Abstract

We propose to use Ge-dielectric-metal stacking to allow one to address both thermal management with the metal as an efficient heat sink and tensile strain engineering with the buried dielectric as a stressor layer. This scheme is particularly useful for the development of Ge-based optical sources. We demonstrate experimentally the relevance of this approach by comparing the optical response of tensile-strained Ge microdisks with an Al heat sink or an oxide pedestal. Photoluminescence indicates a much reduced temperature rise in the microdisk (16 K with Al pedestal against 200 K with SiO2 pedestal under a 9 mW continuous wave optical pumping). An excellent agreement is found with finite element modeling of the temperature rise. This original stacking combining metal and dielectrics is promising for integrated photonics where thermal management is an issue.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2018 (2)

A. Elbaz, M. El Kurdi, A. Aassime, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, I. Sagnes, C. Baudot, F. Boeuf, and P. Boucaud, “Germanium microlasers on metallic pedestals,” APL Photon. 3(10), 106102 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. Liu, K. Peng, H. Zhan, L. Ni, X. Wang, Y. Wang, Y. Li, J. Yu, L. Jiang, R. Zhu, J. Wang, F. Jing, and A. Lin, “3 kW 20/400 Yb-Doped Aluminophosphosilicate Fiber With High Stability,” IEEE Photonics J. 10(5), 1–8 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (5)

2016 (4)

D. Thomson, A. Zilkie, J. E. Bowers, T. Komljenovic, G. T. Reed, L. Vivien, D. Marris-Morini, E. Cassan, L. Virot, J.-M. Fédéli, J.-M. Hartmann, J. H. Schmid, D.-X. Xu, F. Boeuf, P. O’Brien, G. Z. Mashanovich, and M. Nedeljkovic, “Roadmap on silicon photonics,” J. Opt. 18(7), 073003 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. El Kurdi, M. Prost, A. Ghrib, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, G. Picardi, R. Ossikovski, and P. Boucaud, “Direct Band Gap Germanium Microdisks Obtained with Silicon Nitride Stressor Layers,” ACS Photonics 3(3), 443–448 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Pu, L. Ottaviano, E. Semenova, and K. Yvind, “Efficient frequency comb generation in AlGaAs-on-insulator,” Optica 3(8), 823–826 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. El Kurdi, M. Prost, A. Ghrib, A. Elbaz, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, G. Picardi, R. Ossikovski, F. Boeuf, and P. Boucaud, “Tensile-strained germanium microdisks with circular Bragg reflectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(9), 091103 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (5)

A. Z. Al-Attili, S. Kako, M. K. Husain, F. Y. Gardes, N. Higashitarumizu, S. Iwamoto, Y. Arakawa, Y. Ishikawa, H. Arimoto, K. Oda, T. Ido, and S. Saito, “Whispering Gallery Mode Resonances from Ge Micro-Disks on Suspended Beams,” Front. Mater. 2, 43 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Prost, M. El Kurdi, A. Ghrib, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, N. Zerounian, F. Aniel, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, F. Boeuf, and P. Boucaud, “Tensile-strained germanium microdisk electroluminescence,” Opt. Express 23(5), 6722–6730 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Wirths, R. Geiger, N. von den Driesch, G. Mussler, T. Stoica, S. Mantl, Z. Ikonic, M. Luysberg, S. Chiussi, J. M. Hartmann, H. Sigg, J. Faist, D. Buca, and D. Grützmacher, “Lasing in direct-bandgap GeSn alloy grown on Si,” Nat. Photonics 9(2), 88–92 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Ghrib, M. El Kurdi, M. Prost, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, M. Chaigneau, R. Ossikovski, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “All-Around SiN Stressor for High and Homogeneous Tensile Strain in Germanium Microdisk Cavities,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(3), 353–358 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Gassenq, K. Guilloy, G. Osvaldo Dias, N. Pauc, D. Rouchon, J.-M. Hartmann, J. Widiez, S. Tardif, F. Rieutord, J. Escalante, I. Duchemin, Y.-M. Niquet, R. Geiger, T. Zabel, H. Sigg, J. Faist, A. Chelnokov, V. Reboud, and V. Calvo, “1.9% bi-axial tensile strain in thick germanium suspended membranes fabricated in optical germanium-on-insulator substrates for laser applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(19), 191904 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (2)

D. Nam, D. S. Sukhdeo, S. Gupta, J-H Kang, M. L. Brongersma, and K. C. Saraswat, “Study of Carrier Statistics in Uniaxially Strained Ge for a Low-Threshold Ge Laser,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 16–22 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. S. Sukhdeo, D. Nam, J.-H. Kang, M. L. Brongersma, and K. C. Saraswat, “Direct bandgap germanium-on-silicon inferred from 57% 〈100〉 uniaxial tensile strain [Invited],” Photon. Res. 2(3), A8–A13 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (4)

G. Capellini, G. Kozlowski, Y. Yamamoto, M. Lisker, C. Wenger, G. Niu, P. Zaumseil, B. Tillack, A. Ghrib, M. de Kersauson, M. El Kurdi, P. Boucaud, and T. Schroeder, “Strain analysis in SiN/Ge microstructures obtained via Si-complementary metal oxide semiconductor compatible approach,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(1), 013513 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Ghrib, M. El Kurdi, M. de Kersauson, M. Prost, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “Tensile-strained germanium microdisks,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(22), 221112 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. Nam, D. S. Sukhdeo, J.-H. Kang, J. Petykiewicz, J. H. Lee, W. S. Jung, J. Vučković, M. L. Brongersma, and K. C. Saraswat, “Strain-Induced Pseudoheterostructure Nanowires Confining Carriers at Room Temperature with Nanoscale-Tunable Band Profiles,” Nano Lett. 13(7), 3118–3123 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. J. Süess, R. Geiger, R. A. Minamisawa, G. Schiefler, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, R. Spolenak, J. Faist, and H. Sigg, “Analysis of enhanced light emission from highly strained germanium microbridges,” Nat. Photonics 7(6), 466–472 (2013).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

2010 (2)

R. Soref, “Mid-infrared photonics in silicon and germanium,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 495–497 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. El Kurdi, G. Fishman, S. Sauvage, and P. Boucaud, “Band structure and optical gain of tensile-strained germanium based on a 30 band kp formalism,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(1), 013710 (2010).
[Crossref]

1967 (1)

Y. P. Varshni, “Band-to-Band Radiative Recombination in Groups IV, VI, and III-V Semiconductors (I),” Phys. Status Solidi, B Basic Res. 19(2), 459–514 (1967).
[Crossref]

1955 (1)

H. M. Rosenberg, “The thermal conductivity of metals at low temperatures,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. Ser. Math. Phys. Sci. 247(933), 441–497 (1955).
[Crossref]

Aassime, A.

A. Elbaz, M. El Kurdi, A. Aassime, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, I. Sagnes, C. Baudot, F. Boeuf, and P. Boucaud, “Germanium microlasers on metallic pedestals,” APL Photon. 3(10), 106102 (2018).
[Crossref]

Al-Attili, A. Z.

A. Z. Al-Attili, S. Kako, M. K. Husain, F. Y. Gardes, N. Higashitarumizu, S. Iwamoto, Y. Arakawa, Y. Ishikawa, H. Arimoto, K. Oda, T. Ido, and S. Saito, “Whispering Gallery Mode Resonances from Ge Micro-Disks on Suspended Beams,” Front. Mater. 2, 43 (2015).
[Crossref]

Aniel, F.

Arakawa, Y.

A. Z. Al-Attili, S. Kako, M. K. Husain, F. Y. Gardes, N. Higashitarumizu, S. Iwamoto, Y. Arakawa, Y. Ishikawa, H. Arimoto, K. Oda, T. Ido, and S. Saito, “Whispering Gallery Mode Resonances from Ge Micro-Disks on Suspended Beams,” Front. Mater. 2, 43 (2015).
[Crossref]

Arimoto, H.

A. Z. Al-Attili, S. Kako, M. K. Husain, F. Y. Gardes, N. Higashitarumizu, S. Iwamoto, Y. Arakawa, Y. Ishikawa, H. Arimoto, K. Oda, T. Ido, and S. Saito, “Whispering Gallery Mode Resonances from Ge Micro-Disks on Suspended Beams,” Front. Mater. 2, 43 (2015).
[Crossref]

Baets, R.

Bao, S.

S. Bao, D. Kim, C. Onwukaeme, S. Gupta, K. Saraswat, K. H. Lee, Y. Kim, D. Min, Y. Jung, H. Qiu, H. Wang, E. A. Fitzgerald, C. S. Tan, and D. Nam, “Low-threshold optically pumped lasing in highly strained germanium nanowires,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 1845 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baudot, C.

A. Elbaz, M. El Kurdi, A. Aassime, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, I. Sagnes, C. Baudot, F. Boeuf, and P. Boucaud, “Germanium microlasers on metallic pedestals,” APL Photon. 3(10), 106102 (2018).
[Crossref]

Beaudoin, G.

M. El Kurdi, M. Prost, A. Ghrib, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, G. Picardi, R. Ossikovski, and P. Boucaud, “Direct Band Gap Germanium Microdisks Obtained with Silicon Nitride Stressor Layers,” ACS Photonics 3(3), 443–448 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. El Kurdi, M. Prost, A. Ghrib, A. Elbaz, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, G. Picardi, R. Ossikovski, F. Boeuf, and P. Boucaud, “Tensile-strained germanium microdisks with circular Bragg reflectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(9), 091103 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Prost, M. El Kurdi, A. Ghrib, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, N. Zerounian, F. Aniel, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, F. Boeuf, and P. Boucaud, “Tensile-strained germanium microdisk electroluminescence,” Opt. Express 23(5), 6722–6730 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Ghrib, M. El Kurdi, M. Prost, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, M. Chaigneau, R. Ossikovski, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “All-Around SiN Stressor for High and Homogeneous Tensile Strain in Germanium Microdisk Cavities,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(3), 353–358 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Ghrib, M. El Kurdi, M. de Kersauson, M. Prost, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “Tensile-strained germanium microdisks,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(22), 221112 (2013).
[Crossref]

Boeuf, F.

A. Elbaz, M. El Kurdi, A. Aassime, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, I. Sagnes, C. Baudot, F. Boeuf, and P. Boucaud, “Germanium microlasers on metallic pedestals,” APL Photon. 3(10), 106102 (2018).
[Crossref]

D. Thomson, A. Zilkie, J. E. Bowers, T. Komljenovic, G. T. Reed, L. Vivien, D. Marris-Morini, E. Cassan, L. Virot, J.-M. Fédéli, J.-M. Hartmann, J. H. Schmid, D.-X. Xu, F. Boeuf, P. O’Brien, G. Z. Mashanovich, and M. Nedeljkovic, “Roadmap on silicon photonics,” J. Opt. 18(7), 073003 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. El Kurdi, M. Prost, A. Ghrib, A. Elbaz, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, G. Picardi, R. Ossikovski, F. Boeuf, and P. Boucaud, “Tensile-strained germanium microdisks with circular Bragg reflectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(9), 091103 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Prost, M. El Kurdi, A. Ghrib, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, N. Zerounian, F. Aniel, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, F. Boeuf, and P. Boucaud, “Tensile-strained germanium microdisk electroluminescence,” Opt. Express 23(5), 6722–6730 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Boucaud, P.

A. Elbaz, M. El Kurdi, A. Aassime, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, I. Sagnes, C. Baudot, F. Boeuf, and P. Boucaud, “Germanium microlasers on metallic pedestals,” APL Photon. 3(10), 106102 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. El Kurdi, M. Prost, A. Ghrib, A. Elbaz, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, G. Picardi, R. Ossikovski, F. Boeuf, and P. Boucaud, “Tensile-strained germanium microdisks with circular Bragg reflectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(9), 091103 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. El Kurdi, M. Prost, A. Ghrib, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, G. Picardi, R. Ossikovski, and P. Boucaud, “Direct Band Gap Germanium Microdisks Obtained with Silicon Nitride Stressor Layers,” ACS Photonics 3(3), 443–448 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Ghrib, M. El Kurdi, M. Prost, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, M. Chaigneau, R. Ossikovski, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “All-Around SiN Stressor for High and Homogeneous Tensile Strain in Germanium Microdisk Cavities,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(3), 353–358 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Prost, M. El Kurdi, A. Ghrib, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, N. Zerounian, F. Aniel, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, F. Boeuf, and P. Boucaud, “Tensile-strained germanium microdisk electroluminescence,” Opt. Express 23(5), 6722–6730 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Ghrib, M. El Kurdi, M. de Kersauson, M. Prost, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “Tensile-strained germanium microdisks,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(22), 221112 (2013).
[Crossref]

G. Capellini, G. Kozlowski, Y. Yamamoto, M. Lisker, C. Wenger, G. Niu, P. Zaumseil, B. Tillack, A. Ghrib, M. de Kersauson, M. El Kurdi, P. Boucaud, and T. Schroeder, “Strain analysis in SiN/Ge microstructures obtained via Si-complementary metal oxide semiconductor compatible approach,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(1), 013513 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. El Kurdi, G. Fishman, S. Sauvage, and P. Boucaud, “Band structure and optical gain of tensile-strained germanium based on a 30 band kp formalism,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(1), 013710 (2010).
[Crossref]

Bowers, J. E.

D. Thomson, A. Zilkie, J. E. Bowers, T. Komljenovic, G. T. Reed, L. Vivien, D. Marris-Morini, E. Cassan, L. Virot, J.-M. Fédéli, J.-M. Hartmann, J. H. Schmid, D.-X. Xu, F. Boeuf, P. O’Brien, G. Z. Mashanovich, and M. Nedeljkovic, “Roadmap on silicon photonics,” J. Opt. 18(7), 073003 (2016).
[Crossref]

Brongersma, M. L.

D. S. Sukhdeo, D. Nam, J.-H. Kang, M. L. Brongersma, and K. C. Saraswat, “Direct bandgap germanium-on-silicon inferred from 57% 〈100〉 uniaxial tensile strain [Invited],” Photon. Res. 2(3), A8–A13 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. Nam, D. S. Sukhdeo, S. Gupta, J-H Kang, M. L. Brongersma, and K. C. Saraswat, “Study of Carrier Statistics in Uniaxially Strained Ge for a Low-Threshold Ge Laser,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 16–22 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. Nam, D. S. Sukhdeo, J.-H. Kang, J. Petykiewicz, J. H. Lee, W. S. Jung, J. Vučković, M. L. Brongersma, and K. C. Saraswat, “Strain-Induced Pseudoheterostructure Nanowires Confining Carriers at Room Temperature with Nanoscale-Tunable Band Profiles,” Nano Lett. 13(7), 3118–3123 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Buca, D.

S. Wirths, R. Geiger, N. von den Driesch, G. Mussler, T. Stoica, S. Mantl, Z. Ikonic, M. Luysberg, S. Chiussi, J. M. Hartmann, H. Sigg, J. Faist, D. Buca, and D. Grützmacher, “Lasing in direct-bandgap GeSn alloy grown on Si,” Nat. Photonics 9(2), 88–92 (2015).
[Crossref]

Calvo, V.

A. Gassenq, K. Guilloy, G. Osvaldo Dias, N. Pauc, D. Rouchon, J.-M. Hartmann, J. Widiez, S. Tardif, F. Rieutord, J. Escalante, I. Duchemin, Y.-M. Niquet, R. Geiger, T. Zabel, H. Sigg, J. Faist, A. Chelnokov, V. Reboud, and V. Calvo, “1.9% bi-axial tensile strain in thick germanium suspended membranes fabricated in optical germanium-on-insulator substrates for laser applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(19), 191904 (2015).
[Crossref]

Capellini, G.

G. Capellini, G. Kozlowski, Y. Yamamoto, M. Lisker, C. Wenger, G. Niu, P. Zaumseil, B. Tillack, A. Ghrib, M. de Kersauson, M. El Kurdi, P. Boucaud, and T. Schroeder, “Strain analysis in SiN/Ge microstructures obtained via Si-complementary metal oxide semiconductor compatible approach,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(1), 013513 (2013).
[Crossref]

Cassan, E.

D. Thomson, A. Zilkie, J. E. Bowers, T. Komljenovic, G. T. Reed, L. Vivien, D. Marris-Morini, E. Cassan, L. Virot, J.-M. Fédéli, J.-M. Hartmann, J. H. Schmid, D.-X. Xu, F. Boeuf, P. O’Brien, G. Z. Mashanovich, and M. Nedeljkovic, “Roadmap on silicon photonics,” J. Opt. 18(7), 073003 (2016).
[Crossref]

Chaigneau, M.

A. Ghrib, M. El Kurdi, M. Prost, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, M. Chaigneau, R. Ossikovski, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “All-Around SiN Stressor for High and Homogeneous Tensile Strain in Germanium Microdisk Cavities,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(3), 353–358 (2015).
[Crossref]

Checoury, X.

A. Elbaz, M. El Kurdi, A. Aassime, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, I. Sagnes, C. Baudot, F. Boeuf, and P. Boucaud, “Germanium microlasers on metallic pedestals,” APL Photon. 3(10), 106102 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. El Kurdi, M. Prost, A. Ghrib, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, G. Picardi, R. Ossikovski, and P. Boucaud, “Direct Band Gap Germanium Microdisks Obtained with Silicon Nitride Stressor Layers,” ACS Photonics 3(3), 443–448 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. El Kurdi, M. Prost, A. Ghrib, A. Elbaz, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, G. Picardi, R. Ossikovski, F. Boeuf, and P. Boucaud, “Tensile-strained germanium microdisks with circular Bragg reflectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(9), 091103 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Prost, M. El Kurdi, A. Ghrib, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, N. Zerounian, F. Aniel, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, F. Boeuf, and P. Boucaud, “Tensile-strained germanium microdisk electroluminescence,” Opt. Express 23(5), 6722–6730 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Ghrib, M. El Kurdi, M. Prost, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, M. Chaigneau, R. Ossikovski, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “All-Around SiN Stressor for High and Homogeneous Tensile Strain in Germanium Microdisk Cavities,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(3), 353–358 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Ghrib, M. El Kurdi, M. de Kersauson, M. Prost, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “Tensile-strained germanium microdisks,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(22), 221112 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chelnokov, A.

A. Gassenq, K. Guilloy, G. Osvaldo Dias, N. Pauc, D. Rouchon, J.-M. Hartmann, J. Widiez, S. Tardif, F. Rieutord, J. Escalante, I. Duchemin, Y.-M. Niquet, R. Geiger, T. Zabel, H. Sigg, J. Faist, A. Chelnokov, V. Reboud, and V. Calvo, “1.9% bi-axial tensile strain in thick germanium suspended membranes fabricated in optical germanium-on-insulator substrates for laser applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(19), 191904 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chen, X.

Chen, Y.

Chiussi, S.

S. Wirths, R. Geiger, N. von den Driesch, G. Mussler, T. Stoica, S. Mantl, Z. Ikonic, M. Luysberg, S. Chiussi, J. M. Hartmann, H. Sigg, J. Faist, D. Buca, and D. Grützmacher, “Lasing in direct-bandgap GeSn alloy grown on Si,” Nat. Photonics 9(2), 88–92 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chrastina, D.

M. J. Süess, R. Geiger, R. A. Minamisawa, G. Schiefler, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, R. Spolenak, J. Faist, and H. Sigg, “Analysis of enhanced light emission from highly strained germanium microbridges,” Nat. Photonics 7(6), 466–472 (2013).
[Crossref]

Clemmen, S.

de Kersauson, M.

G. Capellini, G. Kozlowski, Y. Yamamoto, M. Lisker, C. Wenger, G. Niu, P. Zaumseil, B. Tillack, A. Ghrib, M. de Kersauson, M. El Kurdi, P. Boucaud, and T. Schroeder, “Strain analysis in SiN/Ge microstructures obtained via Si-complementary metal oxide semiconductor compatible approach,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(1), 013513 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Ghrib, M. El Kurdi, M. de Kersauson, M. Prost, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “Tensile-strained germanium microdisks,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(22), 221112 (2013).
[Crossref]

Duchemin, I.

A. Gassenq, K. Guilloy, G. Osvaldo Dias, N. Pauc, D. Rouchon, J.-M. Hartmann, J. Widiez, S. Tardif, F. Rieutord, J. Escalante, I. Duchemin, Y.-M. Niquet, R. Geiger, T. Zabel, H. Sigg, J. Faist, A. Chelnokov, V. Reboud, and V. Calvo, “1.9% bi-axial tensile strain in thick germanium suspended membranes fabricated in optical germanium-on-insulator substrates for laser applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(19), 191904 (2015).
[Crossref]

Dumas, D. C. S.

El Kurdi, M.

A. Elbaz, M. El Kurdi, A. Aassime, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, I. Sagnes, C. Baudot, F. Boeuf, and P. Boucaud, “Germanium microlasers on metallic pedestals,” APL Photon. 3(10), 106102 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. El Kurdi, M. Prost, A. Ghrib, A. Elbaz, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, G. Picardi, R. Ossikovski, F. Boeuf, and P. Boucaud, “Tensile-strained germanium microdisks with circular Bragg reflectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(9), 091103 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. El Kurdi, M. Prost, A. Ghrib, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, G. Picardi, R. Ossikovski, and P. Boucaud, “Direct Band Gap Germanium Microdisks Obtained with Silicon Nitride Stressor Layers,” ACS Photonics 3(3), 443–448 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Ghrib, M. El Kurdi, M. Prost, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, M. Chaigneau, R. Ossikovski, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “All-Around SiN Stressor for High and Homogeneous Tensile Strain in Germanium Microdisk Cavities,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(3), 353–358 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Prost, M. El Kurdi, A. Ghrib, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, N. Zerounian, F. Aniel, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, F. Boeuf, and P. Boucaud, “Tensile-strained germanium microdisk electroluminescence,” Opt. Express 23(5), 6722–6730 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Ghrib, M. El Kurdi, M. de Kersauson, M. Prost, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “Tensile-strained germanium microdisks,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(22), 221112 (2013).
[Crossref]

G. Capellini, G. Kozlowski, Y. Yamamoto, M. Lisker, C. Wenger, G. Niu, P. Zaumseil, B. Tillack, A. Ghrib, M. de Kersauson, M. El Kurdi, P. Boucaud, and T. Schroeder, “Strain analysis in SiN/Ge microstructures obtained via Si-complementary metal oxide semiconductor compatible approach,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(1), 013513 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. El Kurdi, G. Fishman, S. Sauvage, and P. Boucaud, “Band structure and optical gain of tensile-strained germanium based on a 30 band kp formalism,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(1), 013710 (2010).
[Crossref]

Elbaz, A.

A. Elbaz, M. El Kurdi, A. Aassime, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, I. Sagnes, C. Baudot, F. Boeuf, and P. Boucaud, “Germanium microlasers on metallic pedestals,” APL Photon. 3(10), 106102 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. El Kurdi, M. Prost, A. Ghrib, A. Elbaz, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, G. Picardi, R. Ossikovski, F. Boeuf, and P. Boucaud, “Tensile-strained germanium microdisks with circular Bragg reflectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(9), 091103 (2016).
[Crossref]

Escalante, J.

A. Gassenq, K. Guilloy, G. Osvaldo Dias, N. Pauc, D. Rouchon, J.-M. Hartmann, J. Widiez, S. Tardif, F. Rieutord, J. Escalante, I. Duchemin, Y.-M. Niquet, R. Geiger, T. Zabel, H. Sigg, J. Faist, A. Chelnokov, V. Reboud, and V. Calvo, “1.9% bi-axial tensile strain in thick germanium suspended membranes fabricated in optical germanium-on-insulator substrates for laser applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(19), 191904 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ettabib, M. A.

C. Lacava, M. A. Ettabib, and P. Petropoulos, “Nonlinear Silicon Photonic Signal Processing Devices for Future Optical Networks,” Appl. Sci. (Basel) 7(1), 103 (2017).
[Crossref]

Faist, J.

A. Gassenq, K. Guilloy, G. Osvaldo Dias, N. Pauc, D. Rouchon, J.-M. Hartmann, J. Widiez, S. Tardif, F. Rieutord, J. Escalante, I. Duchemin, Y.-M. Niquet, R. Geiger, T. Zabel, H. Sigg, J. Faist, A. Chelnokov, V. Reboud, and V. Calvo, “1.9% bi-axial tensile strain in thick germanium suspended membranes fabricated in optical germanium-on-insulator substrates for laser applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(19), 191904 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Wirths, R. Geiger, N. von den Driesch, G. Mussler, T. Stoica, S. Mantl, Z. Ikonic, M. Luysberg, S. Chiussi, J. M. Hartmann, H. Sigg, J. Faist, D. Buca, and D. Grützmacher, “Lasing in direct-bandgap GeSn alloy grown on Si,” Nat. Photonics 9(2), 88–92 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. J. Süess, R. Geiger, R. A. Minamisawa, G. Schiefler, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, R. Spolenak, J. Faist, and H. Sigg, “Analysis of enhanced light emission from highly strained germanium microbridges,” Nat. Photonics 7(6), 466–472 (2013).
[Crossref]

Fédéli, J.-M.

D. Thomson, A. Zilkie, J. E. Bowers, T. Komljenovic, G. T. Reed, L. Vivien, D. Marris-Morini, E. Cassan, L. Virot, J.-M. Fédéli, J.-M. Hartmann, J. H. Schmid, D.-X. Xu, F. Boeuf, P. O’Brien, G. Z. Mashanovich, and M. Nedeljkovic, “Roadmap on silicon photonics,” J. Opt. 18(7), 073003 (2016).
[Crossref]

Fei, E. T.

Fenrich, C. S.

Fishman, G.

M. El Kurdi, G. Fishman, S. Sauvage, and P. Boucaud, “Band structure and optical gain of tensile-strained germanium based on a 30 band kp formalism,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(1), 013710 (2010).
[Crossref]

Fitzgerald, E. A.

S. Bao, D. Kim, C. Onwukaeme, S. Gupta, K. Saraswat, K. H. Lee, Y. Kim, D. Min, Y. Jung, H. Qiu, H. Wang, E. A. Fitzgerald, C. S. Tan, and D. Nam, “Low-threshold optically pumped lasing in highly strained germanium nanowires,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 1845 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Frigerio, J.

M. J. Süess, R. Geiger, R. A. Minamisawa, G. Schiefler, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, R. Spolenak, J. Faist, and H. Sigg, “Analysis of enhanced light emission from highly strained germanium microbridges,” Nat. Photonics 7(6), 466–472 (2013).
[Crossref]

Galili, M.

Gallacher, K. F.

Gardes, F. Y.

A. Z. Al-Attili, S. Kako, M. K. Husain, F. Y. Gardes, N. Higashitarumizu, S. Iwamoto, Y. Arakawa, Y. Ishikawa, H. Arimoto, K. Oda, T. Ido, and S. Saito, “Whispering Gallery Mode Resonances from Ge Micro-Disks on Suspended Beams,” Front. Mater. 2, 43 (2015).
[Crossref]

Gassenq, A.

A. Gassenq, K. Guilloy, G. Osvaldo Dias, N. Pauc, D. Rouchon, J.-M. Hartmann, J. Widiez, S. Tardif, F. Rieutord, J. Escalante, I. Duchemin, Y.-M. Niquet, R. Geiger, T. Zabel, H. Sigg, J. Faist, A. Chelnokov, V. Reboud, and V. Calvo, “1.9% bi-axial tensile strain in thick germanium suspended membranes fabricated in optical germanium-on-insulator substrates for laser applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(19), 191904 (2015).
[Crossref]

Geiger, R.

A. Gassenq, K. Guilloy, G. Osvaldo Dias, N. Pauc, D. Rouchon, J.-M. Hartmann, J. Widiez, S. Tardif, F. Rieutord, J. Escalante, I. Duchemin, Y.-M. Niquet, R. Geiger, T. Zabel, H. Sigg, J. Faist, A. Chelnokov, V. Reboud, and V. Calvo, “1.9% bi-axial tensile strain in thick germanium suspended membranes fabricated in optical germanium-on-insulator substrates for laser applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(19), 191904 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Wirths, R. Geiger, N. von den Driesch, G. Mussler, T. Stoica, S. Mantl, Z. Ikonic, M. Luysberg, S. Chiussi, J. M. Hartmann, H. Sigg, J. Faist, D. Buca, and D. Grützmacher, “Lasing in direct-bandgap GeSn alloy grown on Si,” Nat. Photonics 9(2), 88–92 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. J. Süess, R. Geiger, R. A. Minamisawa, G. Schiefler, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, R. Spolenak, J. Faist, and H. Sigg, “Analysis of enhanced light emission from highly strained germanium microbridges,” Nat. Photonics 7(6), 466–472 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ghrib, A.

M. El Kurdi, M. Prost, A. Ghrib, A. Elbaz, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, G. Picardi, R. Ossikovski, F. Boeuf, and P. Boucaud, “Tensile-strained germanium microdisks with circular Bragg reflectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(9), 091103 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. El Kurdi, M. Prost, A. Ghrib, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, G. Picardi, R. Ossikovski, and P. Boucaud, “Direct Band Gap Germanium Microdisks Obtained with Silicon Nitride Stressor Layers,” ACS Photonics 3(3), 443–448 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Ghrib, M. El Kurdi, M. Prost, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, M. Chaigneau, R. Ossikovski, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “All-Around SiN Stressor for High and Homogeneous Tensile Strain in Germanium Microdisk Cavities,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(3), 353–358 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Prost, M. El Kurdi, A. Ghrib, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, N. Zerounian, F. Aniel, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, F. Boeuf, and P. Boucaud, “Tensile-strained germanium microdisk electroluminescence,” Opt. Express 23(5), 6722–6730 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Ghrib, M. El Kurdi, M. de Kersauson, M. Prost, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “Tensile-strained germanium microdisks,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(22), 221112 (2013).
[Crossref]

G. Capellini, G. Kozlowski, Y. Yamamoto, M. Lisker, C. Wenger, G. Niu, P. Zaumseil, B. Tillack, A. Ghrib, M. de Kersauson, M. El Kurdi, P. Boucaud, and T. Schroeder, “Strain analysis in SiN/Ge microstructures obtained via Si-complementary metal oxide semiconductor compatible approach,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(1), 013513 (2013).
[Crossref]

Grützmacher, D.

S. Wirths, R. Geiger, N. von den Driesch, G. Mussler, T. Stoica, S. Mantl, Z. Ikonic, M. Luysberg, S. Chiussi, J. M. Hartmann, H. Sigg, J. Faist, D. Buca, and D. Grützmacher, “Lasing in direct-bandgap GeSn alloy grown on Si,” Nat. Photonics 9(2), 88–92 (2015).
[Crossref]

Guilloy, K.

A. Gassenq, K. Guilloy, G. Osvaldo Dias, N. Pauc, D. Rouchon, J.-M. Hartmann, J. Widiez, S. Tardif, F. Rieutord, J. Escalante, I. Duchemin, Y.-M. Niquet, R. Geiger, T. Zabel, H. Sigg, J. Faist, A. Chelnokov, V. Reboud, and V. Calvo, “1.9% bi-axial tensile strain in thick germanium suspended membranes fabricated in optical germanium-on-insulator substrates for laser applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(19), 191904 (2015).
[Crossref]

Gupta, S.

S. Bao, D. Kim, C. Onwukaeme, S. Gupta, K. Saraswat, K. H. Lee, Y. Kim, D. Min, Y. Jung, H. Qiu, H. Wang, E. A. Fitzgerald, C. S. Tan, and D. Nam, “Low-threshold optically pumped lasing in highly strained germanium nanowires,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 1845 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Nam, D. S. Sukhdeo, S. Gupta, J-H Kang, M. L. Brongersma, and K. C. Saraswat, “Study of Carrier Statistics in Uniaxially Strained Ge for a Low-Threshold Ge Laser,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 16–22 (2014).
[Crossref]

Harris, J. S.

Hartmann, J. M.

S. Wirths, R. Geiger, N. von den Driesch, G. Mussler, T. Stoica, S. Mantl, Z. Ikonic, M. Luysberg, S. Chiussi, J. M. Hartmann, H. Sigg, J. Faist, D. Buca, and D. Grützmacher, “Lasing in direct-bandgap GeSn alloy grown on Si,” Nat. Photonics 9(2), 88–92 (2015).
[Crossref]

Hartmann, J.-M.

D. Thomson, A. Zilkie, J. E. Bowers, T. Komljenovic, G. T. Reed, L. Vivien, D. Marris-Morini, E. Cassan, L. Virot, J.-M. Fédéli, J.-M. Hartmann, J. H. Schmid, D.-X. Xu, F. Boeuf, P. O’Brien, G. Z. Mashanovich, and M. Nedeljkovic, “Roadmap on silicon photonics,” J. Opt. 18(7), 073003 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Gassenq, K. Guilloy, G. Osvaldo Dias, N. Pauc, D. Rouchon, J.-M. Hartmann, J. Widiez, S. Tardif, F. Rieutord, J. Escalante, I. Duchemin, Y.-M. Niquet, R. Geiger, T. Zabel, H. Sigg, J. Faist, A. Chelnokov, V. Reboud, and V. Calvo, “1.9% bi-axial tensile strain in thick germanium suspended membranes fabricated in optical germanium-on-insulator substrates for laser applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(19), 191904 (2015).
[Crossref]

Hashimoto, H.

Higashitarumizu, N.

A. Z. Al-Attili, S. Kako, M. K. Husain, F. Y. Gardes, N. Higashitarumizu, S. Iwamoto, Y. Arakawa, Y. Ishikawa, H. Arimoto, K. Oda, T. Ido, and S. Saito, “Whispering Gallery Mode Resonances from Ge Micro-Disks on Suspended Beams,” Front. Mater. 2, 43 (2015).
[Crossref]

Hu, H.

Huo, Y.

Husain, M. K.

A. Z. Al-Attili, S. Kako, M. K. Husain, F. Y. Gardes, N. Higashitarumizu, S. Iwamoto, Y. Arakawa, Y. Ishikawa, H. Arimoto, K. Oda, T. Ido, and S. Saito, “Whispering Gallery Mode Resonances from Ge Micro-Disks on Suspended Beams,” Front. Mater. 2, 43 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ido, T.

A. Z. Al-Attili, S. Kako, M. K. Husain, F. Y. Gardes, N. Higashitarumizu, S. Iwamoto, Y. Arakawa, Y. Ishikawa, H. Arimoto, K. Oda, T. Ido, and S. Saito, “Whispering Gallery Mode Resonances from Ge Micro-Disks on Suspended Beams,” Front. Mater. 2, 43 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ikonic, Z.

S. Wirths, R. Geiger, N. von den Driesch, G. Mussler, T. Stoica, S. Mantl, Z. Ikonic, M. Luysberg, S. Chiussi, J. M. Hartmann, H. Sigg, J. Faist, D. Buca, and D. Grützmacher, “Lasing in direct-bandgap GeSn alloy grown on Si,” Nat. Photonics 9(2), 88–92 (2015).
[Crossref]

Isella, G.

M. J. Süess, R. Geiger, R. A. Minamisawa, G. Schiefler, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, R. Spolenak, J. Faist, and H. Sigg, “Analysis of enhanced light emission from highly strained germanium microbridges,” Nat. Photonics 7(6), 466–472 (2013).
[Crossref]

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A. Z. Al-Attili, S. Kako, M. K. Husain, F. Y. Gardes, N. Higashitarumizu, S. Iwamoto, Y. Arakawa, Y. Ishikawa, H. Arimoto, K. Oda, T. Ido, and S. Saito, “Whispering Gallery Mode Resonances from Ge Micro-Disks on Suspended Beams,” Front. Mater. 2, 43 (2015).
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A. Z. Al-Attili, S. Kako, M. K. Husain, F. Y. Gardes, N. Higashitarumizu, S. Iwamoto, Y. Arakawa, Y. Ishikawa, H. Arimoto, K. Oda, T. Ido, and S. Saito, “Whispering Gallery Mode Resonances from Ge Micro-Disks on Suspended Beams,” Front. Mater. 2, 43 (2015).
[Crossref]

Jahandar, P.

Jeppesen, P.

Ji, H.

Jiang, L.

S. Liu, K. Peng, H. Zhan, L. Ni, X. Wang, Y. Wang, Y. Li, J. Yu, L. Jiang, R. Zhu, J. Wang, F. Jing, and A. Lin, “3 kW 20/400 Yb-Doped Aluminophosphosilicate Fiber With High Stability,” IEEE Photonics J. 10(5), 1–8 (2018).
[Crossref]

Jing, F.

S. Liu, K. Peng, H. Zhan, L. Ni, X. Wang, Y. Wang, Y. Li, J. Yu, L. Jiang, R. Zhu, J. Wang, F. Jing, and A. Lin, “3 kW 20/400 Yb-Doped Aluminophosphosilicate Fiber With High Stability,” IEEE Photonics J. 10(5), 1–8 (2018).
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Jung, W. S.

D. Nam, D. S. Sukhdeo, J.-H. Kang, J. Petykiewicz, J. H. Lee, W. S. Jung, J. Vučković, M. L. Brongersma, and K. C. Saraswat, “Strain-Induced Pseudoheterostructure Nanowires Confining Carriers at Room Temperature with Nanoscale-Tunable Band Profiles,” Nano Lett. 13(7), 3118–3123 (2013).
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S. Bao, D. Kim, C. Onwukaeme, S. Gupta, K. Saraswat, K. H. Lee, Y. Kim, D. Min, Y. Jung, H. Qiu, H. Wang, E. A. Fitzgerald, C. S. Tan, and D. Nam, “Low-threshold optically pumped lasing in highly strained germanium nanowires,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 1845 (2017).
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A. Z. Al-Attili, S. Kako, M. K. Husain, F. Y. Gardes, N. Higashitarumizu, S. Iwamoto, Y. Arakawa, Y. Ishikawa, H. Arimoto, K. Oda, T. Ido, and S. Saito, “Whispering Gallery Mode Resonances from Ge Micro-Disks on Suspended Beams,” Front. Mater. 2, 43 (2015).
[Crossref]

Kamins, T. I.

Kang, J.-H.

D. S. Sukhdeo, D. Nam, J.-H. Kang, M. L. Brongersma, and K. C. Saraswat, “Direct bandgap germanium-on-silicon inferred from 57% 〈100〉 uniaxial tensile strain [Invited],” Photon. Res. 2(3), A8–A13 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. Nam, D. S. Sukhdeo, J.-H. Kang, J. Petykiewicz, J. H. Lee, W. S. Jung, J. Vučković, M. L. Brongersma, and K. C. Saraswat, “Strain-Induced Pseudoheterostructure Nanowires Confining Carriers at Room Temperature with Nanoscale-Tunable Band Profiles,” Nano Lett. 13(7), 3118–3123 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kang, J-H

D. Nam, D. S. Sukhdeo, S. Gupta, J-H Kang, M. L. Brongersma, and K. C. Saraswat, “Study of Carrier Statistics in Uniaxially Strained Ge for a Low-Threshold Ge Laser,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 16–22 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kao, M.-Y.

Kim, D.

S. Bao, D. Kim, C. Onwukaeme, S. Gupta, K. Saraswat, K. H. Lee, Y. Kim, D. Min, Y. Jung, H. Qiu, H. Wang, E. A. Fitzgerald, C. S. Tan, and D. Nam, “Low-threshold optically pumped lasing in highly strained germanium nanowires,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 1845 (2017).
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Kim, Y.

S. Bao, D. Kim, C. Onwukaeme, S. Gupta, K. Saraswat, K. H. Lee, Y. Kim, D. Min, Y. Jung, H. Qiu, H. Wang, E. A. Fitzgerald, C. S. Tan, and D. Nam, “Low-threshold optically pumped lasing in highly strained germanium nanowires,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 1845 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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D. Thomson, A. Zilkie, J. E. Bowers, T. Komljenovic, G. T. Reed, L. Vivien, D. Marris-Morini, E. Cassan, L. Virot, J.-M. Fédéli, J.-M. Hartmann, J. H. Schmid, D.-X. Xu, F. Boeuf, P. O’Brien, G. Z. Mashanovich, and M. Nedeljkovic, “Roadmap on silicon photonics,” J. Opt. 18(7), 073003 (2016).
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G. Capellini, G. Kozlowski, Y. Yamamoto, M. Lisker, C. Wenger, G. Niu, P. Zaumseil, B. Tillack, A. Ghrib, M. de Kersauson, M. El Kurdi, P. Boucaud, and T. Schroeder, “Strain analysis in SiN/Ge microstructures obtained via Si-complementary metal oxide semiconductor compatible approach,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(1), 013513 (2013).
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Kuyken, B.

Lacava, C.

C. Lacava, M. A. Ettabib, and P. Petropoulos, “Nonlinear Silicon Photonic Signal Processing Devices for Future Optical Networks,” Appl. Sci. (Basel) 7(1), 103 (2017).
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Lee, J. H.

D. Nam, D. S. Sukhdeo, J.-H. Kang, J. Petykiewicz, J. H. Lee, W. S. Jung, J. Vučković, M. L. Brongersma, and K. C. Saraswat, “Strain-Induced Pseudoheterostructure Nanowires Confining Carriers at Room Temperature with Nanoscale-Tunable Band Profiles,” Nano Lett. 13(7), 3118–3123 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, K. H.

S. Bao, D. Kim, C. Onwukaeme, S. Gupta, K. Saraswat, K. H. Lee, Y. Kim, D. Min, Y. Jung, H. Qiu, H. Wang, E. A. Fitzgerald, C. S. Tan, and D. Nam, “Low-threshold optically pumped lasing in highly strained germanium nanowires,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 1845 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, Y.

S. Liu, K. Peng, H. Zhan, L. Ni, X. Wang, Y. Wang, Y. Li, J. Yu, L. Jiang, R. Zhu, J. Wang, F. Jing, and A. Lin, “3 kW 20/400 Yb-Doped Aluminophosphosilicate Fiber With High Stability,” IEEE Photonics J. 10(5), 1–8 (2018).
[Crossref]

Lin, A.

S. Liu, K. Peng, H. Zhan, L. Ni, X. Wang, Y. Wang, Y. Li, J. Yu, L. Jiang, R. Zhu, J. Wang, F. Jing, and A. Lin, “3 kW 20/400 Yb-Doped Aluminophosphosilicate Fiber With High Stability,” IEEE Photonics J. 10(5), 1–8 (2018).
[Crossref]

Lisker, M.

G. Capellini, G. Kozlowski, Y. Yamamoto, M. Lisker, C. Wenger, G. Niu, P. Zaumseil, B. Tillack, A. Ghrib, M. de Kersauson, M. El Kurdi, P. Boucaud, and T. Schroeder, “Strain analysis in SiN/Ge microstructures obtained via Si-complementary metal oxide semiconductor compatible approach,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(1), 013513 (2013).
[Crossref]

Liu, S.

S. Liu, K. Peng, H. Zhan, L. Ni, X. Wang, Y. Wang, Y. Li, J. Yu, L. Jiang, R. Zhu, J. Wang, F. Jing, and A. Lin, “3 kW 20/400 Yb-Doped Aluminophosphosilicate Fiber With High Stability,” IEEE Photonics J. 10(5), 1–8 (2018).
[Crossref]

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Luysberg, M.

S. Wirths, R. Geiger, N. von den Driesch, G. Mussler, T. Stoica, S. Mantl, Z. Ikonic, M. Luysberg, S. Chiussi, J. M. Hartmann, H. Sigg, J. Faist, D. Buca, and D. Grützmacher, “Lasing in direct-bandgap GeSn alloy grown on Si,” Nat. Photonics 9(2), 88–92 (2015).
[Crossref]

MacGregor, C.

Mantl, S.

S. Wirths, R. Geiger, N. von den Driesch, G. Mussler, T. Stoica, S. Mantl, Z. Ikonic, M. Luysberg, S. Chiussi, J. M. Hartmann, H. Sigg, J. Faist, D. Buca, and D. Grützmacher, “Lasing in direct-bandgap GeSn alloy grown on Si,” Nat. Photonics 9(2), 88–92 (2015).
[Crossref]

Marris-Morini, D.

D. Thomson, A. Zilkie, J. E. Bowers, T. Komljenovic, G. T. Reed, L. Vivien, D. Marris-Morini, E. Cassan, L. Virot, J.-M. Fédéli, J.-M. Hartmann, J. H. Schmid, D.-X. Xu, F. Boeuf, P. O’Brien, G. Z. Mashanovich, and M. Nedeljkovic, “Roadmap on silicon photonics,” J. Opt. 18(7), 073003 (2016).
[Crossref]

Maruizumi, T.

Mashanovich, G. Z.

D. Thomson, A. Zilkie, J. E. Bowers, T. Komljenovic, G. T. Reed, L. Vivien, D. Marris-Morini, E. Cassan, L. Virot, J.-M. Fédéli, J.-M. Hartmann, J. H. Schmid, D.-X. Xu, F. Boeuf, P. O’Brien, G. Z. Mashanovich, and M. Nedeljkovic, “Roadmap on silicon photonics,” J. Opt. 18(7), 073003 (2016).
[Crossref]

Massar, S.

Millar, R. W.

Min, D.

S. Bao, D. Kim, C. Onwukaeme, S. Gupta, K. Saraswat, K. H. Lee, Y. Kim, D. Min, Y. Jung, H. Qiu, H. Wang, E. A. Fitzgerald, C. S. Tan, and D. Nam, “Low-threshold optically pumped lasing in highly strained germanium nanowires,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 1845 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Minamisawa, R. A.

M. J. Süess, R. Geiger, R. A. Minamisawa, G. Schiefler, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, R. Spolenak, J. Faist, and H. Sigg, “Analysis of enhanced light emission from highly strained germanium microbridges,” Nat. Photonics 7(6), 466–472 (2013).
[Crossref]

Morthier, G.

Mussler, G.

S. Wirths, R. Geiger, N. von den Driesch, G. Mussler, T. Stoica, S. Mantl, Z. Ikonic, M. Luysberg, S. Chiussi, J. M. Hartmann, H. Sigg, J. Faist, D. Buca, and D. Grützmacher, “Lasing in direct-bandgap GeSn alloy grown on Si,” Nat. Photonics 9(2), 88–92 (2015).
[Crossref]

Myronov, M.

Nam, D.

S. Bao, D. Kim, C. Onwukaeme, S. Gupta, K. Saraswat, K. H. Lee, Y. Kim, D. Min, Y. Jung, H. Qiu, H. Wang, E. A. Fitzgerald, C. S. Tan, and D. Nam, “Low-threshold optically pumped lasing in highly strained germanium nanowires,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 1845 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. S. Sukhdeo, D. Nam, J.-H. Kang, M. L. Brongersma, and K. C. Saraswat, “Direct bandgap germanium-on-silicon inferred from 57% 〈100〉 uniaxial tensile strain [Invited],” Photon. Res. 2(3), A8–A13 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. Nam, D. S. Sukhdeo, S. Gupta, J-H Kang, M. L. Brongersma, and K. C. Saraswat, “Study of Carrier Statistics in Uniaxially Strained Ge for a Low-Threshold Ge Laser,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 16–22 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. Nam, D. S. Sukhdeo, J.-H. Kang, J. Petykiewicz, J. H. Lee, W. S. Jung, J. Vučković, M. L. Brongersma, and K. C. Saraswat, “Strain-Induced Pseudoheterostructure Nanowires Confining Carriers at Room Temperature with Nanoscale-Tunable Band Profiles,” Nano Lett. 13(7), 3118–3123 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nedeljkovic, M.

D. Thomson, A. Zilkie, J. E. Bowers, T. Komljenovic, G. T. Reed, L. Vivien, D. Marris-Morini, E. Cassan, L. Virot, J.-M. Fédéli, J.-M. Hartmann, J. H. Schmid, D.-X. Xu, F. Boeuf, P. O’Brien, G. Z. Mashanovich, and M. Nedeljkovic, “Roadmap on silicon photonics,” J. Opt. 18(7), 073003 (2016).
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Ni, L.

S. Liu, K. Peng, H. Zhan, L. Ni, X. Wang, Y. Wang, Y. Li, J. Yu, L. Jiang, R. Zhu, J. Wang, F. Jing, and A. Lin, “3 kW 20/400 Yb-Doped Aluminophosphosilicate Fiber With High Stability,” IEEE Photonics J. 10(5), 1–8 (2018).
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A. Gassenq, K. Guilloy, G. Osvaldo Dias, N. Pauc, D. Rouchon, J.-M. Hartmann, J. Widiez, S. Tardif, F. Rieutord, J. Escalante, I. Duchemin, Y.-M. Niquet, R. Geiger, T. Zabel, H. Sigg, J. Faist, A. Chelnokov, V. Reboud, and V. Calvo, “1.9% bi-axial tensile strain in thick germanium suspended membranes fabricated in optical germanium-on-insulator substrates for laser applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(19), 191904 (2015).
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Niu, G.

G. Capellini, G. Kozlowski, Y. Yamamoto, M. Lisker, C. Wenger, G. Niu, P. Zaumseil, B. Tillack, A. Ghrib, M. de Kersauson, M. El Kurdi, P. Boucaud, and T. Schroeder, “Strain analysis in SiN/Ge microstructures obtained via Si-complementary metal oxide semiconductor compatible approach,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(1), 013513 (2013).
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O’Brien, P.

D. Thomson, A. Zilkie, J. E. Bowers, T. Komljenovic, G. T. Reed, L. Vivien, D. Marris-Morini, E. Cassan, L. Virot, J.-M. Fédéli, J.-M. Hartmann, J. H. Schmid, D.-X. Xu, F. Boeuf, P. O’Brien, G. Z. Mashanovich, and M. Nedeljkovic, “Roadmap on silicon photonics,” J. Opt. 18(7), 073003 (2016).
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A. Z. Al-Attili, S. Kako, M. K. Husain, F. Y. Gardes, N. Higashitarumizu, S. Iwamoto, Y. Arakawa, Y. Ishikawa, H. Arimoto, K. Oda, T. Ido, and S. Saito, “Whispering Gallery Mode Resonances from Ge Micro-Disks on Suspended Beams,” Front. Mater. 2, 43 (2015).
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Onwukaeme, C.

S. Bao, D. Kim, C. Onwukaeme, S. Gupta, K. Saraswat, K. H. Lee, Y. Kim, D. Min, Y. Jung, H. Qiu, H. Wang, E. A. Fitzgerald, C. S. Tan, and D. Nam, “Low-threshold optically pumped lasing in highly strained germanium nanowires,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 1845 (2017).
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Ossikovski, R.

M. El Kurdi, M. Prost, A. Ghrib, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, G. Picardi, R. Ossikovski, and P. Boucaud, “Direct Band Gap Germanium Microdisks Obtained with Silicon Nitride Stressor Layers,” ACS Photonics 3(3), 443–448 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. El Kurdi, M. Prost, A. Ghrib, A. Elbaz, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, G. Picardi, R. Ossikovski, F. Boeuf, and P. Boucaud, “Tensile-strained germanium microdisks with circular Bragg reflectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(9), 091103 (2016).
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A. Ghrib, M. El Kurdi, M. Prost, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, M. Chaigneau, R. Ossikovski, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “All-Around SiN Stressor for High and Homogeneous Tensile Strain in Germanium Microdisk Cavities,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(3), 353–358 (2015).
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A. Gassenq, K. Guilloy, G. Osvaldo Dias, N. Pauc, D. Rouchon, J.-M. Hartmann, J. Widiez, S. Tardif, F. Rieutord, J. Escalante, I. Duchemin, Y.-M. Niquet, R. Geiger, T. Zabel, H. Sigg, J. Faist, A. Chelnokov, V. Reboud, and V. Calvo, “1.9% bi-axial tensile strain in thick germanium suspended membranes fabricated in optical germanium-on-insulator substrates for laser applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(19), 191904 (2015).
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Ottaviano, L.

Oxenløwe, L. K.

Pauc, N.

A. Gassenq, K. Guilloy, G. Osvaldo Dias, N. Pauc, D. Rouchon, J.-M. Hartmann, J. Widiez, S. Tardif, F. Rieutord, J. Escalante, I. Duchemin, Y.-M. Niquet, R. Geiger, T. Zabel, H. Sigg, J. Faist, A. Chelnokov, V. Reboud, and V. Calvo, “1.9% bi-axial tensile strain in thick germanium suspended membranes fabricated in optical germanium-on-insulator substrates for laser applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(19), 191904 (2015).
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Paul, D. J.

Peng, K.

S. Liu, K. Peng, H. Zhan, L. Ni, X. Wang, Y. Wang, Y. Li, J. Yu, L. Jiang, R. Zhu, J. Wang, F. Jing, and A. Lin, “3 kW 20/400 Yb-Doped Aluminophosphosilicate Fiber With High Stability,” IEEE Photonics J. 10(5), 1–8 (2018).
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C. Lacava, M. A. Ettabib, and P. Petropoulos, “Nonlinear Silicon Photonic Signal Processing Devices for Future Optical Networks,” Appl. Sci. (Basel) 7(1), 103 (2017).
[Crossref]

Petykiewicz, J.

D. Nam, D. S. Sukhdeo, J.-H. Kang, J. Petykiewicz, J. H. Lee, W. S. Jung, J. Vučković, M. L. Brongersma, and K. C. Saraswat, “Strain-Induced Pseudoheterostructure Nanowires Confining Carriers at Room Temperature with Nanoscale-Tunable Band Profiles,” Nano Lett. 13(7), 3118–3123 (2013).
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Picardi, G.

M. El Kurdi, M. Prost, A. Ghrib, A. Elbaz, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, G. Picardi, R. Ossikovski, F. Boeuf, and P. Boucaud, “Tensile-strained germanium microdisks with circular Bragg reflectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(9), 091103 (2016).
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M. El Kurdi, M. Prost, A. Ghrib, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, G. Picardi, R. Ossikovski, and P. Boucaud, “Direct Band Gap Germanium Microdisks Obtained with Silicon Nitride Stressor Layers,” ACS Photonics 3(3), 443–448 (2016).
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Prost, M.

M. El Kurdi, M. Prost, A. Ghrib, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, G. Picardi, R. Ossikovski, and P. Boucaud, “Direct Band Gap Germanium Microdisks Obtained with Silicon Nitride Stressor Layers,” ACS Photonics 3(3), 443–448 (2016).
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M. El Kurdi, M. Prost, A. Ghrib, A. Elbaz, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, G. Picardi, R. Ossikovski, F. Boeuf, and P. Boucaud, “Tensile-strained germanium microdisks with circular Bragg reflectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(9), 091103 (2016).
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A. Ghrib, M. El Kurdi, M. Prost, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, M. Chaigneau, R. Ossikovski, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “All-Around SiN Stressor for High and Homogeneous Tensile Strain in Germanium Microdisk Cavities,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(3), 353–358 (2015).
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M. Prost, M. El Kurdi, A. Ghrib, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, N. Zerounian, F. Aniel, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, F. Boeuf, and P. Boucaud, “Tensile-strained germanium microdisk electroluminescence,” Opt. Express 23(5), 6722–6730 (2015).
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A. Ghrib, M. El Kurdi, M. de Kersauson, M. Prost, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “Tensile-strained germanium microdisks,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(22), 221112 (2013).
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Pu, M.

Qiu, H.

S. Bao, D. Kim, C. Onwukaeme, S. Gupta, K. Saraswat, K. H. Lee, Y. Kim, D. Min, Y. Jung, H. Qiu, H. Wang, E. A. Fitzgerald, C. S. Tan, and D. Nam, “Low-threshold optically pumped lasing in highly strained germanium nanowires,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 1845 (2017).
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Reboud, V.

A. Gassenq, K. Guilloy, G. Osvaldo Dias, N. Pauc, D. Rouchon, J.-M. Hartmann, J. Widiez, S. Tardif, F. Rieutord, J. Escalante, I. Duchemin, Y.-M. Niquet, R. Geiger, T. Zabel, H. Sigg, J. Faist, A. Chelnokov, V. Reboud, and V. Calvo, “1.9% bi-axial tensile strain in thick germanium suspended membranes fabricated in optical germanium-on-insulator substrates for laser applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(19), 191904 (2015).
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Reed, G. T.

D. Thomson, A. Zilkie, J. E. Bowers, T. Komljenovic, G. T. Reed, L. Vivien, D. Marris-Morini, E. Cassan, L. Virot, J.-M. Fédéli, J.-M. Hartmann, J. H. Schmid, D.-X. Xu, F. Boeuf, P. O’Brien, G. Z. Mashanovich, and M. Nedeljkovic, “Roadmap on silicon photonics,” J. Opt. 18(7), 073003 (2016).
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Rieutord, F.

A. Gassenq, K. Guilloy, G. Osvaldo Dias, N. Pauc, D. Rouchon, J.-M. Hartmann, J. Widiez, S. Tardif, F. Rieutord, J. Escalante, I. Duchemin, Y.-M. Niquet, R. Geiger, T. Zabel, H. Sigg, J. Faist, A. Chelnokov, V. Reboud, and V. Calvo, “1.9% bi-axial tensile strain in thick germanium suspended membranes fabricated in optical germanium-on-insulator substrates for laser applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(19), 191904 (2015).
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Roelkens, G.

Rosenberg, H. M.

H. M. Rosenberg, “The thermal conductivity of metals at low temperatures,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. Ser. Math. Phys. Sci. 247(933), 441–497 (1955).
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Rouchon, D.

A. Gassenq, K. Guilloy, G. Osvaldo Dias, N. Pauc, D. Rouchon, J.-M. Hartmann, J. Widiez, S. Tardif, F. Rieutord, J. Escalante, I. Duchemin, Y.-M. Niquet, R. Geiger, T. Zabel, H. Sigg, J. Faist, A. Chelnokov, V. Reboud, and V. Calvo, “1.9% bi-axial tensile strain in thick germanium suspended membranes fabricated in optical germanium-on-insulator substrates for laser applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(19), 191904 (2015).
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Sagnes, I.

A. Elbaz, M. El Kurdi, A. Aassime, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, I. Sagnes, C. Baudot, F. Boeuf, and P. Boucaud, “Germanium microlasers on metallic pedestals,” APL Photon. 3(10), 106102 (2018).
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M. El Kurdi, M. Prost, A. Ghrib, A. Elbaz, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, G. Picardi, R. Ossikovski, F. Boeuf, and P. Boucaud, “Tensile-strained germanium microdisks with circular Bragg reflectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(9), 091103 (2016).
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M. El Kurdi, M. Prost, A. Ghrib, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, G. Picardi, R. Ossikovski, and P. Boucaud, “Direct Band Gap Germanium Microdisks Obtained with Silicon Nitride Stressor Layers,” ACS Photonics 3(3), 443–448 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Ghrib, M. El Kurdi, M. Prost, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, M. Chaigneau, R. Ossikovski, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “All-Around SiN Stressor for High and Homogeneous Tensile Strain in Germanium Microdisk Cavities,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(3), 353–358 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Prost, M. El Kurdi, A. Ghrib, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, N. Zerounian, F. Aniel, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, F. Boeuf, and P. Boucaud, “Tensile-strained germanium microdisk electroluminescence,” Opt. Express 23(5), 6722–6730 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Ghrib, M. El Kurdi, M. de Kersauson, M. Prost, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “Tensile-strained germanium microdisks,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(22), 221112 (2013).
[Crossref]

Saito, S.

A. Z. Al-Attili, S. Kako, M. K. Husain, F. Y. Gardes, N. Higashitarumizu, S. Iwamoto, Y. Arakawa, Y. Ishikawa, H. Arimoto, K. Oda, T. Ido, and S. Saito, “Whispering Gallery Mode Resonances from Ge Micro-Disks on Suspended Beams,” Front. Mater. 2, 43 (2015).
[Crossref]

Saraswat, K.

S. Bao, D. Kim, C. Onwukaeme, S. Gupta, K. Saraswat, K. H. Lee, Y. Kim, D. Min, Y. Jung, H. Qiu, H. Wang, E. A. Fitzgerald, C. S. Tan, and D. Nam, “Low-threshold optically pumped lasing in highly strained germanium nanowires,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 1845 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Saraswat, K. C.

D. Nam, D. S. Sukhdeo, S. Gupta, J-H Kang, M. L. Brongersma, and K. C. Saraswat, “Study of Carrier Statistics in Uniaxially Strained Ge for a Low-Threshold Ge Laser,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 16–22 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. S. Sukhdeo, D. Nam, J.-H. Kang, M. L. Brongersma, and K. C. Saraswat, “Direct bandgap germanium-on-silicon inferred from 57% 〈100〉 uniaxial tensile strain [Invited],” Photon. Res. 2(3), A8–A13 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. Nam, D. S. Sukhdeo, J.-H. Kang, J. Petykiewicz, J. H. Lee, W. S. Jung, J. Vučković, M. L. Brongersma, and K. C. Saraswat, “Strain-Induced Pseudoheterostructure Nanowires Confining Carriers at Room Temperature with Nanoscale-Tunable Band Profiles,” Nano Lett. 13(7), 3118–3123 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sauvage, S.

A. Elbaz, M. El Kurdi, A. Aassime, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, I. Sagnes, C. Baudot, F. Boeuf, and P. Boucaud, “Germanium microlasers on metallic pedestals,” APL Photon. 3(10), 106102 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. El Kurdi, M. Prost, A. Ghrib, A. Elbaz, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, G. Picardi, R. Ossikovski, F. Boeuf, and P. Boucaud, “Tensile-strained germanium microdisks with circular Bragg reflectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(9), 091103 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. El Kurdi, M. Prost, A. Ghrib, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, G. Picardi, R. Ossikovski, and P. Boucaud, “Direct Band Gap Germanium Microdisks Obtained with Silicon Nitride Stressor Layers,” ACS Photonics 3(3), 443–448 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Ghrib, M. El Kurdi, M. Prost, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, M. Chaigneau, R. Ossikovski, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “All-Around SiN Stressor for High and Homogeneous Tensile Strain in Germanium Microdisk Cavities,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(3), 353–358 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Prost, M. El Kurdi, A. Ghrib, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, N. Zerounian, F. Aniel, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, F. Boeuf, and P. Boucaud, “Tensile-strained germanium microdisk electroluminescence,” Opt. Express 23(5), 6722–6730 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Ghrib, M. El Kurdi, M. de Kersauson, M. Prost, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “Tensile-strained germanium microdisks,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(22), 221112 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. El Kurdi, G. Fishman, S. Sauvage, and P. Boucaud, “Band structure and optical gain of tensile-strained germanium based on a 30 band kp formalism,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(1), 013710 (2010).
[Crossref]

Sawano, K.

Schiefler, G.

M. J. Süess, R. Geiger, R. A. Minamisawa, G. Schiefler, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, R. Spolenak, J. Faist, and H. Sigg, “Analysis of enhanced light emission from highly strained germanium microbridges,” Nat. Photonics 7(6), 466–472 (2013).
[Crossref]

Schmid, J. H.

D. Thomson, A. Zilkie, J. E. Bowers, T. Komljenovic, G. T. Reed, L. Vivien, D. Marris-Morini, E. Cassan, L. Virot, J.-M. Fédéli, J.-M. Hartmann, J. H. Schmid, D.-X. Xu, F. Boeuf, P. O’Brien, G. Z. Mashanovich, and M. Nedeljkovic, “Roadmap on silicon photonics,” J. Opt. 18(7), 073003 (2016).
[Crossref]

Schroeder, T.

G. Capellini, G. Kozlowski, Y. Yamamoto, M. Lisker, C. Wenger, G. Niu, P. Zaumseil, B. Tillack, A. Ghrib, M. de Kersauson, M. El Kurdi, P. Boucaud, and T. Schroeder, “Strain analysis in SiN/Ge microstructures obtained via Si-complementary metal oxide semiconductor compatible approach,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(1), 013513 (2013).
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Semenova, E.

Sigg, H.

A. Gassenq, K. Guilloy, G. Osvaldo Dias, N. Pauc, D. Rouchon, J.-M. Hartmann, J. Widiez, S. Tardif, F. Rieutord, J. Escalante, I. Duchemin, Y.-M. Niquet, R. Geiger, T. Zabel, H. Sigg, J. Faist, A. Chelnokov, V. Reboud, and V. Calvo, “1.9% bi-axial tensile strain in thick germanium suspended membranes fabricated in optical germanium-on-insulator substrates for laser applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(19), 191904 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Wirths, R. Geiger, N. von den Driesch, G. Mussler, T. Stoica, S. Mantl, Z. Ikonic, M. Luysberg, S. Chiussi, J. M. Hartmann, H. Sigg, J. Faist, D. Buca, and D. Grützmacher, “Lasing in direct-bandgap GeSn alloy grown on Si,” Nat. Photonics 9(2), 88–92 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. J. Süess, R. Geiger, R. A. Minamisawa, G. Schiefler, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, R. Spolenak, J. Faist, and H. Sigg, “Analysis of enhanced light emission from highly strained germanium microbridges,” Nat. Photonics 7(6), 466–472 (2013).
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R. Soref, “Mid-infrared photonics in silicon and germanium,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 495–497 (2010).
[Crossref]

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M. J. Süess, R. Geiger, R. A. Minamisawa, G. Schiefler, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, R. Spolenak, J. Faist, and H. Sigg, “Analysis of enhanced light emission from highly strained germanium microbridges,” Nat. Photonics 7(6), 466–472 (2013).
[Crossref]

Stoica, T.

S. Wirths, R. Geiger, N. von den Driesch, G. Mussler, T. Stoica, S. Mantl, Z. Ikonic, M. Luysberg, S. Chiussi, J. M. Hartmann, H. Sigg, J. Faist, D. Buca, and D. Grützmacher, “Lasing in direct-bandgap GeSn alloy grown on Si,” Nat. Photonics 9(2), 88–92 (2015).
[Crossref]

Süess, M. J.

M. J. Süess, R. Geiger, R. A. Minamisawa, G. Schiefler, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, R. Spolenak, J. Faist, and H. Sigg, “Analysis of enhanced light emission from highly strained germanium microbridges,” Nat. Photonics 7(6), 466–472 (2013).
[Crossref]

Sukhdeo, D. S.

D. Nam, D. S. Sukhdeo, S. Gupta, J-H Kang, M. L. Brongersma, and K. C. Saraswat, “Study of Carrier Statistics in Uniaxially Strained Ge for a Low-Threshold Ge Laser,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 16–22 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. S. Sukhdeo, D. Nam, J.-H. Kang, M. L. Brongersma, and K. C. Saraswat, “Direct bandgap germanium-on-silicon inferred from 57% 〈100〉 uniaxial tensile strain [Invited],” Photon. Res. 2(3), A8–A13 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. Nam, D. S. Sukhdeo, J.-H. Kang, J. Petykiewicz, J. H. Lee, W. S. Jung, J. Vučković, M. L. Brongersma, and K. C. Saraswat, “Strain-Induced Pseudoheterostructure Nanowires Confining Carriers at Room Temperature with Nanoscale-Tunable Band Profiles,” Nano Lett. 13(7), 3118–3123 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tan, C. S.

S. Bao, D. Kim, C. Onwukaeme, S. Gupta, K. Saraswat, K. H. Lee, Y. Kim, D. Min, Y. Jung, H. Qiu, H. Wang, E. A. Fitzgerald, C. S. Tan, and D. Nam, “Low-threshold optically pumped lasing in highly strained germanium nanowires,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 1845 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tardif, S.

A. Gassenq, K. Guilloy, G. Osvaldo Dias, N. Pauc, D. Rouchon, J.-M. Hartmann, J. Widiez, S. Tardif, F. Rieutord, J. Escalante, I. Duchemin, Y.-M. Niquet, R. Geiger, T. Zabel, H. Sigg, J. Faist, A. Chelnokov, V. Reboud, and V. Calvo, “1.9% bi-axial tensile strain in thick germanium suspended membranes fabricated in optical germanium-on-insulator substrates for laser applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(19), 191904 (2015).
[Crossref]

Thomson, D.

D. Thomson, A. Zilkie, J. E. Bowers, T. Komljenovic, G. T. Reed, L. Vivien, D. Marris-Morini, E. Cassan, L. Virot, J.-M. Fédéli, J.-M. Hartmann, J. H. Schmid, D.-X. Xu, F. Boeuf, P. O’Brien, G. Z. Mashanovich, and M. Nedeljkovic, “Roadmap on silicon photonics,” J. Opt. 18(7), 073003 (2016).
[Crossref]

Tillack, B.

G. Capellini, G. Kozlowski, Y. Yamamoto, M. Lisker, C. Wenger, G. Niu, P. Zaumseil, B. Tillack, A. Ghrib, M. de Kersauson, M. El Kurdi, P. Boucaud, and T. Schroeder, “Strain analysis in SiN/Ge microstructures obtained via Si-complementary metal oxide semiconductor compatible approach,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(1), 013513 (2013).
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Y. P. Varshni, “Band-to-Band Radiative Recombination in Groups IV, VI, and III-V Semiconductors (I),” Phys. Status Solidi, B Basic Res. 19(2), 459–514 (1967).
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Virot, L.

D. Thomson, A. Zilkie, J. E. Bowers, T. Komljenovic, G. T. Reed, L. Vivien, D. Marris-Morini, E. Cassan, L. Virot, J.-M. Fédéli, J.-M. Hartmann, J. H. Schmid, D.-X. Xu, F. Boeuf, P. O’Brien, G. Z. Mashanovich, and M. Nedeljkovic, “Roadmap on silicon photonics,” J. Opt. 18(7), 073003 (2016).
[Crossref]

Vivien, L.

D. Thomson, A. Zilkie, J. E. Bowers, T. Komljenovic, G. T. Reed, L. Vivien, D. Marris-Morini, E. Cassan, L. Virot, J.-M. Fédéli, J.-M. Hartmann, J. H. Schmid, D.-X. Xu, F. Boeuf, P. O’Brien, G. Z. Mashanovich, and M. Nedeljkovic, “Roadmap on silicon photonics,” J. Opt. 18(7), 073003 (2016).
[Crossref]

von den Driesch, N.

S. Wirths, R. Geiger, N. von den Driesch, G. Mussler, T. Stoica, S. Mantl, Z. Ikonic, M. Luysberg, S. Chiussi, J. M. Hartmann, H. Sigg, J. Faist, D. Buca, and D. Grützmacher, “Lasing in direct-bandgap GeSn alloy grown on Si,” Nat. Photonics 9(2), 88–92 (2015).
[Crossref]

Vuckovic, J.

D. Nam, D. S. Sukhdeo, J.-H. Kang, J. Petykiewicz, J. H. Lee, W. S. Jung, J. Vučković, M. L. Brongersma, and K. C. Saraswat, “Strain-Induced Pseudoheterostructure Nanowires Confining Carriers at Room Temperature with Nanoscale-Tunable Band Profiles,” Nano Lett. 13(7), 3118–3123 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, H.

S. Bao, D. Kim, C. Onwukaeme, S. Gupta, K. Saraswat, K. H. Lee, Y. Kim, D. Min, Y. Jung, H. Qiu, H. Wang, E. A. Fitzgerald, C. S. Tan, and D. Nam, “Low-threshold optically pumped lasing in highly strained germanium nanowires,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 1845 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, J.

S. Liu, K. Peng, H. Zhan, L. Ni, X. Wang, Y. Wang, Y. Li, J. Yu, L. Jiang, R. Zhu, J. Wang, F. Jing, and A. Lin, “3 kW 20/400 Yb-Doped Aluminophosphosilicate Fiber With High Stability,” IEEE Photonics J. 10(5), 1–8 (2018).
[Crossref]

Wang, X.

S. Liu, K. Peng, H. Zhan, L. Ni, X. Wang, Y. Wang, Y. Li, J. Yu, L. Jiang, R. Zhu, J. Wang, F. Jing, and A. Lin, “3 kW 20/400 Yb-Doped Aluminophosphosilicate Fiber With High Stability,” IEEE Photonics J. 10(5), 1–8 (2018).
[Crossref]

Wang, Y.

S. Liu, K. Peng, H. Zhan, L. Ni, X. Wang, Y. Wang, Y. Li, J. Yu, L. Jiang, R. Zhu, J. Wang, F. Jing, and A. Lin, “3 kW 20/400 Yb-Doped Aluminophosphosilicate Fiber With High Stability,” IEEE Photonics J. 10(5), 1–8 (2018).
[Crossref]

Wenger, C.

G. Capellini, G. Kozlowski, Y. Yamamoto, M. Lisker, C. Wenger, G. Niu, P. Zaumseil, B. Tillack, A. Ghrib, M. de Kersauson, M. El Kurdi, P. Boucaud, and T. Schroeder, “Strain analysis in SiN/Ge microstructures obtained via Si-complementary metal oxide semiconductor compatible approach,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(1), 013513 (2013).
[Crossref]

Widiez, J.

A. Gassenq, K. Guilloy, G. Osvaldo Dias, N. Pauc, D. Rouchon, J.-M. Hartmann, J. Widiez, S. Tardif, F. Rieutord, J. Escalante, I. Duchemin, Y.-M. Niquet, R. Geiger, T. Zabel, H. Sigg, J. Faist, A. Chelnokov, V. Reboud, and V. Calvo, “1.9% bi-axial tensile strain in thick germanium suspended membranes fabricated in optical germanium-on-insulator substrates for laser applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(19), 191904 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wirths, S.

S. Wirths, R. Geiger, N. von den Driesch, G. Mussler, T. Stoica, S. Mantl, Z. Ikonic, M. Luysberg, S. Chiussi, J. M. Hartmann, H. Sigg, J. Faist, D. Buca, and D. Grützmacher, “Lasing in direct-bandgap GeSn alloy grown on Si,” Nat. Photonics 9(2), 88–92 (2015).
[Crossref]

Xu, D.-X.

D. Thomson, A. Zilkie, J. E. Bowers, T. Komljenovic, G. T. Reed, L. Vivien, D. Marris-Morini, E. Cassan, L. Virot, J.-M. Fédéli, J.-M. Hartmann, J. H. Schmid, D.-X. Xu, F. Boeuf, P. O’Brien, G. Z. Mashanovich, and M. Nedeljkovic, “Roadmap on silicon photonics,” J. Opt. 18(7), 073003 (2016).
[Crossref]

Xu, X.

Xue, M.

Yamamoto, Y.

G. Capellini, G. Kozlowski, Y. Yamamoto, M. Lisker, C. Wenger, G. Niu, P. Zaumseil, B. Tillack, A. Ghrib, M. de Kersauson, M. El Kurdi, P. Boucaud, and T. Schroeder, “Strain analysis in SiN/Ge microstructures obtained via Si-complementary metal oxide semiconductor compatible approach,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(1), 013513 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yu, J.

S. Liu, K. Peng, H. Zhan, L. Ni, X. Wang, Y. Wang, Y. Li, J. Yu, L. Jiang, R. Zhu, J. Wang, F. Jing, and A. Lin, “3 kW 20/400 Yb-Doped Aluminophosphosilicate Fiber With High Stability,” IEEE Photonics J. 10(5), 1–8 (2018).
[Crossref]

Yvind, K.

Zabel, T.

A. Gassenq, K. Guilloy, G. Osvaldo Dias, N. Pauc, D. Rouchon, J.-M. Hartmann, J. Widiez, S. Tardif, F. Rieutord, J. Escalante, I. Duchemin, Y.-M. Niquet, R. Geiger, T. Zabel, H. Sigg, J. Faist, A. Chelnokov, V. Reboud, and V. Calvo, “1.9% bi-axial tensile strain in thick germanium suspended membranes fabricated in optical germanium-on-insulator substrates for laser applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(19), 191904 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zang, K.

Zaumseil, P.

G. Capellini, G. Kozlowski, Y. Yamamoto, M. Lisker, C. Wenger, G. Niu, P. Zaumseil, B. Tillack, A. Ghrib, M. de Kersauson, M. El Kurdi, P. Boucaud, and T. Schroeder, “Strain analysis in SiN/Ge microstructures obtained via Si-complementary metal oxide semiconductor compatible approach,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(1), 013513 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zerounian, N.

Zhan, H.

S. Liu, K. Peng, H. Zhan, L. Ni, X. Wang, Y. Wang, Y. Li, J. Yu, L. Jiang, R. Zhu, J. Wang, F. Jing, and A. Lin, “3 kW 20/400 Yb-Doped Aluminophosphosilicate Fiber With High Stability,” IEEE Photonics J. 10(5), 1–8 (2018).
[Crossref]

Zhu, R.

S. Liu, K. Peng, H. Zhan, L. Ni, X. Wang, Y. Wang, Y. Li, J. Yu, L. Jiang, R. Zhu, J. Wang, F. Jing, and A. Lin, “3 kW 20/400 Yb-Doped Aluminophosphosilicate Fiber With High Stability,” IEEE Photonics J. 10(5), 1–8 (2018).
[Crossref]

Zilkie, A.

D. Thomson, A. Zilkie, J. E. Bowers, T. Komljenovic, G. T. Reed, L. Vivien, D. Marris-Morini, E. Cassan, L. Virot, J.-M. Fédéli, J.-M. Hartmann, J. H. Schmid, D.-X. Xu, F. Boeuf, P. O’Brien, G. Z. Mashanovich, and M. Nedeljkovic, “Roadmap on silicon photonics,” J. Opt. 18(7), 073003 (2016).
[Crossref]

ACS Photonics (1)

M. El Kurdi, M. Prost, A. Ghrib, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, G. Picardi, R. Ossikovski, and P. Boucaud, “Direct Band Gap Germanium Microdisks Obtained with Silicon Nitride Stressor Layers,” ACS Photonics 3(3), 443–448 (2016).
[Crossref]

Adv. Opt. Mater. (1)

A. Ghrib, M. El Kurdi, M. Prost, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, M. Chaigneau, R. Ossikovski, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “All-Around SiN Stressor for High and Homogeneous Tensile Strain in Germanium Microdisk Cavities,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(3), 353–358 (2015).
[Crossref]

APL Photon. (1)

A. Elbaz, M. El Kurdi, A. Aassime, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, I. Sagnes, C. Baudot, F. Boeuf, and P. Boucaud, “Germanium microlasers on metallic pedestals,” APL Photon. 3(10), 106102 (2018).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

A. Ghrib, M. El Kurdi, M. de Kersauson, M. Prost, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “Tensile-strained germanium microdisks,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(22), 221112 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Gassenq, K. Guilloy, G. Osvaldo Dias, N. Pauc, D. Rouchon, J.-M. Hartmann, J. Widiez, S. Tardif, F. Rieutord, J. Escalante, I. Duchemin, Y.-M. Niquet, R. Geiger, T. Zabel, H. Sigg, J. Faist, A. Chelnokov, V. Reboud, and V. Calvo, “1.9% bi-axial tensile strain in thick germanium suspended membranes fabricated in optical germanium-on-insulator substrates for laser applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(19), 191904 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. El Kurdi, M. Prost, A. Ghrib, A. Elbaz, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, G. Picardi, R. Ossikovski, F. Boeuf, and P. Boucaud, “Tensile-strained germanium microdisks with circular Bragg reflectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(9), 091103 (2016).
[Crossref]

Appl. Sci. (Basel) (1)

C. Lacava, M. A. Ettabib, and P. Petropoulos, “Nonlinear Silicon Photonic Signal Processing Devices for Future Optical Networks,” Appl. Sci. (Basel) 7(1), 103 (2017).
[Crossref]

Front. Mater. (1)

A. Z. Al-Attili, S. Kako, M. K. Husain, F. Y. Gardes, N. Higashitarumizu, S. Iwamoto, Y. Arakawa, Y. Ishikawa, H. Arimoto, K. Oda, T. Ido, and S. Saito, “Whispering Gallery Mode Resonances from Ge Micro-Disks on Suspended Beams,” Front. Mater. 2, 43 (2015).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

D. Nam, D. S. Sukhdeo, S. Gupta, J-H Kang, M. L. Brongersma, and K. C. Saraswat, “Study of Carrier Statistics in Uniaxially Strained Ge for a Low-Threshold Ge Laser,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 16–22 (2014).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics J. (1)

S. Liu, K. Peng, H. Zhan, L. Ni, X. Wang, Y. Wang, Y. Li, J. Yu, L. Jiang, R. Zhu, J. Wang, F. Jing, and A. Lin, “3 kW 20/400 Yb-Doped Aluminophosphosilicate Fiber With High Stability,” IEEE Photonics J. 10(5), 1–8 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

G. Capellini, G. Kozlowski, Y. Yamamoto, M. Lisker, C. Wenger, G. Niu, P. Zaumseil, B. Tillack, A. Ghrib, M. de Kersauson, M. El Kurdi, P. Boucaud, and T. Schroeder, “Strain analysis in SiN/Ge microstructures obtained via Si-complementary metal oxide semiconductor compatible approach,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(1), 013513 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. El Kurdi, G. Fishman, S. Sauvage, and P. Boucaud, “Band structure and optical gain of tensile-strained germanium based on a 30 band kp formalism,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(1), 013710 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. (1)

D. Thomson, A. Zilkie, J. E. Bowers, T. Komljenovic, G. T. Reed, L. Vivien, D. Marris-Morini, E. Cassan, L. Virot, J.-M. Fédéli, J.-M. Hartmann, J. H. Schmid, D.-X. Xu, F. Boeuf, P. O’Brien, G. Z. Mashanovich, and M. Nedeljkovic, “Roadmap on silicon photonics,” J. Opt. 18(7), 073003 (2016).
[Crossref]

Nano Lett. (1)

D. Nam, D. S. Sukhdeo, J.-H. Kang, J. Petykiewicz, J. H. Lee, W. S. Jung, J. Vučković, M. L. Brongersma, and K. C. Saraswat, “Strain-Induced Pseudoheterostructure Nanowires Confining Carriers at Room Temperature with Nanoscale-Tunable Band Profiles,” Nano Lett. 13(7), 3118–3123 (2013).
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Nat. Commun. (1)

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Description of the processing steps (a) Ge was first grown on a silicon-on-insulator substrate using RPCVD method. (b) The germanium layer is then covered by a silicon nitride film, then by an Al or SiO2 (not shown) film, and finally by an ultrathin silicon nitride layer followed by a gold layer deposition. (c) The Ge-on-insulator is then bonded on a host silicon substrate, by Au-Au thermo-compressive bonding, then the SOI substrate is removed (d) The Ge film is etched to a thickness of 350 nm. (e) The microdisks are patterned by electronic lithography and plasma etching. (f) A selective underetching is finally used to form the aluminum pedestal. (g) SEM view of photonic stacking after step d) but with a SiO2 layer instead of Al (h) Example of a scanning electron microscopy image of a processed microdisk on an aluminum post.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) CW emission spectra at 300 K of a 8 µm diameter microdisk with an aluminum pedestal, for various optical pump powers. (b) CW emission spectra at 300 K of a 8 µm diameter microdisk with a silicon dioxide pedestal, for various excitation densities. The blue dotted line are given as a guide to follow the emission maximum. 9.1 mW corresponds to an intensity of 95 kW cm−2.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Distribution of temperature for a microdisk with an aluminum pedestal, with a substrate temperature of 300K, under optical excitation at 633 nm wavelength (9.1mW incident power). The temperature only reaches 316 K. (b) Same mapping with a silicon dioxide pedestal. The temperature reaches 500 K in the same pumping conditions.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Temperature in the microdisks with Al and SiO2 pedestal respectively as a function of the incident optical power. The blue disks report the experimental temperature deduced from measurement of the red-shift of the band gap extracted from photoluminescence [Fig. 2]. The red lines represent the average temperature calculated by finite element analysis (two-dimensional mapping of temperature is shown on Fig. 3 for an incident optical power of 9.1 mW). The error bars represents the uncertainty due to the experimental measurement from the direct band-gap emission red shift.

Equations (1)

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E gap ( T )= E G,0 α T 2 T+β

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