Abstract

A novel approach for performing in situ and real-time beam monitoring, based on dielectric meta-hologram, is proposed and demonstrated. The ultrathin dielectric meta-hologram projects a portion of the beam power onto a screen to provide a visual indicator of the spatial intensity distribution of a Gaussian laser beam, as well as its waist position along the optical axis. Specifically, we demonstrate simple monitoring of the spot size, astigmatism, lateral position, and position along the optical axis of the beam. Good agreement is found with both theory and conventional knife-edge beam profiler measurements. This in situ beam monitoring approach could provide a highly useful tool for numerous optical applications.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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2018 (1)

S. Boroviks, R. A. Deshpande, N. A. Mortensen, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Multifunctional meta-mirror: polarization splitting and focusing,” ACS Photonics 5(5), 1648–1653 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (9)

A. Kristensen, J. K. W. Yang, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, S. Link, P. Nordlander, N. J. Halas, and N. A. Mortensen, “Plasmonic colour generation,” Nat. Rev. Mater. 2(1), 16088 (2017).
[Crossref]

P. Genevet, F. Capasso, F. Aieta, M. Khorasaninejad, and R. C. Devlin, “Recent advances in planar optics: from plasmonic to dielectric metasurfaces,” Optica 4(1), 139–152 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Scheuer, “Metasurfaces-based holography and beam shaping: Engineering the phase profile of light,” Nanophotonics 6(1), 137–152 (2017).
[Crossref]

Q. Li, F. Dong, B. Wang, W. Chu, Q. Gong, M. L. Brongersma, and Y. Li, “Free-space optical beam tapping with an all-silica metasurface,” ACS Photonics 4(10), 2544–2549 (2017).
[Crossref]

V. Egorov, M. Eitan, and J. Scheuer, “Genetically optimized all-dielectric metasurfaces,” Opt. Express 25(3), 2583–2593 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Khorasaninejad, Z. Shi, A. Y. Zhu, W. T. Chen, V. Sanjeev, A. Zaidi, and F. Capasso, “Achromatic metalens over 60 nm bandwidth in the visible and metalens with reverse chromatic dispersion,” Nano Lett. 17(3), 1819–1824 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Xie, T. Lei, G. Si, X. Wang, J. Lin, C. Min, and X. Yuan, “Meta-holograms with full parameter control of wavefront over a 1000 nm bandwidth,” ACS Photonics 4(9), 2158–2164 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Lightman, G. Hurvitz, R. Gvishi, and A. Arie, “Miniature wide-spectrum mode sorter for vortex beams produced by 3D laser printing,” Optica 4(6), 605–610 (2017).
[Crossref]

O. Avayu, E. Almeida, Y. Prior, and T. Ellenbogen, “Composite functional metasurfaces for multispectral achromatic optics,” Nat. Commun. 8, 14992 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (5)

M. Khorasaninejad, W. T. Chen, R. C. Devlin, J. Oh, A. Y. Zhu, and F. Capasso, “Metalenses at visible wavelengths: Diffraction-limited focusing and subwavelength resolution imaging,” Science 352(6290), 1190–1194 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. C. Devlin, M. Khorasaninejad, W.-T. Chen, J. Oh, and F. Capasso, “High efficiency dielectric metasurfaces at visible wavelengths,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 113(38), 10473–10478 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Wen, S. Chen, F. Yue, K. Chan, M. Chen, M. Ardron, K. F. Li, P. W. H. Wong, K. W. Cheah, E. Y. B. Pun, G. Li, S. Zhang, and X. Chen, “Metasurface device with helicity-dependent functionality,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4(2), 321–327 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Olson, A. Manjavacas, T. Basu, D. Huang, A. E. Schlather, B. Zheng, N. J. Halas, P. Nordlander, and S. Link, “High chromaticity aluminum plasmonic pixels for active liquid crystal displays,” ACS Nano 10(1), 1108–1117 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Arbabi, A. Arbabi, S. M. Kamali, Y. Horie, and A. Faraon, “Multiwavelength polarization-insensitive lenses based on dielectric metasurfaces with,” Optica 3(6), 628–633 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (5)

G. Zheng, H. Mühlenbernd, M. Kenney, G. Li, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Metasurface holograms reaching 80% efficiency,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(4), 308–312 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Scheuer and Y. Yifat, “Holography: Metasurfaces make it practical,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(4), 296–298 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Arbabi, Y. Horie, M. Bagheri, and A. Faraon, “Dielectric metasurfaces for complete control of phase and polarization with subwavelength spatial resolution and high transmission,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(11), 937–943 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. I. Zheludev, “Obtaining optical properties on demand,” Science 348(6238), 973–974 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Desiatov, N. Mazurski, Y. Fainman, and U. Levy, “Polarization selective beam shaping using nanoscale dielectric metasurfaces,” Opt. Express 23(17), 22611–22618 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (11)

M. Decker, I. Staude, M. Falkner, J. Dominguez, D. N. Neshev, I. Brener, T. Pertsch, and Y. S. Kivshar, “High-efficiency light-wave control with all-dielectric optical Huygens’ metasurfaces,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(6), 813–820 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. Lin, P. Fan, E. Hasman, and M. L. Brongersma, “Dielectric gradient metasurface optical elements,” Science 345(6194), 298–302 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Cheng, D. Ansari-Oghol-Beig, and H. Mosallaei, “Wave manipulation with designer dielectric metasurfaces,” Opt. Lett. 39(21), 6285–6288 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Wu, N. Arju, G. Kelp, J. A. Fan, J. Dominguez, E. Gonzales, E. Tutuc, I. Brener, and G. Shvets, “Spectrally selective chiral silicon metasurfaces based on infrared Fano resonances,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 3892 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Bar-Lev and J. Scheuer, “Plasmonic metasurface for efficient ultrashort pulse laser-driven particle acceleration,” Phys. Rev. Spec. Top. Accel. Beams 17(12), 121302 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Montelongo, J. O. Tenorio-Pearl, W. I. Milne, and T. D. Wilkinson, “Polarization switchable diffraction based on subwavelength plasmonic nanoantennas,” Nano Lett. 14(1), 294–298 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Karimi, S. A. Schulz, I. De Leon, H. Qassim, J. Upham, and R. W. Boyd, “Generating optical orbital angular momentum at visible wavelengths using a plasmonic metasurface,” Light Sci. Appl. 3(5), e167 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. S. Clausen, E. Højlund-Nielsen, A. B. Christiansen, S. Yazdi, M. Grajower, H. Taha, U. Levy, A. Kristensen, and N. A. Mortensen, “Plasmonic metasurfaces for coloration of plastic consumer products,” Nano Lett. 14(8), 4499–4504 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Yifat, M. Eitan, Z. Iluz, Y. Hanein, A. Boag, and J. Scheuer, “Highly efficient and broadband wide-angle holography using patch-dipole nanoantenna reflectarrays,” Nano Lett. 14(5), 2485–2490 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Liu, X. Zhang, M. Kenney, X. Su, N. Xu, C. Ouyang, Y. Shi, J. Han, W. Zhang, and S. Zhang, “Broadband metasurfaces with simultaneous control of phase and amplitude,” Adv. Mater. 26(29), 5031–5036 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Yang, W. Wang, P. Moitra, I. I. Kravchenko, D. P. Briggs, and J. Valentine, “Dielectric meta-reflectarray for broadband linear polarization conversion and optical vortex generation,” Nano Lett. 14(3), 1394–1399 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (3)

L. Huang, X. Chen, H. Mühlenbernd, H. Zhang, S. Chen, B. Bai, Q. Tan, G. Jin, K.-W. Cheah, C.-W. Qiu, J. Li, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical holography using a plasmonic metasurface,” Nat. Commun. 4(1), 2808 (2013).
[Crossref]

N. Shitrit, I. Yulevich, E. Maguid, D. Ozeri, D. Veksler, V. Kleiner, and E. Hasman, “Spin-optical metamaterial route to spin-controlled photonics,” Science 340(6133), 724–726 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Shapira, A. Libster, Y. Lilach, and A. Arie, “Functional facets for nonlinear crystals,” Opt. Commun. 300, 244–248 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

F. Aieta, P. Genevet, N. Yu, M. A. Kats, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Out-of-plane reflection and refraction of light by anisotropic optical antenna metasurfaces with phase discontinuities,” Nano Lett. 12(3), 1702–1706 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Sun, K. Y. Yang, C. M. Wang, T. K. Juan, W. T. Chen, C. Y. Liao, Q. He, S. Xiao, W. T. Kung, G. Y. Guo, L. Zhou, and D. P. Tsai, “High-efficiency broadband anomalous reflection by gradient meta-surfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(12), 6223–6229 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (2)

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J.-P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. H. Khoo, E. P. Li, and K. B. Crozier, “Plasmonic wave plate based on subwavelength nanoslits,” Opt. Lett. 36(13), 2498–2500 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

U. Levy, M. Abashin, K. Ikeda, A. Krishnamoorthy, J. Cunningham, and Y. Fainman, “Inhomogenous dielectric metamaterials with space-variant polarizability,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(24), 243901 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

2004 (2)

A. Niv, G. Biener, V. Kleiner, and E. Hasman, “Propagation-invariant and rotating vectorial Bessel beams by use of quantized Pancharatnam-Berry phase optical elements,” Opt. Lett. 29(3), 238–240 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. F. R. Mateus, M. C. Y. Huang, L. Chen, C. J. Chang-Hasnain, and Y. Suzuki, “Broad-band mirror (1.12-1.62 μm) using a subwavelength grating,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16(7), 1676–1678 (2004).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

1998 (1)

1972 (1)

R. W. Gerchberg and W. O. Saxton, “A practical algorithm for the determination of phase from image and diffraction plane pictures,” Optik 35, 237–246 (1972).

Abashin, M.

U. Levy, M. Abashin, K. Ikeda, A. Krishnamoorthy, J. Cunningham, and Y. Fainman, “Inhomogenous dielectric metamaterials with space-variant polarizability,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(24), 243901 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aieta, F.

P. Genevet, F. Capasso, F. Aieta, M. Khorasaninejad, and R. C. Devlin, “Recent advances in planar optics: from plasmonic to dielectric metasurfaces,” Optica 4(1), 139–152 (2017).
[Crossref]

F. Aieta, P. Genevet, N. Yu, M. A. Kats, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Out-of-plane reflection and refraction of light by anisotropic optical antenna metasurfaces with phase discontinuities,” Nano Lett. 12(3), 1702–1706 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J.-P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Yu, P. Genevet, F. Aieta, M. A. Kats, R. Blanchard, G. Aoust, J.-P. Tetienne, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Flat optics: controlling wavefronts with optical antenna metasurfaces,” IEEE Antennas Propag. Soc. AP-S Int. Symp.19(3), 2341–2342 (2013).

Almeida, E.

O. Avayu, E. Almeida, Y. Prior, and T. Ellenbogen, “Composite functional metasurfaces for multispectral achromatic optics,” Nat. Commun. 8, 14992 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Alù, A.

A. Alù and N. Engheta, “Achieving transparency with plasmonic and metamaterial coatings,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 72(1), 016623 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ansari-Oghol-Beig, D.

Aoust, G.

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J. S. Clausen, E. Højlund-Nielsen, A. B. Christiansen, S. Yazdi, M. Grajower, H. Taha, U. Levy, A. Kristensen, and N. A. Mortensen, “Plasmonic metasurfaces for coloration of plastic consumer products,” Nano Lett. 14(8), 4499–4504 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tan, Q.

L. Huang, X. Chen, H. Mühlenbernd, H. Zhang, S. Chen, B. Bai, Q. Tan, G. Jin, K.-W. Cheah, C.-W. Qiu, J. Li, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical holography using a plasmonic metasurface,” Nat. Commun. 4(1), 2808 (2013).
[Crossref]

Tenorio-Pearl, J. O.

Y. Montelongo, J. O. Tenorio-Pearl, W. I. Milne, and T. D. Wilkinson, “Polarization switchable diffraction based on subwavelength plasmonic nanoantennas,” Nano Lett. 14(1), 294–298 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tetienne, J.-P.

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J.-P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Yu, P. Genevet, F. Aieta, M. A. Kats, R. Blanchard, G. Aoust, J.-P. Tetienne, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Flat optics: controlling wavefronts with optical antenna metasurfaces,” IEEE Antennas Propag. Soc. AP-S Int. Symp.19(3), 2341–2342 (2013).

Tsai, C. H.

Tsai, D. P.

S. Sun, K. Y. Yang, C. M. Wang, T. K. Juan, W. T. Chen, C. Y. Liao, Q. He, S. Xiao, W. T. Kung, G. Y. Guo, L. Zhou, and D. P. Tsai, “High-efficiency broadband anomalous reflection by gradient meta-surfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(12), 6223–6229 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tutuc, E.

C. Wu, N. Arju, G. Kelp, J. A. Fan, J. Dominguez, E. Gonzales, E. Tutuc, I. Brener, and G. Shvets, “Spectrally selective chiral silicon metasurfaces based on infrared Fano resonances,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 3892 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Upham, J.

E. Karimi, S. A. Schulz, I. De Leon, H. Qassim, J. Upham, and R. W. Boyd, “Generating optical orbital angular momentum at visible wavelengths using a plasmonic metasurface,” Light Sci. Appl. 3(5), e167 (2014).
[Crossref]

Valentine, J.

Y. Yang, W. Wang, P. Moitra, I. I. Kravchenko, D. P. Briggs, and J. Valentine, “Dielectric meta-reflectarray for broadband linear polarization conversion and optical vortex generation,” Nano Lett. 14(3), 1394–1399 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Veksler, D.

N. Shitrit, I. Yulevich, E. Maguid, D. Ozeri, D. Veksler, V. Kleiner, and E. Hasman, “Spin-optical metamaterial route to spin-controlled photonics,” Science 340(6133), 724–726 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, B.

Q. Li, F. Dong, B. Wang, W. Chu, Q. Gong, M. L. Brongersma, and Y. Li, “Free-space optical beam tapping with an all-silica metasurface,” ACS Photonics 4(10), 2544–2549 (2017).
[Crossref]

Wang, C. M.

S. Sun, K. Y. Yang, C. M. Wang, T. K. Juan, W. T. Chen, C. Y. Liao, Q. He, S. Xiao, W. T. Kung, G. Y. Guo, L. Zhou, and D. P. Tsai, “High-efficiency broadband anomalous reflection by gradient meta-surfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(12), 6223–6229 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, W.

Y. Yang, W. Wang, P. Moitra, I. I. Kravchenko, D. P. Briggs, and J. Valentine, “Dielectric meta-reflectarray for broadband linear polarization conversion and optical vortex generation,” Nano Lett. 14(3), 1394–1399 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, X.

Z. Xie, T. Lei, G. Si, X. Wang, J. Lin, C. Min, and X. Yuan, “Meta-holograms with full parameter control of wavefront over a 1000 nm bandwidth,” ACS Photonics 4(9), 2158–2164 (2017).
[Crossref]

Wen, D.

D. Wen, S. Chen, F. Yue, K. Chan, M. Chen, M. Ardron, K. F. Li, P. W. H. Wong, K. W. Cheah, E. Y. B. Pun, G. Li, S. Zhang, and X. Chen, “Metasurface device with helicity-dependent functionality,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4(2), 321–327 (2016).
[Crossref]

Wilkinson, T. D.

Y. Montelongo, J. O. Tenorio-Pearl, W. I. Milne, and T. D. Wilkinson, “Polarization switchable diffraction based on subwavelength plasmonic nanoantennas,” Nano Lett. 14(1), 294–298 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wong, P. W. H.

D. Wen, S. Chen, F. Yue, K. Chan, M. Chen, M. Ardron, K. F. Li, P. W. H. Wong, K. W. Cheah, E. Y. B. Pun, G. Li, S. Zhang, and X. Chen, “Metasurface device with helicity-dependent functionality,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4(2), 321–327 (2016).
[Crossref]

Wu, C.

C. Wu, N. Arju, G. Kelp, J. A. Fan, J. Dominguez, E. Gonzales, E. Tutuc, I. Brener, and G. Shvets, “Spectrally selective chiral silicon metasurfaces based on infrared Fano resonances,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 3892 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xiao, S.

S. Sun, K. Y. Yang, C. M. Wang, T. K. Juan, W. T. Chen, C. Y. Liao, Q. He, S. Xiao, W. T. Kung, G. Y. Guo, L. Zhou, and D. P. Tsai, “High-efficiency broadband anomalous reflection by gradient meta-surfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(12), 6223–6229 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xie, Z.

Z. Xie, T. Lei, G. Si, X. Wang, J. Lin, C. Min, and X. Yuan, “Meta-holograms with full parameter control of wavefront over a 1000 nm bandwidth,” ACS Photonics 4(9), 2158–2164 (2017).
[Crossref]

Xu, N.

L. Liu, X. Zhang, M. Kenney, X. Su, N. Xu, C. Ouyang, Y. Shi, J. Han, W. Zhang, and S. Zhang, “Broadband metasurfaces with simultaneous control of phase and amplitude,” Adv. Mater. 26(29), 5031–5036 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, J. K. W.

A. Kristensen, J. K. W. Yang, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, S. Link, P. Nordlander, N. J. Halas, and N. A. Mortensen, “Plasmonic colour generation,” Nat. Rev. Mater. 2(1), 16088 (2017).
[Crossref]

Yang, K. Y.

S. Sun, K. Y. Yang, C. M. Wang, T. K. Juan, W. T. Chen, C. Y. Liao, Q. He, S. Xiao, W. T. Kung, G. Y. Guo, L. Zhou, and D. P. Tsai, “High-efficiency broadband anomalous reflection by gradient meta-surfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(12), 6223–6229 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, Y.

Y. Yang, W. Wang, P. Moitra, I. I. Kravchenko, D. P. Briggs, and J. Valentine, “Dielectric meta-reflectarray for broadband linear polarization conversion and optical vortex generation,” Nano Lett. 14(3), 1394–1399 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yazdi, S.

J. S. Clausen, E. Højlund-Nielsen, A. B. Christiansen, S. Yazdi, M. Grajower, H. Taha, U. Levy, A. Kristensen, and N. A. Mortensen, “Plasmonic metasurfaces for coloration of plastic consumer products,” Nano Lett. 14(8), 4499–4504 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yifat, Y.

J. Scheuer and Y. Yifat, “Holography: Metasurfaces make it practical,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(4), 296–298 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Yifat, M. Eitan, Z. Iluz, Y. Hanein, A. Boag, and J. Scheuer, “Highly efficient and broadband wide-angle holography using patch-dipole nanoantenna reflectarrays,” Nano Lett. 14(5), 2485–2490 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yu, N.

F. Aieta, P. Genevet, N. Yu, M. A. Kats, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Out-of-plane reflection and refraction of light by anisotropic optical antenna metasurfaces with phase discontinuities,” Nano Lett. 12(3), 1702–1706 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J.-P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Yu, P. Genevet, F. Aieta, M. A. Kats, R. Blanchard, G. Aoust, J.-P. Tetienne, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Flat optics: controlling wavefronts with optical antenna metasurfaces,” IEEE Antennas Propag. Soc. AP-S Int. Symp.19(3), 2341–2342 (2013).

Yuan, X.

Z. Xie, T. Lei, G. Si, X. Wang, J. Lin, C. Min, and X. Yuan, “Meta-holograms with full parameter control of wavefront over a 1000 nm bandwidth,” ACS Photonics 4(9), 2158–2164 (2017).
[Crossref]

Yue, F.

D. Wen, S. Chen, F. Yue, K. Chan, M. Chen, M. Ardron, K. F. Li, P. W. H. Wong, K. W. Cheah, E. Y. B. Pun, G. Li, S. Zhang, and X. Chen, “Metasurface device with helicity-dependent functionality,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4(2), 321–327 (2016).
[Crossref]

Yulevich, I.

N. Shitrit, I. Yulevich, E. Maguid, D. Ozeri, D. Veksler, V. Kleiner, and E. Hasman, “Spin-optical metamaterial route to spin-controlled photonics,” Science 340(6133), 724–726 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zaidi, A.

M. Khorasaninejad, Z. Shi, A. Y. Zhu, W. T. Chen, V. Sanjeev, A. Zaidi, and F. Capasso, “Achromatic metalens over 60 nm bandwidth in the visible and metalens with reverse chromatic dispersion,” Nano Lett. 17(3), 1819–1824 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zentgraf, T.

G. Zheng, H. Mühlenbernd, M. Kenney, G. Li, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Metasurface holograms reaching 80% efficiency,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(4), 308–312 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Huang, X. Chen, H. Mühlenbernd, H. Zhang, S. Chen, B. Bai, Q. Tan, G. Jin, K.-W. Cheah, C.-W. Qiu, J. Li, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical holography using a plasmonic metasurface,” Nat. Commun. 4(1), 2808 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhang, H.

L. Huang, X. Chen, H. Mühlenbernd, H. Zhang, S. Chen, B. Bai, Q. Tan, G. Jin, K.-W. Cheah, C.-W. Qiu, J. Li, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical holography using a plasmonic metasurface,” Nat. Commun. 4(1), 2808 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhang, S.

D. Wen, S. Chen, F. Yue, K. Chan, M. Chen, M. Ardron, K. F. Li, P. W. H. Wong, K. W. Cheah, E. Y. B. Pun, G. Li, S. Zhang, and X. Chen, “Metasurface device with helicity-dependent functionality,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4(2), 321–327 (2016).
[Crossref]

G. Zheng, H. Mühlenbernd, M. Kenney, G. Li, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Metasurface holograms reaching 80% efficiency,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(4), 308–312 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Liu, X. Zhang, M. Kenney, X. Su, N. Xu, C. Ouyang, Y. Shi, J. Han, W. Zhang, and S. Zhang, “Broadband metasurfaces with simultaneous control of phase and amplitude,” Adv. Mater. 26(29), 5031–5036 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Huang, X. Chen, H. Mühlenbernd, H. Zhang, S. Chen, B. Bai, Q. Tan, G. Jin, K.-W. Cheah, C.-W. Qiu, J. Li, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical holography using a plasmonic metasurface,” Nat. Commun. 4(1), 2808 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhang, W.

L. Liu, X. Zhang, M. Kenney, X. Su, N. Xu, C. Ouyang, Y. Shi, J. Han, W. Zhang, and S. Zhang, “Broadband metasurfaces with simultaneous control of phase and amplitude,” Adv. Mater. 26(29), 5031–5036 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, X.

L. Liu, X. Zhang, M. Kenney, X. Su, N. Xu, C. Ouyang, Y. Shi, J. Han, W. Zhang, and S. Zhang, “Broadband metasurfaces with simultaneous control of phase and amplitude,” Adv. Mater. 26(29), 5031–5036 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zheludev, N. I.

N. I. Zheludev, “Obtaining optical properties on demand,” Science 348(6238), 973–974 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zheng, B.

J. Olson, A. Manjavacas, T. Basu, D. Huang, A. E. Schlather, B. Zheng, N. J. Halas, P. Nordlander, and S. Link, “High chromaticity aluminum plasmonic pixels for active liquid crystal displays,” ACS Nano 10(1), 1108–1117 (2016).
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Zheng, G.

G. Zheng, H. Mühlenbernd, M. Kenney, G. Li, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Metasurface holograms reaching 80% efficiency,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(4), 308–312 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhou, L.

S. Sun, K. Y. Yang, C. M. Wang, T. K. Juan, W. T. Chen, C. Y. Liao, Q. He, S. Xiao, W. T. Kung, G. Y. Guo, L. Zhou, and D. P. Tsai, “High-efficiency broadband anomalous reflection by gradient meta-surfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(12), 6223–6229 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhu, A. Y.

M. Khorasaninejad, Z. Shi, A. Y. Zhu, W. T. Chen, V. Sanjeev, A. Zaidi, and F. Capasso, “Achromatic metalens over 60 nm bandwidth in the visible and metalens with reverse chromatic dispersion,” Nano Lett. 17(3), 1819–1824 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Khorasaninejad, W. T. Chen, R. C. Devlin, J. Oh, A. Y. Zhu, and F. Capasso, “Metalenses at visible wavelengths: Diffraction-limited focusing and subwavelength resolution imaging,” Science 352(6290), 1190–1194 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

ACS Nano (1)

J. Olson, A. Manjavacas, T. Basu, D. Huang, A. E. Schlather, B. Zheng, N. J. Halas, P. Nordlander, and S. Link, “High chromaticity aluminum plasmonic pixels for active liquid crystal displays,” ACS Nano 10(1), 1108–1117 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

ACS Photonics (3)

Q. Li, F. Dong, B. Wang, W. Chu, Q. Gong, M. L. Brongersma, and Y. Li, “Free-space optical beam tapping with an all-silica metasurface,” ACS Photonics 4(10), 2544–2549 (2017).
[Crossref]

Z. Xie, T. Lei, G. Si, X. Wang, J. Lin, C. Min, and X. Yuan, “Meta-holograms with full parameter control of wavefront over a 1000 nm bandwidth,” ACS Photonics 4(9), 2158–2164 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Boroviks, R. A. Deshpande, N. A. Mortensen, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Multifunctional meta-mirror: polarization splitting and focusing,” ACS Photonics 5(5), 1648–1653 (2018).
[Crossref]

Adv. Mater. (1)

L. Liu, X. Zhang, M. Kenney, X. Su, N. Xu, C. Ouyang, Y. Shi, J. Han, W. Zhang, and S. Zhang, “Broadband metasurfaces with simultaneous control of phase and amplitude,” Adv. Mater. 26(29), 5031–5036 (2014).
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D. Wen, S. Chen, F. Yue, K. Chan, M. Chen, M. Ardron, K. F. Li, P. W. H. Wong, K. W. Cheah, E. Y. B. Pun, G. Li, S. Zhang, and X. Chen, “Metasurface device with helicity-dependent functionality,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4(2), 321–327 (2016).
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Nano Lett. (7)

J. S. Clausen, E. Højlund-Nielsen, A. B. Christiansen, S. Yazdi, M. Grajower, H. Taha, U. Levy, A. Kristensen, and N. A. Mortensen, “Plasmonic metasurfaces for coloration of plastic consumer products,” Nano Lett. 14(8), 4499–4504 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Yifat, M. Eitan, Z. Iluz, Y. Hanein, A. Boag, and J. Scheuer, “Highly efficient and broadband wide-angle holography using patch-dipole nanoantenna reflectarrays,” Nano Lett. 14(5), 2485–2490 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Aieta, P. Genevet, N. Yu, M. A. Kats, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Out-of-plane reflection and refraction of light by anisotropic optical antenna metasurfaces with phase discontinuities,” Nano Lett. 12(3), 1702–1706 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Yang, W. Wang, P. Moitra, I. I. Kravchenko, D. P. Briggs, and J. Valentine, “Dielectric meta-reflectarray for broadband linear polarization conversion and optical vortex generation,” Nano Lett. 14(3), 1394–1399 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Sun, K. Y. Yang, C. M. Wang, T. K. Juan, W. T. Chen, C. Y. Liao, Q. He, S. Xiao, W. T. Kung, G. Y. Guo, L. Zhou, and D. P. Tsai, “High-efficiency broadband anomalous reflection by gradient meta-surfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(12), 6223–6229 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Khorasaninejad, Z. Shi, A. Y. Zhu, W. T. Chen, V. Sanjeev, A. Zaidi, and F. Capasso, “Achromatic metalens over 60 nm bandwidth in the visible and metalens with reverse chromatic dispersion,” Nano Lett. 17(3), 1819–1824 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Montelongo, J. O. Tenorio-Pearl, W. I. Milne, and T. D. Wilkinson, “Polarization switchable diffraction based on subwavelength plasmonic nanoantennas,” Nano Lett. 14(1), 294–298 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nanophotonics (1)

J. Scheuer, “Metasurfaces-based holography and beam shaping: Engineering the phase profile of light,” Nanophotonics 6(1), 137–152 (2017).
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Nat. Commun. (3)

C. Wu, N. Arju, G. Kelp, J. A. Fan, J. Dominguez, E. Gonzales, E. Tutuc, I. Brener, and G. Shvets, “Spectrally selective chiral silicon metasurfaces based on infrared Fano resonances,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 3892 (2014).
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[Crossref]

Nat. Nanotechnol. (3)

G. Zheng, H. Mühlenbernd, M. Kenney, G. Li, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Metasurface holograms reaching 80% efficiency,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(4), 308–312 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Scheuer and Y. Yifat, “Holography: Metasurfaces make it practical,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(4), 296–298 (2015).
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N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J.-P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. I. Zheludev, “Obtaining optical properties on demand,” Science 348(6238), 973–974 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Lin, P. Fan, E. Hasman, and M. L. Brongersma, “Dielectric gradient metasurface optical elements,” Science 345(6194), 298–302 (2014).
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M. Khorasaninejad, W. T. Chen, R. C. Devlin, J. Oh, A. Y. Zhu, and F. Capasso, “Metalenses at visible wavelengths: Diffraction-limited focusing and subwavelength resolution imaging,” Science 352(6290), 1190–1194 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Shitrit, I. Yulevich, E. Maguid, D. Ozeri, D. Veksler, V. Kleiner, and E. Hasman, “Spin-optical metamaterial route to spin-controlled photonics,” Science 340(6133), 724–726 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (1)

N. Yu, P. Genevet, F. Aieta, M. A. Kats, R. Blanchard, G. Aoust, J.-P. Tetienne, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Flat optics: controlling wavefronts with optical antenna metasurfaces,” IEEE Antennas Propag. Soc. AP-S Int. Symp.19(3), 2341–2342 (2013).

Supplementary Material (3)

NameDescription
» Visualization 1       This video demonstrates the operation of the transverse-profile beam-monitoring meta-hologram (BMMH) under varying illuminating beam shape and size. On the left, the field intensity profile of the source beam. On the right, the simulated image projec
» Visualization 2       This video demonstrates the operation of the transverse-profile beam-monitoring meta-hologram (BMMH) under varying illuminating beam position. On the left, the field intensity profile of the source beam. On the right, the simulated image projected si
» Visualization 3       Description: This video shows a simulation of the image projected by the z-position beam-monitoring meta-hologram (BMMH) under varying illuminating beam waist position along the optical axis.

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Figures (12)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Schematic of an optical setup including a beam monitoring meta-hologram. A portion of the illuminating power is deflected to a screen, forming an image which is used for monitoring the beam. (b) The conventional approach: a beam profiler is inserted at the position of interest, instead of the meta-hologram. Some parts of the setup are subsequently removed to make room for the beam profiler and the beam is blocked.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) A transverse-profile beam monitoring meta-hologram (BMMH) partitioning scheme, and (b) its corresponding compound image design. All colored patches in (a) have equal areas. The patches are marked by P, with subscript index indicating the ring number (1-3), and superscript label for the direction (up/down/left/right). Their respective image components I, marked in (b), indicate their radii and directions. The remaining area of the hologram, in white, constitutes another patch. Its image can be chosen arbitrarily (a star in this case), as long as it does not overlap any of the other images. (c) A BMMH design, based on the partitioning scheme presented in (a). Each patch is designed using the GS algorithm to form its counterpart image component. (d) The calculated far field image of (c), given by its Fourier transform.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) A schematic of the metasurface realization. Each pillar is a cell in the metasurface, representing a single pixel in the hologram. The radii of the 300 nm thick silicon pillars are translated to different phase retardations. (b) An SEM micrograph showing the realization of the phase map. (Inset) A magnification of the edge of the structure. (c) A microscope image of a transverse-profile BMMH based on the phase map design presented in Fig. 2(c). Scale bar length is 100 µm.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (aI)-(aV) The source beam intensity profiles, obtained from the waist values measured by a beam profiler. The contours of the transverse-profile BMMH patches were drawn over the heat maps in black. (bI)-(bV) Simulated far field images. (cI)-(cV) The on-screen images recorded by an IR camera. The bright spot observed in (cI)-(cV) corresponds to the main transmission lobe. In (cIV) the screen was cut to remove the main lobe from the image for clarity purposes. A video demonstrating the impact of the source beam shape and size on the obtained image is provided as Visualization 1 in the supplementary material.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) The transverse-profile BMMH alignment utilizing the feedback mechanism: The beam illuminates the hologram, lighting a guiding image. The operator observes the guiding image and controls the hologram mount to drive it to home position. The images below show different beam positions (bI)-(bV), their respective simulations (cI)-(cV) and corresponding recorded images (dI)-(dV). The bright spot observed in (dI)-(dV) corresponds to the main transmission lobe. A video demonstrating the impact of the source beam position on the obtained image is provided as Visualization 2 in the supplementary material.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 (a) A z-position BMMH partitioning scheme, and (b) its corresponding compound image design. The field exciting the four side-patches has an average phase gradient changing with z-position and directed towards the center. The corresponding circles in (b) slightly move inwards/outwards as the hologram moves away from the beam waist. The middle patch Pc always maintains zero average phase gradient. Its image, the two rings in (b), remains in the same lateral position regardless of the z-position of the BMMH. (c) A z-position BMMH design, based on the partitioning scheme presented in (a). (d) The calculated far field image of (c).
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 (aI) The exact transverse phase profile of a Gaussian beam is presented as a function of its z-position, in units of zR, the Rayleigh length. (aII) Its linear piecewise approximate profile, based on the partitioning scheme presented in Fig. 6(a). (aIII) The expected image from the z-position BMMH. (bI)-(bIII) Experimental results, and (cI)-(cIII) corresponding simulations. The red dashed circles and green rings in (bI) and (bIII) highlight the disk positions. The blue arrows in (cI) and (cIII) point outwards and inwards, respectively, in the direction of the displacement of the disks. A video simulation showing the disk displacement in the image due to varying z-position is shown in Visualization 3 in supplementary material.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Patch versus conventional hologram. (a) An illustration of a wide Gaussian source beam illuminating a regular hologram, and (b) a narrow beam illuminating the same hologram, and the corresponding far field images visible in the imaging plane. The image resulting from the narrow beam is blurred and noisy. (c) A narrow Gaussian beam illuminating a patch hologram creates a different image. Only the highly illuminated patches create image components. Other components of the compound image remain dark.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 An illustration of the design setup. (a) A patch mask Mj is used as the diffraction plane spatial amplitude distribution applied to a homogeneous source beam. An image component Ij, the star shape in this case, is designed on the image plane. The GS algorithm can then be used to find an approximate phase map that relates the two planes by a Fourier transform. (b) The phase map Φ is constructed from the calculated phase map patches. When Illuminated by the source beam S, the phase map patch ɸj contributes its counterpart image component Ij to the total image I.
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 The beam spatial intensity (in arbitrary units) at the waist position, as measured by a laser beam profiler.
Fig. 11
Fig. 11 The optical setup. The beam is generated by the laser source, polarized by the polarization controller (PC), collimated, and then focused by a lens on a meta-hologram (MH). A pattern is projected from the meta-hologram to a screen and observed using an IR camera.
Fig. 12
Fig. 12 The phase and transmission responses vs. the radius of the silicon pillars.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Beam diameters (1/e2 power criterion), as measured by a knife-edge beam profiler, and the respective range indicated by the transverse-profile BMMH.

Equations (12)

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|F{S(x,y)exp(iΦ(x,y))} | 2 I(u,v),
|F{exp(iΦ(x,y))} | 2 I(u,v)
M j (x,y)={ 1 (x,y) P j 0 (x,y) P j .
|F{ j=1 N M j (x,y)exp(iΦ(x,y)) } | 2 I(u,v).
F{ j=1 N M j (x,y)exp(iΦ(x,y)) }= j=1 N F{ M j (x,y)exp(iΦ(x,y))} j=1 N A j (u,v)exp(i ψ j (u,v)) ,
| j=1 N A j (u,v)exp(i ψ j (u,v)) | 2 = j=1 N A j 2 (u,v) + j=1 N k=1 kj N 2 A j (u,v) A k (u,v)cos( ψ j (u,v) ψ k (u,v)).
|F{exp(iΦ(x,y))} | 2 j=1 N I j (u,v),
|F{ M j (x,y)exp(iΦ(x,y)} | 2 I j (u,v)
M j (x,y)exp(iΦ(x,y))= M j (x,y)exp(i M j (x,y)Φ(x,y)),
Φ(x,y)= j ϕ j (x,y) .
P(r)= P 0 [ 1exp( 2 r 2 w 2 ) ].
w 0 = R 1 2 log(1f) .

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