: The pn-CCD camera,” Astron. Astrophys. 365(1), L18–L26 (2001).

Calandri, N.

Q.-Y. Zhao, D. Zhu, N. Calandri, A. E. Dane, A. N. McCaughan, F. Bellei, H.-Z. Wang, D. G. Santavicca, and K. K. Berggren, “Single-photon imager based on a superconducting nanowire delay line,” Nat. Photonics 11(4), 247–251 (2017).
[Crossref]

Caplan, D. O.

Carathanassis, D.

L. Struder, U. Briel, K. Dennerl, R. Hartmann, E. Kendziorra, N. Meidinger, E. Pfeffermann, C. Reppin, B. Schenbach, W. Bornemann, H. Brauninger, W. Burkert, M. Elender, M. Freyberg, F. Haberl, G. Hartner, F. Heuschmann, H. Hippmann, E. Kastelic, S. Kemmer, G. Kettenring, W. Kink, N. Krause, S. Muller, A. Oppitz, W. Pietsch, M. Popp, P. Predehl, A. Read, K. H. Stephan, D. Stotter, J. Trumper, P. Holl, J. Kemmer, H. Soltau, R. Stotter, U. Weber, U. Weichert, C. von Zanthier, D. Carathanassis, G. Lutz, R. H. Richter, P. Solc, H. Bottcher, M. Kuster, R. Staubert, A. Abbey, A. Holland, M. Turner, M. Balasini, G. F. Bignami, N. La Palombara, G. Villa, W. Buttler, F. Gianini, R. Laine, D. Lumb, and P. Dhez, “The European Photon Imaging Camera on XMM-Newton: The pn-CCD camera,” Astron. Astrophys. 365(1), L18–L26 (2001).

Carney, J. J.

Chang, S.-W.

J. C. Bardin, P. Ravindran, S.-W. Chang, R. Kumar, J. A. Stern, M. D. Shaw, D. S. Russell, and W. H. Farr, “A high-speed cryogenic SiGe channel combiner IC for large photon-starved SNSPD array,” in Proc. IEEE Bipolar/BiCMOS Circuits and Technology Meeting, (IEEE, 2013), pp. 215–218.
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Charaev, I.

S. Doerner, A. Kuzmin, S. Wuensch, I. Charaev, F. Boes, T. Zwick, and M. Siegel, “Frequency-multiplexed bias and readout of a 16-pixel superconducting nanowire single-photon detector array,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(3), 032603 (2017).
[Crossref]

Chludzinski, J. W.

R. D. Younger, K. A. McIntosh, J. W. Chludzinski, D. C. Oakley, L. J. Mahoney, J. E. Funk, J. P. Donnelly, and S. Verghese, “Crosstalk Analysis of Integrated Geiger-mode Avalanche Photodiode Focal Plane Arrays,” Proc. SPIE 7320, 73200Q (2009).
[Crossref]

Chulkova, G.

G. N. Gol’tsman, O. Okunev, G. Chulkova, A. Lipatov, A. Semenov, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, A. Dzardanov, C. Williams, and R. Sobolewski, “Picosecond superconducting single-photon optical detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(6), 705–707 (2001).
[Crossref]

Colaço, A.

A. Kirmani, D. Venkatraman, D. Shin, A. Colaço, F. N. C. Wong, J. H. Shapiro, and V. K. Goyal, “First-Photon Imaging,” Science 343(6166), 58–61 (2014).
[Crossref]

Dane, A. E.

Q.-Y. Zhao, D. Zhu, N. Calandri, A. E. Dane, A. N. McCaughan, F. Bellei, H.-Z. Wang, D. G. Santavicca, and K. K. Berggren, “Single-photon imager based on a superconducting nanowire delay line,” Nat. Photonics 11(4), 247–251 (2017).
[Crossref]

Dauler, E. A.

E. A. Dauler, M. E. Grein, A. J. Kerman, F. Marsili, S. Miki, S. W. Nam, M. D. Shaw, H. Terai, V. B. Verma, and T. Yamashita, “Review of superconducting nanowire single-photon detector system design options and demonstrated performance,” Opt. Eng. 53(8), 081907 (2014).
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B. S. Robinson, A. J. Kerman, E. A. Dauler, R. J. Barron, D. O. Caplan, M. L. Stevens, J. J. Carney, S. A. Hamilton, J. K. W. Yang, and K. K. Berggren, “781 Mbit/s photon-counting optical communications using a superconducting nanowire detector,” Opt. Lett. 31(4), 444–446 (2006).
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Dennerl, K.

L. Struder, U. Briel, K. Dennerl, R. Hartmann, E. Kendziorra, N. Meidinger, E. Pfeffermann, C. Reppin, B. Schenbach, W. Bornemann, H. Brauninger, W. Burkert, M. Elender, M. Freyberg, F. Haberl, G. Hartner, F. Heuschmann, H. Hippmann, E. Kastelic, S. Kemmer, G. Kettenring, W. Kink, N. Krause, S. Muller, A. Oppitz, W. Pietsch, M. Popp, P. Predehl, A. Read, K. H. Stephan, D. Stotter, J. Trumper, P. Holl, J. Kemmer, H. Soltau, R. Stotter, U. Weber, U. Weichert, C. von Zanthier, D. Carathanassis, G. Lutz, R. H. Richter, P. Solc, H. Bottcher, M. Kuster, R. Staubert, A. Abbey, A. Holland, M. Turner, M. Balasini, G. F. Bignami, N. La Palombara, G. Villa, W. Buttler, F. Gianini, R. Laine, D. Lumb, and P. Dhez, “The European Photon Imaging Camera on XMM-Newton: The pn-CCD camera,” Astron. Astrophys. 365(1), L18–L26 (2001).

Dhez, P.

L. Struder, U. Briel, K. Dennerl, R. Hartmann, E. Kendziorra, N. Meidinger, E. Pfeffermann, C. Reppin, B. Schenbach, W. Bornemann, H. Brauninger, W. Burkert, M. Elender, M. Freyberg, F. Haberl, G. Hartner, F. Heuschmann, H. Hippmann, E. Kastelic, S. Kemmer, G. Kettenring, W. Kink, N. Krause, S. Muller, A. Oppitz, W. Pietsch, M. Popp, P. Predehl, A. Read, K. H. Stephan, D. Stotter, J. Trumper, P. Holl, J. Kemmer, H. Soltau, R. Stotter, U. Weber, U. Weichert, C. von Zanthier, D. Carathanassis, G. Lutz, R. H. Richter, P. Solc, H. Bottcher, M. Kuster, R. Staubert, A. Abbey, A. Holland, M. Turner, M. Balasini, G. F. Bignami, N. La Palombara, G. Villa, W. Buttler, F. Gianini, R. Laine, D. Lumb, and P. Dhez, “The European Photon Imaging Camera on XMM-Newton: The pn-CCD camera,” Astron. Astrophys. 365(1), L18–L26 (2001).

Doerner, S.

S. Doerner, A. Kuzmin, S. Wuensch, I. Charaev, F. Boes, T. Zwick, and M. Siegel, “Frequency-multiplexed bias and readout of a 16-pixel superconducting nanowire single-photon detector array,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(3), 032603 (2017).
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Dolgoshein, B.

A. N. Otte, J. Barral, B. Dolgoshein, J. Hose, S. Klemin, E. Lorenz, R. Mirzoyan, E. Popova, and M. Teshima, “A test of silicon photomultipliers as readout for PET,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 545(3), 705–715 (2005).
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Donnelly, J. P.

R. D. Younger, K. A. McIntosh, J. W. Chludzinski, D. C. Oakley, L. J. Mahoney, J. E. Funk, J. P. Donnelly, and S. Verghese, “Crosstalk Analysis of Integrated Geiger-mode Avalanche Photodiode Focal Plane Arrays,” Proc. SPIE 7320, 73200Q (2009).
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Dorenbos, S. N.

Dzardanov, A.

G. N. Gol’tsman, O. Okunev, G. Chulkova, A. Lipatov, A. Semenov, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, A. Dzardanov, C. Williams, and R. Sobolewski, “Picosecond superconducting single-photon optical detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(6), 705–707 (2001).
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Elender, M.

L. Struder, U. Briel, K. Dennerl, R. Hartmann, E. Kendziorra, N. Meidinger, E. Pfeffermann, C. Reppin, B. Schenbach, W. Bornemann, H. Brauninger, W. Burkert, M. Elender, M. Freyberg, F. Haberl, G. Hartner, F. Heuschmann, H. Hippmann, E. Kastelic, S. Kemmer, G. Kettenring, W. Kink, N. Krause, S. Muller, A. Oppitz, W. Pietsch, M. Popp, P. Predehl, A. Read, K. H. Stephan, D. Stotter, J. Trumper, P. Holl, J. Kemmer, H. Soltau, R. Stotter, U. Weber, U. Weichert, C. von Zanthier, D. Carathanassis, G. Lutz, R. H. Richter, P. Solc, H. Bottcher, M. Kuster, R. Staubert, A. Abbey, A. Holland, M. Turner, M. Balasini, G. F. Bignami, N. La Palombara, G. Villa, W. Buttler, F. Gianini, R. Laine, D. Lumb, and P. Dhez, “The European Photon Imaging Camera on XMM-Newton: The pn-CCD camera,” Astron. Astrophys. 365(1), L18–L26 (2001).

Farr, W. H.

J. C. Bardin, P. Ravindran, S.-W. Chang, R. Kumar, J. A. Stern, M. D. Shaw, D. S. Russell, and W. H. Farr, “A high-speed cryogenic SiGe channel combiner IC for large photon-starved SNSPD array,” in Proc. IEEE Bipolar/BiCMOS Circuits and Technology Meeting, (IEEE, 2013), pp. 215–218.
[Crossref]

Freyberg, M.

L. Struder, U. Briel, K. Dennerl, R. Hartmann, E. Kendziorra, N. Meidinger, E. Pfeffermann, C. Reppin, B. Schenbach, W. Bornemann, H. Brauninger, W. Burkert, M. Elender, M. Freyberg, F. Haberl, G. Hartner, F. Heuschmann, H. Hippmann, E. Kastelic, S. Kemmer, G. Kettenring, W. Kink, N. Krause, S. Muller, A. Oppitz, W. Pietsch, M. Popp, P. Predehl, A. Read, K. H. Stephan, D. Stotter, J. Trumper, P. Holl, J. Kemmer, H. Soltau, R. Stotter, U. Weber, U. Weichert, C. von Zanthier, D. Carathanassis, G. Lutz, R. H. Richter, P. Solc, H. Bottcher, M. Kuster, R. Staubert, A. Abbey, A. Holland, M. Turner, M. Balasini, G. F. Bignami, N. La Palombara, G. Villa, W. Buttler, F. Gianini, R. Laine, D. Lumb, and P. Dhez, “The European Photon Imaging Camera on XMM-Newton: The pn-CCD camera,” Astron. Astrophys. 365(1), L18–L26 (2001).

Fujimaki, A.

M. Terabe, A. Sekiya, T. Yamada, and A. Fujimaki, “Timing jitter measurement in single-flux-quantum circuits based on time-to-digital converters with high time-resolution,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 17(2), 552–555 (2007).
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H. Terai, Z. Wang, Y. Hishimoto, S. Yorozu, A. Fujimaki, and N. Yoshikawa, “Timing jitter measurement of single-flux-quantum pulse in Josephson transmission line,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(12), 2133–2135 (2004).
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H. Terai, Y. Kameda, S. Yorozu, A. Fujimaki, and Z. Wang, “The effects of DC bias current in large-scale SFQ circuits,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 13(2), 502–506 (2003).
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S. Yorozu, Y. Kameda, H. Terai, A. Fujimaki, T. Yamada, and S. Tahara, “A single flux quantum standard logic cell library,” Physica C 378–381, 1471–1474 (2002).
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Funk, J. E.

R. D. Younger, K. A. McIntosh, J. W. Chludzinski, D. C. Oakley, L. J. Mahoney, J. E. Funk, J. P. Donnelly, and S. Verghese, “Crosstalk Analysis of Integrated Geiger-mode Avalanche Photodiode Focal Plane Arrays,” Proc. SPIE 7320, 73200Q (2009).
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Gemmell, N. R.

Gerrits, T.

M. S. Allman, V. B. Verma, M. Stevens, T. Gerrits, R. D. Horansky, A. E. Lita, F. Marsili, A. Beyer, M. D. Shaw, D. Kumor, R. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “A near-infrared 64-pixel superconducting nanowire single photon detector array with integrated multiplexed readout,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(19), 192601 (2015).
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Gianini, F.

L. Struder, U. Briel, K. Dennerl, R. Hartmann, E. Kendziorra, N. Meidinger, E. Pfeffermann, C. Reppin, B. Schenbach, W. Bornemann, H. Brauninger, W. Burkert, M. Elender, M. Freyberg, F. Haberl, G. Hartner, F. Heuschmann, H. Hippmann, E. Kastelic, S. Kemmer, G. Kettenring, W. Kink, N. Krause, S. Muller, A. Oppitz, W. Pietsch, M. Popp, P. Predehl, A. Read, K. H. Stephan, D. Stotter, J. Trumper, P. Holl, J. Kemmer, H. Soltau, R. Stotter, U. Weber, U. Weichert, C. von Zanthier, D. Carathanassis, G. Lutz, R. H. Richter, P. Solc, H. Bottcher, M. Kuster, R. Staubert, A. Abbey, A. Holland, M. Turner, M. Balasini, G. F. Bignami, N. La Palombara, G. Villa, W. Buttler, F. Gianini, R. Laine, D. Lumb, and P. Dhez, “The European Photon Imaging Camera on XMM-Newton: The pn-CCD camera,” Astron. Astrophys. 365(1), L18–L26 (2001).

Gol’tsman, G. N.

G. N. Gol’tsman, O. Okunev, G. Chulkova, A. Lipatov, A. Semenov, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, A. Dzardanov, C. Williams, and R. Sobolewski, “Picosecond superconducting single-photon optical detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(6), 705–707 (2001).
[Crossref]

Goyal, V. K.

A. Kirmani, D. Venkatraman, D. Shin, A. Colaço, F. N. C. Wong, J. H. Shapiro, and V. K. Goyal, “First-Photon Imaging,” Science 343(6166), 58–61 (2014).
[Crossref]

Grein, M. E.

E. A. Dauler, M. E. Grein, A. J. Kerman, F. Marsili, S. Miki, S. W. Nam, M. D. Shaw, H. Terai, V. B. Verma, and T. Yamashita, “Review of superconducting nanowire single-photon detector system design options and demonstrated performance,” Opt. Eng. 53(8), 081907 (2014).
[Crossref]

Haberl, F.

L. Struder, U. Briel, K. Dennerl, R. Hartmann, E. Kendziorra, N. Meidinger, E. Pfeffermann, C. Reppin, B. Schenbach, W. Bornemann, H. Brauninger, W. Burkert, M. Elender, M. Freyberg, F. Haberl, G. Hartner, F. Heuschmann, H. Hippmann, E. Kastelic, S. Kemmer, G. Kettenring, W. Kink, N. Krause, S. Muller, A. Oppitz, W. Pietsch, M. Popp, P. Predehl, A. Read, K. H. Stephan, D. Stotter, J. Trumper, P. Holl, J. Kemmer, H. Soltau, R. Stotter, U. Weber, U. Weichert, C. von Zanthier, D. Carathanassis, G. Lutz, R. H. Richter, P. Solc, H. Bottcher, M. Kuster, R. Staubert, A. Abbey, A. Holland, M. Turner, M. Balasini, G. F. Bignami, N. La Palombara, G. Villa, W. Buttler, F. Gianini, R. Laine, D. Lumb, and P. Dhez, “The European Photon Imaging Camera on XMM-Newton: The pn-CCD camera,” Astron. Astrophys. 365(1), L18–L26 (2001).

Hadfield, R. H.

Hamilton, S. A.

Hartmann, R.

L. Struder, U. Briel, K. Dennerl, R. Hartmann, E. Kendziorra, N. Meidinger, E. Pfeffermann, C. Reppin, B. Schenbach, W. Bornemann, H. Brauninger, W. Burkert, M. Elender, M. Freyberg, F. Haberl, G. Hartner, F. Heuschmann, H. Hippmann, E. Kastelic, S. Kemmer, G. Kettenring, W. Kink, N. Krause, S. Muller, A. Oppitz, W. Pietsch, M. Popp, P. Predehl, A. Read, K. H. Stephan, D. Stotter, J. Trumper, P. Holl, J. Kemmer, H. Soltau, R. Stotter, U. Weber, U. Weichert, C. von Zanthier, D. Carathanassis, G. Lutz, R. H. Richter, P. Solc, H. Bottcher, M. Kuster, R. Staubert, A. Abbey, A. Holland, M. Turner, M. Balasini, G. F. Bignami, N. La Palombara, G. Villa, W. Buttler, F. Gianini, R. Laine, D. Lumb, and P. Dhez, “The European Photon Imaging Camera on XMM-Newton: The pn-CCD camera,” Astron. Astrophys. 365(1), L18–L26 (2001).

Hartner, G.

L. Struder, U. Briel, K. Dennerl, R. Hartmann, E. Kendziorra, N. Meidinger, E. Pfeffermann, C. Reppin, B. Schenbach, W. Bornemann, H. Brauninger, W. Burkert, M. Elender, M. Freyberg, F. Haberl, G. Hartner, F. Heuschmann, H. Hippmann, E. Kastelic, S. Kemmer, G. Kettenring, W. Kink, N. Krause, S. Muller, A. Oppitz, W. Pietsch, M. Popp, P. Predehl, A. Read, K. H. Stephan, D. Stotter, J. Trumper, P. Holl, J. Kemmer, H. Soltau, R. Stotter, U. Weber, U. Weichert, C. von Zanthier, D. Carathanassis, G. Lutz, R. H. Richter, P. Solc, H. Bottcher, M. Kuster, R. Staubert, A. Abbey, A. Holland, M. Turner, M. Balasini, G. F. Bignami, N. La Palombara, G. Villa, W. Buttler, F. Gianini, R. Laine, D. Lumb, and P. Dhez, “The European Photon Imaging Camera on XMM-Newton: The pn-CCD camera,” Astron. Astrophys. 365(1), L18–L26 (2001).

Hashimoto, Y.

S. Nagasawa, Y. Hashimoto, H. Numata, and S. Tahara, “A 380 ps, 9.5 mW Josephson 4-Kbit RAM operated at a high bit yield,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 5(2), 2447–2452 (1995).
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Henrich, D.

M. Hofherr, M. Arndt, K. Il’in, D. Henrich, M. Siegel, J. Toussaint, T. May, and H.-G. Meyer, “Time-tagged multiplexing of serially biased superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 23(3), 2501205 (2013).
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Heuschmann, F.

L. Struder, U. Briel, K. Dennerl, R. Hartmann, E. Kendziorra, N. Meidinger, E. Pfeffermann, C. Reppin, B. Schenbach, W. Bornemann, H. Brauninger, W. Burkert, M. Elender, M. Freyberg, F. Haberl, G. Hartner, F. Heuschmann, H. Hippmann, E. Kastelic, S. Kemmer, G. Kettenring, W. Kink, N. Krause, S. Muller, A. Oppitz, W. Pietsch, M. Popp, P. Predehl, A. Read, K. H. Stephan, D. Stotter, J. Trumper, P. Holl, J. Kemmer, H. Soltau, R. Stotter, U. Weber, U. Weichert, C. von Zanthier, D. Carathanassis, G. Lutz, R. H. Richter, P. Solc, H. Bottcher, M. Kuster, R. Staubert, A. Abbey, A. Holland, M. Turner, M. Balasini, G. F. Bignami, N. La Palombara, G. Villa, W. Buttler, F. Gianini, R. Laine, D. Lumb, and P. Dhez, “The European Photon Imaging Camera on XMM-Newton: The pn-CCD camera,” Astron. Astrophys. 365(1), L18–L26 (2001).

Hippmann, H.

L. Struder, U. Briel, K. Dennerl, R. Hartmann, E. Kendziorra, N. Meidinger, E. Pfeffermann, C. Reppin, B. Schenbach, W. Bornemann, H. Brauninger, W. Burkert, M. Elender, M. Freyberg, F. Haberl, G. Hartner, F. Heuschmann, H. Hippmann, E. Kastelic, S. Kemmer, G. Kettenring, W. Kink, N. Krause, S. Muller, A. Oppitz, W. Pietsch, M. Popp, P. Predehl, A. Read, K. H. Stephan, D. Stotter, J. Trumper, P. Holl, J. Kemmer, H. Soltau, R. Stotter, U. Weber, U. Weichert, C. von Zanthier, D. Carathanassis, G. Lutz, R. H. Richter, P. Solc, H. Bottcher, M. Kuster, R. Staubert, A. Abbey, A. Holland, M. Turner, M. Balasini, G. F. Bignami, N. La Palombara, G. Villa, W. Buttler, F. Gianini, R. Laine, D. Lumb, and P. Dhez, “The European Photon Imaging Camera on XMM-Newton: The pn-CCD camera,” Astron. Astrophys. 365(1), L18–L26 (2001).

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L. Struder, U. Briel, K. Dennerl, R. Hartmann, E. Kendziorra, N. Meidinger, E. Pfeffermann, C. Reppin, B. Schenbach, W. Bornemann, H. Brauninger, W. Burkert, M. Elender, M. Freyberg, F. Haberl, G. Hartner, F. Heuschmann, H. Hippmann, E. Kastelic, S. Kemmer, G. Kettenring, W. Kink, N. Krause, S. Muller, A. Oppitz, W. Pietsch, M. Popp, P. Predehl, A. Read, K. H. Stephan, D. Stotter, J. Trumper, P. Holl, J. Kemmer, H. Soltau, R. Stotter, U. Weber, U. Weichert, C. von Zanthier, D. Carathanassis, G. Lutz, R. H. Richter, P. Solc, H. Bottcher, M. Kuster, R. Staubert, A. Abbey, A. Holland, M. Turner, M. Balasini, G. F. Bignami, N. La Palombara, G. Villa, W. Buttler, F. Gianini, R. Laine, D. Lumb, and P. Dhez, “The European Photon Imaging Camera on XMM-Newton: The pn-CCD camera,” Astron. Astrophys. 365(1), L18–L26 (2001).

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L. Struder, U. Briel, K. Dennerl, R. Hartmann, E. Kendziorra, N. Meidinger, E. Pfeffermann, C. Reppin, B. Schenbach, W. Bornemann, H. Brauninger, W. Burkert, M. Elender, M. Freyberg, F. Haberl, G. Hartner, F. Heuschmann, H. Hippmann, E. Kastelic, S. Kemmer, G. Kettenring, W. Kink, N. Krause, S. Muller, A. Oppitz, W. Pietsch, M. Popp, P. Predehl, A. Read, K. H. Stephan, D. Stotter, J. Trumper, P. Holl, J. Kemmer, H. Soltau, R. Stotter, U. Weber, U. Weichert, C. von Zanthier, D. Carathanassis, G. Lutz, R. H. Richter, P. Solc, H. Bottcher, M. Kuster, R. Staubert, A. Abbey, A. Holland, M. Turner, M. Balasini, G. F. Bignami, N. La Palombara, G. Villa, W. Buttler, F. Gianini, R. Laine, D. Lumb, and P. Dhez, “The European Photon Imaging Camera on XMM-Newton: The pn-CCD camera,” Astron. Astrophys. 365(1), L18–L26 (2001).

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Il’in, K.

M. Hofherr, M. Arndt, K. Il’in, D. Henrich, M. Siegel, J. Toussaint, T. May, and H.-G. Meyer, “Time-tagged multiplexing of serially biased superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 23(3), 2501205 (2013).
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L. Struder, U. Briel, K. Dennerl, R. Hartmann, E. Kendziorra, N. Meidinger, E. Pfeffermann, C. Reppin, B. Schenbach, W. Bornemann, H. Brauninger, W. Burkert, M. Elender, M. Freyberg, F. Haberl, G. Hartner, F. Heuschmann, H. Hippmann, E. Kastelic, S. Kemmer, G. Kettenring, W. Kink, N. Krause, S. Muller, A. Oppitz, W. Pietsch, M. Popp, P. Predehl, A. Read, K. H. Stephan, D. Stotter, J. Trumper, P. Holl, J. Kemmer, H. Soltau, R. Stotter, U. Weber, U. Weichert, C. von Zanthier, D. Carathanassis, G. Lutz, R. H. Richter, P. Solc, H. Bottcher, M. Kuster, R. Staubert, A. Abbey, A. Holland, M. Turner, M. Balasini, G. F. Bignami, N. La Palombara, G. Villa, W. Buttler, F. Gianini, R. Laine, D. Lumb, and P. Dhez, “The European Photon Imaging Camera on XMM-Newton: The pn-CCD camera,” Astron. Astrophys. 365(1), L18–L26 (2001).

Kemmer, J.

L. Struder, U. Briel, K. Dennerl, R. Hartmann, E. Kendziorra, N. Meidinger, E. Pfeffermann, C. Reppin, B. Schenbach, W. Bornemann, H. Brauninger, W. Burkert, M. Elender, M. Freyberg, F. Haberl, G. Hartner, F. Heuschmann, H. Hippmann, E. Kastelic, S. Kemmer, G. Kettenring, W. Kink, N. Krause, S. Muller, A. Oppitz, W. Pietsch, M. Popp, P. Predehl, A. Read, K. H. Stephan, D. Stotter, J. Trumper, P. Holl, J. Kemmer, H. Soltau, R. Stotter, U. Weber, U. Weichert, C. von Zanthier, D. Carathanassis, G. Lutz, R. H. Richter, P. Solc, H. Bottcher, M. Kuster, R. Staubert, A. Abbey, A. Holland, M. Turner, M. Balasini, G. F. Bignami, N. La Palombara, G. Villa, W. Buttler, F. Gianini, R. Laine, D. Lumb, and P. Dhez, “The European Photon Imaging Camera on XMM-Newton: The pn-CCD camera,” Astron. Astrophys. 365(1), L18–L26 (2001).

Kemmer, S.

L. Struder, U. Briel, K. Dennerl, R. Hartmann, E. Kendziorra, N. Meidinger, E. Pfeffermann, C. Reppin, B. Schenbach, W. Bornemann, H. Brauninger, W. Burkert, M. Elender, M. Freyberg, F. Haberl, G. Hartner, F. Heuschmann, H. Hippmann, E. Kastelic, S. Kemmer, G. Kettenring, W. Kink, N. Krause, S. Muller, A. Oppitz, W. Pietsch, M. Popp, P. Predehl, A. Read, K. H. Stephan, D. Stotter, J. Trumper, P. Holl, J. Kemmer, H. Soltau, R. Stotter, U. Weber, U. Weichert, C. von Zanthier, D. Carathanassis, G. Lutz, R. H. Richter, P. Solc, H. Bottcher, M. Kuster, R. Staubert, A. Abbey, A. Holland, M. Turner, M. Balasini, G. F. Bignami, N. La Palombara, G. Villa, W. Buttler, F. Gianini, R. Laine, D. Lumb, and P. Dhez, “The European Photon Imaging Camera on XMM-Newton: The pn-CCD camera,” Astron. Astrophys. 365(1), L18–L26 (2001).

Kendziorra, E.

L. Struder, U. Briel, K. Dennerl, R. Hartmann, E. Kendziorra, N. Meidinger, E. Pfeffermann, C. Reppin, B. Schenbach, W. Bornemann, H. Brauninger, W. Burkert, M. Elender, M. Freyberg, F. Haberl, G. Hartner, F. Heuschmann, H. Hippmann, E. Kastelic, S. Kemmer, G. Kettenring, W. Kink, N. Krause, S. Muller, A. Oppitz, W. Pietsch, M. Popp, P. Predehl, A. Read, K. H. Stephan, D. Stotter, J. Trumper, P. Holl, J. Kemmer, H. Soltau, R. Stotter, U. Weber, U. Weichert, C. von Zanthier, D. Carathanassis, G. Lutz, R. H. Richter, P. Solc, H. Bottcher, M. Kuster, R. Staubert, A. Abbey, A. Holland, M. Turner, M. Balasini, G. F. Bignami, N. La Palombara, G. Villa, W. Buttler, F. Gianini, R. Laine, D. Lumb, and P. Dhez, “The European Photon Imaging Camera on XMM-Newton: The pn-CCD camera,” Astron. Astrophys. 365(1), L18–L26 (2001).

Kerman, A. J.

E. A. Dauler, M. E. Grein, A. J. Kerman, F. Marsili, S. Miki, S. W. Nam, M. D. Shaw, H. Terai, V. B. Verma, and T. Yamashita, “Review of superconducting nanowire single-photon detector system design options and demonstrated performance,” Opt. Eng. 53(8), 081907 (2014).
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Kettenring, G.

L. Struder, U. Briel, K. Dennerl, R. Hartmann, E. Kendziorra, N. Meidinger, E. Pfeffermann, C. Reppin, B. Schenbach, W. Bornemann, H. Brauninger, W. Burkert, M. Elender, M. Freyberg, F. Haberl, G. Hartner, F. Heuschmann, H. Hippmann, E. Kastelic, S. Kemmer, G. Kettenring, W. Kink, N. Krause, S. Muller, A. Oppitz, W. Pietsch, M. Popp, P. Predehl, A. Read, K. H. Stephan, D. Stotter, J. Trumper, P. Holl, J. Kemmer, H. Soltau, R. Stotter, U. Weber, U. Weichert, C. von Zanthier, D. Carathanassis, G. Lutz, R. H. Richter, P. Solc, H. Bottcher, M. Kuster, R. Staubert, A. Abbey, A. Holland, M. Turner, M. Balasini, G. F. Bignami, N. La Palombara, G. Villa, W. Buttler, F. Gianini, R. Laine, D. Lumb, and P. Dhez, “The European Photon Imaging Camera on XMM-Newton: The pn-CCD camera,” Astron. Astrophys. 365(1), L18–L26 (2001).

Kink, W.

L. Struder, U. Briel, K. Dennerl, R. Hartmann, E. Kendziorra, N. Meidinger, E. Pfeffermann, C. Reppin, B. Schenbach, W. Bornemann, H. Brauninger, W. Burkert, M. Elender, M. Freyberg, F. Haberl, G. Hartner, F. Heuschmann, H. Hippmann, E. Kastelic, S. Kemmer, G. Kettenring, W. Kink, N. Krause, S. Muller, A. Oppitz, W. Pietsch, M. Popp, P. Predehl, A. Read, K. H. Stephan, D. Stotter, J. Trumper, P. Holl, J. Kemmer, H. Soltau, R. Stotter, U. Weber, U. Weichert, C. von Zanthier, D. Carathanassis, G. Lutz, R. H. Richter, P. Solc, H. Bottcher, M. Kuster, R. Staubert, A. Abbey, A. Holland, M. Turner, M. Balasini, G. F. Bignami, N. La Palombara, G. Villa, W. Buttler, F. Gianini, R. Laine, D. Lumb, and P. Dhez, “The European Photon Imaging Camera on XMM-Newton: The pn-CCD camera,” Astron. Astrophys. 365(1), L18–L26 (2001).

Kirmani, A.

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Klemin, S.

A. N. Otte, J. Barral, B. Dolgoshein, J. Hose, S. Klemin, E. Lorenz, R. Mirzoyan, E. Popova, and M. Teshima, “A test of silicon photomultipliers as readout for PET,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 545(3), 705–715 (2005).
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Krause, N.

L. Struder, U. Briel, K. Dennerl, R. Hartmann, E. Kendziorra, N. Meidinger, E. Pfeffermann, C. Reppin, B. Schenbach, W. Bornemann, H. Brauninger, W. Burkert, M. Elender, M. Freyberg, F. Haberl, G. Hartner, F. Heuschmann, H. Hippmann, E. Kastelic, S. Kemmer, G. Kettenring, W. Kink, N. Krause, S. Muller, A. Oppitz, W. Pietsch, M. Popp, P. Predehl, A. Read, K. H. Stephan, D. Stotter, J. Trumper, P. Holl, J. Kemmer, H. Soltau, R. Stotter, U. Weber, U. Weichert, C. von Zanthier, D. Carathanassis, G. Lutz, R. H. Richter, P. Solc, H. Bottcher, M. Kuster, R. Staubert, A. Abbey, A. Holland, M. Turner, M. Balasini, G. F. Bignami, N. La Palombara, G. Villa, W. Buttler, F. Gianini, R. Laine, D. Lumb, and P. Dhez, “The European Photon Imaging Camera on XMM-Newton: The pn-CCD camera,” Astron. Astrophys. 365(1), L18–L26 (2001).

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Kumar, R.

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Kumor, D.

M. S. Allman, V. B. Verma, M. Stevens, T. Gerrits, R. D. Horansky, A. E. Lita, F. Marsili, A. Beyer, M. D. Shaw, D. Kumor, R. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “A near-infrared 64-pixel superconducting nanowire single photon detector array with integrated multiplexed readout,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(19), 192601 (2015).
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Kuster, M.

L. Struder, U. Briel, K. Dennerl, R. Hartmann, E. Kendziorra, N. Meidinger, E. Pfeffermann, C. Reppin, B. Schenbach, W. Bornemann, H. Brauninger, W. Burkert, M. Elender, M. Freyberg, F. Haberl, G. Hartner, F. Heuschmann, H. Hippmann, E. Kastelic, S. Kemmer, G. Kettenring, W. Kink, N. Krause, S. Muller, A. Oppitz, W. Pietsch, M. Popp, P. Predehl, A. Read, K. H. Stephan, D. Stotter, J. Trumper, P. Holl, J. Kemmer, H. Soltau, R. Stotter, U. Weber, U. Weichert, C. von Zanthier, D. Carathanassis, G. Lutz, R. H. Richter, P. Solc, H. Bottcher, M. Kuster, R. Staubert, A. Abbey, A. Holland, M. Turner, M. Balasini, G. F. Bignami, N. La Palombara, G. Villa, W. Buttler, F. Gianini, R. Laine, D. Lumb, and P. Dhez, “The European Photon Imaging Camera on XMM-Newton: The pn-CCD camera,” Astron. Astrophys. 365(1), L18–L26 (2001).

Kuzmin, A.

S. Doerner, A. Kuzmin, S. Wuensch, I. Charaev, F. Boes, T. Zwick, and M. Siegel, “Frequency-multiplexed bias and readout of a 16-pixel superconducting nanowire single-photon detector array,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(3), 032603 (2017).
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L. Struder, U. Briel, K. Dennerl, R. Hartmann, E. Kendziorra, N. Meidinger, E. Pfeffermann, C. Reppin, B. Schenbach, W. Bornemann, H. Brauninger, W. Burkert, M. Elender, M. Freyberg, F. Haberl, G. Hartner, F. Heuschmann, H. Hippmann, E. Kastelic, S. Kemmer, G. Kettenring, W. Kink, N. Krause, S. Muller, A. Oppitz, W. Pietsch, M. Popp, P. Predehl, A. Read, K. H. Stephan, D. Stotter, J. Trumper, P. Holl, J. Kemmer, H. Soltau, R. Stotter, U. Weber, U. Weichert, C. von Zanthier, D. Carathanassis, G. Lutz, R. H. Richter, P. Solc, H. Bottcher, M. Kuster, R. Staubert, A. Abbey, A. Holland, M. Turner, M. Balasini, G. F. Bignami, N. La Palombara, G. Villa, W. Buttler, F. Gianini, R. Laine, D. Lumb, and P. Dhez, “The European Photon Imaging Camera on XMM-Newton: The pn-CCD camera,” Astron. Astrophys. 365(1), L18–L26 (2001).

Laine, R.

L. Struder, U. Briel, K. Dennerl, R. Hartmann, E. Kendziorra, N. Meidinger, E. Pfeffermann, C. Reppin, B. Schenbach, W. Bornemann, H. Brauninger, W. Burkert, M. Elender, M. Freyberg, F. Haberl, G. Hartner, F. Heuschmann, H. Hippmann, E. Kastelic, S. Kemmer, G. Kettenring, W. Kink, N. Krause, S. Muller, A. Oppitz, W. Pietsch, M. Popp, P. Predehl, A. Read, K. H. Stephan, D. Stotter, J. Trumper, P. Holl, J. Kemmer, H. Soltau, R. Stotter, U. Weber, U. Weichert, C. von Zanthier, D. Carathanassis, G. Lutz, R. H. Richter, P. Solc, H. Bottcher, M. Kuster, R. Staubert, A. Abbey, A. Holland, M. Turner, M. Balasini, G. F. Bignami, N. La Palombara, G. Villa, W. Buttler, F. Gianini, R. Laine, D. Lumb, and P. Dhez, “The European Photon Imaging Camera on XMM-Newton: The pn-CCD camera,” Astron. Astrophys. 365(1), L18–L26 (2001).

Likharev, K. K.

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M. S. Allman, V. B. Verma, M. Stevens, T. Gerrits, R. D. Horansky, A. E. Lita, F. Marsili, A. Beyer, M. D. Shaw, D. Kumor, R. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “A near-infrared 64-pixel superconducting nanowire single photon detector array with integrated multiplexed readout,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(19), 192601 (2015).
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V. B. Verma, R. Horansky, F. Marsili, J. A. Stern, M. D. Shaw, A. E. Lita, R. P. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “A four-pixel single-photon pulse-position array fabricated from WSi superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(5), 051115 (2014).
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Lorenz, E.

A. N. Otte, J. Barral, B. Dolgoshein, J. Hose, S. Klemin, E. Lorenz, R. Mirzoyan, E. Popova, and M. Teshima, “A test of silicon photomultipliers as readout for PET,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 545(3), 705–715 (2005).
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Lumb, D.

L. Struder, U. Briel, K. Dennerl, R. Hartmann, E. Kendziorra, N. Meidinger, E. Pfeffermann, C. Reppin, B. Schenbach, W. Bornemann, H. Brauninger, W. Burkert, M. Elender, M. Freyberg, F. Haberl, G. Hartner, F. Heuschmann, H. Hippmann, E. Kastelic, S. Kemmer, G. Kettenring, W. Kink, N. Krause, S. Muller, A. Oppitz, W. Pietsch, M. Popp, P. Predehl, A. Read, K. H. Stephan, D. Stotter, J. Trumper, P. Holl, J. Kemmer, H. Soltau, R. Stotter, U. Weber, U. Weichert, C. von Zanthier, D. Carathanassis, G. Lutz, R. H. Richter, P. Solc, H. Bottcher, M. Kuster, R. Staubert, A. Abbey, A. Holland, M. Turner, M. Balasini, G. F. Bignami, N. La Palombara, G. Villa, W. Buttler, F. Gianini, R. Laine, D. Lumb, and P. Dhez, “The European Photon Imaging Camera on XMM-Newton: The pn-CCD camera,” Astron. Astrophys. 365(1), L18–L26 (2001).

Lutz, G.

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L. Struder, U. Briel, K. Dennerl, R. Hartmann, E. Kendziorra, N. Meidinger, E. Pfeffermann, C. Reppin, B. Schenbach, W. Bornemann, H. Brauninger, W. Burkert, M. Elender, M. Freyberg, F. Haberl, G. Hartner, F. Heuschmann, H. Hippmann, E. Kastelic, S. Kemmer, G. Kettenring, W. Kink, N. Krause, S. Muller, A. Oppitz, W. Pietsch, M. Popp, P. Predehl, A. Read, K. H. Stephan, D. Stotter, J. Trumper, P. Holl, J. Kemmer, H. Soltau, R. Stotter, U. Weber, U. Weichert, C. von Zanthier, D. Carathanassis, G. Lutz, R. H. Richter, P. Solc, H. Bottcher, M. Kuster, R. Staubert, A. Abbey, A. Holland, M. Turner, M. Balasini, G. F. Bignami, N. La Palombara, G. Villa, W. Buttler, F. Gianini, R. Laine, D. Lumb, and P. Dhez, “The European Photon Imaging Camera on XMM-Newton: The pn-CCD camera,” Astron. Astrophys. 365(1), L18–L26 (2001).

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Shaw, M. D.

M. S. Allman, V. B. Verma, M. Stevens, T. Gerrits, R. D. Horansky, A. E. Lita, F. Marsili, A. Beyer, M. D. Shaw, D. Kumor, R. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “A near-infrared 64-pixel superconducting nanowire single photon detector array with integrated multiplexed readout,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(19), 192601 (2015).
[Crossref]

V. B. Verma, R. Horansky, F. Marsili, J. A. Stern, M. D. Shaw, A. E. Lita, R. P. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “A four-pixel single-photon pulse-position array fabricated from WSi superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(5), 051115 (2014).
[Crossref]

E. A. Dauler, M. E. Grein, A. J. Kerman, F. Marsili, S. Miki, S. W. Nam, M. D. Shaw, H. Terai, V. B. Verma, and T. Yamashita, “Review of superconducting nanowire single-photon detector system design options and demonstrated performance,” Opt. Eng. 53(8), 081907 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. C. Bardin, P. Ravindran, S.-W. Chang, R. Kumar, J. A. Stern, M. D. Shaw, D. S. Russell, and W. H. Farr, “A high-speed cryogenic SiGe channel combiner IC for large photon-starved SNSPD array,” in Proc. IEEE Bipolar/BiCMOS Circuits and Technology Meeting, (IEEE, 2013), pp. 215–218.
[Crossref]

Shields, A. J.

Z. L. Yuan, B. E. Kardynal, A. W. Sharpe, and A. J. Shields, “High speed single photon detection in the near infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(4), 041114 (2007).

Shin, D.

A. Kirmani, D. Venkatraman, D. Shin, A. Colaço, F. N. C. Wong, J. H. Shapiro, and V. K. Goyal, “First-Photon Imaging,” Science 343(6166), 58–61 (2014).
[Crossref]

Siegel, M.

S. Doerner, A. Kuzmin, S. Wuensch, I. Charaev, F. Boes, T. Zwick, and M. Siegel, “Frequency-multiplexed bias and readout of a 16-pixel superconducting nanowire single-photon detector array,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(3), 032603 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. Hofherr, M. Arndt, K. Il’in, D. Henrich, M. Siegel, J. Toussaint, T. May, and H.-G. Meyer, “Time-tagged multiplexing of serially biased superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 23(3), 2501205 (2013).
[Crossref]

Smirnov, K.

G. N. Gol’tsman, O. Okunev, G. Chulkova, A. Lipatov, A. Semenov, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, A. Dzardanov, C. Williams, and R. Sobolewski, “Picosecond superconducting single-photon optical detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(6), 705–707 (2001).
[Crossref]

Sobolewski, R.

G. N. Gol’tsman, O. Okunev, G. Chulkova, A. Lipatov, A. Semenov, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, A. Dzardanov, C. Williams, and R. Sobolewski, “Picosecond superconducting single-photon optical detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(6), 705–707 (2001).
[Crossref]

Solc, P.

L. Struder, U. Briel, K. Dennerl, R. Hartmann, E. Kendziorra, N. Meidinger, E. Pfeffermann, C. Reppin, B. Schenbach, W. Bornemann, H. Brauninger, W. Burkert, M. Elender, M. Freyberg, F. Haberl, G. Hartner, F. Heuschmann, H. Hippmann, E. Kastelic, S. Kemmer, G. Kettenring, W. Kink, N. Krause, S. Muller, A. Oppitz, W. Pietsch, M. Popp, P. Predehl, A. Read, K. H. Stephan, D. Stotter, J. Trumper, P. Holl, J. Kemmer, H. Soltau, R. Stotter, U. Weber, U. Weichert, C. von Zanthier, D. Carathanassis, G. Lutz, R. H. Richter, P. Solc, H. Bottcher, M. Kuster, R. Staubert, A. Abbey, A. Holland, M. Turner, M. Balasini, G. F. Bignami, N. La Palombara, G. Villa, W. Buttler, F. Gianini, R. Laine, D. Lumb, and P. Dhez, “The European Photon Imaging Camera on XMM-Newton: The pn-CCD camera,” Astron. Astrophys. 365(1), L18–L26 (2001).

Soltau, H.

L. Struder, U. Briel, K. Dennerl, R. Hartmann, E. Kendziorra, N. Meidinger, E. Pfeffermann, C. Reppin, B. Schenbach, W. Bornemann, H. Brauninger, W. Burkert, M. Elender, M. Freyberg, F. Haberl, G. Hartner, F. Heuschmann, H. Hippmann, E. Kastelic, S. Kemmer, G. Kettenring, W. Kink, N. Krause, S. Muller, A. Oppitz, W. Pietsch, M. Popp, P. Predehl, A. Read, K. H. Stephan, D. Stotter, J. Trumper, P. Holl, J. Kemmer, H. Soltau, R. Stotter, U. Weber, U. Weichert, C. von Zanthier, D. Carathanassis, G. Lutz, R. H. Richter, P. Solc, H. Bottcher, M. Kuster, R. Staubert, A. Abbey, A. Holland, M. Turner, M. Balasini, G. F. Bignami, N. La Palombara, G. Villa, W. Buttler, F. Gianini, R. Laine, D. Lumb, and P. Dhez, “The European Photon Imaging Camera on XMM-Newton: The pn-CCD camera,” Astron. Astrophys. 365(1), L18–L26 (2001).

Staubert, R.

L. Struder, U. Briel, K. Dennerl, R. Hartmann, E. Kendziorra, N. Meidinger, E. Pfeffermann, C. Reppin, B. Schenbach, W. Bornemann, H. Brauninger, W. Burkert, M. Elender, M. Freyberg, F. Haberl, G. Hartner, F. Heuschmann, H. Hippmann, E. Kastelic, S. Kemmer, G. Kettenring, W. Kink, N. Krause, S. Muller, A. Oppitz, W. Pietsch, M. Popp, P. Predehl, A. Read, K. H. Stephan, D. Stotter, J. Trumper, P. Holl, J. Kemmer, H. Soltau, R. Stotter, U. Weber, U. Weichert, C. von Zanthier, D. Carathanassis, G. Lutz, R. H. Richter, P. Solc, H. Bottcher, M. Kuster, R. Staubert, A. Abbey, A. Holland, M. Turner, M. Balasini, G. F. Bignami, N. La Palombara, G. Villa, W. Buttler, F. Gianini, R. Laine, D. Lumb, and P. Dhez, “The European Photon Imaging Camera on XMM-Newton: The pn-CCD camera,” Astron. Astrophys. 365(1), L18–L26 (2001).

Stephan, K. H.

L. Struder, U. Briel, K. Dennerl, R. Hartmann, E. Kendziorra, N. Meidinger, E. Pfeffermann, C. Reppin, B. Schenbach, W. Bornemann, H. Brauninger, W. Burkert, M. Elender, M. Freyberg, F. Haberl, G. Hartner, F. Heuschmann, H. Hippmann, E. Kastelic, S. Kemmer, G. Kettenring, W. Kink, N. Krause, S. Muller, A. Oppitz, W. Pietsch, M. Popp, P. Predehl, A. Read, K. H. Stephan, D. Stotter, J. Trumper, P. Holl, J. Kemmer, H. Soltau, R. Stotter, U. Weber, U. Weichert, C. von Zanthier, D. Carathanassis, G. Lutz, R. H. Richter, P. Solc, H. Bottcher, M. Kuster, R. Staubert, A. Abbey, A. Holland, M. Turner, M. Balasini, G. F. Bignami, N. La Palombara, G. Villa, W. Buttler, F. Gianini, R. Laine, D. Lumb, and P. Dhez, “The European Photon Imaging Camera on XMM-Newton: The pn-CCD camera,” Astron. Astrophys. 365(1), L18–L26 (2001).

Stern, J. A.

V. B. Verma, R. Horansky, F. Marsili, J. A. Stern, M. D. Shaw, A. E. Lita, R. P. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “A four-pixel single-photon pulse-position array fabricated from WSi superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(5), 051115 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. C. Bardin, P. Ravindran, S.-W. Chang, R. Kumar, J. A. Stern, M. D. Shaw, D. S. Russell, and W. H. Farr, “A high-speed cryogenic SiGe channel combiner IC for large photon-starved SNSPD array,” in Proc. IEEE Bipolar/BiCMOS Circuits and Technology Meeting, (IEEE, 2013), pp. 215–218.
[Crossref]

Stevens, M.

M. S. Allman, V. B. Verma, M. Stevens, T. Gerrits, R. D. Horansky, A. E. Lita, F. Marsili, A. Beyer, M. D. Shaw, D. Kumor, R. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “A near-infrared 64-pixel superconducting nanowire single photon detector array with integrated multiplexed readout,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(19), 192601 (2015).
[Crossref]

Stevens, M. L.

Stotter, D.

L. Struder, U. Briel, K. Dennerl, R. Hartmann, E. Kendziorra, N. Meidinger, E. Pfeffermann, C. Reppin, B. Schenbach, W. Bornemann, H. Brauninger, W. Burkert, M. Elender, M. Freyberg, F. Haberl, G. Hartner, F. Heuschmann, H. Hippmann, E. Kastelic, S. Kemmer, G. Kettenring, W. Kink, N. Krause, S. Muller, A. Oppitz, W. Pietsch, M. Popp, P. Predehl, A. Read, K. H. Stephan, D. Stotter, J. Trumper, P. Holl, J. Kemmer, H. Soltau, R. Stotter, U. Weber, U. Weichert, C. von Zanthier, D. Carathanassis, G. Lutz, R. H. Richter, P. Solc, H. Bottcher, M. Kuster, R. Staubert, A. Abbey, A. Holland, M. Turner, M. Balasini, G. F. Bignami, N. La Palombara, G. Villa, W. Buttler, F. Gianini, R. Laine, D. Lumb, and P. Dhez, “The European Photon Imaging Camera on XMM-Newton: The pn-CCD camera,” Astron. Astrophys. 365(1), L18–L26 (2001).

Stotter, R.

L. Struder, U. Briel, K. Dennerl, R. Hartmann, E. Kendziorra, N. Meidinger, E. Pfeffermann, C. Reppin, B. Schenbach, W. Bornemann, H. Brauninger, W. Burkert, M. Elender, M. Freyberg, F. Haberl, G. Hartner, F. Heuschmann, H. Hippmann, E. Kastelic, S. Kemmer, G. Kettenring, W. Kink, N. Krause, S. Muller, A. Oppitz, W. Pietsch, M. Popp, P. Predehl, A. Read, K. H. Stephan, D. Stotter, J. Trumper, P. Holl, J. Kemmer, H. Soltau, R. Stotter, U. Weber, U. Weichert, C. von Zanthier, D. Carathanassis, G. Lutz, R. H. Richter, P. Solc, H. Bottcher, M. Kuster, R. Staubert, A. Abbey, A. Holland, M. Turner, M. Balasini, G. F. Bignami, N. La Palombara, G. Villa, W. Buttler, F. Gianini, R. Laine, D. Lumb, and P. Dhez, “The European Photon Imaging Camera on XMM-Newton: The pn-CCD camera,” Astron. Astrophys. 365(1), L18–L26 (2001).

Struder, L.

L. Struder, U. Briel, K. Dennerl, R. Hartmann, E. Kendziorra, N. Meidinger, E. Pfeffermann, C. Reppin, B. Schenbach, W. Bornemann, H. Brauninger, W. Burkert, M. Elender, M. Freyberg, F. Haberl, G. Hartner, F. Heuschmann, H. Hippmann, E. Kastelic, S. Kemmer, G. Kettenring, W. Kink, N. Krause, S. Muller, A. Oppitz, W. Pietsch, M. Popp, P. Predehl, A. Read, K. H. Stephan, D. Stotter, J. Trumper, P. Holl, J. Kemmer, H. Soltau, R. Stotter, U. Weber, U. Weichert, C. von Zanthier, D. Carathanassis, G. Lutz, R. H. Richter, P. Solc, H. Bottcher, M. Kuster, R. Staubert, A. Abbey, A. Holland, M. Turner, M. Balasini, G. F. Bignami, N. La Palombara, G. Villa, W. Buttler, F. Gianini, R. Laine, D. Lumb, and P. Dhez, “The European Photon Imaging Camera on XMM-Newton: The pn-CCD camera,” Astron. Astrophys. 365(1), L18–L26 (2001).

Tahara, S.

S. Yorozu, Y. Kameda, H. Terai, A. Fujimaki, T. Yamada, and S. Tahara, “A single flux quantum standard logic cell library,” Physica C 378–381, 1471–1474 (2002).
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S. Nagasawa, Y. Hashimoto, H. Numata, and S. Tahara, “A 380 ps, 9.5 mW Josephson 4-Kbit RAM operated at a high bit yield,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 5(2), 2447–2452 (1995).
[Crossref]

Tanner, M. G.

Terabe, M.

M. Terabe, A. Sekiya, T. Yamada, and A. Fujimaki, “Timing jitter measurement in single-flux-quantum circuits based on time-to-digital converters with high time-resolution,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 17(2), 552–555 (2007).
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Terai, H.

S. Miyajima, S. Miki, M. Yabuno, T. Yamashita, and H. Terai, “Timing discriminator based on single-flux-quantum circuit toward high time-resolved photon detection,” Supercond. Sci. Technol. 30(12), 12LT01 (2017).
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E. A. Dauler, M. E. Grein, A. J. Kerman, F. Marsili, S. Miki, S. W. Nam, M. D. Shaw, H. Terai, V. B. Verma, and T. Yamashita, “Review of superconducting nanowire single-photon detector system design options and demonstrated performance,” Opt. Eng. 53(8), 081907 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Miki, T. Yamashita, Z. Wang, and H. Terai, “A 64-pixel NbTiN superconducting nanowire single-photon detector array for spatially resolved photon detection,” Opt. Express 22(7), 7811–7820 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Yamashita, S. Miki, H. Terai, K. Makise, and Z. Wang, “Crosstalk-free operation of multielement superconducting nanowire single-photon detector array integrated with single-flux-quantum circuit in a 0.1 W Gifford-McMahon cryocooler,” Opt. Lett. 37(14), 2982–2984 (2012).
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H. Terai, T. Yamashita, S. Miki, K. Makise, and Z. Wang, “Low-jitter single flux quantum signal readout from superconducting single photon detector,” Opt. Express 20(18), 20115–20123 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Terai, S. Miki, T. Yamashita, K. Makise, and Z. Wang, “Demonstration of single-flux-quantum readout operation for superconducting single-photon detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(11), 112510 (2010).
[Crossref]

H. Terai, Z. Wang, Y. Hishimoto, S. Yorozu, A. Fujimaki, and N. Yoshikawa, “Timing jitter measurement of single-flux-quantum pulse in Josephson transmission line,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(12), 2133–2135 (2004).
[Crossref]

H. Terai, Y. Kameda, S. Yorozu, A. Fujimaki, and Z. Wang, “The effects of DC bias current in large-scale SFQ circuits,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 13(2), 502–506 (2003).
[Crossref]

S. Yorozu, Y. Kameda, H. Terai, A. Fujimaki, T. Yamada, and S. Tahara, “A single flux quantum standard logic cell library,” Physica C 378–381, 1471–1474 (2002).
[Crossref]

Teshima, M.

A. N. Otte, J. Barral, B. Dolgoshein, J. Hose, S. Klemin, E. Lorenz, R. Mirzoyan, E. Popova, and M. Teshima, “A test of silicon photomultipliers as readout for PET,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 545(3), 705–715 (2005).
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Toussaint, J.

M. Hofherr, M. Arndt, K. Il’in, D. Henrich, M. Siegel, J. Toussaint, T. May, and H.-G. Meyer, “Time-tagged multiplexing of serially biased superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 23(3), 2501205 (2013).
[Crossref]

Trumper, J.

L. Struder, U. Briel, K. Dennerl, R. Hartmann, E. Kendziorra, N. Meidinger, E. Pfeffermann, C. Reppin, B. Schenbach, W. Bornemann, H. Brauninger, W. Burkert, M. Elender, M. Freyberg, F. Haberl, G. Hartner, F. Heuschmann, H. Hippmann, E. Kastelic, S. Kemmer, G. Kettenring, W. Kink, N. Krause, S. Muller, A. Oppitz, W. Pietsch, M. Popp, P. Predehl, A. Read, K. H. Stephan, D. Stotter, J. Trumper, P. Holl, J. Kemmer, H. Soltau, R. Stotter, U. Weber, U. Weichert, C. von Zanthier, D. Carathanassis, G. Lutz, R. H. Richter, P. Solc, H. Bottcher, M. Kuster, R. Staubert, A. Abbey, A. Holland, M. Turner, M. Balasini, G. F. Bignami, N. La Palombara, G. Villa, W. Buttler, F. Gianini, R. Laine, D. Lumb, and P. Dhez, “The European Photon Imaging Camera on XMM-Newton: The pn-CCD camera,” Astron. Astrophys. 365(1), L18–L26 (2001).

Turner, M.

L. Struder, U. Briel, K. Dennerl, R. Hartmann, E. Kendziorra, N. Meidinger, E. Pfeffermann, C. Reppin, B. Schenbach, W. Bornemann, H. Brauninger, W. Burkert, M. Elender, M. Freyberg, F. Haberl, G. Hartner, F. Heuschmann, H. Hippmann, E. Kastelic, S. Kemmer, G. Kettenring, W. Kink, N. Krause, S. Muller, A. Oppitz, W. Pietsch, M. Popp, P. Predehl, A. Read, K. H. Stephan, D. Stotter, J. Trumper, P. Holl, J. Kemmer, H. Soltau, R. Stotter, U. Weber, U. Weichert, C. von Zanthier, D. Carathanassis, G. Lutz, R. H. Richter, P. Solc, H. Bottcher, M. Kuster, R. Staubert, A. Abbey, A. Holland, M. Turner, M. Balasini, G. F. Bignami, N. La Palombara, G. Villa, W. Buttler, F. Gianini, R. Laine, D. Lumb, and P. Dhez, “The European Photon Imaging Camera on XMM-Newton: The pn-CCD camera,” Astron. Astrophys. 365(1), L18–L26 (2001).

Uhlmann, F. H.

T. Ortlepp and F. H. Uhlmann, “Technology related timing jitter in superconducting electronics,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 17(2), 534–537 (2007).
[Crossref]

Venkatraman, D.

A. Kirmani, D. Venkatraman, D. Shin, A. Colaço, F. N. C. Wong, J. H. Shapiro, and V. K. Goyal, “First-Photon Imaging,” Science 343(6166), 58–61 (2014).
[Crossref]

Verghese, S.

R. D. Younger, K. A. McIntosh, J. W. Chludzinski, D. C. Oakley, L. J. Mahoney, J. E. Funk, J. P. Donnelly, and S. Verghese, “Crosstalk Analysis of Integrated Geiger-mode Avalanche Photodiode Focal Plane Arrays,” Proc. SPIE 7320, 73200Q (2009).
[Crossref]

Verma, V.

B. Baek, A. E. Lita, V. Verma, and S. W. Nam, “Superconducting a-WxSi1-x nanowire single-photon detector with saturated internal quantum efficiency from visible to 1850 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(25), 251105 (2011).
[Crossref]

Verma, V. B.

M. S. Allman, V. B. Verma, M. Stevens, T. Gerrits, R. D. Horansky, A. E. Lita, F. Marsili, A. Beyer, M. D. Shaw, D. Kumor, R. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “A near-infrared 64-pixel superconducting nanowire single photon detector array with integrated multiplexed readout,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(19), 192601 (2015).
[Crossref]

V. B. Verma, R. Horansky, F. Marsili, J. A. Stern, M. D. Shaw, A. E. Lita, R. P. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “A four-pixel single-photon pulse-position array fabricated from WSi superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(5), 051115 (2014).
[Crossref]

E. A. Dauler, M. E. Grein, A. J. Kerman, F. Marsili, S. Miki, S. W. Nam, M. D. Shaw, H. Terai, V. B. Verma, and T. Yamashita, “Review of superconducting nanowire single-photon detector system design options and demonstrated performance,” Opt. Eng. 53(8), 081907 (2014).
[Crossref]

Villa, G.

L. Struder, U. Briel, K. Dennerl, R. Hartmann, E. Kendziorra, N. Meidinger, E. Pfeffermann, C. Reppin, B. Schenbach, W. Bornemann, H. Brauninger, W. Burkert, M. Elender, M. Freyberg, F. Haberl, G. Hartner, F. Heuschmann, H. Hippmann, E. Kastelic, S. Kemmer, G. Kettenring, W. Kink, N. Krause, S. Muller, A. Oppitz, W. Pietsch, M. Popp, P. Predehl, A. Read, K. H. Stephan, D. Stotter, J. Trumper, P. Holl, J. Kemmer, H. Soltau, R. Stotter, U. Weber, U. Weichert, C. von Zanthier, D. Carathanassis, G. Lutz, R. H. Richter, P. Solc, H. Bottcher, M. Kuster, R. Staubert, A. Abbey, A. Holland, M. Turner, M. Balasini, G. F. Bignami, N. La Palombara, G. Villa, W. Buttler, F. Gianini, R. Laine, D. Lumb, and P. Dhez, “The European Photon Imaging Camera on XMM-Newton: The pn-CCD camera,” Astron. Astrophys. 365(1), L18–L26 (2001).

von Zanthier, C.

L. Struder, U. Briel, K. Dennerl, R. Hartmann, E. Kendziorra, N. Meidinger, E. Pfeffermann, C. Reppin, B. Schenbach, W. Bornemann, H. Brauninger, W. Burkert, M. Elender, M. Freyberg, F. Haberl, G. Hartner, F. Heuschmann, H. Hippmann, E. Kastelic, S. Kemmer, G. Kettenring, W. Kink, N. Krause, S. Muller, A. Oppitz, W. Pietsch, M. Popp, P. Predehl, A. Read, K. H. Stephan, D. Stotter, J. Trumper, P. Holl, J. Kemmer, H. Soltau, R. Stotter, U. Weber, U. Weichert, C. von Zanthier, D. Carathanassis, G. Lutz, R. H. Richter, P. Solc, H. Bottcher, M. Kuster, R. Staubert, A. Abbey, A. Holland, M. Turner, M. Balasini, G. F. Bignami, N. La Palombara, G. Villa, W. Buttler, F. Gianini, R. Laine, D. Lumb, and P. Dhez, “The European Photon Imaging Camera on XMM-Newton: The pn-CCD camera,” Astron. Astrophys. 365(1), L18–L26 (2001).

Voronov, B.

G. N. Gol’tsman, O. Okunev, G. Chulkova, A. Lipatov, A. Semenov, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, A. Dzardanov, C. Williams, and R. Sobolewski, “Picosecond superconducting single-photon optical detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(6), 705–707 (2001).
[Crossref]

Wang, H.-Z.

Q.-Y. Zhao, D. Zhu, N. Calandri, A. E. Dane, A. N. McCaughan, F. Bellei, H.-Z. Wang, D. G. Santavicca, and K. K. Berggren, “Single-photon imager based on a superconducting nanowire delay line,” Nat. Photonics 11(4), 247–251 (2017).
[Crossref]

Wang, Z.

S. Miki, T. Yamashita, Z. Wang, and H. Terai, “A 64-pixel NbTiN superconducting nanowire single-photon detector array for spatially resolved photon detection,” Opt. Express 22(7), 7811–7820 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Terai, T. Yamashita, S. Miki, K. Makise, and Z. Wang, “Low-jitter single flux quantum signal readout from superconducting single photon detector,” Opt. Express 20(18), 20115–20123 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Yamashita, S. Miki, H. Terai, K. Makise, and Z. Wang, “Crosstalk-free operation of multielement superconducting nanowire single-photon detector array integrated with single-flux-quantum circuit in a 0.1 W Gifford-McMahon cryocooler,” Opt. Lett. 37(14), 2982–2984 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Terai, S. Miki, T. Yamashita, K. Makise, and Z. Wang, “Demonstration of single-flux-quantum readout operation for superconducting single-photon detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(11), 112510 (2010).
[Crossref]

H. Terai, Z. Wang, Y. Hishimoto, S. Yorozu, A. Fujimaki, and N. Yoshikawa, “Timing jitter measurement of single-flux-quantum pulse in Josephson transmission line,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(12), 2133–2135 (2004).
[Crossref]

H. Terai, Y. Kameda, S. Yorozu, A. Fujimaki, and Z. Wang, “The effects of DC bias current in large-scale SFQ circuits,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 13(2), 502–506 (2003).
[Crossref]

Weber, U.

L. Struder, U. Briel, K. Dennerl, R. Hartmann, E. Kendziorra, N. Meidinger, E. Pfeffermann, C. Reppin, B. Schenbach, W. Bornemann, H. Brauninger, W. Burkert, M. Elender, M. Freyberg, F. Haberl, G. Hartner, F. Heuschmann, H. Hippmann, E. Kastelic, S. Kemmer, G. Kettenring, W. Kink, N. Krause, S. Muller, A. Oppitz, W. Pietsch, M. Popp, P. Predehl, A. Read, K. H. Stephan, D. Stotter, J. Trumper, P. Holl, J. Kemmer, H. Soltau, R. Stotter, U. Weber, U. Weichert, C. von Zanthier, D. Carathanassis, G. Lutz, R. H. Richter, P. Solc, H. Bottcher, M. Kuster, R. Staubert, A. Abbey, A. Holland, M. Turner, M. Balasini, G. F. Bignami, N. La Palombara, G. Villa, W. Buttler, F. Gianini, R. Laine, D. Lumb, and P. Dhez, “The European Photon Imaging Camera on XMM-Newton: The pn-CCD camera,” Astron. Astrophys. 365(1), L18–L26 (2001).

Weichert, U.

L. Struder, U. Briel, K. Dennerl, R. Hartmann, E. Kendziorra, N. Meidinger, E. Pfeffermann, C. Reppin, B. Schenbach, W. Bornemann, H. Brauninger, W. Burkert, M. Elender, M. Freyberg, F. Haberl, G. Hartner, F. Heuschmann, H. Hippmann, E. Kastelic, S. Kemmer, G. Kettenring, W. Kink, N. Krause, S. Muller, A. Oppitz, W. Pietsch, M. Popp, P. Predehl, A. Read, K. H. Stephan, D. Stotter, J. Trumper, P. Holl, J. Kemmer, H. Soltau, R. Stotter, U. Weber, U. Weichert, C. von Zanthier, D. Carathanassis, G. Lutz, R. H. Richter, P. Solc, H. Bottcher, M. Kuster, R. Staubert, A. Abbey, A. Holland, M. Turner, M. Balasini, G. F. Bignami, N. La Palombara, G. Villa, W. Buttler, F. Gianini, R. Laine, D. Lumb, and P. Dhez, “The European Photon Imaging Camera on XMM-Newton: The pn-CCD camera,” Astron. Astrophys. 365(1), L18–L26 (2001).

Wetzstein, G.

M. O’Toole, D. B. Lindell, and G. Wetzstein, “Confocal non-line-of-sight imaging based on the light-cone transform,” Nature 555(7696), 338–341 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Williams, C.

G. N. Gol’tsman, O. Okunev, G. Chulkova, A. Lipatov, A. Semenov, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, A. Dzardanov, C. Williams, and R. Sobolewski, “Picosecond superconducting single-photon optical detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(6), 705–707 (2001).
[Crossref]

Wong, F. N. C.

A. Kirmani, D. Venkatraman, D. Shin, A. Colaço, F. N. C. Wong, J. H. Shapiro, and V. K. Goyal, “First-Photon Imaging,” Science 343(6166), 58–61 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wuensch, S.

S. Doerner, A. Kuzmin, S. Wuensch, I. Charaev, F. Boes, T. Zwick, and M. Siegel, “Frequency-multiplexed bias and readout of a 16-pixel superconducting nanowire single-photon detector array,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(3), 032603 (2017).
[Crossref]

Yabuno, M.

S. Miyajima, S. Miki, M. Yabuno, T. Yamashita, and H. Terai, “Timing discriminator based on single-flux-quantum circuit toward high time-resolved photon detection,” Supercond. Sci. Technol. 30(12), 12LT01 (2017).
[Crossref]

Yamada, T.

M. Terabe, A. Sekiya, T. Yamada, and A. Fujimaki, “Timing jitter measurement in single-flux-quantum circuits based on time-to-digital converters with high time-resolution,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 17(2), 552–555 (2007).
[Crossref]

S. Yorozu, Y. Kameda, H. Terai, A. Fujimaki, T. Yamada, and S. Tahara, “A single flux quantum standard logic cell library,” Physica C 378–381, 1471–1474 (2002).
[Crossref]

Yamashita, T.

S. Miyajima, S. Miki, M. Yabuno, T. Yamashita, and H. Terai, “Timing discriminator based on single-flux-quantum circuit toward high time-resolved photon detection,” Supercond. Sci. Technol. 30(12), 12LT01 (2017).
[Crossref]

E. A. Dauler, M. E. Grein, A. J. Kerman, F. Marsili, S. Miki, S. W. Nam, M. D. Shaw, H. Terai, V. B. Verma, and T. Yamashita, “Review of superconducting nanowire single-photon detector system design options and demonstrated performance,” Opt. Eng. 53(8), 081907 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Miki, T. Yamashita, Z. Wang, and H. Terai, “A 64-pixel NbTiN superconducting nanowire single-photon detector array for spatially resolved photon detection,” Opt. Express 22(7), 7811–7820 (2014).
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H. Terai, T. Yamashita, S. Miki, K. Makise, and Z. Wang, “Low-jitter single flux quantum signal readout from superconducting single photon detector,” Opt. Express 20(18), 20115–20123 (2012).
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T. Yamashita, S. Miki, H. Terai, K. Makise, and Z. Wang, “Crosstalk-free operation of multielement superconducting nanowire single-photon detector array integrated with single-flux-quantum circuit in a 0.1 W Gifford-McMahon cryocooler,” Opt. Lett. 37(14), 2982–2984 (2012).
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H. Terai, S. Miki, T. Yamashita, K. Makise, and Z. Wang, “Demonstration of single-flux-quantum readout operation for superconducting single-photon detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(11), 112510 (2010).
[Crossref]

Yang, J. K. W.

Yorozu, S.

H. Terai, Z. Wang, Y. Hishimoto, S. Yorozu, A. Fujimaki, and N. Yoshikawa, “Timing jitter measurement of single-flux-quantum pulse in Josephson transmission line,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(12), 2133–2135 (2004).
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H. Terai, Y. Kameda, S. Yorozu, A. Fujimaki, and Z. Wang, “The effects of DC bias current in large-scale SFQ circuits,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 13(2), 502–506 (2003).
[Crossref]

S. Yorozu, Y. Kameda, H. Terai, A. Fujimaki, T. Yamada, and S. Tahara, “A single flux quantum standard logic cell library,” Physica C 378–381, 1471–1474 (2002).
[Crossref]

Yoshikawa, N.

H. Terai, Z. Wang, Y. Hishimoto, S. Yorozu, A. Fujimaki, and N. Yoshikawa, “Timing jitter measurement of single-flux-quantum pulse in Josephson transmission line,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(12), 2133–2135 (2004).
[Crossref]

Younger, R. D.

R. D. Younger, K. A. McIntosh, J. W. Chludzinski, D. C. Oakley, L. J. Mahoney, J. E. Funk, J. P. Donnelly, and S. Verghese, “Crosstalk Analysis of Integrated Geiger-mode Avalanche Photodiode Focal Plane Arrays,” Proc. SPIE 7320, 73200Q (2009).
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Yuan, Z. L.

Z. L. Yuan, B. E. Kardynal, A. W. Sharpe, and A. J. Shields, “High speed single photon detection in the near infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(4), 041114 (2007).

Zhao, Q.-Y.

Q.-Y. Zhao, D. Zhu, N. Calandri, A. E. Dane, A. N. McCaughan, F. Bellei, H.-Z. Wang, D. G. Santavicca, and K. K. Berggren, “Single-photon imager based on a superconducting nanowire delay line,” Nat. Photonics 11(4), 247–251 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zhu, D.

Q.-Y. Zhao, D. Zhu, N. Calandri, A. E. Dane, A. N. McCaughan, F. Bellei, H.-Z. Wang, D. G. Santavicca, and K. K. Berggren, “Single-photon imager based on a superconducting nanowire delay line,” Nat. Photonics 11(4), 247–251 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zwick, T.

S. Doerner, A. Kuzmin, S. Wuensch, I. Charaev, F. Boes, T. Zwick, and M. Siegel, “Frequency-multiplexed bias and readout of a 16-pixel superconducting nanowire single-photon detector array,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(3), 032603 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zwiller, V.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (8)

Z. L. Yuan, B. E. Kardynal, A. W. Sharpe, and A. J. Shields, “High speed single photon detection in the near infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(4), 041114 (2007).

B. Baek, A. E. Lita, V. Verma, and S. W. Nam, “Superconducting a-WxSi1-x nanowire single-photon detector with saturated internal quantum efficiency from visible to 1850 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(25), 251105 (2011).
[Crossref]

G. N. Gol’tsman, O. Okunev, G. Chulkova, A. Lipatov, A. Semenov, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, A. Dzardanov, C. Williams, and R. Sobolewski, “Picosecond superconducting single-photon optical detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(6), 705–707 (2001).
[Crossref]

S. Doerner, A. Kuzmin, S. Wuensch, I. Charaev, F. Boes, T. Zwick, and M. Siegel, “Frequency-multiplexed bias and readout of a 16-pixel superconducting nanowire single-photon detector array,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(3), 032603 (2017).
[Crossref]

V. B. Verma, R. Horansky, F. Marsili, J. A. Stern, M. D. Shaw, A. E. Lita, R. P. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “A four-pixel single-photon pulse-position array fabricated from WSi superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(5), 051115 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. S. Allman, V. B. Verma, M. Stevens, T. Gerrits, R. D. Horansky, A. E. Lita, F. Marsili, A. Beyer, M. D. Shaw, D. Kumor, R. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “A near-infrared 64-pixel superconducting nanowire single photon detector array with integrated multiplexed readout,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(19), 192601 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Terai, S. Miki, T. Yamashita, K. Makise, and Z. Wang, “Demonstration of single-flux-quantum readout operation for superconducting single-photon detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(11), 112510 (2010).
[Crossref]

H. Terai, Z. Wang, Y. Hishimoto, S. Yorozu, A. Fujimaki, and N. Yoshikawa, “Timing jitter measurement of single-flux-quantum pulse in Josephson transmission line,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(12), 2133–2135 (2004).
[Crossref]

Astron. Astrophys. (1)

L. Struder, U. Briel, K. Dennerl, R. Hartmann, E. Kendziorra, N. Meidinger, E. Pfeffermann, C. Reppin, B. Schenbach, W. Bornemann, H. Brauninger, W. Burkert, M. Elender, M. Freyberg, F. Haberl, G. Hartner, F. Heuschmann, H. Hippmann, E. Kastelic, S. Kemmer, G. Kettenring, W. Kink, N. Krause, S. Muller, A. Oppitz, W. Pietsch, M. Popp, P. Predehl, A. Read, K. H. Stephan, D. Stotter, J. Trumper, P. Holl, J. Kemmer, H. Soltau, R. Stotter, U. Weber, U. Weichert, C. von Zanthier, D. Carathanassis, G. Lutz, R. H. Richter, P. Solc, H. Bottcher, M. Kuster, R. Staubert, A. Abbey, A. Holland, M. Turner, M. Balasini, G. F. Bignami, N. La Palombara, G. Villa, W. Buttler, F. Gianini, R. Laine, D. Lumb, and P. Dhez, “The European Photon Imaging Camera on XMM-Newton: The pn-CCD camera,” Astron. Astrophys. 365(1), L18–L26 (2001).

IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. (6)

M. Hofherr, M. Arndt, K. Il’in, D. Henrich, M. Siegel, J. Toussaint, T. May, and H.-G. Meyer, “Time-tagged multiplexing of serially biased superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 23(3), 2501205 (2013).
[Crossref]

K. K. Likharev and V. K. Semenov, “RSFQ logic/memory family: A new Josephson-junction technology for sub-teraherts-clock-frequency digital systems,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 1(1), 3–28 (1991).
[Crossref]

M. Terabe, A. Sekiya, T. Yamada, and A. Fujimaki, “Timing jitter measurement in single-flux-quantum circuits based on time-to-digital converters with high time-resolution,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 17(2), 552–555 (2007).
[Crossref]

T. Ortlepp and F. H. Uhlmann, “Technology related timing jitter in superconducting electronics,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 17(2), 534–537 (2007).
[Crossref]

S. Nagasawa, Y. Hashimoto, H. Numata, and S. Tahara, “A 380 ps, 9.5 mW Josephson 4-Kbit RAM operated at a high bit yield,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 5(2), 2447–2452 (1995).
[Crossref]

H. Terai, Y. Kameda, S. Yorozu, A. Fujimaki, and Z. Wang, “The effects of DC bias current in large-scale SFQ circuits,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 13(2), 502–506 (2003).
[Crossref]

Nat. Photonics (2)

Q.-Y. Zhao, D. Zhu, N. Calandri, A. E. Dane, A. N. McCaughan, F. Bellei, H.-Z. Wang, D. G. Santavicca, and K. K. Berggren, “Single-photon imager based on a superconducting nanowire delay line,” Nat. Photonics 11(4), 247–251 (2017).
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R. H. Hadfield, “Single-photon detectors for optical quantum information applications,” Nat. Photonics 3(12), 696–705 (2009).
[Crossref]

Nature (1)

M. O’Toole, D. B. Lindell, and G. Wetzstein, “Confocal non-line-of-sight imaging based on the light-cone transform,” Nature 555(7696), 338–341 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A (1)

A. N. Otte, J. Barral, B. Dolgoshein, J. Hose, S. Klemin, E. Lorenz, R. Mirzoyan, E. Popova, and M. Teshima, “A test of silicon photomultipliers as readout for PET,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 545(3), 705–715 (2005).
[Crossref]

Opt. Eng. (1)

E. A. Dauler, M. E. Grein, A. J. Kerman, F. Marsili, S. Miki, S. W. Nam, M. D. Shaw, H. Terai, V. B. Verma, and T. Yamashita, “Review of superconducting nanowire single-photon detector system design options and demonstrated performance,” Opt. Eng. 53(8), 081907 (2014).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Physica C (1)

S. Yorozu, Y. Kameda, H. Terai, A. Fujimaki, T. Yamada, and S. Tahara, “A single flux quantum standard logic cell library,” Physica C 378–381, 1471–1474 (2002).
[Crossref]

Proc. SPIE (1)

R. D. Younger, K. A. McIntosh, J. W. Chludzinski, D. C. Oakley, L. J. Mahoney, J. E. Funk, J. P. Donnelly, and S. Verghese, “Crosstalk Analysis of Integrated Geiger-mode Avalanche Photodiode Focal Plane Arrays,” Proc. SPIE 7320, 73200Q (2009).
[Crossref]

Science (1)

A. Kirmani, D. Venkatraman, D. Shin, A. Colaço, F. N. C. Wong, J. H. Shapiro, and V. K. Goyal, “First-Photon Imaging,” Science 343(6166), 58–61 (2014).
[Crossref]

Supercond. Sci. Technol. (1)

S. Miyajima, S. Miki, M. Yabuno, T. Yamashita, and H. Terai, “Timing discriminator based on single-flux-quantum circuit toward high time-resolved photon detection,” Supercond. Sci. Technol. 30(12), 12LT01 (2017).
[Crossref]

Other (1)

J. C. Bardin, P. Ravindran, S.-W. Chang, R. Kumar, J. A. Stern, M. D. Shaw, D. S. Russell, and W. H. Farr, “A high-speed cryogenic SiGe channel combiner IC for large photon-starved SNSPD array,” in Proc. IEEE Bipolar/BiCMOS Circuits and Technology Meeting, (IEEE, 2013), pp. 215–218.
[Crossref]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Designed 64-channel SFQ event-driven encoder. (a) Block diagram. The black and white circles indicate the pulse splitters and a confluence buffers, respectively. (b) Micrograph of fabricated circuit.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Examples of waveforms obtained in preliminary tests of 64-channel SFQ event-driven encoder in liquid helium. The output signals obtained from the SFQ circuits are synchronized with input signals from the PPG.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Package of the SSPD and SFQ chips. The SFQ encoder requires 6 wirings to read the signals from the SSPD array. IbDrv is bias current for the voltage driver. SFQ out is output signals of the SFQ encoder. IbMain1 and IbMain2 are bias currents for the main circuit of the SFQ encoder. The return current is applied to cancel the DC magnetic fields caused by IbMain1 and IbMain2 [30]. IbMC-D/S is bias current for the 64 MC-DC/SFQ converters. (b) Circuit diagram of the experiment. Bias currents Ib1 and Ib2 are supplied to SSPDs #16 and #24, respectively. The bias current Ib3 is a common bias line for 2-pixel SSPDs in parallel.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Waveforms output from the SFQ encoder by irradiating (a) SSPD pixel #16 with an Ib1 of 27.6 μA and (b) SSPD pixel #24 with Ib2 of 30.4 μA. The oscilloscope is synchronized with the trigger signals from the pulsed laser oscillator.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Histogram of timing jitter of timing bit from SFQ encoder by irradiating SSPD #16 with photons.

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