Abstract

At least two lenses are required in imaging systems to adjust focus and magnification and to match the acceptance properties of the image sensor. Here, we demonstrate the tandem use of two millimeter-scale planar diffractive lenses for video and still imaging over the full visible spectrum. First we designed, fabricated, and characterized individual lenses with focal length of 25mm and NA = 0.05. Then, we assembled the lenses with a conventional color CMOS image sensor to demonstrate imaging. Illumination conditions as varied as ambient sunlight, halogen lamp and LED lamps are used. Due to the ease of fabrication of diffractive lenses compared to metalenses, this demonstration will enable future generations of low-cost, lightweight, broadband cameras.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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  1. W. T. Chen, A. Y. Zhu, V. Sanjeev, M. Khorasaninejad, Z. Shi, E. Lee, and F. Capasso, “A broadband achromatic metalens for focusing and imaging in the visible,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 13(3), 220–226 (2018).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. A. Arbabi, E. Arbabi, S. M. Kamali, Y. Horie, S. Han, and A. Faraon, “Miniature optical planar camera based on a wide-angle metasurface doublet corrected for monochromatic aberrations,” Nat. Commun. 7, 13682 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. M. Khorasaninejad, W. T. Chen, R. C. Devlin, J. Oh, A. Y. Zhu, and F. Capasso, “Metalenses at visible wavelengths: Diffraction-limited focusing and subwavelength resolution imaging,” Science 352(6290), 1190–1194 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. F. Aieta, M. A. Kats, P. Genevet, and F. Capasso, “Multiwavelength achromatic metasurfaces by dispersive phase compensation,” Science 347(6228), 1342–1345 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. N. Mohammad, M. Meem, B. Shen, P. Wang, and R. Menon, “Broadband imaging with one planar diffractive lens,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 2799 (2018).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. P. Wang, N. Mohammad, and R. Menon, “Chromatic-aberration-corrected diffractive lenses for ultra-broadband focusing,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 21545 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. A. She, S. Zhang, S. Shian, D. R. Clarke, and F. Capasso, “Large area metalenses: design, characterization, and mass manufacturing,” Opt. Express 26(2), 1573–1585 (2018).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. M. Jiang, S. Lin, W. Jiang, and N. Pan, “Hot embossing holographic images in BOPP shrink films through large-area roll-to-roll nanoimprint lithography,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 311, 101–106 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  9. D. Reshidko and J. Sasian, “Current trends in miniature camera lens technology,” SPIE Newsroom19, (2016), doi:.
    [Crossref]
  10. G. Kim, J. A. Domínguez-Caballero, and R. Menon, “Design and analysis of multi-wavelength diffractive optics,” Opt. Express 20(3), 2814–2823 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2018 (3)

W. T. Chen, A. Y. Zhu, V. Sanjeev, M. Khorasaninejad, Z. Shi, E. Lee, and F. Capasso, “A broadband achromatic metalens for focusing and imaging in the visible,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 13(3), 220–226 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Mohammad, M. Meem, B. Shen, P. Wang, and R. Menon, “Broadband imaging with one planar diffractive lens,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 2799 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. She, S. Zhang, S. Shian, D. R. Clarke, and F. Capasso, “Large area metalenses: design, characterization, and mass manufacturing,” Opt. Express 26(2), 1573–1585 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (3)

P. Wang, N. Mohammad, and R. Menon, “Chromatic-aberration-corrected diffractive lenses for ultra-broadband focusing,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 21545 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Arbabi, E. Arbabi, S. M. Kamali, Y. Horie, S. Han, and A. Faraon, “Miniature optical planar camera based on a wide-angle metasurface doublet corrected for monochromatic aberrations,” Nat. Commun. 7, 13682 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Khorasaninejad, W. T. Chen, R. C. Devlin, J. Oh, A. Y. Zhu, and F. Capasso, “Metalenses at visible wavelengths: Diffraction-limited focusing and subwavelength resolution imaging,” Science 352(6290), 1190–1194 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (1)

F. Aieta, M. A. Kats, P. Genevet, and F. Capasso, “Multiwavelength achromatic metasurfaces by dispersive phase compensation,” Science 347(6228), 1342–1345 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (1)

M. Jiang, S. Lin, W. Jiang, and N. Pan, “Hot embossing holographic images in BOPP shrink films through large-area roll-to-roll nanoimprint lithography,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 311, 101–106 (2014).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

Aieta, F.

F. Aieta, M. A. Kats, P. Genevet, and F. Capasso, “Multiwavelength achromatic metasurfaces by dispersive phase compensation,” Science 347(6228), 1342–1345 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Arbabi, A.

A. Arbabi, E. Arbabi, S. M. Kamali, Y. Horie, S. Han, and A. Faraon, “Miniature optical planar camera based on a wide-angle metasurface doublet corrected for monochromatic aberrations,” Nat. Commun. 7, 13682 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Arbabi, E.

A. Arbabi, E. Arbabi, S. M. Kamali, Y. Horie, S. Han, and A. Faraon, “Miniature optical planar camera based on a wide-angle metasurface doublet corrected for monochromatic aberrations,” Nat. Commun. 7, 13682 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Capasso, F.

W. T. Chen, A. Y. Zhu, V. Sanjeev, M. Khorasaninejad, Z. Shi, E. Lee, and F. Capasso, “A broadband achromatic metalens for focusing and imaging in the visible,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 13(3), 220–226 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. She, S. Zhang, S. Shian, D. R. Clarke, and F. Capasso, “Large area metalenses: design, characterization, and mass manufacturing,” Opt. Express 26(2), 1573–1585 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Khorasaninejad, W. T. Chen, R. C. Devlin, J. Oh, A. Y. Zhu, and F. Capasso, “Metalenses at visible wavelengths: Diffraction-limited focusing and subwavelength resolution imaging,” Science 352(6290), 1190–1194 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Aieta, M. A. Kats, P. Genevet, and F. Capasso, “Multiwavelength achromatic metasurfaces by dispersive phase compensation,” Science 347(6228), 1342–1345 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, W. T.

W. T. Chen, A. Y. Zhu, V. Sanjeev, M. Khorasaninejad, Z. Shi, E. Lee, and F. Capasso, “A broadband achromatic metalens for focusing and imaging in the visible,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 13(3), 220–226 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Khorasaninejad, W. T. Chen, R. C. Devlin, J. Oh, A. Y. Zhu, and F. Capasso, “Metalenses at visible wavelengths: Diffraction-limited focusing and subwavelength resolution imaging,” Science 352(6290), 1190–1194 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Clarke, D. R.

Devlin, R. C.

M. Khorasaninejad, W. T. Chen, R. C. Devlin, J. Oh, A. Y. Zhu, and F. Capasso, “Metalenses at visible wavelengths: Diffraction-limited focusing and subwavelength resolution imaging,” Science 352(6290), 1190–1194 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Domínguez-Caballero, J. A.

Faraon, A.

A. Arbabi, E. Arbabi, S. M. Kamali, Y. Horie, S. Han, and A. Faraon, “Miniature optical planar camera based on a wide-angle metasurface doublet corrected for monochromatic aberrations,” Nat. Commun. 7, 13682 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Genevet, P.

F. Aieta, M. A. Kats, P. Genevet, and F. Capasso, “Multiwavelength achromatic metasurfaces by dispersive phase compensation,” Science 347(6228), 1342–1345 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Han, S.

A. Arbabi, E. Arbabi, S. M. Kamali, Y. Horie, S. Han, and A. Faraon, “Miniature optical planar camera based on a wide-angle metasurface doublet corrected for monochromatic aberrations,” Nat. Commun. 7, 13682 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Horie, Y.

A. Arbabi, E. Arbabi, S. M. Kamali, Y. Horie, S. Han, and A. Faraon, “Miniature optical planar camera based on a wide-angle metasurface doublet corrected for monochromatic aberrations,” Nat. Commun. 7, 13682 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jiang, M.

M. Jiang, S. Lin, W. Jiang, and N. Pan, “Hot embossing holographic images in BOPP shrink films through large-area roll-to-roll nanoimprint lithography,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 311, 101–106 (2014).
[Crossref]

Jiang, W.

M. Jiang, S. Lin, W. Jiang, and N. Pan, “Hot embossing holographic images in BOPP shrink films through large-area roll-to-roll nanoimprint lithography,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 311, 101–106 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kamali, S. M.

A. Arbabi, E. Arbabi, S. M. Kamali, Y. Horie, S. Han, and A. Faraon, “Miniature optical planar camera based on a wide-angle metasurface doublet corrected for monochromatic aberrations,” Nat. Commun. 7, 13682 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kats, M. A.

F. Aieta, M. A. Kats, P. Genevet, and F. Capasso, “Multiwavelength achromatic metasurfaces by dispersive phase compensation,” Science 347(6228), 1342–1345 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Khorasaninejad, M.

W. T. Chen, A. Y. Zhu, V. Sanjeev, M. Khorasaninejad, Z. Shi, E. Lee, and F. Capasso, “A broadband achromatic metalens for focusing and imaging in the visible,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 13(3), 220–226 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Khorasaninejad, W. T. Chen, R. C. Devlin, J. Oh, A. Y. Zhu, and F. Capasso, “Metalenses at visible wavelengths: Diffraction-limited focusing and subwavelength resolution imaging,” Science 352(6290), 1190–1194 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, G.

Lee, E.

W. T. Chen, A. Y. Zhu, V. Sanjeev, M. Khorasaninejad, Z. Shi, E. Lee, and F. Capasso, “A broadband achromatic metalens for focusing and imaging in the visible,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 13(3), 220–226 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lin, S.

M. Jiang, S. Lin, W. Jiang, and N. Pan, “Hot embossing holographic images in BOPP shrink films through large-area roll-to-roll nanoimprint lithography,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 311, 101–106 (2014).
[Crossref]

Meem, M.

N. Mohammad, M. Meem, B. Shen, P. Wang, and R. Menon, “Broadband imaging with one planar diffractive lens,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 2799 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Menon, R.

N. Mohammad, M. Meem, B. Shen, P. Wang, and R. Menon, “Broadband imaging with one planar diffractive lens,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 2799 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Wang, N. Mohammad, and R. Menon, “Chromatic-aberration-corrected diffractive lenses for ultra-broadband focusing,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 21545 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Kim, J. A. Domínguez-Caballero, and R. Menon, “Design and analysis of multi-wavelength diffractive optics,” Opt. Express 20(3), 2814–2823 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mohammad, N.

N. Mohammad, M. Meem, B. Shen, P. Wang, and R. Menon, “Broadband imaging with one planar diffractive lens,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 2799 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Wang, N. Mohammad, and R. Menon, “Chromatic-aberration-corrected diffractive lenses for ultra-broadband focusing,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 21545 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Oh, J.

M. Khorasaninejad, W. T. Chen, R. C. Devlin, J. Oh, A. Y. Zhu, and F. Capasso, “Metalenses at visible wavelengths: Diffraction-limited focusing and subwavelength resolution imaging,” Science 352(6290), 1190–1194 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pan, N.

M. Jiang, S. Lin, W. Jiang, and N. Pan, “Hot embossing holographic images in BOPP shrink films through large-area roll-to-roll nanoimprint lithography,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 311, 101–106 (2014).
[Crossref]

Reshidko, D.

D. Reshidko and J. Sasian, “Current trends in miniature camera lens technology,” SPIE Newsroom19, (2016), doi:.
[Crossref]

Sanjeev, V.

W. T. Chen, A. Y. Zhu, V. Sanjeev, M. Khorasaninejad, Z. Shi, E. Lee, and F. Capasso, “A broadband achromatic metalens for focusing and imaging in the visible,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 13(3), 220–226 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sasian, J.

D. Reshidko and J. Sasian, “Current trends in miniature camera lens technology,” SPIE Newsroom19, (2016), doi:.
[Crossref]

She, A.

Shen, B.

N. Mohammad, M. Meem, B. Shen, P. Wang, and R. Menon, “Broadband imaging with one planar diffractive lens,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 2799 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shi, Z.

W. T. Chen, A. Y. Zhu, V. Sanjeev, M. Khorasaninejad, Z. Shi, E. Lee, and F. Capasso, “A broadband achromatic metalens for focusing and imaging in the visible,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 13(3), 220–226 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shian, S.

Wang, P.

N. Mohammad, M. Meem, B. Shen, P. Wang, and R. Menon, “Broadband imaging with one planar diffractive lens,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 2799 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Wang, N. Mohammad, and R. Menon, “Chromatic-aberration-corrected diffractive lenses for ultra-broadband focusing,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 21545 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, S.

Zhu, A. Y.

W. T. Chen, A. Y. Zhu, V. Sanjeev, M. Khorasaninejad, Z. Shi, E. Lee, and F. Capasso, “A broadband achromatic metalens for focusing and imaging in the visible,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 13(3), 220–226 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Khorasaninejad, W. T. Chen, R. C. Devlin, J. Oh, A. Y. Zhu, and F. Capasso, “Metalenses at visible wavelengths: Diffraction-limited focusing and subwavelength resolution imaging,” Science 352(6290), 1190–1194 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Surf. Sci. (1)

M. Jiang, S. Lin, W. Jiang, and N. Pan, “Hot embossing holographic images in BOPP shrink films through large-area roll-to-roll nanoimprint lithography,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 311, 101–106 (2014).
[Crossref]

Nat. Commun. (1)

A. Arbabi, E. Arbabi, S. M. Kamali, Y. Horie, S. Han, and A. Faraon, “Miniature optical planar camera based on a wide-angle metasurface doublet corrected for monochromatic aberrations,” Nat. Commun. 7, 13682 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Nanotechnol. (1)

W. T. Chen, A. Y. Zhu, V. Sanjeev, M. Khorasaninejad, Z. Shi, E. Lee, and F. Capasso, “A broadband achromatic metalens for focusing and imaging in the visible,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 13(3), 220–226 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (2)

Sci. Rep. (2)

N. Mohammad, M. Meem, B. Shen, P. Wang, and R. Menon, “Broadband imaging with one planar diffractive lens,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 2799 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Wang, N. Mohammad, and R. Menon, “Chromatic-aberration-corrected diffractive lenses for ultra-broadband focusing,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 21545 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Science (2)

M. Khorasaninejad, W. T. Chen, R. C. Devlin, J. Oh, A. Y. Zhu, and F. Capasso, “Metalenses at visible wavelengths: Diffraction-limited focusing and subwavelength resolution imaging,” Science 352(6290), 1190–1194 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Aieta, M. A. Kats, P. Genevet, and F. Capasso, “Multiwavelength achromatic metasurfaces by dispersive phase compensation,” Science 347(6228), 1342–1345 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (1)

D. Reshidko and J. Sasian, “Current trends in miniature camera lens technology,” SPIE Newsroom19, (2016), doi:.
[Crossref]

Supplementary Material (4)

NameDescription
» Visualization 1       Video using flat lens 1 and color image sensor.
» Visualization 2       Video using flat lens 2 and color image sensor.
» Visualization 3       Video using 2 flat lenses and color image sensor at varying magnification.
» Visualization 4       Video using 2 flat lenses and color image sensor at fixed magnification.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Schematic using two flat lenses for imaging. Optical micrographs of the two flat lenses made with S1813 (a) and with AZ9260 (b). The focal length and NA of both lenses are 25mm and 0.05, respectively.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Characterization of each lens separately. (a)-(d) The measured and simulated point-spread function as a function of illumination wavelength (bandwidth = 10nm) is shown for the two lenses, respectively. (e)-(f) The images of a resolution test chart as a function of illumination wavelength is shown for the two lenses, respectively. The image of the resolution test chart taken under broadband illumination (430nm to 660nm, bandwidth = 230nm) is shown in the rightmost column. The size of the resolution-test image is ~2mm.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Characterization of color imaging of each individual lens under different illumination conditions. Visualization 1 and Visualization 2 showcase raw video images captured using Flat lens 1 and Flat lens 2, respectively.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Imaging using the 2-flat-lens system under different illumination conditions. (a) Resolution test chart under narrowband and broadband illumination. (b) Object (u) and image distance (v) and magnification (M) for the images in (a). (c) Color images taken with two flat lenses and the color CMOS image sensor under different illumination conditions. Visualization 3 and Visualization 4 are raw video files at fixed magnification and varying magnification, respectively. (d) Two frames from Visualization 4 are shown with different magnifications.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Numerical analysis of fabrication errors. Average focusing efficiencies of the two flat lenses as (a) function of standard deviation of pixel-height error and (b) function of pixel size error.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Design parameters for the two lenses

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