Abstract

A novel, MMI-based all-fiber structure, which consists of two single-mode fibers and a multimode fiber polished on both sides, is described. The light propagation characteristics of this fiber structure, as well as its superior sensing performance, are analyzed theoretically by using the beam propagation method (BPM). This fiber structure demonstrates a significant spectral response to changes of the surrounding refractive index (RI), and the measured results exhibit good agreement with the predicted data. The measured average RI sensitivity is as high as 151.29 nm/RIU over an RI range from 1.3450 to 1.4050, when the polished depth is 30 µm on both sides of the multimode fiber. This fiber structure can be an advantageous platform for various applications, especially for a lab-on-fiber type sensing application.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2018 (1)

2017 (6)

H. Dong, L. Chen, J. Zhou, J. Yu, H. Guan, W. Qiu, J. Dong, H. Lu, J. Tang, W. Zhu, Z. Cai, Y. Xiao, J. Zhang, and Z. Chen, “Coreless side-polished fiber: a novel fiber structure for multimode interference and highly sensitive refractive index sensors,” Opt. Express 25(5), 5352–5365 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Tian, G. Farrell, X. Wang, W. Yang, Y. Xin, H. Liang, E. Lewis, and P. Wang, “Strain sensor based on gourd-shaped single-mode-multimode-single-mode hybrid optical fiber structure,” Opt. Express 25(16), 18885–18896 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Tian, G. Farrell, X. Wang, W. Yang, Y. Xin, H. Liang, E. Lewis, and P. Wang, “Strain sensor based on gourd-shaped single-mode-multimode-single-mode hybrid optical fiber structure,” Opt. Express 25(16), 18885–18896 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Wang, G. Farrell, E. Lewis, K. Tian, L. Yuan, and P. Wang, “A humidity sensor based on a singlemode-side polished multimode-singlemode (SSPMS) optical fiber structure coated with gelatin,” J. Lightwave Technol. 35(18), 4087–4094 (2017).
[Crossref]

X. Wang, E. Lewis, and P. Wang, “Investigation of the self‐imaging position of a singlemode‐multimode‐singlemode optical fiber structure,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 59(7), 1645–1651 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Tang, J. Zhou, J. Guan, S. Long, J. Yu, H. Guan, H. Lu, Y. Luo, J. Zhang, and Z. Chen, “Fabrication of side-polished single mode-multimode-single mode fiber and its characteristics of refractive index sensing,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. 23(2), 238–245 (2017).
[Crossref]

2015 (2)

2014 (1)

Q. Wu, M. Yang, J. Yuan, H. P. Chan, Y. Ma, Y. Semenova, P. Wang, C. Yu, and G. Farrell, “The use of a bend singlemode–multimode–singlemode (SMS) fiber structure for vibration sensing,” Opt. Laser Technol. 63, 29–33 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

R. R. Gattass, L. B. Shaw, F. H. Kung, D. J. Gibson, V. Q. Nguyen, G. D. Chin, L. E. Busse, I. D. Aggarwal, and J. S. Sanghera, “Infrared fiber N×1 multimode combiners,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(5), 7100905 (2013).
[Crossref]

2011 (4)

2010 (1)

2008 (2)

Q. Wang, G. Farrell, and W. Yan, “Investigation on single-mode–multimode– single-mode fiber structure,” J. Lightwave Technol. 26(5), 512–519 (2008).
[Crossref]

E. Li and G. D. Peng, “Wavelength-encoded fiber-optic temperature sensor with ultra-high sensitivity,” Opt. Commun. 281(23), 5768–5770 (2008).
[Crossref]

2006 (2)

1997 (1)

1995 (1)

L. B. Soldano and E. C. M. Pennings, “Optical multi-mode interference devices based on self-imaging: principles and applications,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13(4), 615–627 (1995).
[Crossref]

1992 (1)

Aggarwal, I. D.

R. R. Gattass, L. B. Shaw, F. H. Kung, D. J. Gibson, V. Q. Nguyen, G. D. Chin, L. E. Busse, I. D. Aggarwal, and J. S. Sanghera, “Infrared fiber N×1 multimode combiners,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(5), 7100905 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bao, Q.

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, B. Wang, Z. Ni, C. H. Y. X. Lim, Y. Wang, D. Y. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Broadband graphene polarizer,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 411–415 (2011).
[Crossref]

Brambilla, G.

Busse, L. E.

R. R. Gattass, L. B. Shaw, F. H. Kung, D. J. Gibson, V. Q. Nguyen, G. D. Chin, L. E. Busse, I. D. Aggarwal, and J. S. Sanghera, “Infrared fiber N×1 multimode combiners,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(5), 7100905 (2013).
[Crossref]

Cai, Z.

Chan, H. P.

Q. Wu, M. Yang, J. Yuan, H. P. Chan, Y. Ma, Y. Semenova, P. Wang, C. Yu, and G. Farrell, “The use of a bend singlemode–multimode–singlemode (SMS) fiber structure for vibration sensing,” Opt. Laser Technol. 63, 29–33 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chen, L.

Chen, Z.

H. Dong, L. Chen, J. Zhou, J. Yu, H. Guan, W. Qiu, J. Dong, H. Lu, J. Tang, W. Zhu, Z. Cai, Y. Xiao, J. Zhang, and Z. Chen, “Coreless side-polished fiber: a novel fiber structure for multimode interference and highly sensitive refractive index sensors,” Opt. Express 25(5), 5352–5365 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Tang, J. Zhou, J. Guan, S. Long, J. Yu, H. Guan, H. Lu, Y. Luo, J. Zhang, and Z. Chen, “Fabrication of side-polished single mode-multimode-single mode fiber and its characteristics of refractive index sensing,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. 23(2), 238–245 (2017).
[Crossref]

Chin, G. D.

R. R. Gattass, L. B. Shaw, F. H. Kung, D. J. Gibson, V. Q. Nguyen, G. D. Chin, L. E. Busse, I. D. Aggarwal, and J. S. Sanghera, “Infrared fiber N×1 multimode combiners,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(5), 7100905 (2013).
[Crossref]

Devereux, R. W. J.

Ding, M.

Dong, H.

Dong, J.

Dong, K.

Farahi, S.

Farrell, G.

X. Wang, K. Tian, L. Yuan, E. Lewis, G. Farrell, and P. Wang, “A high temperature humidity sensor based on a singlemode-side polished multimode-singlemode (SSPMS) fiber structure,” J. Lightwave Technol. 36(13), 2730–2736 (2018).
[Crossref]

K. Tian, G. Farrell, X. Wang, W. Yang, Y. Xin, H. Liang, E. Lewis, and P. Wang, “Strain sensor based on gourd-shaped single-mode-multimode-single-mode hybrid optical fiber structure,” Opt. Express 25(16), 18885–18896 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Wang, G. Farrell, E. Lewis, K. Tian, L. Yuan, and P. Wang, “A humidity sensor based on a singlemode-side polished multimode-singlemode (SSPMS) optical fiber structure coated with gelatin,” J. Lightwave Technol. 35(18), 4087–4094 (2017).
[Crossref]

K. Tian, G. Farrell, X. Wang, W. Yang, Y. Xin, H. Liang, E. Lewis, and P. Wang, “Strain sensor based on gourd-shaped single-mode-multimode-single-mode hybrid optical fiber structure,” Opt. Express 25(16), 18885–18896 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Wu, M. Yang, J. Yuan, H. P. Chan, Y. Ma, Y. Semenova, P. Wang, C. Yu, and G. Farrell, “The use of a bend singlemode–multimode–singlemode (SMS) fiber structure for vibration sensing,” Opt. Laser Technol. 63, 29–33 (2014).
[Crossref]

Q. Wu, Y. Semenova, P. Wang, and G. Farrell, “High sensitivity SMS fiber structure based refractometer--analysis and experiment,” Opt. Express 19(9), 7937–7944 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Wang, G. Brambilla, M. Ding, Y. Semenova, Q. Wu, and G. Farrell, “Investigation of single-mode–multimode–single-mode and single-mode–tapered-multimode–single-mode fiber structures and their application for refractive index sensing,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 28(5), 1180–1186 (2011).
[Crossref]

P. Wang, G. Brambilla, M. Ding, Y. Semenova, Q. Wu, and G. Farrell, “High-sensitivity, evanescent field refractometric sensor based on a tapered, multimode fiber interference,” Opt. Lett. 36(12), 2233–2235 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. M. Hatta, Y. Semenova, Q. Wu, and G. Farrell, “Strain sensor based on a pair of single-mode-multimode-single-mode fiber structures in a ratiometric power measurement scheme,” Appl. Opt. 49(3), 536–541 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Wang, G. Farrell, and W. Yan, “Investigation on single-mode–multimode– single-mode fiber structure,” J. Lightwave Technol. 26(5), 512–519 (2008).
[Crossref]

Q. Wang and G. Farrell, “All-fiber multimode-interference-based refractometer sensor: proposal and design,” Opt. Lett. 31(3), 317–319 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gattass, R. R.

R. R. Gattass, L. B. Shaw, F. H. Kung, D. J. Gibson, V. Q. Nguyen, G. D. Chin, L. E. Busse, I. D. Aggarwal, and J. S. Sanghera, “Infrared fiber N×1 multimode combiners,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(5), 7100905 (2013).
[Crossref]

Gibson, D. J.

R. R. Gattass, L. B. Shaw, F. H. Kung, D. J. Gibson, V. Q. Nguyen, G. D. Chin, L. E. Busse, I. D. Aggarwal, and J. S. Sanghera, “Infrared fiber N×1 multimode combiners,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(5), 7100905 (2013).
[Crossref]

Goy, A.

Gu, X.

Guan, H.

J. Tang, J. Zhou, J. Guan, S. Long, J. Yu, H. Guan, H. Lu, Y. Luo, J. Zhang, and Z. Chen, “Fabrication of side-polished single mode-multimode-single mode fiber and its characteristics of refractive index sensing,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. 23(2), 238–245 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. Dong, L. Chen, J. Zhou, J. Yu, H. Guan, W. Qiu, J. Dong, H. Lu, J. Tang, W. Zhu, Z. Cai, Y. Xiao, J. Zhang, and Z. Chen, “Coreless side-polished fiber: a novel fiber structure for multimode interference and highly sensitive refractive index sensors,” Opt. Express 25(5), 5352–5365 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Guan, J.

J. Tang, J. Zhou, J. Guan, S. Long, J. Yu, H. Guan, H. Lu, Y. Luo, J. Zhang, and Z. Chen, “Fabrication of side-polished single mode-multimode-single mode fiber and its characteristics of refractive index sensing,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. 23(2), 238–245 (2017).
[Crossref]

Hatta, A. M.

Heaton, J. M.

Jenkins, R. M.

Jiang, H.

Kung, F. H.

R. R. Gattass, L. B. Shaw, F. H. Kung, D. J. Gibson, V. Q. Nguyen, G. D. Chin, L. E. Busse, I. D. Aggarwal, and J. S. Sanghera, “Infrared fiber N×1 multimode combiners,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(5), 7100905 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lewis, E.

Li, E.

E. Li and G. D. Peng, “Wavelength-encoded fiber-optic temperature sensor with ultra-high sensitivity,” Opt. Commun. 281(23), 5768–5770 (2008).
[Crossref]

Liang, H.

Lim, C. H. Y. X.

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, B. Wang, Z. Ni, C. H. Y. X. Lim, Y. Wang, D. Y. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Broadband graphene polarizer,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 411–415 (2011).
[Crossref]

Loh, K. P.

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, B. Wang, Z. Ni, C. H. Y. X. Lim, Y. Wang, D. Y. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Broadband graphene polarizer,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 411–415 (2011).
[Crossref]

Long, S.

J. Tang, J. Zhou, J. Guan, S. Long, J. Yu, H. Guan, H. Lu, Y. Luo, J. Zhang, and Z. Chen, “Fabrication of side-polished single mode-multimode-single mode fiber and its characteristics of refractive index sensing,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. 23(2), 238–245 (2017).
[Crossref]

Loterie, D.

Lu, H.

H. Dong, L. Chen, J. Zhou, J. Yu, H. Guan, W. Qiu, J. Dong, H. Lu, J. Tang, W. Zhu, Z. Cai, Y. Xiao, J. Zhang, and Z. Chen, “Coreless side-polished fiber: a novel fiber structure for multimode interference and highly sensitive refractive index sensors,” Opt. Express 25(5), 5352–5365 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Tang, J. Zhou, J. Guan, S. Long, J. Yu, H. Guan, H. Lu, Y. Luo, J. Zhang, and Z. Chen, “Fabrication of side-polished single mode-multimode-single mode fiber and its characteristics of refractive index sensing,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. 23(2), 238–245 (2017).
[Crossref]

Luo, Y.

J. Tang, J. Zhou, J. Guan, S. Long, J. Yu, H. Guan, H. Lu, Y. Luo, J. Zhang, and Z. Chen, “Fabrication of side-polished single mode-multimode-single mode fiber and its characteristics of refractive index sensing,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. 23(2), 238–245 (2017).
[Crossref]

Ma, W.

Ma, Y.

Q. Wu, M. Yang, J. Yuan, H. P. Chan, Y. Ma, Y. Semenova, P. Wang, C. Yu, and G. Farrell, “The use of a bend singlemode–multimode–singlemode (SMS) fiber structure for vibration sensing,” Opt. Laser Technol. 63, 29–33 (2014).
[Crossref]

Macdonald, R. I.

Mohammed, W. S.

Moser, C.

Nguyen, V. Q.

R. R. Gattass, L. B. Shaw, F. H. Kung, D. J. Gibson, V. Q. Nguyen, G. D. Chin, L. E. Busse, I. D. Aggarwal, and J. S. Sanghera, “Infrared fiber N×1 multimode combiners,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(5), 7100905 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ni, Z.

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, B. Wang, Z. Ni, C. H. Y. X. Lim, Y. Wang, D. Y. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Broadband graphene polarizer,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 411–415 (2011).
[Crossref]

Paiam, M. R.

Papadopoulos, I.

Peng, G. D.

E. Li and G. D. Peng, “Wavelength-encoded fiber-optic temperature sensor with ultra-high sensitivity,” Opt. Commun. 281(23), 5768–5770 (2008).
[Crossref]

Pennings, E. C. M.

L. B. Soldano and E. C. M. Pennings, “Optical multi-mode interference devices based on self-imaging: principles and applications,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13(4), 615–627 (1995).
[Crossref]

Psaltis, D.

Qiu, W.

Sanghera, J. S.

R. R. Gattass, L. B. Shaw, F. H. Kung, D. J. Gibson, V. Q. Nguyen, G. D. Chin, L. E. Busse, I. D. Aggarwal, and J. S. Sanghera, “Infrared fiber N×1 multimode combiners,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(5), 7100905 (2013).
[Crossref]

Semenova, Y.

Shaw, L. B.

R. R. Gattass, L. B. Shaw, F. H. Kung, D. J. Gibson, V. Q. Nguyen, G. D. Chin, L. E. Busse, I. D. Aggarwal, and J. S. Sanghera, “Infrared fiber N×1 multimode combiners,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(5), 7100905 (2013).
[Crossref]

Smith, P. W. E.

Soldano, L. B.

L. B. Soldano and E. C. M. Pennings, “Optical multi-mode interference devices based on self-imaging: principles and applications,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13(4), 615–627 (1995).
[Crossref]

Tang, D. Y.

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, B. Wang, Z. Ni, C. H. Y. X. Lim, Y. Wang, D. Y. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Broadband graphene polarizer,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 411–415 (2011).
[Crossref]

Tang, J.

H. Dong, L. Chen, J. Zhou, J. Yu, H. Guan, W. Qiu, J. Dong, H. Lu, J. Tang, W. Zhu, Z. Cai, Y. Xiao, J. Zhang, and Z. Chen, “Coreless side-polished fiber: a novel fiber structure for multimode interference and highly sensitive refractive index sensors,” Opt. Express 25(5), 5352–5365 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Tang, J. Zhou, J. Guan, S. Long, J. Yu, H. Guan, H. Lu, Y. Luo, J. Zhang, and Z. Chen, “Fabrication of side-polished single mode-multimode-single mode fiber and its characteristics of refractive index sensing,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. 23(2), 238–245 (2017).
[Crossref]

Tian, K.

Wang, B.

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, B. Wang, Z. Ni, C. H. Y. X. Lim, Y. Wang, D. Y. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Broadband graphene polarizer,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 411–415 (2011).
[Crossref]

Wang, P.

X. Wang, K. Tian, L. Yuan, E. Lewis, G. Farrell, and P. Wang, “A high temperature humidity sensor based on a singlemode-side polished multimode-singlemode (SSPMS) fiber structure,” J. Lightwave Technol. 36(13), 2730–2736 (2018).
[Crossref]

K. Tian, G. Farrell, X. Wang, W. Yang, Y. Xin, H. Liang, E. Lewis, and P. Wang, “Strain sensor based on gourd-shaped single-mode-multimode-single-mode hybrid optical fiber structure,” Opt. Express 25(16), 18885–18896 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Tian, G. Farrell, X. Wang, W. Yang, Y. Xin, H. Liang, E. Lewis, and P. Wang, “Strain sensor based on gourd-shaped single-mode-multimode-single-mode hybrid optical fiber structure,” Opt. Express 25(16), 18885–18896 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Wang, G. Farrell, E. Lewis, K. Tian, L. Yuan, and P. Wang, “A humidity sensor based on a singlemode-side polished multimode-singlemode (SSPMS) optical fiber structure coated with gelatin,” J. Lightwave Technol. 35(18), 4087–4094 (2017).
[Crossref]

X. Wang, E. Lewis, and P. Wang, “Investigation of the self‐imaging position of a singlemode‐multimode‐singlemode optical fiber structure,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 59(7), 1645–1651 (2017).
[Crossref]

Q. Wu, M. Yang, J. Yuan, H. P. Chan, Y. Ma, Y. Semenova, P. Wang, C. Yu, and G. Farrell, “The use of a bend singlemode–multimode–singlemode (SMS) fiber structure for vibration sensing,” Opt. Laser Technol. 63, 29–33 (2014).
[Crossref]

Q. Wu, Y. Semenova, P. Wang, and G. Farrell, “High sensitivity SMS fiber structure based refractometer--analysis and experiment,” Opt. Express 19(9), 7937–7944 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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P. Wang, G. Brambilla, M. Ding, Y. Semenova, Q. Wu, and G. Farrell, “High-sensitivity, evanescent field refractometric sensor based on a tapered, multimode fiber interference,” Opt. Lett. 36(12), 2233–2235 (2011).
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[Crossref]

Wu, Q.

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Q. Wu, M. Yang, J. Yuan, H. P. Chan, Y. Ma, Y. Semenova, P. Wang, C. Yu, and G. Farrell, “The use of a bend singlemode–multimode–singlemode (SMS) fiber structure for vibration sensing,” Opt. Laser Technol. 63, 29–33 (2014).
[Crossref]

Yang, W.

Yu, C.

Q. Wu, M. Yang, J. Yuan, H. P. Chan, Y. Ma, Y. Semenova, P. Wang, C. Yu, and G. Farrell, “The use of a bend singlemode–multimode–singlemode (SMS) fiber structure for vibration sensing,” Opt. Laser Technol. 63, 29–33 (2014).
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H. Dong, L. Chen, J. Zhou, J. Yu, H. Guan, W. Qiu, J. Dong, H. Lu, J. Tang, W. Zhu, Z. Cai, Y. Xiao, J. Zhang, and Z. Chen, “Coreless side-polished fiber: a novel fiber structure for multimode interference and highly sensitive refractive index sensors,” Opt. Express 25(5), 5352–5365 (2017).
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Q. Wu, M. Yang, J. Yuan, H. P. Chan, Y. Ma, Y. Semenova, P. Wang, C. Yu, and G. Farrell, “The use of a bend singlemode–multimode–singlemode (SMS) fiber structure for vibration sensing,” Opt. Laser Technol. 63, 29–33 (2014).
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Zhang, H.

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, B. Wang, Z. Ni, C. H. Y. X. Lim, Y. Wang, D. Y. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Broadband graphene polarizer,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 411–415 (2011).
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H. Dong, L. Chen, J. Zhou, J. Yu, H. Guan, W. Qiu, J. Dong, H. Lu, J. Tang, W. Zhu, Z. Cai, Y. Xiao, J. Zhang, and Z. Chen, “Coreless side-polished fiber: a novel fiber structure for multimode interference and highly sensitive refractive index sensors,” Opt. Express 25(5), 5352–5365 (2017).
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Zhou, J.

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J. Tang, J. Zhou, J. Guan, S. Long, J. Yu, H. Guan, H. Lu, Y. Luo, J. Zhang, and Z. Chen, “Fabrication of side-polished single mode-multimode-single mode fiber and its characteristics of refractive index sensing,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. 23(2), 238–245 (2017).
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Nat. Photonics (1)

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, B. Wang, Z. Ni, C. H. Y. X. Lim, Y. Wang, D. Y. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Broadband graphene polarizer,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 411–415 (2011).
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Q. Wu, M. Yang, J. Yuan, H. P. Chan, Y. Ma, Y. Semenova, P. Wang, C. Yu, and G. Farrell, “The use of a bend singlemode–multimode–singlemode (SMS) fiber structure for vibration sensing,” Opt. Laser Technol. 63, 29–33 (2014).
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (4)

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic of (a) the DSPSMS fiber structure and (b) cross section of multimode fiber polished on both sides.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Coupling loss with different propagation distance; calculated mode field distribution at propagation position of (b) 0 μm; (c) 20150 μm; (d) 31930 μm and (d) 41000 μm.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 The calculated transmission spectrum of DSPSMS fiber structures with d = 10μm, 20μm, and 30μm at the RI value of 1.3450.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 The calculated transmission spectrum evolution of DSPSMS fiber structure with (a) d = 10 μm; (b) 20 μm and (c) 30 μm, within the RI range of 1.3450-1.4050. (d) The relationship between wavelength shift and different RI values for d = 10 μm, 20 μm and 30 μm.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Microscopic images of cross section of MMF polished on both sides with (a) d = 0 μm; (b) d = 10 μm; (c) d = 20 μm; (d) d = 30 μm.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Experimental setup for RI measurement.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Transmission spectrum of DSPSMS fiber structure with different RI values for d respectively at (a) 10 μm, (b) 20 μm, (c) 30 μm; (d) Dependence of wavelength shift of the corresponding interference dip for d = 10 μm, 20 μm, 30 μm; (e) comparison between measured results and calculated results for d = 20 μm.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Temperature dependence of the DSPSMS fiber structure. (a) The calculated transmission spectrum evolution with temperature increasing from 20 °C to 60 °C; (b) the calculated and (c) the measured relationship between wavelength shift and temperature.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Comparison of the RI sensing performance between SP-SMS and DSPSMS

Equations (5)

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E(x,y,0)= m=1 M a m F m (x,y)
a m = 0 0 E(x,y,0) F m (x,y)dxdy 0 0 F m (x,y) F m (x,y)dxdy
E(x,y,z)= m=1 M a m F m (x,y) exp(i β m z)
L(z)=10 log 10 (| m=1 M a m 2 exp(i β m z) | 2 )
2π λ d (Δ n eff ) L MMF =const

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