Abstract

We present and demonstrate an experimental scheme that enables overlap-free reconstruction of attosecond beating by interference of two-photon transitions (RABBITT) measurements at high extreme-ultraviolet (XUV) photon energies. A compact passively-stabilized attosecond beamline employing a multilayer (ML) mirror allows us to obtain XUV pulses consisting of only two odd high-harmonic orders from an attosecond pulse train (APT). We compare our new technique to existing schemes that are used to perform RABBITT measurements and discuss how our scheme resolves the limitations imposed by spectral complexity of the harmonic comb at high photon energies. We further demonstrate first applications of our scheme for rare gases and gas mixtures, and show that this scheme can be extended to gas-molecule mixtures.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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2018 (5)

C. Cirelli, C. Marante, S. Heuser, C. L. M. Petersson, Á. J. Galán, L. Argenti, S. Zhong, D. Busto, M. Isinger, S. Nandi, S. Maclot, L. Rading, P. Johnsson, M. Gisselbrecht, M. Lucchini, L. Gallmann, J. M. Dahlström, E. Lindroth, A. L’Huillier, F. Martín, and U. Kelle, “Anisotropic photoemission time delays close to a Fano resonance,” Nat. Commun. 9, 955 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Vos, L. Cattaneo, S. Patchkovskii, T. Zimmermann, C. Cirelli, M. Lucchini, A. Kheifets, A. S. Landsman, and U. Keller, “Orientation-dependent stereo wigner time delay and electron localization in a small molecule,” Science. 360, 1326–1330 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Cattaneo, J. Vos, R. Bello, A. Palacios, S. Heuser, L. Pedrelli, M. Lucchini, C. Cirelli, F. Martín, and U. Keller, “Attosecond coupled electron and nuclear dynamics in dissociative ionization of H2,” Nat. Phys. 14, 733–738 (2018).
[Crossref]

I. Jordan and H. J. Wörner, “Extracting attosecond delays from spectrally overlapping interferograms,” J. Opt. 20, 024013 (2018).
[Crossref]

A. W. Bray, F. Naseem, and A. S. Kheifets, “Simulation of angular resolved RABBITT measurements in noble gas atoms,” Phys. Rev. A 97, 063404 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (2)

M. Isinger, R. J. Squibb, D. Busto, S. Zhong, A. Harth, D. Kroon, S. Nandi, C. L. Arnold, M. Miranda, J. M. Dahlström, E. Lindroth, R. Feifel, M. Gisselbrecht, and A. L’Huillier, “Photoionization in the time and frequency domain,” Science 358, 893–896 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Gallmann, I. Jordan, H. J. Wörner, L. Castiglioni, M. Hengsberger, J. Osterwalder, C. A. Arrell, M. Chergui, E. Liberatore, U. Rothlisberger, and U. Keller, “Photoemission and photoionization time delays and rates,” Struct. Dyn. 4, 061502 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (5)

A. Kheifets, A. Mandal, P. C. Deshmukh, V. K. Dolmatov, D. A. Keating, and S. T. Manson, “Relativistic calculations of angle-dependent photoemission time delay,” Phys. Rev. A 94, 013423 (2016).
[Crossref]

V. Gruson, L. Barreau, Á. Jiménez-Galan, F. Risoud, J. Caillat, A. Maquet, B. Carré, F. Lepetit, J.-F. Hergott, T. Ruchon, L. Argenti, R. Taïeb, F. Martín, and P. Salières, “Attosecond dynamics through a Fano resonance: Monitoring the birth of a photoelectron,” Science. 354, 734–738 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Kaldun, A. Blättermann, V. Stooß, S. Donsa, H. Wei, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, C. Ott, C. D. Lin, J. Burgdörfer, and T. Pfeifer, “Observing the ultrafast buildup of a Fano resonance in the time domain,” Science. 354, 738–741 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Huppert, I. Jordan, D. Baykusheva, A. von Conta, and H. J. Wörner, “Attosecond Delays in Molecular Photoionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 093001 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Heuser, A. Jiménez Galán, C. Cirelli, C. Marante, M. Sabbar, R. Boge, M. Lucchini, L. Gallmann, I. Ivanov, A. S. Kheifets, J. M. Dahlström, E. Lindroth, L. Argenti, F. Martín, and U. Keller, “Angular dependence of photoemission time delay in helium,” Phys. Rev. A 94, 063409 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (3)

J. Wätzel, A. S. Moskalenko, Y. Pavlyukh, and J. Berakdar, “Angular resolved time delay in photoemission,” J. Phys. B 48, 025602 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Sabbar, S. Heuser, R. Boge, M. Lucchini, T. Carette, E. Lindroth, L. Gallmann, C. Cirelli, and U. Keller, “Resonance effects in photoemission time delays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 133001 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, and J. Burgdörfer, “Attosecond chronoscopy of photoemission,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 87, 765–802 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (3)

D. Guénot, D. Kroon, E. Balogh, E. W. Larsen, M. Kotur, M. Miranda, T. Fordell, P. Johnsson, J. Mauritsson, M. Gisselbrecht, K. Varjù, C. L. Arnold, T. Carette, A. S. Kheifets, E. Lindroth, A. L’Huillier, and J. M. Dahlström, “Measurements of relative photoemission time delays in noble gas atoms,” J. Phys. B 47, 245602 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Sabbar, S. Heuser, R. Boge, M. Lucchini, L. Gallmann, C. Cirelli, and U. Keller, “Combining attosecond XUV pulses with coincidence spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85, 103113 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Locher, M. Lucchini, J. Herrmann, M. Sabbar, M. Weger, A. Ludwig, L. Castiglioni, M. Greif, M. Hengsberger, L. Gallmann, and U. Keller, “Versatile attosecond beamline in a two-foci configuration for simultaneous time-resolved measurements,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85, 013113 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (1)

A. Kheifets, “Time delay in valence-shell photoionization of noble-gas atoms,” Phys. Rev. A 87, 063404 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (3)

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the kev x-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science. 336, 1287–1291 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. M. Dahlström, A. L’Huillier, and A. Maquet, “Introduction to attosecond delays in photoionization,” J. Phys. B 45, 183001 (2012).
[Crossref]

D. Guénot, K. Klünder, C. L. Arnold, D. Kroon, J. M. Dahlström, M. Miranda, T. Fordell, M. Gisselbrecht, P. Johnsson, J. Mauritsson, E. Lindroth, A. Maquet, R. Taïeb, A. L’Huillier, and A. S. Kheifets, “Photoemission-time-delay measurements and calculations close to the 3s-ionization-cross-section minimum in Ar,” Phys. Rev. A 85, 053424 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (3)

K. Klünder, J. M. Dahlström, M. Gisselbrecht, T. Fordell, M. Swoboda, D. Guénot, P. Johnsson, J. Caillat, J. Mauritsson, A. Maquet, R. Taïeb, and A. L’Huillier, “Probing Single-Photon Ionization on the Attosecond Time Scale,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 143002 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Caillat, A. Maquet, S. Haessler, B. Fabre, T. Ruchon, P. Salières, Y. Mairesse, and R. Taïeb, “Attosecond Resolved Electron Release in Two-Color Near-Threshold Photoionization of N2,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 093002 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. Schultze, A. Wirth, I. Grguras, M. Uiberacker, T. Uphues, A. Verhoef, J. Gagnon, M. Hofstetter, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, and F. Krausz, “State-of-the-art attosecond metrology,” J. Electron. Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 184, 68–77 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (3)

M. Swoboda, T. Fordell, K. Klünder, J. M. Dahlström, M. Miranda, C. Buth, K. J. Schafer, J. Mauritsson, A. L’Huillier, and M. Gisselbrecht, “Phase Measurement of Resonant Two-Photon Ionization in Helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 103003 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Goulielmakis, Z.-H. Loh, A. Wirth, R. Santra, N. Rohringer, V. S. Yakovlev, S. Zherebtsov, T. Pfeifer, A. M. Azzeer, M. F. Kling, S. R. Leone, and F. Krausz, “Real-time observation of valence electron motion,” Nature. 466, 739–743 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Schultze, M. Fieß, N. Karpowicz, J. Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, T. Mercouris, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdörfer, A. M. Azzeer, R. Ernstorfer, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and V. S. Yakovlev, “Delay in Photoemission,” Science 328, 1658–1662 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

F. Krausz and M. Ivanov, “Attosecond physics,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 81, 163 (2009).
[Crossref]

S. Haessler, B. Fabre, J. Higuet, J. Caillat, T. Ruchon, P. Breger, B. Carré, E. Constant, A. Maquet, E. Mével, P. Salières, R. Taïeb, and Y. Mairesse, “Phase-resolved attosecond near-threshold photoionization of molecular nitrogen,” Phys. Rev. A 80, 011404 (2009).
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

P. B. Corkum and F. Krausz, “Attosecond science,” Nat. Phys. 3, 381–387 (2007).
[Crossref]

A. L. Cavalieri, N. Müller, T. Uphues, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Baltuška, B. Horvath, B. Schmidt, L. Blümel, R. Holzwarth, S. Hendel, M. Drescher, U. Kleineberg, P. M. Echenique, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Heinzmann, “Attosecond spectroscopy in condensed matter,” Nature 449, 1029–1032 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

E. Seres, J. Seres, F. Krausz, and C. Spielmann, “Generation of coherent soft-x-ray radiation extending far beyond the titanium l edge,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 163002 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

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2002 (2)

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P. M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Augé, P. Balcou, H. G. Muller, and P. Agostini, “Observation of a Train of Attosecond Pulses from High Harmonic Generation,” Science. 292, 1689–1692 (2001).
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T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the kev x-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science. 336, 1287–1291 (2012).
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T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the kev x-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science. 336, 1287–1291 (2012).
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S. Heuser, A. Jiménez Galán, C. Cirelli, C. Marante, M. Sabbar, R. Boge, M. Lucchini, L. Gallmann, I. Ivanov, A. S. Kheifets, J. M. Dahlström, E. Lindroth, L. Argenti, F. Martín, and U. Keller, “Angular dependence of photoemission time delay in helium,” Phys. Rev. A 94, 063409 (2016).
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M. Sabbar, S. Heuser, R. Boge, M. Lucchini, L. Gallmann, C. Cirelli, and U. Keller, “Combining attosecond XUV pulses with coincidence spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85, 103113 (2014).
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P. M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Augé, P. Balcou, H. G. Muller, and P. Agostini, “Observation of a Train of Attosecond Pulses from High Harmonic Generation,” Science. 292, 1689–1692 (2001).
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T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the kev x-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science. 336, 1287–1291 (2012).
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M. Isinger, R. J. Squibb, D. Busto, S. Zhong, A. Harth, D. Kroon, S. Nandi, C. L. Arnold, M. Miranda, J. M. Dahlström, E. Lindroth, R. Feifel, M. Gisselbrecht, and A. L’Huillier, “Photoionization in the time and frequency domain,” Science 358, 893–896 (2017).
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M. Swoboda, T. Fordell, K. Klünder, J. M. Dahlström, M. Miranda, C. Buth, K. J. Schafer, J. Mauritsson, A. L’Huillier, and M. Gisselbrecht, “Phase Measurement of Resonant Two-Photon Ionization in Helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 103003 (2010).
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M. Sabbar, S. Heuser, R. Boge, M. Lucchini, T. Carette, E. Lindroth, L. Gallmann, C. Cirelli, and U. Keller, “Resonance effects in photoemission time delays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 133001 (2015).
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L. Cattaneo, J. Vos, R. Bello, A. Palacios, S. Heuser, L. Pedrelli, M. Lucchini, C. Cirelli, F. Martín, and U. Keller, “Attosecond coupled electron and nuclear dynamics in dissociative ionization of H2,” Nat. Phys. 14, 733–738 (2018).
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M. Schultze, M. Fieß, N. Karpowicz, J. Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, T. Mercouris, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdörfer, A. M. Azzeer, R. Ernstorfer, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and V. S. Yakovlev, “Delay in Photoemission,” Science 328, 1658–1662 (2010).
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L. Cattaneo, J. Vos, R. Bello, A. Palacios, S. Heuser, L. Pedrelli, M. Lucchini, C. Cirelli, F. Martín, and U. Keller, “Attosecond coupled electron and nuclear dynamics in dissociative ionization of H2,” Nat. Phys. 14, 733–738 (2018).
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S. Heuser, A. Jiménez Galán, C. Cirelli, C. Marante, M. Sabbar, R. Boge, M. Lucchini, L. Gallmann, I. Ivanov, A. S. Kheifets, J. M. Dahlström, E. Lindroth, L. Argenti, F. Martín, and U. Keller, “Angular dependence of photoemission time delay in helium,” Phys. Rev. A 94, 063409 (2016).
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M. Sabbar, S. Heuser, R. Boge, M. Lucchini, T. Carette, E. Lindroth, L. Gallmann, C. Cirelli, and U. Keller, “Resonance effects in photoemission time delays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 133001 (2015).
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I. Jordan, A. Jain, T. Gaumnitz, J. Ma, and H. J. Wörner, “Photoelectron spectrometer for liquid and gas-phase attosecond spectroscopy with field-free and magnetic bottle operation modes,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.89 (2018).
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M. Huppert, I. Jordan, D. Baykusheva, A. von Conta, and H. J. Wörner, “Attosecond Delays in Molecular Photoionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 093001 (2016).
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I. Jordan, A. Jain, T. Gaumnitz, J. Ma, and H. J. Wörner, “Photoelectron spectrometer for liquid and gas-phase attosecond spectroscopy with field-free and magnetic bottle operation modes,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.89 (2018).
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L. Cattaneo, J. Vos, R. Bello, A. Palacios, S. Heuser, L. Pedrelli, M. Lucchini, C. Cirelli, F. Martín, and U. Keller, “Attosecond coupled electron and nuclear dynamics in dissociative ionization of H2,” Nat. Phys. 14, 733–738 (2018).
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L. Gallmann, I. Jordan, H. J. Wörner, L. Castiglioni, M. Hengsberger, J. Osterwalder, C. A. Arrell, M. Chergui, E. Liberatore, U. Rothlisberger, and U. Keller, “Photoemission and photoionization time delays and rates,” Struct. Dyn. 4, 061502 (2017).
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S. Heuser, A. Jiménez Galán, C. Cirelli, C. Marante, M. Sabbar, R. Boge, M. Lucchini, L. Gallmann, I. Ivanov, A. S. Kheifets, J. M. Dahlström, E. Lindroth, L. Argenti, F. Martín, and U. Keller, “Angular dependence of photoemission time delay in helium,” Phys. Rev. A 94, 063409 (2016).
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M. Sabbar, S. Heuser, R. Boge, M. Lucchini, T. Carette, E. Lindroth, L. Gallmann, C. Cirelli, and U. Keller, “Resonance effects in photoemission time delays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 133001 (2015).
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R. Locher, M. Lucchini, J. Herrmann, M. Sabbar, M. Weger, A. Ludwig, L. Castiglioni, M. Greif, M. Hengsberger, L. Gallmann, and U. Keller, “Versatile attosecond beamline in a two-foci configuration for simultaneous time-resolved measurements,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85, 013113 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Sabbar, S. Heuser, R. Boge, M. Lucchini, L. Gallmann, C. Cirelli, and U. Keller, “Combining attosecond XUV pulses with coincidence spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85, 103113 (2014).
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J. Vos, L. Cattaneo, S. Patchkovskii, T. Zimmermann, C. Cirelli, M. Lucchini, A. Kheifets, A. S. Landsman, and U. Keller, “Orientation-dependent stereo wigner time delay and electron localization in a small molecule,” Science. 360, 1326–1330 (2018).
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A. Kheifets, A. Mandal, P. C. Deshmukh, V. K. Dolmatov, D. A. Keating, and S. T. Manson, “Relativistic calculations of angle-dependent photoemission time delay,” Phys. Rev. A 94, 013423 (2016).
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S. Heuser, A. Jiménez Galán, C. Cirelli, C. Marante, M. Sabbar, R. Boge, M. Lucchini, L. Gallmann, I. Ivanov, A. S. Kheifets, J. M. Dahlström, E. Lindroth, L. Argenti, F. Martín, and U. Keller, “Angular dependence of photoemission time delay in helium,” Phys. Rev. A 94, 063409 (2016).
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D. Guénot, K. Klünder, C. L. Arnold, D. Kroon, J. M. Dahlström, M. Miranda, T. Fordell, M. Gisselbrecht, P. Johnsson, J. Mauritsson, E. Lindroth, A. Maquet, R. Taïeb, A. L’Huillier, and A. S. Kheifets, “Photoemission-time-delay measurements and calculations close to the 3s-ionization-cross-section minimum in Ar,” Phys. Rev. A 85, 053424 (2012).
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A. I. Ivanov and A. S. Kheifets, “On the angular dependence of the photoemission time delay in helium,” ArXiv e-prints (2016).

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M. Schultze, M. Fieß, N. Karpowicz, J. Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, T. Mercouris, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdörfer, A. M. Azzeer, R. Ernstorfer, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and V. S. Yakovlev, “Delay in Photoemission,” Science 328, 1658–1662 (2010).
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M. Schultze, A. Wirth, I. Grguras, M. Uiberacker, T. Uphues, A. Verhoef, J. Gagnon, M. Hofstetter, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, and F. Krausz, “State-of-the-art attosecond metrology,” J. Electron. Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 184, 68–77 (2011).
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M. Schultze, M. Fieß, N. Karpowicz, J. Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, T. Mercouris, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdörfer, A. M. Azzeer, R. Ernstorfer, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and V. S. Yakovlev, “Delay in Photoemission,” Science 328, 1658–1662 (2010).
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A. L. Cavalieri, N. Müller, T. Uphues, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Baltuška, B. Horvath, B. Schmidt, L. Blümel, R. Holzwarth, S. Hendel, M. Drescher, U. Kleineberg, P. M. Echenique, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Heinzmann, “Attosecond spectroscopy in condensed matter,” Nature 449, 1029–1032 (2007).
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M. Drescher, M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, M. Uiberacker, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, and F. Krausz, “Time-resolved atomic inner-shell spectroscopy,” Nature 419, 803 (2002).
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Mauritsson, J.

D. Guénot, D. Kroon, E. Balogh, E. W. Larsen, M. Kotur, M. Miranda, T. Fordell, P. Johnsson, J. Mauritsson, M. Gisselbrecht, K. Varjù, C. L. Arnold, T. Carette, A. S. Kheifets, E. Lindroth, A. L’Huillier, and J. M. Dahlström, “Measurements of relative photoemission time delays in noble gas atoms,” J. Phys. B 47, 245602 (2014).
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D. Guénot, K. Klünder, C. L. Arnold, D. Kroon, J. M. Dahlström, M. Miranda, T. Fordell, M. Gisselbrecht, P. Johnsson, J. Mauritsson, E. Lindroth, A. Maquet, R. Taïeb, A. L’Huillier, and A. S. Kheifets, “Photoemission-time-delay measurements and calculations close to the 3s-ionization-cross-section minimum in Ar,” Phys. Rev. A 85, 053424 (2012).
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K. Klünder, J. M. Dahlström, M. Gisselbrecht, T. Fordell, M. Swoboda, D. Guénot, P. Johnsson, J. Caillat, J. Mauritsson, A. Maquet, R. Taïeb, and A. L’Huillier, “Probing Single-Photon Ionization on the Attosecond Time Scale,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 143002 (2011).
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M. Swoboda, T. Fordell, K. Klünder, J. M. Dahlström, M. Miranda, C. Buth, K. J. Schafer, J. Mauritsson, A. L’Huillier, and M. Gisselbrecht, “Phase Measurement of Resonant Two-Photon Ionization in Helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 103003 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mercouris, T.

M. Schultze, M. Fieß, N. Karpowicz, J. Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, T. Mercouris, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdörfer, A. M. Azzeer, R. Ernstorfer, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and V. S. Yakovlev, “Delay in Photoemission,” Science 328, 1658–1662 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Merdji, H.

Y. Mairesse, A. de Bohan, L. J. Frasinski, H. Merdji, L. C. Dinu, P. Monchicourt, P. Breger, M. Kovacev, R. Taïeb, B. Carré, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and P. Salières, “Attosecond synchronization of high-harmonic soft x-rays,” Science 302, 1540 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mével, E.

S. Haessler, B. Fabre, J. Higuet, J. Caillat, T. Ruchon, P. Breger, B. Carré, E. Constant, A. Maquet, E. Mével, P. Salières, R. Taïeb, and Y. Mairesse, “Phase-resolved attosecond near-threshold photoionization of molecular nitrogen,” Phys. Rev. A 80, 011404 (2009).
[Crossref]

Minnhagen, L.

Miranda, M.

M. Isinger, R. J. Squibb, D. Busto, S. Zhong, A. Harth, D. Kroon, S. Nandi, C. L. Arnold, M. Miranda, J. M. Dahlström, E. Lindroth, R. Feifel, M. Gisselbrecht, and A. L’Huillier, “Photoionization in the time and frequency domain,” Science 358, 893–896 (2017).
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D. Guénot, D. Kroon, E. Balogh, E. W. Larsen, M. Kotur, M. Miranda, T. Fordell, P. Johnsson, J. Mauritsson, M. Gisselbrecht, K. Varjù, C. L. Arnold, T. Carette, A. S. Kheifets, E. Lindroth, A. L’Huillier, and J. M. Dahlström, “Measurements of relative photoemission time delays in noble gas atoms,” J. Phys. B 47, 245602 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. Guénot, K. Klünder, C. L. Arnold, D. Kroon, J. M. Dahlström, M. Miranda, T. Fordell, M. Gisselbrecht, P. Johnsson, J. Mauritsson, E. Lindroth, A. Maquet, R. Taïeb, A. L’Huillier, and A. S. Kheifets, “Photoemission-time-delay measurements and calculations close to the 3s-ionization-cross-section minimum in Ar,” Phys. Rev. A 85, 053424 (2012).
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M. Swoboda, T. Fordell, K. Klünder, J. M. Dahlström, M. Miranda, C. Buth, K. J. Schafer, J. Mauritsson, A. L’Huillier, and M. Gisselbrecht, “Phase Measurement of Resonant Two-Photon Ionization in Helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 103003 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Y. Mairesse, A. de Bohan, L. J. Frasinski, H. Merdji, L. C. Dinu, P. Monchicourt, P. Breger, M. Kovacev, R. Taïeb, B. Carré, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and P. Salières, “Attosecond synchronization of high-harmonic soft x-rays,” Science 302, 1540 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Moskalenko, A. S.

J. Wätzel, A. S. Moskalenko, Y. Pavlyukh, and J. Berakdar, “Angular resolved time delay in photoemission,” J. Phys. B 48, 025602 (2015).
[Crossref]

Mücke, O. D.

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the kev x-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science. 336, 1287–1291 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Muller, H. G.

Y. Mairesse, A. de Bohan, L. J. Frasinski, H. Merdji, L. C. Dinu, P. Monchicourt, P. Breger, M. Kovacev, R. Taïeb, B. Carré, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and P. Salières, “Attosecond synchronization of high-harmonic soft x-rays,” Science 302, 1540 (2003).
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P. M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Augé, P. Balcou, H. G. Muller, and P. Agostini, “Observation of a Train of Attosecond Pulses from High Harmonic Generation,” Science. 292, 1689–1692 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Müller, N.

A. L. Cavalieri, N. Müller, T. Uphues, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Baltuška, B. Horvath, B. Schmidt, L. Blümel, R. Holzwarth, S. Hendel, M. Drescher, U. Kleineberg, P. M. Echenique, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Heinzmann, “Attosecond spectroscopy in condensed matter,” Nature 449, 1029–1032 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mullot, G.

P. M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Augé, P. Balcou, H. G. Muller, and P. Agostini, “Observation of a Train of Attosecond Pulses from High Harmonic Generation,” Science. 292, 1689–1692 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Murnane, M. M.

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the kev x-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science. 336, 1287–1291 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nagele, S.

A. Kaldun, A. Blättermann, V. Stooß, S. Donsa, H. Wei, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, C. Ott, C. D. Lin, J. Burgdörfer, and T. Pfeifer, “Observing the ultrafast buildup of a Fano resonance in the time domain,” Science. 354, 738–741 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, and J. Burgdörfer, “Attosecond chronoscopy of photoemission,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 87, 765–802 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Schultze, M. Fieß, N. Karpowicz, J. Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, T. Mercouris, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdörfer, A. M. Azzeer, R. Ernstorfer, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and V. S. Yakovlev, “Delay in Photoemission,” Science 328, 1658–1662 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nandi, S.

C. Cirelli, C. Marante, S. Heuser, C. L. M. Petersson, Á. J. Galán, L. Argenti, S. Zhong, D. Busto, M. Isinger, S. Nandi, S. Maclot, L. Rading, P. Johnsson, M. Gisselbrecht, M. Lucchini, L. Gallmann, J. M. Dahlström, E. Lindroth, A. L’Huillier, F. Martín, and U. Kelle, “Anisotropic photoemission time delays close to a Fano resonance,” Nat. Commun. 9, 955 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Isinger, R. J. Squibb, D. Busto, S. Zhong, A. Harth, D. Kroon, S. Nandi, C. L. Arnold, M. Miranda, J. M. Dahlström, E. Lindroth, R. Feifel, M. Gisselbrecht, and A. L’Huillier, “Photoionization in the time and frequency domain,” Science 358, 893–896 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Naseem, F.

A. W. Bray, F. Naseem, and A. S. Kheifets, “Simulation of angular resolved RABBITT measurements in noble gas atoms,” Phys. Rev. A 97, 063404 (2018).
[Crossref]

Neppl, S.

M. Schultze, M. Fieß, N. Karpowicz, J. Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, T. Mercouris, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdörfer, A. M. Azzeer, R. Ernstorfer, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and V. S. Yakovlev, “Delay in Photoemission,” Science 328, 1658–1662 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nicolaides, C. A.

M. Schultze, M. Fieß, N. Karpowicz, J. Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, T. Mercouris, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdörfer, A. M. Azzeer, R. Ernstorfer, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and V. S. Yakovlev, “Delay in Photoemission,” Science 328, 1658–1662 (2010).
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Nussenzveig, H. M.

C. A. De Carvalho and H. M. Nussenzveig, “Time delay,” Phys. Rep. 364, 83–174 (2002).
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Osterwalder, J.

L. Gallmann, I. Jordan, H. J. Wörner, L. Castiglioni, M. Hengsberger, J. Osterwalder, C. A. Arrell, M. Chergui, E. Liberatore, U. Rothlisberger, and U. Keller, “Photoemission and photoionization time delays and rates,” Struct. Dyn. 4, 061502 (2017).
[Crossref]

Ott, C.

A. Kaldun, A. Blättermann, V. Stooß, S. Donsa, H. Wei, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, C. Ott, C. D. Lin, J. Burgdörfer, and T. Pfeifer, “Observing the ultrafast buildup of a Fano resonance in the time domain,” Science. 354, 738–741 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Palacios, A.

L. Cattaneo, J. Vos, R. Bello, A. Palacios, S. Heuser, L. Pedrelli, M. Lucchini, C. Cirelli, F. Martín, and U. Keller, “Attosecond coupled electron and nuclear dynamics in dissociative ionization of H2,” Nat. Phys. 14, 733–738 (2018).
[Crossref]

Patchkovskii, S.

J. Vos, L. Cattaneo, S. Patchkovskii, T. Zimmermann, C. Cirelli, M. Lucchini, A. Kheifets, A. S. Landsman, and U. Keller, “Orientation-dependent stereo wigner time delay and electron localization in a small molecule,” Science. 360, 1326–1330 (2018).
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Paul, P. M.

P. M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Augé, P. Balcou, H. G. Muller, and P. Agostini, “Observation of a Train of Attosecond Pulses from High Harmonic Generation,” Science. 292, 1689–1692 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pavlyukh, Y.

J. Wätzel, A. S. Moskalenko, Y. Pavlyukh, and J. Berakdar, “Angular resolved time delay in photoemission,” J. Phys. B 48, 025602 (2015).
[Crossref]

Pazourek, R.

A. Kaldun, A. Blättermann, V. Stooß, S. Donsa, H. Wei, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, C. Ott, C. D. Lin, J. Burgdörfer, and T. Pfeifer, “Observing the ultrafast buildup of a Fano resonance in the time domain,” Science. 354, 738–741 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, and J. Burgdörfer, “Attosecond chronoscopy of photoemission,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 87, 765–802 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Schultze, M. Fieß, N. Karpowicz, J. Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, T. Mercouris, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdörfer, A. M. Azzeer, R. Ernstorfer, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and V. S. Yakovlev, “Delay in Photoemission,” Science 328, 1658–1662 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pedrelli, L.

L. Cattaneo, J. Vos, R. Bello, A. Palacios, S. Heuser, L. Pedrelli, M. Lucchini, C. Cirelli, F. Martín, and U. Keller, “Attosecond coupled electron and nuclear dynamics in dissociative ionization of H2,” Nat. Phys. 14, 733–738 (2018).
[Crossref]

Petersson, C. L. M.

C. Cirelli, C. Marante, S. Heuser, C. L. M. Petersson, Á. J. Galán, L. Argenti, S. Zhong, D. Busto, M. Isinger, S. Nandi, S. Maclot, L. Rading, P. Johnsson, M. Gisselbrecht, M. Lucchini, L. Gallmann, J. M. Dahlström, E. Lindroth, A. L’Huillier, F. Martín, and U. Kelle, “Anisotropic photoemission time delays close to a Fano resonance,” Nat. Commun. 9, 955 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pfeifer, T.

A. Kaldun, A. Blättermann, V. Stooß, S. Donsa, H. Wei, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, C. Ott, C. D. Lin, J. Burgdörfer, and T. Pfeifer, “Observing the ultrafast buildup of a Fano resonance in the time domain,” Science. 354, 738–741 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Goulielmakis, Z.-H. Loh, A. Wirth, R. Santra, N. Rohringer, V. S. Yakovlev, S. Zherebtsov, T. Pfeifer, A. M. Azzeer, M. F. Kling, S. R. Leone, and F. Krausz, “Real-time observation of valence electron motion,” Nature. 466, 739–743 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Plaja, L.

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the kev x-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science. 336, 1287–1291 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Popmintchev, D.

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the kev x-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science. 336, 1287–1291 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Popmintchev, T.

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the kev x-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science. 336, 1287–1291 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pugzlys, A.

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the kev x-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science. 336, 1287–1291 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rading, L.

C. Cirelli, C. Marante, S. Heuser, C. L. M. Petersson, Á. J. Galán, L. Argenti, S. Zhong, D. Busto, M. Isinger, S. Nandi, S. Maclot, L. Rading, P. Johnsson, M. Gisselbrecht, M. Lucchini, L. Gallmann, J. M. Dahlström, E. Lindroth, A. L’Huillier, F. Martín, and U. Kelle, “Anisotropic photoemission time delays close to a Fano resonance,” Nat. Commun. 9, 955 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Risoud, F.

V. Gruson, L. Barreau, Á. Jiménez-Galan, F. Risoud, J. Caillat, A. Maquet, B. Carré, F. Lepetit, J.-F. Hergott, T. Ruchon, L. Argenti, R. Taïeb, F. Martín, and P. Salières, “Attosecond dynamics through a Fano resonance: Monitoring the birth of a photoelectron,” Science. 354, 734–738 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rohringer, N.

E. Goulielmakis, Z.-H. Loh, A. Wirth, R. Santra, N. Rohringer, V. S. Yakovlev, S. Zherebtsov, T. Pfeifer, A. M. Azzeer, M. F. Kling, S. R. Leone, and F. Krausz, “Real-time observation of valence electron motion,” Nature. 466, 739–743 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rothlisberger, U.

L. Gallmann, I. Jordan, H. J. Wörner, L. Castiglioni, M. Hengsberger, J. Osterwalder, C. A. Arrell, M. Chergui, E. Liberatore, U. Rothlisberger, and U. Keller, “Photoemission and photoionization time delays and rates,” Struct. Dyn. 4, 061502 (2017).
[Crossref]

Ruchon, T.

V. Gruson, L. Barreau, Á. Jiménez-Galan, F. Risoud, J. Caillat, A. Maquet, B. Carré, F. Lepetit, J.-F. Hergott, T. Ruchon, L. Argenti, R. Taïeb, F. Martín, and P. Salières, “Attosecond dynamics through a Fano resonance: Monitoring the birth of a photoelectron,” Science. 354, 734–738 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Caillat, A. Maquet, S. Haessler, B. Fabre, T. Ruchon, P. Salières, Y. Mairesse, and R. Taïeb, “Attosecond Resolved Electron Release in Two-Color Near-Threshold Photoionization of N2,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 093002 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. Haessler, B. Fabre, J. Higuet, J. Caillat, T. Ruchon, P. Breger, B. Carré, E. Constant, A. Maquet, E. Mével, P. Salières, R. Taïeb, and Y. Mairesse, “Phase-resolved attosecond near-threshold photoionization of molecular nitrogen,” Phys. Rev. A 80, 011404 (2009).
[Crossref]

Sabbar, M.

S. Heuser, A. Jiménez Galán, C. Cirelli, C. Marante, M. Sabbar, R. Boge, M. Lucchini, L. Gallmann, I. Ivanov, A. S. Kheifets, J. M. Dahlström, E. Lindroth, L. Argenti, F. Martín, and U. Keller, “Angular dependence of photoemission time delay in helium,” Phys. Rev. A 94, 063409 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Sabbar, S. Heuser, R. Boge, M. Lucchini, T. Carette, E. Lindroth, L. Gallmann, C. Cirelli, and U. Keller, “Resonance effects in photoemission time delays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 133001 (2015).
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R. Locher, M. Lucchini, J. Herrmann, M. Sabbar, M. Weger, A. Ludwig, L. Castiglioni, M. Greif, M. Hengsberger, L. Gallmann, and U. Keller, “Versatile attosecond beamline in a two-foci configuration for simultaneous time-resolved measurements,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85, 013113 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Sabbar, S. Heuser, R. Boge, M. Lucchini, L. Gallmann, C. Cirelli, and U. Keller, “Combining attosecond XUV pulses with coincidence spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85, 103113 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Salières, P.

V. Gruson, L. Barreau, Á. Jiménez-Galan, F. Risoud, J. Caillat, A. Maquet, B. Carré, F. Lepetit, J.-F. Hergott, T. Ruchon, L. Argenti, R. Taïeb, F. Martín, and P. Salières, “Attosecond dynamics through a Fano resonance: Monitoring the birth of a photoelectron,” Science. 354, 734–738 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Caillat, A. Maquet, S. Haessler, B. Fabre, T. Ruchon, P. Salières, Y. Mairesse, and R. Taïeb, “Attosecond Resolved Electron Release in Two-Color Near-Threshold Photoionization of N2,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 093002 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. Haessler, B. Fabre, J. Higuet, J. Caillat, T. Ruchon, P. Breger, B. Carré, E. Constant, A. Maquet, E. Mével, P. Salières, R. Taïeb, and Y. Mairesse, “Phase-resolved attosecond near-threshold photoionization of molecular nitrogen,” Phys. Rev. A 80, 011404 (2009).
[Crossref]

Y. Mairesse, A. de Bohan, L. J. Frasinski, H. Merdji, L. C. Dinu, P. Monchicourt, P. Breger, M. Kovacev, R. Taïeb, B. Carré, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and P. Salières, “Attosecond synchronization of high-harmonic soft x-rays,” Science 302, 1540 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Santra, R.

E. Goulielmakis, Z.-H. Loh, A. Wirth, R. Santra, N. Rohringer, V. S. Yakovlev, S. Zherebtsov, T. Pfeifer, A. M. Azzeer, M. F. Kling, S. R. Leone, and F. Krausz, “Real-time observation of valence electron motion,” Nature. 466, 739–743 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schafer, K. J.

M. Swoboda, T. Fordell, K. Klünder, J. M. Dahlström, M. Miranda, C. Buth, K. J. Schafer, J. Mauritsson, A. L’Huillier, and M. Gisselbrecht, “Phase Measurement of Resonant Two-Photon Ionization in Helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 103003 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schmidt, B.

A. L. Cavalieri, N. Müller, T. Uphues, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Baltuška, B. Horvath, B. Schmidt, L. Blümel, R. Holzwarth, S. Hendel, M. Drescher, U. Kleineberg, P. M. Echenique, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Heinzmann, “Attosecond spectroscopy in condensed matter,” Nature 449, 1029–1032 (2007).
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M. Swoboda, T. Fordell, K. Klünder, J. M. Dahlström, M. Miranda, C. Buth, K. J. Schafer, J. Mauritsson, A. L’Huillier, and M. Gisselbrecht, “Phase Measurement of Resonant Two-Photon Ionization in Helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 103003 (2010).
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J. Caillat, A. Maquet, S. Haessler, B. Fabre, T. Ruchon, P. Salières, Y. Mairesse, and R. Taïeb, “Attosecond Resolved Electron Release in Two-Color Near-Threshold Photoionization of N2,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 093002 (2011).
[Crossref]

Proc. Royal Soc. A (1)

J. B. West and G. V. Marr, “The absolute photoionization cross Sections of helium, neon, argon and krypton in the extreme vacuum ultraviolet region of the spectrum,” Proc. Royal Soc. A 349, 397–421 (1976).
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R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, and J. Burgdörfer, “Attosecond chronoscopy of photoemission,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 87, 765–802 (2015).
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[Crossref]

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Science (3)

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (A) Schematic of the attosecond pump-probe beamline consisting of five blocks demarcated by dashed lines: (i) differentially pumped high-harmonic generation source, (ii) Zr filter for XUV filtering and iris for IR control, (iii) Dual mirror assembly for XUV-IR delay, (iv) XUV spectrometer for HHG/XUV diagnostics, (v) Interaction chamber and field-free time-of-flight spectrometer for photoelectron detection and measurement. (B) Cross-sectional view of the dual mirror delay setup: An outer annular mirror with 3.5 mm hole and 25 cm focal length for IR focusing and an inner multilayer mirror with 3 mm diameter for reflection of XUV. The inner mirror is mounted on a three-axis manual translation stage for coarse alignment with respect to the outer mirror. A piezo-linear stage provides the delay between the IR and the XUV pulse.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 High-harmonic spectrum obtained in helium. The normalized mirror reflectivity curves for a ΔEML ≈ 5 eV broad XUV mirror centered at EXUV = 80 eV and 90 eV are overlaid on the harmonic spectrum. Two harmonic orders can be selectively chosen by changing the central energy of the XUV mirror.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (A) Photoelectron distribution for XUV only ionization from an argon-neon mixture. Two thin (200 nm) Zr filters are used as a high-pass filter (transmission curve: dashed line, cf. CXRO) to select the harmonic orders H43 to H67 of 800 nm fundamental radiation. Ionization of Ar 3p (IP=15.8 eV) (red), Ar 3s (IP=29.3 eV) (black), and Ne 2p (IP=21.65 eV) (green). (B) XUV-IR pump-probe delay scan, showing the RABBITT trace for the Ar-Ne mixture. Spectral overlap and congestion is clearly visible for several sidebands (e.g. SB42 to SB68). (C) Photoelectron signal from (B) integrated over the time delay (blue) together with the theoretical SB positions for Ar 3p (black dashed), 3p (red dotted), and the Ne 2p (green dash dotted) photoemission lines.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (A) Photoelectron distribution for XUV only ionization from an argon-neon mixture. A multilayer mirror centered at EXUV ≈ 90 eV with a bandwidth of ΔEML ≈ 5 eV is used to select the harmonic orders H57 to H59 from an HHG comb with 800 nm as the fundamental radiation. (B) XUV-IR pump-probe delay scan, showing the RABBITT trace for the Ar-Ne mixture, where well-resolved SB oscillations are visible. (C) Photoelectron signal from (B) integrated over the time delay (blue) together with the theoretical SB positions for Ar 3p (black dashed), 3p (red dotted), and the Ne 2p (green dash dotted) photoemission lines.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 High-harmonic photoelectron spectra from Ar3p (blue), Ne2p (red), He1s (purple), He1s-Ar3p (green) and Ne2p-Ar3p (orange). The spectra have been shifted to the original photoelectron kinetic energy axis by compensating for the retardation potential applied in the time-of-flight spectrometer. The multilayer mirror allows for the selection of harmonic orders H57 and H59. This results in overlap-free photoelectron signal in gas mixtures.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 (a) RABBITT trace measured in an argon-helium gas mixture (b) A cross-cut of the photoelectron spectra corresponding to the magenta line in (a).The oscillating sideband SB58 for argon (red) and helium (black) as a guide to the eye is shown in (c). This is obtained by averaging the sideband signal for argon and helium in (a) between the dashed lines (red and black respectively).
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 (A) Energy dependent photoemission cross sections for Ne, He and Ar (B) RPAE calculations [15] (solid lines) and continuum-continuum correction [15] (dashed lines) for corresponding time delays (C) The relative theoretical RPAE delays including τCC for Ne2p − Ar3p (blue) and He1s − Ar3p (red). The measured relative delays at 90 eV photon energy with the respective error bars (red and blue circles) are shown for comparison. The measured relative delays for low photon energies of 31 eV, 34.1 eV and 37.2 eV (read and blue squares) obtained from [38] are shown for comparison.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 CC delays calculated from the phase shifts for stimulated emission of one laser photon of 800 nm laser photon, in a Coulomb potential with Z = 1 for different kinetic energies of the emitted photoelectron. Ar, He and Ne τCC are highlighted for photon energies of E= 35 eV (red) and E= 90 eV (blue).
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 (A) Photoelectron spectrum on the binding energy of CH3I measured with a narrowband source (Kimura et al. [48]) and convoluted with our spectrometer resolution of 300 meV. A photoelectron peak at 24.6 eV with a 300 meV width is shown for helium. (B) Individual photoelectron contribution from H57, H59 and SB58 on the photoelectron kinetic energy axis. (C) Projection of RABBITT trace for delay positions of minimum (dotted) and maximum (line) SB intensity.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Calculated Wigner time delays τW (obtained using RPAE method [45]) and continuum-continuum corrections τCC at 90 eV. The delays for low photon energies of 31 eV, 34.1 eV and 37.2 eV obtained from [38] are shown for comparison. All delays τ are given in attoseconds.

Tables Icon

Table 2 Measured delays Δτmeas versus calculated difference Δ τ calc = τ CC + W 1 τ CC + W 2 of the Wigner time delays τW [45] and continuum-continuum corrections τCC. The delays for low photon energies of 31 eV, 34.1 eV and 37.2 eV obtained from [38] are shown for comparison. All delays τ are given in attoseconds.

Equations (3)

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SB orb cos ( 2 ω L τ Δ ϕ H Δ ϕ atomic ) .
τ atomic = τ W + τ CC .
τ Ar 3 p τ Ne 2 p = Δ ϕ Ar 3 p Δ ϕ Ne 2 p 2 ω L and τ Ar 3 p τ He 1 s = Δ ϕ Ar 3 p Δ ϕ He 1 s 2 ω L

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