Abstract

We report on the first demonstration of long-term thermally stable silicon-organic hybrid (SOH) modulators in accordance with Telcordia standards for high-temperature storage. The devices rely on an organic electro-optic sidechain polymer with a high glass transition temperature of 172 °C. In our high-temperature storage experiments at 85 °C, we find that the electro-optic activity converges to a constant long-term stable level after an initial decay. If we consider a burn-in time of 300 h, the π-voltage of the modulators increases on average by less than 15% if we store the devices for an additional 2400 h. The performance of the devices is demonstrated by generating high-quality 40 Gbit/s OOK signals both after the burn-in period and after extended high-temperature storage.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2018 (4)

S. Wolf, H. Zwickel, W. Hartmann, M. Lauermann, Y. Kutuvantavida, C. Kieninger, L. Altenhain, R. Schmid, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, S. Randel, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “Silicon-Organic Hybrid (SOH) Mach-Zehnder Modulators for 100 Gbit/s on-off Keying,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 2598 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. R. Billah, M. Blaicher, T. Hoose, P.-I. Dietrich, P. Marin-Palomo, N. Lindenmann, A. Nesic, A. Hofmann, U. Troppenz, M. Moehrle, S. Randel, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “Hybrid integration of silicon photonics circuits and InP lasers by photonic wire bonding,” Optica 5(7), 879–883 (2018).

S. Wolf, H. Zwickel, C. Kieninger, M. Lauermann, W. Hartmann, Y. Kutuvantavida, W. Freude, S. Randel, and C. Koos, “Coherent modulation up to 100 GBd 16QAM using silicon-organic hybrid (SOH) devices,” Opt. Express 26(1), 220–232 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Kieninger, Y. Kutuvantavida, D. L. Elder, S. Wolf, H. Zwickel, M. Blaicher, J. N. Kemal, M. Lauermann, S. Randel, W. Freude, L. R. Dalton, and C. Koos, “Ultra-high electro-optic activity demonstrated in a silicon-organic hybrid modulator,” Optica 5(6), 739–748 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (4)

2016 (4)

2015 (4)

2014 (3)

G. T. Reed, D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, Y. Hu, J.-M. Fedeli, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “High-speed carrier-depletion silicon Mach-Zehnder optical modulators with lateral PN junctions,” Front. Phys. 2, 77 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. Alloatti, R. Palmer, S. Diebold, K. P. Pahl, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Fournier, J.-M. Fedeli, T. Zwick, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “100 GHz silicon–organic hybrid modulator,” Light Sci. Appl. 3(5), e173 (2014).
[Crossref]

R. Palmer, S. Koeber, D. L. Elder, M. Woessner, W. Heni, D. Korn, M. Lauermann, W. Bogaerts, L. Dalton, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “High-Speed, Low Drive-Voltage Silicon-Organic Hybrid Modulator Based on a Binary-Chromophore Electro-Optic Material,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(16), 2726–2734 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

R. Palmer, L. Alloatti, D. Korn, W. Heni, P. C. Schindler, J. Bolten, M. Karl, M. Waldow, T. Wahlbrink, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “Low-Loss Silicon Strip-to-Slot Mode Converters,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(1), 2200409 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

2010 (1)

L. R. Dalton, P. A. Sullivan, and D. H. Bale, “Electric field poled organic electro-optic materials: state of the art and future prospects,” Chem. Rev. 110(1), 25–55 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

2006 (1)

Y. Kuo, J. Luo, W. H. Steier, L. Fellow, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Enhanced Thermal Stability of Electrooptic Polymer Modulators Using the Diels–Alder Crosslinkable Polymer,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18(1), 175–177 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

G. T. Reed and C. E. Jason Png, “Silicon optical modulators,” Mater. Today 8(1), 40–50 (2005).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

O. Min-Cheol, H. Zhang, C. Zhang, H. Erlig, Y. Chang, B. Tsap, D. Chang, A. Szep, W. H. Steier, H. R. Fetterman, and L. R. Dalton, “Recent advances in electrooptic polymer modulators incorporating highly nonlinear chromophore,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7(5), 826–835 (2001).
[Crossref]

1993 (2)

A. Dhinojwala, G. K. Wongj, and M. Torkelson, “Rotational Reorientation Dynamics of Nonlinear Optical Chromophores in Rubbery and Glassy Polymers: a-Relaxation Dynamics Probed by Second Harmonic Generation and Dielectric Relaxation,” Macromolecules 26(22), 5943–5953 (1993).
[Crossref]

T. Goodson and C. H. Wang, “Dipolar Orientational Relaxation in Guest/Host Amorphous Polymer Probed by Second Harmonic Generation,” Macromolecules 26(8), 1837–1840 (1993).
[Crossref]

1991 (1)

K. D. Singer and L. A. King, “Relaxation phenomena in polymer nonlinear optical materials,” J. Appl. Phys. 70(6), 3251–3255 (1991).
[Crossref]

1990 (2)

M. G. Kuzyk, R. C. Moore, and L. A. King, “Second-harmonic-generation measurements of the elastic constant of a molecule in a polymer matrix,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 7(1), 64–72 (1990).
[Crossref]

H. L. Hampsch, J. Yang, G. K. Wong, and J. M. Torkelson, “Dopant orientation dynamics in doped second-order nonlinear optical amorphous polymers. 1. Effects of temperature above and below Tg in corona-poled films,” Macromolecules 23(15), 3640–3647 (1990).
[Crossref]

Absil, P.

Alloatti, L.

C. Koos, J. Leuthold, W. Freude, M. Kohl, L. Dalton, W. Bogaerts, A. L. Giesecke, M. Lauermann, A. Melikyan, S. Koeber, S. Wolf, C. Weimann, S. Muehlbrandt, K. Koehnle, J. Pfeifle, W. Hartmann, Y. Kutuvantavida, S. Ummethala, R. Palmer, D. Korn, L. Alloatti, P. C. Schindler, D. L. Elder, T. Wahlbrink, and J. Bolten, “Silicon-Organic Hybrid (SOH) and Plasmonic-Organic Hybrid (POH) Integration,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34(2), 256–268 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. Korn, M. Lauermann, S. Koeber, P. Appel, L. Alloatti, R. Palmer, P. Dumon, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “Lasing in silicon-organic hybrid waveguides,” Nat. Commun. 7, 10864 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Lauermann, S. Wolf, P. C. Schindler, R. Palmer, S. Koeber, D. Korn, L. Alloatti, T. Wahlbrink, J. Bolten, M. Waldow, M. Koenigsmann, M. Kohler, D. Malsam, D. L. Elder, P. V. Johnston, N. Phillips-Sylvain, P. A. Sullivan, L. R. Dalton, J. Leuthold, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “40 GBd 16QAM Signaling at 160 Gb/s in a Silicon-Organic Hybrid Modulator,” J. Lightwave Technol. 33(6), 1210–1216 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. Alloatti, R. Palmer, S. Diebold, K. P. Pahl, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Fournier, J.-M. Fedeli, T. Zwick, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “100 GHz silicon–organic hybrid modulator,” Light Sci. Appl. 3(5), e173 (2014).
[Crossref]

R. Palmer, L. Alloatti, D. Korn, W. Heni, P. C. Schindler, J. Bolten, M. Karl, M. Waldow, T. Wahlbrink, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “Low-Loss Silicon Strip-to-Slot Mode Converters,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(1), 2200409 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. Yu, M. Pantouvaki, J. Van Campenhout, D. Korn, K. Komorowska, P. Dumon, Y. Li, P. Verheyen, P. Absil, L. Alloatti, D. Hillerkuss, J. Leuthold, R. Baets, and W. Bogaerts, “Performance tradeoff between lateral and interdigitated doping patterns for high speed carrier-depletion based silicon modulators,” Opt. Express 20(12), 12926–12938 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Altenhain, L.

S. Wolf, H. Zwickel, W. Hartmann, M. Lauermann, Y. Kutuvantavida, C. Kieninger, L. Altenhain, R. Schmid, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, S. Randel, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “Silicon-Organic Hybrid (SOH) Mach-Zehnder Modulators for 100 Gbit/s on-off Keying,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 2598 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appel, P.

D. Korn, M. Lauermann, S. Koeber, P. Appel, L. Alloatti, R. Palmer, P. Dumon, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “Lasing in silicon-organic hybrid waveguides,” Nat. Commun. 7, 10864 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Asghari, M.

Baets, R.

Baeuerle, B.

C. Haffner, W. Heni, Y. Fedoryshyn, J. Niegemann, A. Melikyan, D. L. Elder, B. Baeuerle, Y. Salamin, A. Josten, U. Koch, C. Hoessbacher, F. Ducry, L. Juchli, A. Emboras, D. Hillerkuss, M. Kohl, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “All-plasmonic Mach–Zehnder modulator enabling optical high-speed communication at the microscale,” Nat. Photonics 9(8), 525–528 (2015).
[Crossref]

Bale, D. H.

L. R. Dalton, P. A. Sullivan, and D. H. Bale, “Electric field poled organic electro-optic materials: state of the art and future prospects,” Chem. Rev. 110(1), 25–55 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Barklund, A.

Bauwelinck, J.

Billah, M. R.

M. R. Billah, M. Blaicher, T. Hoose, P.-I. Dietrich, P. Marin-Palomo, N. Lindenmann, A. Nesic, A. Hofmann, U. Troppenz, M. Moehrle, S. Randel, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “Hybrid integration of silicon photonics circuits and InP lasers by photonic wire bonding,” Optica 5(7), 879–883 (2018).

N. Lindenmann, S. Dottermusch, M. L. Goedecke, T. Hoose, M. R. Billah, T. P. Onanuga, A. Hofmann, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “Connecting Silicon Photonic Circuits to Multicore Fibers by Photonic Wire Bonding,” J. Lightwave Technol. 33(4), 755–760 (2015).
[Crossref]

Blaicher, M.

M. R. Billah, M. Blaicher, T. Hoose, P.-I. Dietrich, P. Marin-Palomo, N. Lindenmann, A. Nesic, A. Hofmann, U. Troppenz, M. Moehrle, S. Randel, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “Hybrid integration of silicon photonics circuits and InP lasers by photonic wire bonding,” Optica 5(7), 879–883 (2018).

C. Kieninger, Y. Kutuvantavida, D. L. Elder, S. Wolf, H. Zwickel, M. Blaicher, J. N. Kemal, M. Lauermann, S. Randel, W. Freude, L. R. Dalton, and C. Koos, “Ultra-high electro-optic activity demonstrated in a silicon-organic hybrid modulator,” Optica 5(6), 739–748 (2018).
[Crossref]

Bogaerts, W.

Bolten, J.

Chang, D.

O. Min-Cheol, H. Zhang, C. Zhang, H. Erlig, Y. Chang, B. Tsap, D. Chang, A. Szep, W. H. Steier, H. R. Fetterman, and L. R. Dalton, “Recent advances in electrooptic polymer modulators incorporating highly nonlinear chromophore,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7(5), 826–835 (2001).
[Crossref]

Chang, Y.

O. Min-Cheol, H. Zhang, C. Zhang, H. Erlig, Y. Chang, B. Tsap, D. Chang, A. Szep, W. H. Steier, H. R. Fetterman, and L. R. Dalton, “Recent advances in electrooptic polymer modulators incorporating highly nonlinear chromophore,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7(5), 826–835 (2001).
[Crossref]

Chen, B.

L. Alloatti, R. Palmer, S. Diebold, K. P. Pahl, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Fournier, J.-M. Fedeli, T. Zwick, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “100 GHz silicon–organic hybrid modulator,” Light Sci. Appl. 3(5), e173 (2014).
[Crossref]

R. Dinu, D. Jin, G. Yu, B. Chen, D. Huang, H. Chen, A. Barklund, E. Miller, C. Wei, and J. Vemagiri, “Environmental Stress Testing of Electro–Optic Polymer Modulators,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27(11), 1527–1532 (2009).
[Crossref]

Chen, H.

Dalton, L.

Dalton, L. R.

C. Kieninger, Y. Kutuvantavida, D. L. Elder, S. Wolf, H. Zwickel, M. Blaicher, J. N. Kemal, M. Lauermann, S. Randel, W. Freude, L. R. Dalton, and C. Koos, “Ultra-high electro-optic activity demonstrated in a silicon-organic hybrid modulator,” Optica 5(6), 739–748 (2018).
[Crossref]

W. Heni, Y. Kutuvantavida, C. Haffner, H. Zwickel, C. Kieninger, S. Wolf, M. Lauermann, Y. Fedoryshyn, A. F. Tillack, L. E. Johnson, D. L. Elder, B. H. Robinson, W. Freude, C. Koos, J. Leuthold, and L. R. Dalton, “Silicon–Organic and Plasmonic–Organic Hybrid Photonics,” ACS Photonics 4(7), 1576–1590 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Haffner, W. Heni, Y. Fedoryshyn, J. Niegemann, A. Melikyan, D. L. Elder, B. Baeuerle, Y. Salamin, A. Josten, U. Koch, C. Hoessbacher, F. Ducry, L. Juchli, A. Emboras, D. Hillerkuss, M. Kohl, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “All-plasmonic Mach–Zehnder modulator enabling optical high-speed communication at the microscale,” Nat. Photonics 9(8), 525–528 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Melikyan, K. Koehnle, M. Lauermann, R. Palmer, S. Koeber, S. Muehlbrandt, P. C. Schindler, D. L. Elder, S. Wolf, W. Heni, C. Haffner, Y. Fedoryshyn, D. Hillerkuss, M. Sommer, L. R. Dalton, D. Van Thourhout, W. Freude, M. Kohl, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “Plasmonic-organic hybrid (POH) modulators for OOK and BPSK signaling at 40 Gbit/s,” Opt. Express 23(8), 9938–9946 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Lauermann, S. Wolf, P. C. Schindler, R. Palmer, S. Koeber, D. Korn, L. Alloatti, T. Wahlbrink, J. Bolten, M. Waldow, M. Koenigsmann, M. Kohler, D. Malsam, D. L. Elder, P. V. Johnston, N. Phillips-Sylvain, P. A. Sullivan, L. R. Dalton, J. Leuthold, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “40 GBd 16QAM Signaling at 160 Gb/s in a Silicon-Organic Hybrid Modulator,” J. Lightwave Technol. 33(6), 1210–1216 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. R. Dalton, P. A. Sullivan, and D. H. Bale, “Electric field poled organic electro-optic materials: state of the art and future prospects,” Chem. Rev. 110(1), 25–55 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. Min-Cheol, H. Zhang, C. Zhang, H. Erlig, Y. Chang, B. Tsap, D. Chang, A. Szep, W. H. Steier, H. R. Fetterman, and L. R. Dalton, “Recent advances in electrooptic polymer modulators incorporating highly nonlinear chromophore,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7(5), 826–835 (2001).
[Crossref]

de Keulenaer, T.

Dhinojwala, A.

A. Dhinojwala, G. K. Wongj, and M. Torkelson, “Rotational Reorientation Dynamics of Nonlinear Optical Chromophores in Rubbery and Glassy Polymers: a-Relaxation Dynamics Probed by Second Harmonic Generation and Dielectric Relaxation,” Macromolecules 26(22), 5943–5953 (1993).
[Crossref]

Diebold, S.

L. Alloatti, R. Palmer, S. Diebold, K. P. Pahl, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Fournier, J.-M. Fedeli, T. Zwick, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “100 GHz silicon–organic hybrid modulator,” Light Sci. Appl. 3(5), e173 (2014).
[Crossref]

Dietrich, P.-I.

M. R. Billah, M. Blaicher, T. Hoose, P.-I. Dietrich, P. Marin-Palomo, N. Lindenmann, A. Nesic, A. Hofmann, U. Troppenz, M. Moehrle, S. Randel, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “Hybrid integration of silicon photonics circuits and InP lasers by photonic wire bonding,” Optica 5(7), 879–883 (2018).

Dinu, R.

L. Alloatti, R. Palmer, S. Diebold, K. P. Pahl, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Fournier, J.-M. Fedeli, T. Zwick, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “100 GHz silicon–organic hybrid modulator,” Light Sci. Appl. 3(5), e173 (2014).
[Crossref]

R. Dinu, D. Jin, G. Yu, B. Chen, D. Huang, H. Chen, A. Barklund, E. Miller, C. Wei, and J. Vemagiri, “Environmental Stress Testing of Electro–Optic Polymer Modulators,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27(11), 1527–1532 (2009).
[Crossref]

Dong, P.

Dottermusch, S.

Ducry, F.

C. Haffner, W. Heni, Y. Fedoryshyn, J. Niegemann, A. Melikyan, D. L. Elder, B. Baeuerle, Y. Salamin, A. Josten, U. Koch, C. Hoessbacher, F. Ducry, L. Juchli, A. Emboras, D. Hillerkuss, M. Kohl, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “All-plasmonic Mach–Zehnder modulator enabling optical high-speed communication at the microscale,” Nat. Photonics 9(8), 525–528 (2015).
[Crossref]

Dumon, P.

Elder, D. L.

C. Kieninger, Y. Kutuvantavida, D. L. Elder, S. Wolf, H. Zwickel, M. Blaicher, J. N. Kemal, M. Lauermann, S. Randel, W. Freude, L. R. Dalton, and C. Koos, “Ultra-high electro-optic activity demonstrated in a silicon-organic hybrid modulator,” Optica 5(6), 739–748 (2018).
[Crossref]

W. Heni, Y. Kutuvantavida, C. Haffner, H. Zwickel, C. Kieninger, S. Wolf, M. Lauermann, Y. Fedoryshyn, A. F. Tillack, L. E. Johnson, D. L. Elder, B. H. Robinson, W. Freude, C. Koos, J. Leuthold, and L. R. Dalton, “Silicon–Organic and Plasmonic–Organic Hybrid Photonics,” ACS Photonics 4(7), 1576–1590 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Koos, J. Leuthold, W. Freude, M. Kohl, L. Dalton, W. Bogaerts, A. L. Giesecke, M. Lauermann, A. Melikyan, S. Koeber, S. Wolf, C. Weimann, S. Muehlbrandt, K. Koehnle, J. Pfeifle, W. Hartmann, Y. Kutuvantavida, S. Ummethala, R. Palmer, D. Korn, L. Alloatti, P. C. Schindler, D. L. Elder, T. Wahlbrink, and J. Bolten, “Silicon-Organic Hybrid (SOH) and Plasmonic-Organic Hybrid (POH) Integration,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34(2), 256–268 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Lauermann, S. Wolf, P. C. Schindler, R. Palmer, S. Koeber, D. Korn, L. Alloatti, T. Wahlbrink, J. Bolten, M. Waldow, M. Koenigsmann, M. Kohler, D. Malsam, D. L. Elder, P. V. Johnston, N. Phillips-Sylvain, P. A. Sullivan, L. R. Dalton, J. Leuthold, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “40 GBd 16QAM Signaling at 160 Gb/s in a Silicon-Organic Hybrid Modulator,” J. Lightwave Technol. 33(6), 1210–1216 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Melikyan, K. Koehnle, M. Lauermann, R. Palmer, S. Koeber, S. Muehlbrandt, P. C. Schindler, D. L. Elder, S. Wolf, W. Heni, C. Haffner, Y. Fedoryshyn, D. Hillerkuss, M. Sommer, L. R. Dalton, D. Van Thourhout, W. Freude, M. Kohl, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “Plasmonic-organic hybrid (POH) modulators for OOK and BPSK signaling at 40 Gbit/s,” Opt. Express 23(8), 9938–9946 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Haffner, W. Heni, Y. Fedoryshyn, J. Niegemann, A. Melikyan, D. L. Elder, B. Baeuerle, Y. Salamin, A. Josten, U. Koch, C. Hoessbacher, F. Ducry, L. Juchli, A. Emboras, D. Hillerkuss, M. Kohl, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “All-plasmonic Mach–Zehnder modulator enabling optical high-speed communication at the microscale,” Nat. Photonics 9(8), 525–528 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. Palmer, S. Koeber, D. L. Elder, M. Woessner, W. Heni, D. Korn, M. Lauermann, W. Bogaerts, L. Dalton, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “High-Speed, Low Drive-Voltage Silicon-Organic Hybrid Modulator Based on a Binary-Chromophore Electro-Optic Material,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(16), 2726–2734 (2014).
[Crossref]

Emboras, A.

C. Haffner, W. Heni, Y. Fedoryshyn, J. Niegemann, A. Melikyan, D. L. Elder, B. Baeuerle, Y. Salamin, A. Josten, U. Koch, C. Hoessbacher, F. Ducry, L. Juchli, A. Emboras, D. Hillerkuss, M. Kohl, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “All-plasmonic Mach–Zehnder modulator enabling optical high-speed communication at the microscale,” Nat. Photonics 9(8), 525–528 (2015).
[Crossref]

Erlig, H.

O. Min-Cheol, H. Zhang, C. Zhang, H. Erlig, Y. Chang, B. Tsap, D. Chang, A. Szep, W. H. Steier, H. R. Fetterman, and L. R. Dalton, “Recent advances in electrooptic polymer modulators incorporating highly nonlinear chromophore,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7(5), 826–835 (2001).
[Crossref]

Fedeli, J.-M.

L. Alloatti, R. Palmer, S. Diebold, K. P. Pahl, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Fournier, J.-M. Fedeli, T. Zwick, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “100 GHz silicon–organic hybrid modulator,” Light Sci. Appl. 3(5), e173 (2014).
[Crossref]

G. T. Reed, D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, Y. Hu, J.-M. Fedeli, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “High-speed carrier-depletion silicon Mach-Zehnder optical modulators with lateral PN junctions,” Front. Phys. 2, 77 (2014).
[Crossref]

Fedoryshyn, Y.

W. Heni, Y. Kutuvantavida, C. Haffner, H. Zwickel, C. Kieninger, S. Wolf, M. Lauermann, Y. Fedoryshyn, A. F. Tillack, L. E. Johnson, D. L. Elder, B. H. Robinson, W. Freude, C. Koos, J. Leuthold, and L. R. Dalton, “Silicon–Organic and Plasmonic–Organic Hybrid Photonics,” ACS Photonics 4(7), 1576–1590 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Haffner, W. Heni, Y. Fedoryshyn, J. Niegemann, A. Melikyan, D. L. Elder, B. Baeuerle, Y. Salamin, A. Josten, U. Koch, C. Hoessbacher, F. Ducry, L. Juchli, A. Emboras, D. Hillerkuss, M. Kohl, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “All-plasmonic Mach–Zehnder modulator enabling optical high-speed communication at the microscale,” Nat. Photonics 9(8), 525–528 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Melikyan, K. Koehnle, M. Lauermann, R. Palmer, S. Koeber, S. Muehlbrandt, P. C. Schindler, D. L. Elder, S. Wolf, W. Heni, C. Haffner, Y. Fedoryshyn, D. Hillerkuss, M. Sommer, L. R. Dalton, D. Van Thourhout, W. Freude, M. Kohl, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “Plasmonic-organic hybrid (POH) modulators for OOK and BPSK signaling at 40 Gbit/s,” Opt. Express 23(8), 9938–9946 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fellow, L.

Y. Kuo, J. Luo, W. H. Steier, L. Fellow, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Enhanced Thermal Stability of Electrooptic Polymer Modulators Using the Diels–Alder Crosslinkable Polymer,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18(1), 175–177 (2006).
[Crossref]

Feng, D.

Fetterman, H. R.

O. Min-Cheol, H. Zhang, C. Zhang, H. Erlig, Y. Chang, B. Tsap, D. Chang, A. Szep, W. H. Steier, H. R. Fetterman, and L. R. Dalton, “Recent advances in electrooptic polymer modulators incorporating highly nonlinear chromophore,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7(5), 826–835 (2001).
[Crossref]

Fournier, M.

L. Alloatti, R. Palmer, S. Diebold, K. P. Pahl, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Fournier, J.-M. Fedeli, T. Zwick, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “100 GHz silicon–organic hybrid modulator,” Light Sci. Appl. 3(5), e173 (2014).
[Crossref]

Freude, W.

M. R. Billah, M. Blaicher, T. Hoose, P.-I. Dietrich, P. Marin-Palomo, N. Lindenmann, A. Nesic, A. Hofmann, U. Troppenz, M. Moehrle, S. Randel, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “Hybrid integration of silicon photonics circuits and InP lasers by photonic wire bonding,” Optica 5(7), 879–883 (2018).

S. Wolf, H. Zwickel, W. Hartmann, M. Lauermann, Y. Kutuvantavida, C. Kieninger, L. Altenhain, R. Schmid, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, S. Randel, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “Silicon-Organic Hybrid (SOH) Mach-Zehnder Modulators for 100 Gbit/s on-off Keying,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 2598 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Wolf, H. Zwickel, C. Kieninger, M. Lauermann, W. Hartmann, Y. Kutuvantavida, W. Freude, S. Randel, and C. Koos, “Coherent modulation up to 100 GBd 16QAM using silicon-organic hybrid (SOH) devices,” Opt. Express 26(1), 220–232 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Kieninger, Y. Kutuvantavida, D. L. Elder, S. Wolf, H. Zwickel, M. Blaicher, J. N. Kemal, M. Lauermann, S. Randel, W. Freude, L. R. Dalton, and C. Koos, “Ultra-high electro-optic activity demonstrated in a silicon-organic hybrid modulator,” Optica 5(6), 739–748 (2018).
[Crossref]

H. Zwickel, S. Wolf, C. Kieninger, Y. Kutuvantavida, M. Lauermann, T. de Keulenaer, A. Vyncke, R. Vaernewyck, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, W. Freude, J. Bauwelinck, S. Randel, and C. Koos, “Silicon-organic hybrid (SOH) modulators for intensity-modulation / direct-detection links with line rates of up to 120 Gbit/s,” Opt. Express 25(20), 23784–23800 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Heni, Y. Kutuvantavida, C. Haffner, H. Zwickel, C. Kieninger, S. Wolf, M. Lauermann, Y. Fedoryshyn, A. F. Tillack, L. E. Johnson, D. L. Elder, B. H. Robinson, W. Freude, C. Koos, J. Leuthold, and L. R. Dalton, “Silicon–Organic and Plasmonic–Organic Hybrid Photonics,” ACS Photonics 4(7), 1576–1590 (2017).
[Crossref]

D. Korn, M. Lauermann, S. Koeber, P. Appel, L. Alloatti, R. Palmer, P. Dumon, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “Lasing in silicon-organic hybrid waveguides,” Nat. Commun. 7, 10864 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Koos, J. Leuthold, W. Freude, M. Kohl, L. Dalton, W. Bogaerts, A. L. Giesecke, M. Lauermann, A. Melikyan, S. Koeber, S. Wolf, C. Weimann, S. Muehlbrandt, K. Koehnle, J. Pfeifle, W. Hartmann, Y. Kutuvantavida, S. Ummethala, R. Palmer, D. Korn, L. Alloatti, P. C. Schindler, D. L. Elder, T. Wahlbrink, and J. Bolten, “Silicon-Organic Hybrid (SOH) and Plasmonic-Organic Hybrid (POH) Integration,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34(2), 256–268 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Melikyan, K. Koehnle, M. Lauermann, R. Palmer, S. Koeber, S. Muehlbrandt, P. C. Schindler, D. L. Elder, S. Wolf, W. Heni, C. Haffner, Y. Fedoryshyn, D. Hillerkuss, M. Sommer, L. R. Dalton, D. Van Thourhout, W. Freude, M. Kohl, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “Plasmonic-organic hybrid (POH) modulators for OOK and BPSK signaling at 40 Gbit/s,” Opt. Express 23(8), 9938–9946 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Lauermann, S. Wolf, P. C. Schindler, R. Palmer, S. Koeber, D. Korn, L. Alloatti, T. Wahlbrink, J. Bolten, M. Waldow, M. Koenigsmann, M. Kohler, D. Malsam, D. L. Elder, P. V. Johnston, N. Phillips-Sylvain, P. A. Sullivan, L. R. Dalton, J. Leuthold, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “40 GBd 16QAM Signaling at 160 Gb/s in a Silicon-Organic Hybrid Modulator,” J. Lightwave Technol. 33(6), 1210–1216 (2015).
[Crossref]

N. Lindenmann, S. Dottermusch, M. L. Goedecke, T. Hoose, M. R. Billah, T. P. Onanuga, A. Hofmann, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “Connecting Silicon Photonic Circuits to Multicore Fibers by Photonic Wire Bonding,” J. Lightwave Technol. 33(4), 755–760 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. Palmer, S. Koeber, D. L. Elder, M. Woessner, W. Heni, D. Korn, M. Lauermann, W. Bogaerts, L. Dalton, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “High-Speed, Low Drive-Voltage Silicon-Organic Hybrid Modulator Based on a Binary-Chromophore Electro-Optic Material,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(16), 2726–2734 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. Alloatti, R. Palmer, S. Diebold, K. P. Pahl, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Fournier, J.-M. Fedeli, T. Zwick, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “100 GHz silicon–organic hybrid modulator,” Light Sci. Appl. 3(5), e173 (2014).
[Crossref]

R. Palmer, L. Alloatti, D. Korn, W. Heni, P. C. Schindler, J. Bolten, M. Karl, M. Waldow, T. Wahlbrink, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “Low-Loss Silicon Strip-to-Slot Mode Converters,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(1), 2200409 (2013).
[Crossref]

Gardes, F. Y.

G. T. Reed, D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, Y. Hu, J.-M. Fedeli, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “High-speed carrier-depletion silicon Mach-Zehnder optical modulators with lateral PN junctions,” Front. Phys. 2, 77 (2014).
[Crossref]

Giesecke, A. L.

Goedecke, M. L.

Goodson, T.

T. Goodson and C. H. Wang, “Dipolar Orientational Relaxation in Guest/Host Amorphous Polymer Probed by Second Harmonic Generation,” Macromolecules 26(8), 1837–1840 (1993).
[Crossref]

Gui, C.

Haffner, C.

W. Heni, Y. Kutuvantavida, C. Haffner, H. Zwickel, C. Kieninger, S. Wolf, M. Lauermann, Y. Fedoryshyn, A. F. Tillack, L. E. Johnson, D. L. Elder, B. H. Robinson, W. Freude, C. Koos, J. Leuthold, and L. R. Dalton, “Silicon–Organic and Plasmonic–Organic Hybrid Photonics,” ACS Photonics 4(7), 1576–1590 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Haffner, W. Heni, Y. Fedoryshyn, J. Niegemann, A. Melikyan, D. L. Elder, B. Baeuerle, Y. Salamin, A. Josten, U. Koch, C. Hoessbacher, F. Ducry, L. Juchli, A. Emboras, D. Hillerkuss, M. Kohl, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “All-plasmonic Mach–Zehnder modulator enabling optical high-speed communication at the microscale,” Nat. Photonics 9(8), 525–528 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Melikyan, K. Koehnle, M. Lauermann, R. Palmer, S. Koeber, S. Muehlbrandt, P. C. Schindler, D. L. Elder, S. Wolf, W. Heni, C. Haffner, Y. Fedoryshyn, D. Hillerkuss, M. Sommer, L. R. Dalton, D. Van Thourhout, W. Freude, M. Kohl, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “Plasmonic-organic hybrid (POH) modulators for OOK and BPSK signaling at 40 Gbit/s,” Opt. Express 23(8), 9938–9946 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hafner, C.

C. Haffner, W. Heni, Y. Fedoryshyn, J. Niegemann, A. Melikyan, D. L. Elder, B. Baeuerle, Y. Salamin, A. Josten, U. Koch, C. Hoessbacher, F. Ducry, L. Juchli, A. Emboras, D. Hillerkuss, M. Kohl, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “All-plasmonic Mach–Zehnder modulator enabling optical high-speed communication at the microscale,” Nat. Photonics 9(8), 525–528 (2015).
[Crossref]

Hampsch, H. L.

H. L. Hampsch, J. Yang, G. K. Wong, and J. M. Torkelson, “Dopant orientation dynamics in doped second-order nonlinear optical amorphous polymers. 1. Effects of temperature above and below Tg in corona-poled films,” Macromolecules 23(15), 3640–3647 (1990).
[Crossref]

Hartmann, W.

Heni, W.

W. Heni, Y. Kutuvantavida, C. Haffner, H. Zwickel, C. Kieninger, S. Wolf, M. Lauermann, Y. Fedoryshyn, A. F. Tillack, L. E. Johnson, D. L. Elder, B. H. Robinson, W. Freude, C. Koos, J. Leuthold, and L. R. Dalton, “Silicon–Organic and Plasmonic–Organic Hybrid Photonics,” ACS Photonics 4(7), 1576–1590 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Haffner, W. Heni, Y. Fedoryshyn, J. Niegemann, A. Melikyan, D. L. Elder, B. Baeuerle, Y. Salamin, A. Josten, U. Koch, C. Hoessbacher, F. Ducry, L. Juchli, A. Emboras, D. Hillerkuss, M. Kohl, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “All-plasmonic Mach–Zehnder modulator enabling optical high-speed communication at the microscale,” Nat. Photonics 9(8), 525–528 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Melikyan, K. Koehnle, M. Lauermann, R. Palmer, S. Koeber, S. Muehlbrandt, P. C. Schindler, D. L. Elder, S. Wolf, W. Heni, C. Haffner, Y. Fedoryshyn, D. Hillerkuss, M. Sommer, L. R. Dalton, D. Van Thourhout, W. Freude, M. Kohl, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “Plasmonic-organic hybrid (POH) modulators for OOK and BPSK signaling at 40 Gbit/s,” Opt. Express 23(8), 9938–9946 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Palmer, S. Koeber, D. L. Elder, M. Woessner, W. Heni, D. Korn, M. Lauermann, W. Bogaerts, L. Dalton, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “High-Speed, Low Drive-Voltage Silicon-Organic Hybrid Modulator Based on a Binary-Chromophore Electro-Optic Material,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(16), 2726–2734 (2014).
[Crossref]

R. Palmer, L. Alloatti, D. Korn, W. Heni, P. C. Schindler, J. Bolten, M. Karl, M. Waldow, T. Wahlbrink, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “Low-Loss Silicon Strip-to-Slot Mode Converters,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(1), 2200409 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hillerkuss, D.

Hoessbacher, C.

C. Haffner, W. Heni, Y. Fedoryshyn, J. Niegemann, A. Melikyan, D. L. Elder, B. Baeuerle, Y. Salamin, A. Josten, U. Koch, C. Hoessbacher, F. Ducry, L. Juchli, A. Emboras, D. Hillerkuss, M. Kohl, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “All-plasmonic Mach–Zehnder modulator enabling optical high-speed communication at the microscale,” Nat. Photonics 9(8), 525–528 (2015).
[Crossref]

Hofmann, A.

M. R. Billah, M. Blaicher, T. Hoose, P.-I. Dietrich, P. Marin-Palomo, N. Lindenmann, A. Nesic, A. Hofmann, U. Troppenz, M. Moehrle, S. Randel, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “Hybrid integration of silicon photonics circuits and InP lasers by photonic wire bonding,” Optica 5(7), 879–883 (2018).

N. Lindenmann, S. Dottermusch, M. L. Goedecke, T. Hoose, M. R. Billah, T. P. Onanuga, A. Hofmann, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “Connecting Silicon Photonic Circuits to Multicore Fibers by Photonic Wire Bonding,” J. Lightwave Technol. 33(4), 755–760 (2015).
[Crossref]

Hong, J.

F. Qiu, H. Miura, A. M. Spring, J. Hong, D. Maeda, M.-A. Ozawa, K. Odoi, and S. Yokoyama, “An electro-optic polymer-cladded TiO2 waveguide modulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(17), 173301 (2016).
[Crossref]

Hoose, T.

M. R. Billah, M. Blaicher, T. Hoose, P.-I. Dietrich, P. Marin-Palomo, N. Lindenmann, A. Nesic, A. Hofmann, U. Troppenz, M. Moehrle, S. Randel, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “Hybrid integration of silicon photonics circuits and InP lasers by photonic wire bonding,” Optica 5(7), 879–883 (2018).

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S. Wolf, H. Zwickel, C. Kieninger, M. Lauermann, W. Hartmann, Y. Kutuvantavida, W. Freude, S. Randel, and C. Koos, “Coherent modulation up to 100 GBd 16QAM using silicon-organic hybrid (SOH) devices,” Opt. Express 26(1), 220–232 (2018).
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C. Kieninger, Y. Kutuvantavida, D. L. Elder, S. Wolf, H. Zwickel, M. Blaicher, J. N. Kemal, M. Lauermann, S. Randel, W. Freude, L. R. Dalton, and C. Koos, “Ultra-high electro-optic activity demonstrated in a silicon-organic hybrid modulator,” Optica 5(6), 739–748 (2018).
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N. Lindenmann, S. Dottermusch, M. L. Goedecke, T. Hoose, M. R. Billah, T. P. Onanuga, A. Hofmann, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “Connecting Silicon Photonic Circuits to Multicore Fibers by Photonic Wire Bonding,” J. Lightwave Technol. 33(4), 755–760 (2015).
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R. Palmer, S. Koeber, D. L. Elder, M. Woessner, W. Heni, D. Korn, M. Lauermann, W. Bogaerts, L. Dalton, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “High-Speed, Low Drive-Voltage Silicon-Organic Hybrid Modulator Based on a Binary-Chromophore Electro-Optic Material,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(16), 2726–2734 (2014).
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D. Korn, M. Lauermann, S. Koeber, P. Appel, L. Alloatti, R. Palmer, P. Dumon, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “Lasing in silicon-organic hybrid waveguides,” Nat. Commun. 7, 10864 (2016).
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C. Koos, J. Leuthold, W. Freude, M. Kohl, L. Dalton, W. Bogaerts, A. L. Giesecke, M. Lauermann, A. Melikyan, S. Koeber, S. Wolf, C. Weimann, S. Muehlbrandt, K. Koehnle, J. Pfeifle, W. Hartmann, Y. Kutuvantavida, S. Ummethala, R. Palmer, D. Korn, L. Alloatti, P. C. Schindler, D. L. Elder, T. Wahlbrink, and J. Bolten, “Silicon-Organic Hybrid (SOH) and Plasmonic-Organic Hybrid (POH) Integration,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34(2), 256–268 (2016).
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M. Lauermann, S. Wolf, P. C. Schindler, R. Palmer, S. Koeber, D. Korn, L. Alloatti, T. Wahlbrink, J. Bolten, M. Waldow, M. Koenigsmann, M. Kohler, D. Malsam, D. L. Elder, P. V. Johnston, N. Phillips-Sylvain, P. A. Sullivan, L. R. Dalton, J. Leuthold, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “40 GBd 16QAM Signaling at 160 Gb/s in a Silicon-Organic Hybrid Modulator,” J. Lightwave Technol. 33(6), 1210–1216 (2015).
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R. Palmer, S. Koeber, D. L. Elder, M. Woessner, W. Heni, D. Korn, M. Lauermann, W. Bogaerts, L. Dalton, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “High-Speed, Low Drive-Voltage Silicon-Organic Hybrid Modulator Based on a Binary-Chromophore Electro-Optic Material,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(16), 2726–2734 (2014).
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R. Palmer, L. Alloatti, D. Korn, W. Heni, P. C. Schindler, J. Bolten, M. Karl, M. Waldow, T. Wahlbrink, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “Low-Loss Silicon Strip-to-Slot Mode Converters,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(1), 2200409 (2013).
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H. Yu, M. Pantouvaki, J. Van Campenhout, D. Korn, K. Komorowska, P. Dumon, Y. Li, P. Verheyen, P. Absil, L. Alloatti, D. Hillerkuss, J. Leuthold, R. Baets, and W. Bogaerts, “Performance tradeoff between lateral and interdigitated doping patterns for high speed carrier-depletion based silicon modulators,” Opt. Express 20(12), 12926–12938 (2012).
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Kutuvantavida, Y.

S. Wolf, H. Zwickel, W. Hartmann, M. Lauermann, Y. Kutuvantavida, C. Kieninger, L. Altenhain, R. Schmid, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, S. Randel, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “Silicon-Organic Hybrid (SOH) Mach-Zehnder Modulators for 100 Gbit/s on-off Keying,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 2598 (2018).
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C. Kieninger, Y. Kutuvantavida, D. L. Elder, S. Wolf, H. Zwickel, M. Blaicher, J. N. Kemal, M. Lauermann, S. Randel, W. Freude, L. R. Dalton, and C. Koos, “Ultra-high electro-optic activity demonstrated in a silicon-organic hybrid modulator,” Optica 5(6), 739–748 (2018).
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S. Wolf, H. Zwickel, C. Kieninger, M. Lauermann, W. Hartmann, Y. Kutuvantavida, W. Freude, S. Randel, and C. Koos, “Coherent modulation up to 100 GBd 16QAM using silicon-organic hybrid (SOH) devices,” Opt. Express 26(1), 220–232 (2018).
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W. Heni, Y. Kutuvantavida, C. Haffner, H. Zwickel, C. Kieninger, S. Wolf, M. Lauermann, Y. Fedoryshyn, A. F. Tillack, L. E. Johnson, D. L. Elder, B. H. Robinson, W. Freude, C. Koos, J. Leuthold, and L. R. Dalton, “Silicon–Organic and Plasmonic–Organic Hybrid Photonics,” ACS Photonics 4(7), 1576–1590 (2017).
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H. Zwickel, S. Wolf, C. Kieninger, Y. Kutuvantavida, M. Lauermann, T. de Keulenaer, A. Vyncke, R. Vaernewyck, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, W. Freude, J. Bauwelinck, S. Randel, and C. Koos, “Silicon-organic hybrid (SOH) modulators for intensity-modulation / direct-detection links with line rates of up to 120 Gbit/s,” Opt. Express 25(20), 23784–23800 (2017).
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C. Koos, J. Leuthold, W. Freude, M. Kohl, L. Dalton, W. Bogaerts, A. L. Giesecke, M. Lauermann, A. Melikyan, S. Koeber, S. Wolf, C. Weimann, S. Muehlbrandt, K. Koehnle, J. Pfeifle, W. Hartmann, Y. Kutuvantavida, S. Ummethala, R. Palmer, D. Korn, L. Alloatti, P. C. Schindler, D. L. Elder, T. Wahlbrink, and J. Bolten, “Silicon-Organic Hybrid (SOH) and Plasmonic-Organic Hybrid (POH) Integration,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34(2), 256–268 (2016).
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Lauermann, M.

S. Wolf, H. Zwickel, W. Hartmann, M. Lauermann, Y. Kutuvantavida, C. Kieninger, L. Altenhain, R. Schmid, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, S. Randel, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “Silicon-Organic Hybrid (SOH) Mach-Zehnder Modulators for 100 Gbit/s on-off Keying,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 2598 (2018).
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C. Kieninger, Y. Kutuvantavida, D. L. Elder, S. Wolf, H. Zwickel, M. Blaicher, J. N. Kemal, M. Lauermann, S. Randel, W. Freude, L. R. Dalton, and C. Koos, “Ultra-high electro-optic activity demonstrated in a silicon-organic hybrid modulator,” Optica 5(6), 739–748 (2018).
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S. Wolf, H. Zwickel, C. Kieninger, M. Lauermann, W. Hartmann, Y. Kutuvantavida, W. Freude, S. Randel, and C. Koos, “Coherent modulation up to 100 GBd 16QAM using silicon-organic hybrid (SOH) devices,” Opt. Express 26(1), 220–232 (2018).
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W. Heni, Y. Kutuvantavida, C. Haffner, H. Zwickel, C. Kieninger, S. Wolf, M. Lauermann, Y. Fedoryshyn, A. F. Tillack, L. E. Johnson, D. L. Elder, B. H. Robinson, W. Freude, C. Koos, J. Leuthold, and L. R. Dalton, “Silicon–Organic and Plasmonic–Organic Hybrid Photonics,” ACS Photonics 4(7), 1576–1590 (2017).
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H. Zwickel, S. Wolf, C. Kieninger, Y. Kutuvantavida, M. Lauermann, T. de Keulenaer, A. Vyncke, R. Vaernewyck, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, W. Freude, J. Bauwelinck, S. Randel, and C. Koos, “Silicon-organic hybrid (SOH) modulators for intensity-modulation / direct-detection links with line rates of up to 120 Gbit/s,” Opt. Express 25(20), 23784–23800 (2017).
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C. Koos, J. Leuthold, W. Freude, M. Kohl, L. Dalton, W. Bogaerts, A. L. Giesecke, M. Lauermann, A. Melikyan, S. Koeber, S. Wolf, C. Weimann, S. Muehlbrandt, K. Koehnle, J. Pfeifle, W. Hartmann, Y. Kutuvantavida, S. Ummethala, R. Palmer, D. Korn, L. Alloatti, P. C. Schindler, D. L. Elder, T. Wahlbrink, and J. Bolten, “Silicon-Organic Hybrid (SOH) and Plasmonic-Organic Hybrid (POH) Integration,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34(2), 256–268 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. Korn, M. Lauermann, S. Koeber, P. Appel, L. Alloatti, R. Palmer, P. Dumon, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “Lasing in silicon-organic hybrid waveguides,” Nat. Commun. 7, 10864 (2016).
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A. Melikyan, K. Koehnle, M. Lauermann, R. Palmer, S. Koeber, S. Muehlbrandt, P. C. Schindler, D. L. Elder, S. Wolf, W. Heni, C. Haffner, Y. Fedoryshyn, D. Hillerkuss, M. Sommer, L. R. Dalton, D. Van Thourhout, W. Freude, M. Kohl, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “Plasmonic-organic hybrid (POH) modulators for OOK and BPSK signaling at 40 Gbit/s,” Opt. Express 23(8), 9938–9946 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Lauermann, S. Wolf, P. C. Schindler, R. Palmer, S. Koeber, D. Korn, L. Alloatti, T. Wahlbrink, J. Bolten, M. Waldow, M. Koenigsmann, M. Kohler, D. Malsam, D. L. Elder, P. V. Johnston, N. Phillips-Sylvain, P. A. Sullivan, L. R. Dalton, J. Leuthold, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “40 GBd 16QAM Signaling at 160 Gb/s in a Silicon-Organic Hybrid Modulator,” J. Lightwave Technol. 33(6), 1210–1216 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. Palmer, S. Koeber, D. L. Elder, M. Woessner, W. Heni, D. Korn, M. Lauermann, W. Bogaerts, L. Dalton, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “High-Speed, Low Drive-Voltage Silicon-Organic Hybrid Modulator Based on a Binary-Chromophore Electro-Optic Material,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(16), 2726–2734 (2014).
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W. Heni, Y. Kutuvantavida, C. Haffner, H. Zwickel, C. Kieninger, S. Wolf, M. Lauermann, Y. Fedoryshyn, A. F. Tillack, L. E. Johnson, D. L. Elder, B. H. Robinson, W. Freude, C. Koos, J. Leuthold, and L. R. Dalton, “Silicon–Organic and Plasmonic–Organic Hybrid Photonics,” ACS Photonics 4(7), 1576–1590 (2017).
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D. Korn, M. Lauermann, S. Koeber, P. Appel, L. Alloatti, R. Palmer, P. Dumon, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “Lasing in silicon-organic hybrid waveguides,” Nat. Commun. 7, 10864 (2016).
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C. Koos, J. Leuthold, W. Freude, M. Kohl, L. Dalton, W. Bogaerts, A. L. Giesecke, M. Lauermann, A. Melikyan, S. Koeber, S. Wolf, C. Weimann, S. Muehlbrandt, K. Koehnle, J. Pfeifle, W. Hartmann, Y. Kutuvantavida, S. Ummethala, R. Palmer, D. Korn, L. Alloatti, P. C. Schindler, D. L. Elder, T. Wahlbrink, and J. Bolten, “Silicon-Organic Hybrid (SOH) and Plasmonic-Organic Hybrid (POH) Integration,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34(2), 256–268 (2016).
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A. Melikyan, K. Koehnle, M. Lauermann, R. Palmer, S. Koeber, S. Muehlbrandt, P. C. Schindler, D. L. Elder, S. Wolf, W. Heni, C. Haffner, Y. Fedoryshyn, D. Hillerkuss, M. Sommer, L. R. Dalton, D. Van Thourhout, W. Freude, M. Kohl, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “Plasmonic-organic hybrid (POH) modulators for OOK and BPSK signaling at 40 Gbit/s,” Opt. Express 23(8), 9938–9946 (2015).
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M. Lauermann, S. Wolf, P. C. Schindler, R. Palmer, S. Koeber, D. Korn, L. Alloatti, T. Wahlbrink, J. Bolten, M. Waldow, M. Koenigsmann, M. Kohler, D. Malsam, D. L. Elder, P. V. Johnston, N. Phillips-Sylvain, P. A. Sullivan, L. R. Dalton, J. Leuthold, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “40 GBd 16QAM Signaling at 160 Gb/s in a Silicon-Organic Hybrid Modulator,” J. Lightwave Technol. 33(6), 1210–1216 (2015).
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C. Haffner, W. Heni, Y. Fedoryshyn, J. Niegemann, A. Melikyan, D. L. Elder, B. Baeuerle, Y. Salamin, A. Josten, U. Koch, C. Hoessbacher, F. Ducry, L. Juchli, A. Emboras, D. Hillerkuss, M. Kohl, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “All-plasmonic Mach–Zehnder modulator enabling optical high-speed communication at the microscale,” Nat. Photonics 9(8), 525–528 (2015).
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L. Alloatti, R. Palmer, S. Diebold, K. P. Pahl, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Fournier, J.-M. Fedeli, T. Zwick, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “100 GHz silicon–organic hybrid modulator,” Light Sci. Appl. 3(5), e173 (2014).
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R. Palmer, S. Koeber, D. L. Elder, M. Woessner, W. Heni, D. Korn, M. Lauermann, W. Bogaerts, L. Dalton, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “High-Speed, Low Drive-Voltage Silicon-Organic Hybrid Modulator Based on a Binary-Chromophore Electro-Optic Material,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(16), 2726–2734 (2014).
[Crossref]

R. Palmer, L. Alloatti, D. Korn, W. Heni, P. C. Schindler, J. Bolten, M. Karl, M. Waldow, T. Wahlbrink, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “Low-Loss Silicon Strip-to-Slot Mode Converters,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(1), 2200409 (2013).
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Li, Y.

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M. R. Billah, M. Blaicher, T. Hoose, P.-I. Dietrich, P. Marin-Palomo, N. Lindenmann, A. Nesic, A. Hofmann, U. Troppenz, M. Moehrle, S. Randel, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “Hybrid integration of silicon photonics circuits and InP lasers by photonic wire bonding,” Optica 5(7), 879–883 (2018).

N. Lindenmann, S. Dottermusch, M. L. Goedecke, T. Hoose, M. R. Billah, T. P. Onanuga, A. Hofmann, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “Connecting Silicon Photonic Circuits to Multicore Fibers by Photonic Wire Bonding,” J. Lightwave Technol. 33(4), 755–760 (2015).
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H. Zwickel, S. Wolf, C. Kieninger, Y. Kutuvantavida, M. Lauermann, T. de Keulenaer, A. Vyncke, R. Vaernewyck, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, W. Freude, J. Bauwelinck, S. Randel, and C. Koos, “Silicon-organic hybrid (SOH) modulators for intensity-modulation / direct-detection links with line rates of up to 120 Gbit/s,” Opt. Express 25(20), 23784–23800 (2017).
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Y. Kuo, J. Luo, W. H. Steier, L. Fellow, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Enhanced Thermal Stability of Electrooptic Polymer Modulators Using the Diels–Alder Crosslinkable Polymer,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18(1), 175–177 (2006).
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F. Qiu, H. Miura, A. M. Spring, J. Hong, D. Maeda, M.-A. Ozawa, K. Odoi, and S. Yokoyama, “An electro-optic polymer-cladded TiO2 waveguide modulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(17), 173301 (2016).
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Marin-Palomo, P.

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G. T. Reed, D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, Y. Hu, J.-M. Fedeli, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “High-speed carrier-depletion silicon Mach-Zehnder optical modulators with lateral PN junctions,” Front. Phys. 2, 77 (2014).
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Miller, E.

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O. Min-Cheol, H. Zhang, C. Zhang, H. Erlig, Y. Chang, B. Tsap, D. Chang, A. Szep, W. H. Steier, H. R. Fetterman, and L. R. Dalton, “Recent advances in electrooptic polymer modulators incorporating highly nonlinear chromophore,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7(5), 826–835 (2001).
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M. R. Billah, M. Blaicher, T. Hoose, P.-I. Dietrich, P. Marin-Palomo, N. Lindenmann, A. Nesic, A. Hofmann, U. Troppenz, M. Moehrle, S. Randel, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “Hybrid integration of silicon photonics circuits and InP lasers by photonic wire bonding,” Optica 5(7), 879–883 (2018).

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Muehlbrandt, S.

Nawata, H.

Nesic, A.

M. R. Billah, M. Blaicher, T. Hoose, P.-I. Dietrich, P. Marin-Palomo, N. Lindenmann, A. Nesic, A. Hofmann, U. Troppenz, M. Moehrle, S. Randel, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “Hybrid integration of silicon photonics circuits and InP lasers by photonic wire bonding,” Optica 5(7), 879–883 (2018).

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C. Haffner, W. Heni, Y. Fedoryshyn, J. Niegemann, A. Melikyan, D. L. Elder, B. Baeuerle, Y. Salamin, A. Josten, U. Koch, C. Hoessbacher, F. Ducry, L. Juchli, A. Emboras, D. Hillerkuss, M. Kohl, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “All-plasmonic Mach–Zehnder modulator enabling optical high-speed communication at the microscale,” Nat. Photonics 9(8), 525–528 (2015).
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Onanuga, T. P.

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F. Qiu, H. Miura, A. M. Spring, J. Hong, D. Maeda, M.-A. Ozawa, K. Odoi, and S. Yokoyama, “An electro-optic polymer-cladded TiO2 waveguide modulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(17), 173301 (2016).
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Palmer, R.

D. Korn, M. Lauermann, S. Koeber, P. Appel, L. Alloatti, R. Palmer, P. Dumon, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “Lasing in silicon-organic hybrid waveguides,” Nat. Commun. 7, 10864 (2016).
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A. Melikyan, K. Koehnle, M. Lauermann, R. Palmer, S. Koeber, S. Muehlbrandt, P. C. Schindler, D. L. Elder, S. Wolf, W. Heni, C. Haffner, Y. Fedoryshyn, D. Hillerkuss, M. Sommer, L. R. Dalton, D. Van Thourhout, W. Freude, M. Kohl, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “Plasmonic-organic hybrid (POH) modulators for OOK and BPSK signaling at 40 Gbit/s,” Opt. Express 23(8), 9938–9946 (2015).
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M. Lauermann, S. Wolf, P. C. Schindler, R. Palmer, S. Koeber, D. Korn, L. Alloatti, T. Wahlbrink, J. Bolten, M. Waldow, M. Koenigsmann, M. Kohler, D. Malsam, D. L. Elder, P. V. Johnston, N. Phillips-Sylvain, P. A. Sullivan, L. R. Dalton, J. Leuthold, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “40 GBd 16QAM Signaling at 160 Gb/s in a Silicon-Organic Hybrid Modulator,” J. Lightwave Technol. 33(6), 1210–1216 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. Palmer, S. Koeber, D. L. Elder, M. Woessner, W. Heni, D. Korn, M. Lauermann, W. Bogaerts, L. Dalton, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “High-Speed, Low Drive-Voltage Silicon-Organic Hybrid Modulator Based on a Binary-Chromophore Electro-Optic Material,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(16), 2726–2734 (2014).
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L. Alloatti, R. Palmer, S. Diebold, K. P. Pahl, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Fournier, J.-M. Fedeli, T. Zwick, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “100 GHz silicon–organic hybrid modulator,” Light Sci. Appl. 3(5), e173 (2014).
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R. Palmer, L. Alloatti, D. Korn, W. Heni, P. C. Schindler, J. Bolten, M. Karl, M. Waldow, T. Wahlbrink, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “Low-Loss Silicon Strip-to-Slot Mode Converters,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(1), 2200409 (2013).
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S. Wolf, H. Zwickel, W. Hartmann, M. Lauermann, Y. Kutuvantavida, C. Kieninger, L. Altenhain, R. Schmid, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, S. Randel, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “Silicon-Organic Hybrid (SOH) Mach-Zehnder Modulators for 100 Gbit/s on-off Keying,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 2598 (2018).
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C. Kieninger, Y. Kutuvantavida, D. L. Elder, S. Wolf, H. Zwickel, M. Blaicher, J. N. Kemal, M. Lauermann, S. Randel, W. Freude, L. R. Dalton, and C. Koos, “Ultra-high electro-optic activity demonstrated in a silicon-organic hybrid modulator,” Optica 5(6), 739–748 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. Wolf, H. Zwickel, C. Kieninger, M. Lauermann, W. Hartmann, Y. Kutuvantavida, W. Freude, S. Randel, and C. Koos, “Coherent modulation up to 100 GBd 16QAM using silicon-organic hybrid (SOH) devices,” Opt. Express 26(1), 220–232 (2018).
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G. T. Reed, D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, Y. Hu, J.-M. Fedeli, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “High-speed carrier-depletion silicon Mach-Zehnder optical modulators with lateral PN junctions,” Front. Phys. 2, 77 (2014).
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C. Haffner, W. Heni, Y. Fedoryshyn, J. Niegemann, A. Melikyan, D. L. Elder, B. Baeuerle, Y. Salamin, A. Josten, U. Koch, C. Hoessbacher, F. Ducry, L. Juchli, A. Emboras, D. Hillerkuss, M. Kohl, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “All-plasmonic Mach–Zehnder modulator enabling optical high-speed communication at the microscale,” Nat. Photonics 9(8), 525–528 (2015).
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M. Lauermann, S. Wolf, P. C. Schindler, R. Palmer, S. Koeber, D. Korn, L. Alloatti, T. Wahlbrink, J. Bolten, M. Waldow, M. Koenigsmann, M. Kohler, D. Malsam, D. L. Elder, P. V. Johnston, N. Phillips-Sylvain, P. A. Sullivan, L. R. Dalton, J. Leuthold, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “40 GBd 16QAM Signaling at 160 Gb/s in a Silicon-Organic Hybrid Modulator,” J. Lightwave Technol. 33(6), 1210–1216 (2015).
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R. Palmer, L. Alloatti, D. Korn, W. Heni, P. C. Schindler, J. Bolten, M. Karl, M. Waldow, T. Wahlbrink, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “Low-Loss Silicon Strip-to-Slot Mode Converters,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(1), 2200409 (2013).
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S. Wolf, H. Zwickel, W. Hartmann, M. Lauermann, Y. Kutuvantavida, C. Kieninger, L. Altenhain, R. Schmid, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, S. Randel, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “Silicon-Organic Hybrid (SOH) Mach-Zehnder Modulators for 100 Gbit/s on-off Keying,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 2598 (2018).
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G. T. Reed, D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, Y. Hu, J.-M. Fedeli, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “High-speed carrier-depletion silicon Mach-Zehnder optical modulators with lateral PN junctions,” Front. Phys. 2, 77 (2014).
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M. R. Billah, M. Blaicher, T. Hoose, P.-I. Dietrich, P. Marin-Palomo, N. Lindenmann, A. Nesic, A. Hofmann, U. Troppenz, M. Moehrle, S. Randel, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “Hybrid integration of silicon photonics circuits and InP lasers by photonic wire bonding,” Optica 5(7), 879–883 (2018).

Tsap, B.

O. Min-Cheol, H. Zhang, C. Zhang, H. Erlig, Y. Chang, B. Tsap, D. Chang, A. Szep, W. H. Steier, H. R. Fetterman, and L. R. Dalton, “Recent advances in electrooptic polymer modulators incorporating highly nonlinear chromophore,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7(5), 826–835 (2001).
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S. Wolf, H. Zwickel, C. Kieninger, M. Lauermann, W. Hartmann, Y. Kutuvantavida, W. Freude, S. Randel, and C. Koos, “Coherent modulation up to 100 GBd 16QAM using silicon-organic hybrid (SOH) devices,” Opt. Express 26(1), 220–232 (2018).
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C. Kieninger, Y. Kutuvantavida, D. L. Elder, S. Wolf, H. Zwickel, M. Blaicher, J. N. Kemal, M. Lauermann, S. Randel, W. Freude, L. R. Dalton, and C. Koos, “Ultra-high electro-optic activity demonstrated in a silicon-organic hybrid modulator,” Optica 5(6), 739–748 (2018).
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W. Heni, Y. Kutuvantavida, C. Haffner, H. Zwickel, C. Kieninger, S. Wolf, M. Lauermann, Y. Fedoryshyn, A. F. Tillack, L. E. Johnson, D. L. Elder, B. H. Robinson, W. Freude, C. Koos, J. Leuthold, and L. R. Dalton, “Silicon–Organic and Plasmonic–Organic Hybrid Photonics,” ACS Photonics 4(7), 1576–1590 (2017).
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[Crossref]

A. Melikyan, K. Koehnle, M. Lauermann, R. Palmer, S. Koeber, S. Muehlbrandt, P. C. Schindler, D. L. Elder, S. Wolf, W. Heni, C. Haffner, Y. Fedoryshyn, D. Hillerkuss, M. Sommer, L. R. Dalton, D. Van Thourhout, W. Freude, M. Kohl, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “Plasmonic-organic hybrid (POH) modulators for OOK and BPSK signaling at 40 Gbit/s,” Opt. Express 23(8), 9938–9946 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Lauermann, S. Wolf, P. C. Schindler, R. Palmer, S. Koeber, D. Korn, L. Alloatti, T. Wahlbrink, J. Bolten, M. Waldow, M. Koenigsmann, M. Kohler, D. Malsam, D. L. Elder, P. V. Johnston, N. Phillips-Sylvain, P. A. Sullivan, L. R. Dalton, J. Leuthold, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “40 GBd 16QAM Signaling at 160 Gb/s in a Silicon-Organic Hybrid Modulator,” J. Lightwave Technol. 33(6), 1210–1216 (2015).
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H. L. Hampsch, J. Yang, G. K. Wong, and J. M. Torkelson, “Dopant orientation dynamics in doped second-order nonlinear optical amorphous polymers. 1. Effects of temperature above and below Tg in corona-poled films,” Macromolecules 23(15), 3640–3647 (1990).
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Zwickel, H.

S. Wolf, H. Zwickel, W. Hartmann, M. Lauermann, Y. Kutuvantavida, C. Kieninger, L. Altenhain, R. Schmid, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, S. Randel, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “Silicon-Organic Hybrid (SOH) Mach-Zehnder Modulators for 100 Gbit/s on-off Keying,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 2598 (2018).
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S. Wolf, H. Zwickel, C. Kieninger, M. Lauermann, W. Hartmann, Y. Kutuvantavida, W. Freude, S. Randel, and C. Koos, “Coherent modulation up to 100 GBd 16QAM using silicon-organic hybrid (SOH) devices,” Opt. Express 26(1), 220–232 (2018).
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[Crossref] [PubMed]

ACS Photonics (1)

W. Heni, Y. Kutuvantavida, C. Haffner, H. Zwickel, C. Kieninger, S. Wolf, M. Lauermann, Y. Fedoryshyn, A. F. Tillack, L. E. Johnson, D. L. Elder, B. H. Robinson, W. Freude, C. Koos, J. Leuthold, and L. R. Dalton, “Silicon–Organic and Plasmonic–Organic Hybrid Photonics,” ACS Photonics 4(7), 1576–1590 (2017).
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[Crossref]

R. Palmer, S. Koeber, D. L. Elder, M. Woessner, W. Heni, D. Korn, M. Lauermann, W. Bogaerts, L. Dalton, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “High-Speed, Low Drive-Voltage Silicon-Organic Hybrid Modulator Based on a Binary-Chromophore Electro-Optic Material,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(16), 2726–2734 (2014).
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M. Lauermann, S. Wolf, P. C. Schindler, R. Palmer, S. Koeber, D. Korn, L. Alloatti, T. Wahlbrink, J. Bolten, M. Waldow, M. Koenigsmann, M. Kohler, D. Malsam, D. L. Elder, P. V. Johnston, N. Phillips-Sylvain, P. A. Sullivan, L. R. Dalton, J. Leuthold, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “40 GBd 16QAM Signaling at 160 Gb/s in a Silicon-Organic Hybrid Modulator,” J. Lightwave Technol. 33(6), 1210–1216 (2015).
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[Crossref]

Macromolecules (3)

A. Dhinojwala, G. K. Wongj, and M. Torkelson, “Rotational Reorientation Dynamics of Nonlinear Optical Chromophores in Rubbery and Glassy Polymers: a-Relaxation Dynamics Probed by Second Harmonic Generation and Dielectric Relaxation,” Macromolecules 26(22), 5943–5953 (1993).
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T. Goodson and C. H. Wang, “Dipolar Orientational Relaxation in Guest/Host Amorphous Polymer Probed by Second Harmonic Generation,” Macromolecules 26(8), 1837–1840 (1993).
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H. L. Hampsch, J. Yang, G. K. Wong, and J. M. Torkelson, “Dopant orientation dynamics in doped second-order nonlinear optical amorphous polymers. 1. Effects of temperature above and below Tg in corona-poled films,” Macromolecules 23(15), 3640–3647 (1990).
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Mater. Today (1)

G. T. Reed and C. E. Jason Png, “Silicon optical modulators,” Mater. Today 8(1), 40–50 (2005).
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Nat. Commun. (1)

D. Korn, M. Lauermann, S. Koeber, P. Appel, L. Alloatti, R. Palmer, P. Dumon, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “Lasing in silicon-organic hybrid waveguides,” Nat. Commun. 7, 10864 (2016).
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Nat. Photonics (1)

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S. Wolf, H. Zwickel, C. Kieninger, M. Lauermann, W. Hartmann, Y. Kutuvantavida, W. Freude, S. Randel, and C. Koos, “Coherent modulation up to 100 GBd 16QAM using silicon-organic hybrid (SOH) devices,” Opt. Express 26(1), 220–232 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Sato, H. Miura, F. Qiu, A. M. Spring, T. Kashino, T. Kikuchi, M. Ozawa, H. Nawata, K. Odoi, and S. Yokoyama, “Low driving voltage Mach-Zehnder interference modulator constructed from an electro-optic polymer on ultra-thin silicon with a broadband operation,” Opt. Express 25(2), 768–775 (2017).
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H. Yu, M. Pantouvaki, J. Van Campenhout, D. Korn, K. Komorowska, P. Dumon, Y. Li, P. Verheyen, P. Absil, L. Alloatti, D. Hillerkuss, J. Leuthold, R. Baets, and W. Bogaerts, “Performance tradeoff between lateral and interdigitated doping patterns for high speed carrier-depletion based silicon modulators,” Opt. Express 20(12), 12926–12938 (2012).
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[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Zwickel, S. Wolf, C. Kieninger, Y. Kutuvantavida, M. Lauermann, T. de Keulenaer, A. Vyncke, R. Vaernewyck, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, W. Freude, J. Bauwelinck, S. Randel, and C. Koos, “Silicon-organic hybrid (SOH) modulators for intensity-modulation / direct-detection links with line rates of up to 120 Gbit/s,” Opt. Express 25(20), 23784–23800 (2017).
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Sci. Rep. (1)

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Silicon-organic hybrid (SOH) device concept. (a) Top view of an SOH Mach-Zehnder modulator (MZM). The MZM features a ground-signal-ground (GSG) transmission line and two multi-mode interference (MMI) couplers for splitting and recombining the light in the two MZM arms. (b) Perspective view of an SOH MZM. Each MZM arm comprises a silicon (Si) slot waveguide consisting of two closely spaced Si rails that form a slot which is filled by the EO material. Electrical vias and thin n-doped Si slabs connect the GSG transmission line to the optical waveguide. Both the optical mode (red/yellow shading) and the radio frequency (RF) mode are highly localized in the slot region, which leads to efficient EO modulation. In order to establish macroscopic EO activity, the chip is heated to the glass transition temperature (Tg) of the OEO material, and a poling voltage Upol is applied across the ground electrodes. The corresponding poling fields (green arrows) induce an average acentric orientation of the dipolar EO molecules. This orientation is conserved by cooling the device and removing the poling field only when room temperature is reached. An applied signal voltage Ud induces electric fields (blue arrows) which are parallel (antiparallel) to the poling direction in the left (right) arm of the MZM, enabling push-pull operation.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 EO material characterization. (a) Molecular structure of the EO polymer. The polymer chain consists of a random concatenation of many methyl-methacrylate-(MMA-)based units, marked by square brackets [unit]l,m,n. The first unit contains a bulky adamantyl side group (magenta), which increases Tg of the polymer, while the second unit is an MMA unit without a side group. The third unit contains a phenyl vinylene thiophene chromophore side group (blue), which induces the EO activity and which is connected to the MMA backbone via a linker group (red). The fourth unit contains only the linker side group and corresponds to unintentionally unoccupied chromophore binding sites. The relative proportions of the four types of units (adamantyl, without, chromophore, linker) amount to l = 0.4, l = 0.4, m, n, respectively, with m + n = 0.2 and m >> n. With this composition, Tg amounts to 172 °C, measured by differential scanning calorimetry. (b) Experimental setup for static π-voltage measurement. Light of an external-cavity laser (ECL) is coupled to and out of the modulator by grating couplers (GC). A triangular waveform from a function generator (FG) is fed to the GSG transmission line. The modulated light is detected by a photodiode (PD). The signals of the PD and the FG are monitored by an oscilloscope. (c) Modulated optical power (red line, left axis) and triangular drive voltage (blue line, right axis) as a function of time. The device is operated at its 3 dB point. The voltage increment required for a transition from maximum to minimum transmission corresponds to the π-voltage Uπ. (d) Long-term thermal stability testing of four SOH modulators at 85 °C according to Telcordia protocols GR-468-CORE (Section 3.3.2.1) for high-temperature storage. We depict the normalized π-voltage as a function of time. In all experiments, the π-voltage reaches a constant long-term stable level after an initial increase. When allowing for a burn-in time of tb ≈ 300 h, the π-voltage of the devices increases on average by less than 15% for an additional high-temperature storage period of at least 2400 h, i.e., Uπ(tb + 2400 h) < 1.15Uπ(tb). Tx1 and Tx2 indicate devices that are used for data transmission experiments to prove that high-temperature storage does not impair the high-speed functionality of the devices, see Section 4. Device 1 … 4 were simultaneously tested in a first storage run, whereas Device 5 (Tx1), indicated by a green cross, was measured during a second run and removed from the oven shortly after the burn-in time tb to serve as a benchmark to Device 2 (Tx2) in the transmission experiments.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Data transmission experiment. (a) Experimental setup. The electrical 40 Gbit/s signal is obtained from an arbitrary-waveform generator (AWG). The drive signal is amplified and coupled to the chip by a microwave probe. A 50 Ω termination avoids back-reflection of the RF signal. An external-cavity laser (ECL) provides the optical carrier, which is coupled to and from the chip via grating couplers (GC). The modulated light is amplified in an erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA), filtered by a bandpass filter (BP), and detected by a high-speed photodiode (PD) connected to a real-time oscilloscope. An adaptive digital filter at the receiver flattens the end-to-end frequency response of the system. (b) Measured 40 Gbit/s eye diagrams for Device 5 (left) after 330 h high-temperature storage and Device 2 (right) after 2700 h, see data points labeled as Tx1 and Tx2, respectively, in Fig. 2(d). For a similar signal quality, the drive voltage for Device 2 needs to be increased by approximately 10%. This increase corresponds to the 10% higher π-voltage of Device 2 at 2700 h of high-temperature storage as compared to Device 5 at 330 h.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Summary of measurement and fitting results for thermal relaxation in SOH modulators

Equations (1)

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U π (t) U π (0) = 1 a+b e t/τ .

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