Abstract

The commercialization of EnChroma glasses has generated great expectations for people to be able to see new colors or even correct color vision deficiency (CVD). We evaluate the effectiveness of these glasses using two complementary strategies for the first time. The first consists of using the three classical types of tests — recognition, arrangement and discrimination — with and without glasses, with a high number of individuals. In the second, we use the spectral transmittance of the glasses to simulate the appearance of stimuli in a set of scenes for normal observers and observers with CVD. The results show that the glasses introduce a variation of the perceived color, but neither improve results in the diagnosis tests nor allow the observers with CVD to have a more normal color vision.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. B. L. Cole, “The handicap of abnormal colour vision,” Clin. Exp. Optom. 87(4-5), 258–275 (2004).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. M. Neitz and J. Neitz, “Curing color blindness--mice and nonhuman primates,” Cold Spring Harb. Perspect. Med. 4(11), a017418 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. A. Popleteev, N. Louveton, and R. McCall, “Colorizer: smart glasses aid for the colorblind,” in Workshop on Wearable Systems and Applications (Wearsys ’15), (ACM, 2015), 7–8.
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  7. R. Mastey, E. J. Patterson, P. Summerfelt, J. Luther, J. Neitz, M. Neitz, and J. Carroll, “Effect of “color-correcting glasses” on chromatic discrimination in subjects with congenital color vision deficiency,” Invest Ophth Vis Sci 57(2016).
  8. E. J. Patterson, “Glasses for the colorblind: their effect on chromatic discrimination in subjects with congenital red-green color vision deficiency,” in International Conference on Computer Vision Systems (ICVS), 2017)
  9. N. Almutairi, J. Kundart, N. Muthuramalingam, J. Hayes, K. Citek, and S. Aljohani, “Assessment of Enchroma Filter for Correcting Color Vision Deficiency,” (Pacific University (Oregon), 2017).
  10. I. X-Rite, “FM 100 Hue Color Vision Test. 100 Hue Test Scoring Tool, Version 3.0” (2006), retrieved http://www.munsell.com .
  11. A. R. Badawy, M. U. Hassan, M. Elsherif, Z. Ahmed, A. K. Yetisen, and H. Butt, “Contact Lenses for Color Blindness,” Adv. Healthc. Mater. 7(12), 1800152 (2018).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  26. N. I. Fisher, Statistical Analysis of Circular Data (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge (U.K.), 1993).
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  28. M. Yap, “The Effect of a Yellow Filter on Contrast Sensitivity,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 4(3), 227–232 (1984).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2018 (1)

A. R. Badawy, M. U. Hassan, M. Elsherif, Z. Ahmed, A. K. Yetisen, and H. Butt, “Contact Lenses for Color Blindness,” Adv. Healthc. Mater. 7(12), 1800152 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (1)

S. F. Mohammadi, M. Aghazade Amiri, H. Naderifar, E. Rakhshi, B. Vakilian, E. Ashrafi, and A. H. Behesht-Nejad, “Vision Examination Protocol for Archery Athletes Along With an Introduction to Sports Vision,” Asian J. Sports Med. 7(1), e26591 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (1)

M. Neitz and J. Neitz, “Curing color blindness--mice and nonhuman primates,” Cold Spring Harb. Perspect. Med. 4(11), a017418 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (1)

2010 (1)

M. P. Simunovic, “Colour vision deficiency,” Eye (Lond.) 24(5), 747–755 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

P. Berens, “CircStat: A MATLAB Toolbox for Circular Statistics,” J. Stat. Softw. 31(10), 1–21 (2009).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

B. L. Cole, “The handicap of abnormal colour vision,” Clin. Exp. Optom. 87(4-5), 258–275 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

D. Y. Lee and M. Honson, “Chromatic variation of Ishihara diagnostic plates,” Color Res. Appl. 28(4), 267–276 (2003).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

H. S. Fairman, M. H. Brill, and H. Hemmendinger, “How the CIE 1931 color-matching functions were derived from Wright-Guild data,” Color Res. Appl. 22(1), 11–23 (1997).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

N. I. Fisher and A. J. Lee, “Time Series Analysis of Circular Data,” J. R. Stat. Soc. B 56, 327–339 (1994).

1988 (1)

A. J. Vingrys and P. E. King-Smith, “A quantitative Scoring Technique for panel tests of color vision,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 29(1), 50–63 (1988).
[PubMed]

1987 (1)

C. M. Jarque and A. K. Bera, “A Test for Normality of Observations and Regression Residuals,” Int. Stat. Rev. 55(2), 163–172 (1987).
[Crossref]

1984 (1)

M. Yap, “The Effect of a Yellow Filter on Contrast Sensitivity,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 4(3), 227–232 (1984).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1945 (1)

F. Wilcoxon, “Individual Comparisons by Ranking Methods,” Biom. Bull. 1(6), 80–83 (1945).
[Crossref]

Aghazade Amiri, M.

S. F. Mohammadi, M. Aghazade Amiri, H. Naderifar, E. Rakhshi, B. Vakilian, E. Ashrafi, and A. H. Behesht-Nejad, “Vision Examination Protocol for Archery Athletes Along With an Introduction to Sports Vision,” Asian J. Sports Med. 7(1), e26591 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ahmed, Z.

A. R. Badawy, M. U. Hassan, M. Elsherif, Z. Ahmed, A. K. Yetisen, and H. Butt, “Contact Lenses for Color Blindness,” Adv. Healthc. Mater. 7(12), 1800152 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Alferdinck, J.

M. Lucassen and J. Alferdinck, “Dynamic Simulation of Color Blindness for Studying Color Vision Requirements in Practice,” in Conference on Colour in Graphics, Imaging, and Vision, CGIV 2006, (Society for Imaging Science and Technology, 2006), 355–358.

Arad, B.

B. Arad and O. Ben-Shahar, “Sparse recovery of hyperspectral signal from natural RGB images,” in European Conference on Computer Vision – ECCV 2016, (Springer, Cham, 2016), 19–34.

Ashrafi, E.

S. F. Mohammadi, M. Aghazade Amiri, H. Naderifar, E. Rakhshi, B. Vakilian, E. Ashrafi, and A. H. Behesht-Nejad, “Vision Examination Protocol for Archery Athletes Along With an Introduction to Sports Vision,” Asian J. Sports Med. 7(1), e26591 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Badawy, A. R.

A. R. Badawy, M. U. Hassan, M. Elsherif, Z. Ahmed, A. K. Yetisen, and H. Butt, “Contact Lenses for Color Blindness,” Adv. Healthc. Mater. 7(12), 1800152 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Behesht-Nejad, A. H.

S. F. Mohammadi, M. Aghazade Amiri, H. Naderifar, E. Rakhshi, B. Vakilian, E. Ashrafi, and A. H. Behesht-Nejad, “Vision Examination Protocol for Archery Athletes Along With an Introduction to Sports Vision,” Asian J. Sports Med. 7(1), e26591 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ben-Shahar, O.

B. Arad and O. Ben-Shahar, “Sparse recovery of hyperspectral signal from natural RGB images,” in European Conference on Computer Vision – ECCV 2016, (Springer, Cham, 2016), 19–34.

Bera, A. K.

C. M. Jarque and A. K. Bera, “A Test for Normality of Observations and Regression Residuals,” Int. Stat. Rev. 55(2), 163–172 (1987).
[Crossref]

Berens, P.

P. Berens, “CircStat: A MATLAB Toolbox for Circular Statistics,” J. Stat. Softw. 31(10), 1–21 (2009).
[Crossref]

Birch, J.

Brill, M. H.

H. S. Fairman, M. H. Brill, and H. Hemmendinger, “How the CIE 1931 color-matching functions were derived from Wright-Guild data,” Color Res. Appl. 22(1), 11–23 (1997).
[Crossref]

Butt, H.

A. R. Badawy, M. U. Hassan, M. Elsherif, Z. Ahmed, A. K. Yetisen, and H. Butt, “Contact Lenses for Color Blindness,” Adv. Healthc. Mater. 7(12), 1800152 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cole, B. L.

B. L. Cole, “The handicap of abnormal colour vision,” Clin. Exp. Optom. 87(4-5), 258–275 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Elsherif, M.

A. R. Badawy, M. U. Hassan, M. Elsherif, Z. Ahmed, A. K. Yetisen, and H. Butt, “Contact Lenses for Color Blindness,” Adv. Healthc. Mater. 7(12), 1800152 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fairman, H. S.

H. S. Fairman, M. H. Brill, and H. Hemmendinger, “How the CIE 1931 color-matching functions were derived from Wright-Guild data,” Color Res. Appl. 22(1), 11–23 (1997).
[Crossref]

Fisher, N. I.

N. I. Fisher and A. J. Lee, “Time Series Analysis of Circular Data,” J. R. Stat. Soc. B 56, 327–339 (1994).

Hassan, M. U.

A. R. Badawy, M. U. Hassan, M. Elsherif, Z. Ahmed, A. K. Yetisen, and H. Butt, “Contact Lenses for Color Blindness,” Adv. Healthc. Mater. 7(12), 1800152 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hemmendinger, H.

H. S. Fairman, M. H. Brill, and H. Hemmendinger, “How the CIE 1931 color-matching functions were derived from Wright-Guild data,” Color Res. Appl. 22(1), 11–23 (1997).
[Crossref]

Honson, M.

D. Y. Lee and M. Honson, “Chromatic variation of Ishihara diagnostic plates,” Color Res. Appl. 28(4), 267–276 (2003).
[Crossref]

Jarque, C. M.

C. M. Jarque and A. K. Bera, “A Test for Normality of Observations and Regression Residuals,” Int. Stat. Rev. 55(2), 163–172 (1987).
[Crossref]

King-Smith, P. E.

A. J. Vingrys and P. E. King-Smith, “A quantitative Scoring Technique for panel tests of color vision,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 29(1), 50–63 (1988).
[PubMed]

Lee, A. J.

N. I. Fisher and A. J. Lee, “Time Series Analysis of Circular Data,” J. R. Stat. Soc. B 56, 327–339 (1994).

Lee, D. Y.

D. Y. Lee and M. Honson, “Chromatic variation of Ishihara diagnostic plates,” Color Res. Appl. 28(4), 267–276 (2003).
[Crossref]

Louveton, N.

A. Popleteev, N. Louveton, and R. McCall, “Colorizer: smart glasses aid for the colorblind,” in Workshop on Wearable Systems and Applications (Wearsys ’15), (ACM, 2015), 7–8.

Lucassen, M.

M. Lucassen and J. Alferdinck, “Dynamic Simulation of Color Blindness for Studying Color Vision Requirements in Practice,” in Conference on Colour in Graphics, Imaging, and Vision, CGIV 2006, (Society for Imaging Science and Technology, 2006), 355–358.

McCall, R.

A. Popleteev, N. Louveton, and R. McCall, “Colorizer: smart glasses aid for the colorblind,” in Workshop on Wearable Systems and Applications (Wearsys ’15), (ACM, 2015), 7–8.

Mohammadi, S. F.

S. F. Mohammadi, M. Aghazade Amiri, H. Naderifar, E. Rakhshi, B. Vakilian, E. Ashrafi, and A. H. Behesht-Nejad, “Vision Examination Protocol for Archery Athletes Along With an Introduction to Sports Vision,” Asian J. Sports Med. 7(1), e26591 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Naderifar, H.

S. F. Mohammadi, M. Aghazade Amiri, H. Naderifar, E. Rakhshi, B. Vakilian, E. Ashrafi, and A. H. Behesht-Nejad, “Vision Examination Protocol for Archery Athletes Along With an Introduction to Sports Vision,” Asian J. Sports Med. 7(1), e26591 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Neitz, J.

M. Neitz and J. Neitz, “Curing color blindness--mice and nonhuman primates,” Cold Spring Harb. Perspect. Med. 4(11), a017418 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Neitz, M.

M. Neitz and J. Neitz, “Curing color blindness--mice and nonhuman primates,” Cold Spring Harb. Perspect. Med. 4(11), a017418 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Patterson, E. J.

E. J. Patterson, “Glasses for the colorblind: their effect on chromatic discrimination in subjects with congenital red-green color vision deficiency,” in International Conference on Computer Vision Systems (ICVS), 2017)

Popleteev, A.

A. Popleteev, N. Louveton, and R. McCall, “Colorizer: smart glasses aid for the colorblind,” in Workshop on Wearable Systems and Applications (Wearsys ’15), (ACM, 2015), 7–8.

Rakhshi, E.

S. F. Mohammadi, M. Aghazade Amiri, H. Naderifar, E. Rakhshi, B. Vakilian, E. Ashrafi, and A. H. Behesht-Nejad, “Vision Examination Protocol for Archery Athletes Along With an Introduction to Sports Vision,” Asian J. Sports Med. 7(1), e26591 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Simunovic, M. P.

M. P. Simunovic, “Colour vision deficiency,” Eye (Lond.) 24(5), 747–755 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vakilian, B.

S. F. Mohammadi, M. Aghazade Amiri, H. Naderifar, E. Rakhshi, B. Vakilian, E. Ashrafi, and A. H. Behesht-Nejad, “Vision Examination Protocol for Archery Athletes Along With an Introduction to Sports Vision,” Asian J. Sports Med. 7(1), e26591 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vingrys, A. J.

A. J. Vingrys and P. E. King-Smith, “A quantitative Scoring Technique for panel tests of color vision,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 29(1), 50–63 (1988).
[PubMed]

Wilcoxon, F.

F. Wilcoxon, “Individual Comparisons by Ranking Methods,” Biom. Bull. 1(6), 80–83 (1945).
[Crossref]

Yap, M.

M. Yap, “The Effect of a Yellow Filter on Contrast Sensitivity,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 4(3), 227–232 (1984).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yetisen, A. K.

A. R. Badawy, M. U. Hassan, M. Elsherif, Z. Ahmed, A. K. Yetisen, and H. Butt, “Contact Lenses for Color Blindness,” Adv. Healthc. Mater. 7(12), 1800152 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Adv. Healthc. Mater. (1)

A. R. Badawy, M. U. Hassan, M. Elsherif, Z. Ahmed, A. K. Yetisen, and H. Butt, “Contact Lenses for Color Blindness,” Adv. Healthc. Mater. 7(12), 1800152 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Asian J. Sports Med. (1)

S. F. Mohammadi, M. Aghazade Amiri, H. Naderifar, E. Rakhshi, B. Vakilian, E. Ashrafi, and A. H. Behesht-Nejad, “Vision Examination Protocol for Archery Athletes Along With an Introduction to Sports Vision,” Asian J. Sports Med. 7(1), e26591 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Biom. Bull. (1)

F. Wilcoxon, “Individual Comparisons by Ranking Methods,” Biom. Bull. 1(6), 80–83 (1945).
[Crossref]

Clin. Exp. Optom. (1)

B. L. Cole, “The handicap of abnormal colour vision,” Clin. Exp. Optom. 87(4-5), 258–275 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cold Spring Harb. Perspect. Med. (1)

M. Neitz and J. Neitz, “Curing color blindness--mice and nonhuman primates,” Cold Spring Harb. Perspect. Med. 4(11), a017418 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Color Res. Appl. (2)

H. S. Fairman, M. H. Brill, and H. Hemmendinger, “How the CIE 1931 color-matching functions were derived from Wright-Guild data,” Color Res. Appl. 22(1), 11–23 (1997).
[Crossref]

D. Y. Lee and M. Honson, “Chromatic variation of Ishihara diagnostic plates,” Color Res. Appl. 28(4), 267–276 (2003).
[Crossref]

Eye (Lond.) (1)

M. P. Simunovic, “Colour vision deficiency,” Eye (Lond.) 24(5), 747–755 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Int. Stat. Rev. (1)

C. M. Jarque and A. K. Bera, “A Test for Normality of Observations and Regression Residuals,” Int. Stat. Rev. 55(2), 163–172 (1987).
[Crossref]

Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (1)

A. J. Vingrys and P. E. King-Smith, “A quantitative Scoring Technique for panel tests of color vision,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 29(1), 50–63 (1988).
[PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

J. R. Stat. Soc. B (1)

N. I. Fisher and A. J. Lee, “Time Series Analysis of Circular Data,” J. R. Stat. Soc. B 56, 327–339 (1994).

J. Stat. Softw. (1)

P. Berens, “CircStat: A MATLAB Toolbox for Circular Statistics,” J. Stat. Softw. 31(10), 1–21 (2009).
[Crossref]

Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. (1)

M. Yap, “The Effect of a Yellow Filter on Contrast Sensitivity,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 4(3), 227–232 (1984).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (15)

N. I. Fisher, Statistical Analysis of Circular Data (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge (U.K.), 1993).

Oriana, retrieved https://www.kovcomp.co.uk/oriana/ .

S. Ishihara, Tests for Colour-Blindness (Kanehara Shuppen Company, Ltd., Tokyo, 1977).

B. Berlin and P. Kay, Basic Color Terms: Their Universality and Evolution (University of California Press, 1969).

M. D. Fairchild, Color Appearance Models (Wiley, 2005).

CIE, ed., Method of Measuring and Specifying Colour Rendering Properties of Light Sources (CIE Central Bureau, Vienna, 1995).

B. Arad and O. Ben-Shahar, “Sparse recovery of hyperspectral signal from natural RGB images,” in European Conference on Computer Vision – ECCV 2016, (Springer, Cham, 2016), 19–34.

“Hyperspectral Database”, retrieved http://icvl.cs.bgu.ac.il/hyperspectral/ .

M. Lucassen and J. Alferdinck, “Dynamic Simulation of Color Blindness for Studying Color Vision Requirements in Practice,” in Conference on Colour in Graphics, Imaging, and Vision, CGIV 2006, (Society for Imaging Science and Technology, 2006), 355–358.

A. Popleteev, N. Louveton, and R. McCall, “Colorizer: smart glasses aid for the colorblind,” in Workshop on Wearable Systems and Applications (Wearsys ’15), (ACM, 2015), 7–8.

EnChroma, retrieved http://enchroma.com .

R. Mastey, E. J. Patterson, P. Summerfelt, J. Luther, J. Neitz, M. Neitz, and J. Carroll, “Effect of “color-correcting glasses” on chromatic discrimination in subjects with congenital color vision deficiency,” Invest Ophth Vis Sci 57(2016).

E. J. Patterson, “Glasses for the colorblind: their effect on chromatic discrimination in subjects with congenital red-green color vision deficiency,” in International Conference on Computer Vision Systems (ICVS), 2017)

N. Almutairi, J. Kundart, N. Muthuramalingam, J. Hayes, K. Citek, and S. Aljohani, “Assessment of Enchroma Filter for Correcting Color Vision Deficiency,” (Pacific University (Oregon), 2017).

I. X-Rite, “FM 100 Hue Color Vision Test. 100 Hue Test Scoring Tool, Version 3.0” (2006), retrieved http://www.munsell.com .

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Spectral transmittance of EnChroma Cx filter category 1 and color matching functions of CIE31 2° Standard Observer [12].
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 a) RGB rendering of the five scenes selected for data set D2.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Upper row: example of a simulated scene for mild conditions (d = 0.3, protan and deutan, with or without glasses); middle row: simulated scene for medium severity conditions (d = 0.6); lower row: simulated scene for dichromats.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 CIECAM02 ac-bc plot of the two data sets used in the simulation experiment.

Tables (6)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Mean values and standard deviation (SD) of the Ishihara, FM100 and color naming tests results without glasses for the different groups

Tables Icon

Table 2 Mean values and standard deviation (SD) of the tests results with glasses for the different groups

Tables Icon

Table 3 Mean difference of the FM100 parameters and mean number of name changes computed taking session 1 as reference

Tables Icon

Table 4 Median and standard deviation (SD) for the lightness J attribute for glasses on or off and for each simulated CVD condition (data sets D1 and D2)

Tables Icon

Table 5 Mean angular direction and standard deviation (SD), in degrees, for the hue h attribute for glasses on or off and for each simulated CVD condition (data sets D1 and D2)

Tables Icon

Table 6 Median and standard deviation (SD) for the chroma, C attribute for glasses on or off and for each simulated CVD condition (data sets D1 and D2)

Metrics