Abstract

Germanium-on-silicon waveguides were modeled, fabricated and characterized at wavelengths ranging from 7.5 to 11 µm. Measured waveguide losses are below 5 dB/cm for both TE and TM polarization and reach values of ∼ 1 dB/cm for ≥ 10 µm wavelengths for the TE polarization. This work demonstrates experimentally for the first time that Ge-on-Si is a viable waveguide platform for sensing in the molecular fingerprint spectral region. Detailed modeling and analysis is presented to identify the various loss contributions, showing that with practical techniques losses below 1 dB/cm could be achieved across the full measurement range.

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References

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2018 (4)

J. Margetis, S. Al-Kabi, W. Du, W. Dou, Y. Zhou, T. Pham, P. Grant, S. Ghetmiri, A. Mosleh, B. Li, J. Liu, G. Sun, R. Soref, J. Tolle, M. Mortazavi, and S.-Q. Yu, “Si-Based GeSn lasers with wavelength coverage of 2 - 3 µ m and operating temperatures up to 180 K,” ACS Photonics 5, 827–833 (2018).
[Crossref]

C. Bellegarde, E. Pargon, C. Sciancalepore, C. Petit-Etienne, V. Hugues, D. Robin-Brosse, J. M. Hartmann, and P. Lyan, “Improvement of sidewall roughness of submicron SOI waveguides by hydrogen plasma and annealing,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 30, 591–594 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. S. Penadés, A. Sánchez-Postigo, M. Nedeljkovic, A. Ortega-Monux, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, Y. Xu, R. Halir, Z. Qu, A. Z. Khokhar, A. Osman, W. Cao, C. G. Littlejohns, P. Cheben, I. Molina-Fernández, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Suspended silicon waveguides for long-wave infrared wavelengths,” Opt. Lett. 43, 795–798 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Sinobad, C. Monat, B. Luther-davies, P. Ma, S. Madden, D. J. Moss, A. Mitchell, D. Allioux, R. Orobtchouk, S. Boutami, J.-M. Hartmann, J.-M. Fedeli, and C. Grillet, “Mid-infrared octave spanning supercontinuum generation to 8.5 µ m in silicon-germanium waveguides,” Optica 5, 360–366 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (4)

2016 (3)

F. Pezzoli, A. Giorgioni, K. Gallacher, F. Isa, P. Biagioni, R. W. Millar, E. Gatti, E. Grilli, E. Bonera, G. Isella, D. J. Paul, and L. Miglio, “Disentangling nonradiative recombination processes in Ge micro-crystals on Si substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108, 262103 (2016).
[Crossref]

K. Gallacher, A. Ballabio, R. W. Millar, J. Frigerio, A. Bashir, I. MacLaren, G. Isella, M. Ortolani, and D. J. Paul, “Mid-infrared intersubband absorption from p-Ge quantum wells grown on Si substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108, 091114 (2016).
[Crossref]

B. Troia, J. S. Penades, A. Z. Khokhar, M. Nedeljkovic, C. Alonso-Ramos, V. M. N. Passaro, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Germanium-on-silicon vernier-effect photonic microcavities for the mid-infrared,” Opt. Lett. 41, 610–613 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (3)

M. Nedeljkovic, J. S. Penadés, C. J. Mitchell, A. Z. Khokhar, S. Stankovic, T. D. Bucio, C. G. Littlejohns, F. Y. Gardes, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Surface-grating-coupled low-loss Ge-on-Si rib waveguides and multimode interferometers,” IEEE Photonic Tech L 27, 1040–1043 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Nedeljkovic, R. Soref, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Predictions of free-carrier electroabsorption and electrorefraction in germanium,” IEEE Photonics J. 7, 1–14 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. Baldassarre, E. Sakat, J. Frigerio, A. Samarelli, K. Gallacher, E. Calandrini, G. Isella, D. J. Paul, M. Ortolani, and P. Biagioni, “Midinfrared plasmon-enhanced spectroscopy with germanium antennas on silicon substrates,” Nano Lett. 15, 7225–7231 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (2)

E. R. Deutsch, P. Kotidis, N. Zhu, A. K. Goyal, J. Ye, A. Mazurenko, M. Norman, K. Zafiriou, M. Baier, and R. Connors, “Active and passive infrared spectroscopy for the detection of environmental threats,” Proc. SPIE 9106, 9106 (2014).

B. Schwarz, P. Reininger, D. Ristanić, H. Detz, A. M. Andrews, W. Schrenk, and G. Strasser, “Monolithically integrated mid-infrared lab-on-a-chip using plasmonics and quantum cascade structures,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4085 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (1)

L. Rothman, I. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. Cohen, L. Coudert, V. Devi, B. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. L. Roy, G. Li, D. Long, O. Lyulin, C. Mackie, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. Müller, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. Toon, V. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4 – 50 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (3)

M. M. Mirza, H. Zhou, P. Velha, X. Li, K. E. Docherty, A. Samarelli, G. Ternent, and D. J. Paul, “Nanofabrication of high aspect ratio (∼50:1) sub-10 nm silicon nanowires using inductively coupled plasma etching,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 30, 06FF02 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. C. Chang, P. Wägli, V. Paeder, A. Homsy, L. Hvozdara, P. Van Der Wal, J. Di Francesco, N. F. De Rooij, and H. Peter Herzig, “Cocaine detection by a mid-infrared waveguide integrated with a microfluidic chip,” Lab Chip 12, 3020–3023 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y.-C. Chang, V. Paeder, L. Hvozdara, J.-M. Hartmann, and H. P. Herzig, “Low-loss germanium strip waveguides on silicon for the mid-infrared”, Opt. Lett. 37, 2883–2885 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (1)

N. K. Hon, R. Soref, and B. Jalali, “The third-order nonlinear optical coefficients of Si, Ge, and Si1−x Gex in the midwave and longwave infrared,” J. Appl. Phys. 110, 011301 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

R. Soref, “Mid-infrared photonics in silicon and germanium,” Nat. Photonics 4, 495–497 (2010).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

D. K. Sparacin, S. J. Spector, and L. C. Kimerling, “Silicon waveguide sidewall smoothing by wet chemical oxidation,” J. Light. Technol. 23, 2455–2461 (2005).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

R. C. Newman, “Oxygen diffusion and precipitation in Czochralski silicon,” J. Physics: Condens. Matter 12, R335 (2000).

1999 (1)

L. Colace, G. Masini, F. Galluzzi, G. Assanto, G. Capellini, L. D. Gaspare, E. Palange, and F. Evangelisti, “Metal-Ge-Si heterostructures for near-infrared light detection,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 17, 465–467 (1999).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

F. P. Payne and J. P. R. Lacey, “A theoretical analysis of scattering loss from planar optical waveguides,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 26, 977–986 (1994).
[Crossref]

1980 (1)

H. H. Li, “Refractive index of silicon and germanium and its wavelength and temperature derivatives,” J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 9, 561–658 (1980).
[Crossref]

1957 (1)

R. Newman and W. W. Tyler, “Effect of impurities on free-hole infrared absorption in p-type germanium, ” Phys. Rev. 105, 885–886 (1957).
[Crossref]

1952 (1)

H. B. Briggs and R. C. Fletcher, “New infrared absorption bands in p-type germanium,” Phys. Rev. 87, 1130–1131 (1952).
[Crossref]

Agarwal, A. M.

Al-Kabi, S.

J. Margetis, S. Al-Kabi, W. Du, W. Dou, Y. Zhou, T. Pham, P. Grant, S. Ghetmiri, A. Mosleh, B. Li, J. Liu, G. Sun, R. Soref, J. Tolle, M. Mortazavi, and S.-Q. Yu, “Si-Based GeSn lasers with wavelength coverage of 2 - 3 µ m and operating temperatures up to 180 K,” ACS Photonics 5, 827–833 (2018).
[Crossref]

Allioux, D.

Alonso-Ramos, C.

Andrews, A. M.

B. Schwarz, P. Reininger, D. Ristanić, H. Detz, A. M. Andrews, W. Schrenk, and G. Strasser, “Monolithically integrated mid-infrared lab-on-a-chip using plasmonics and quantum cascade structures,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4085 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Assanto, G.

L. Colace, G. Masini, F. Galluzzi, G. Assanto, G. Capellini, L. D. Gaspare, E. Palange, and F. Evangelisti, “Metal-Ge-Si heterostructures for near-infrared light detection,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 17, 465–467 (1999).
[Crossref]

Babikov, Y.

L. Rothman, I. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. Cohen, L. Coudert, V. Devi, B. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. L. Roy, G. Li, D. Long, O. Lyulin, C. Mackie, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. Müller, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. Toon, V. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4 – 50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Baier, M.

E. R. Deutsch, P. Kotidis, N. Zhu, A. K. Goyal, J. Ye, A. Mazurenko, M. Norman, K. Zafiriou, M. Baier, and R. Connors, “Active and passive infrared spectroscopy for the detection of environmental threats,” Proc. SPIE 9106, 9106 (2014).

Baldassarre, L.

L. Baldassarre, E. Sakat, J. Frigerio, A. Samarelli, K. Gallacher, E. Calandrini, G. Isella, D. J. Paul, M. Ortolani, and P. Biagioni, “Midinfrared plasmon-enhanced spectroscopy with germanium antennas on silicon substrates,” Nano Lett. 15, 7225–7231 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. J. Paul, K. Gallacher, R. W. Millar, V. Giliberti, E. Calandrini, L. Baldassarre, M. P. Fischer, J. Frigerio, A. Ballabio, E. Sakat, G. Pellegrini, D. Brida, G. Isella, M. Ortolani, and P. Biagioni, “n-Ge on Si for mid-infrared plasmonic sensors,” in 2017 IEEE Photonics Society Summer Topical Meeting Series (SUM), (2017), pp. 125–126.

Ballabio, A.

K. Gallacher, A. Ballabio, R. W. Millar, J. Frigerio, A. Bashir, I. MacLaren, G. Isella, M. Ortolani, and D. J. Paul, “Mid-infrared intersubband absorption from p-Ge quantum wells grown on Si substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108, 091114 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. J. Paul, K. Gallacher, R. W. Millar, V. Giliberti, E. Calandrini, L. Baldassarre, M. P. Fischer, J. Frigerio, A. Ballabio, E. Sakat, G. Pellegrini, D. Brida, G. Isella, M. Ortolani, and P. Biagioni, “n-Ge on Si for mid-infrared plasmonic sensors,” in 2017 IEEE Photonics Society Summer Topical Meeting Series (SUM), (2017), pp. 125–126.

Barbe, A.

L. Rothman, I. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. Cohen, L. Coudert, V. Devi, B. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. L. Roy, G. Li, D. Long, O. Lyulin, C. Mackie, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. Müller, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. Toon, V. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4 – 50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bashir, A.

K. Gallacher, A. Ballabio, R. W. Millar, J. Frigerio, A. Bashir, I. MacLaren, G. Isella, M. Ortolani, and D. J. Paul, “Mid-infrared intersubband absorption from p-Ge quantum wells grown on Si substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108, 091114 (2016).
[Crossref]

Bellegarde, C.

C. Bellegarde, E. Pargon, C. Sciancalepore, C. Petit-Etienne, V. Hugues, D. Robin-Brosse, J. M. Hartmann, and P. Lyan, “Improvement of sidewall roughness of submicron SOI waveguides by hydrogen plasma and annealing,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 30, 591–594 (2018).
[Crossref]

Benner, D. C.

L. Rothman, I. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. Cohen, L. Coudert, V. Devi, B. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. L. Roy, G. Li, D. Long, O. Lyulin, C. Mackie, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. Müller, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. Toon, V. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4 – 50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bernath, P.

L. Rothman, I. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. Cohen, L. Coudert, V. Devi, B. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. L. Roy, G. Li, D. Long, O. Lyulin, C. Mackie, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. Müller, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. Toon, V. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4 – 50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Biagioni, P.

F. Pezzoli, A. Giorgioni, K. Gallacher, F. Isa, P. Biagioni, R. W. Millar, E. Gatti, E. Grilli, E. Bonera, G. Isella, D. J. Paul, and L. Miglio, “Disentangling nonradiative recombination processes in Ge micro-crystals on Si substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108, 262103 (2016).
[Crossref]

L. Baldassarre, E. Sakat, J. Frigerio, A. Samarelli, K. Gallacher, E. Calandrini, G. Isella, D. J. Paul, M. Ortolani, and P. Biagioni, “Midinfrared plasmon-enhanced spectroscopy with germanium antennas on silicon substrates,” Nano Lett. 15, 7225–7231 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. J. Paul, K. Gallacher, R. W. Millar, V. Giliberti, E. Calandrini, L. Baldassarre, M. P. Fischer, J. Frigerio, A. Ballabio, E. Sakat, G. Pellegrini, D. Brida, G. Isella, M. Ortolani, and P. Biagioni, “n-Ge on Si for mid-infrared plasmonic sensors,” in 2017 IEEE Photonics Society Summer Topical Meeting Series (SUM), (2017), pp. 125–126.

Birk, M.

L. Rothman, I. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. Cohen, L. Coudert, V. Devi, B. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. L. Roy, G. Li, D. Long, O. Lyulin, C. Mackie, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. Müller, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. Toon, V. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4 – 50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bizzocchi, L.

L. Rothman, I. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. Cohen, L. Coudert, V. Devi, B. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. L. Roy, G. Li, D. Long, O. Lyulin, C. Mackie, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. Müller, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. Toon, V. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4 – 50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bonera, E.

F. Pezzoli, A. Giorgioni, K. Gallacher, F. Isa, P. Biagioni, R. W. Millar, E. Gatti, E. Grilli, E. Bonera, G. Isella, D. J. Paul, and L. Miglio, “Disentangling nonradiative recombination processes in Ge micro-crystals on Si substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108, 262103 (2016).
[Crossref]

Boudon, V.

L. Rothman, I. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. Cohen, L. Coudert, V. Devi, B. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. L. Roy, G. Li, D. Long, O. Lyulin, C. Mackie, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. Müller, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. Toon, V. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4 – 50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Boutami, S.

Brida, D.

D. J. Paul, K. Gallacher, R. W. Millar, V. Giliberti, E. Calandrini, L. Baldassarre, M. P. Fischer, J. Frigerio, A. Ballabio, E. Sakat, G. Pellegrini, D. Brida, G. Isella, M. Ortolani, and P. Biagioni, “n-Ge on Si for mid-infrared plasmonic sensors,” in 2017 IEEE Photonics Society Summer Topical Meeting Series (SUM), (2017), pp. 125–126.

Briggs, H. B.

H. B. Briggs and R. C. Fletcher, “New infrared absorption bands in p-type germanium,” Phys. Rev. 87, 1130–1131 (1952).
[Crossref]

Brown, L.

L. Rothman, I. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. Cohen, L. Coudert, V. Devi, B. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. L. Roy, G. Li, D. Long, O. Lyulin, C. Mackie, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. Müller, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. Toon, V. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4 – 50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bucio, T. D.

M. Nedeljkovic, J. S. Penadés, C. J. Mitchell, A. Z. Khokhar, S. Stankovic, T. D. Bucio, C. G. Littlejohns, F. Y. Gardes, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Surface-grating-coupled low-loss Ge-on-Si rib waveguides and multimode interferometers,” IEEE Photonic Tech L 27, 1040–1043 (2015).
[Crossref]

Calandrini, E.

L. Baldassarre, E. Sakat, J. Frigerio, A. Samarelli, K. Gallacher, E. Calandrini, G. Isella, D. J. Paul, M. Ortolani, and P. Biagioni, “Midinfrared plasmon-enhanced spectroscopy with germanium antennas on silicon substrates,” Nano Lett. 15, 7225–7231 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. J. Paul, K. Gallacher, R. W. Millar, V. Giliberti, E. Calandrini, L. Baldassarre, M. P. Fischer, J. Frigerio, A. Ballabio, E. Sakat, G. Pellegrini, D. Brida, G. Isella, M. Ortolani, and P. Biagioni, “n-Ge on Si for mid-infrared plasmonic sensors,” in 2017 IEEE Photonics Society Summer Topical Meeting Series (SUM), (2017), pp. 125–126.

Campargue, A.

L. Rothman, I. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. Cohen, L. Coudert, V. Devi, B. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. L. Roy, G. Li, D. Long, O. Lyulin, C. Mackie, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. Müller, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. Toon, V. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4 – 50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Cao, W.

Capellini, G.

L. Colace, G. Masini, F. Galluzzi, G. Assanto, G. Capellini, L. D. Gaspare, E. Palange, and F. Evangelisti, “Metal-Ge-Si heterostructures for near-infrared light detection,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 17, 465–467 (1999).
[Crossref]

Carpenter, L. G.

Chance, K.

L. Rothman, I. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. Cohen, L. Coudert, V. Devi, B. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. L. Roy, G. Li, D. Long, O. Lyulin, C. Mackie, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. Müller, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. Toon, V. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4 – 50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chang, Y. C.

Y. C. Chang, P. Wägli, V. Paeder, A. Homsy, L. Hvozdara, P. Van Der Wal, J. Di Francesco, N. F. De Rooij, and H. Peter Herzig, “Cocaine detection by a mid-infrared waveguide integrated with a microfluidic chip,” Lab Chip 12, 3020–3023 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chang, Y.-C.

Cheben, P.

Chou, J.

J. Chou, Hazardous Gas Monitors: A Practical Guide to Selection, Operation, and Applications (McGraw-Hill, New York, USA, 2000).

Cohen, E.

L. Rothman, I. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. Cohen, L. Coudert, V. Devi, B. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. L. Roy, G. Li, D. Long, O. Lyulin, C. Mackie, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. Müller, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. Toon, V. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4 – 50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Colace, L.

L. Colace, G. Masini, F. Galluzzi, G. Assanto, G. Capellini, L. D. Gaspare, E. Palange, and F. Evangelisti, “Metal-Ge-Si heterostructures for near-infrared light detection,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 17, 465–467 (1999).
[Crossref]

Connors, R.

E. R. Deutsch, P. Kotidis, N. Zhu, A. K. Goyal, J. Ye, A. Mazurenko, M. Norman, K. Zafiriou, M. Baier, and R. Connors, “Active and passive infrared spectroscopy for the detection of environmental threats,” Proc. SPIE 9106, 9106 (2014).

Coudert, L.

L. Rothman, I. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. Cohen, L. Coudert, V. Devi, B. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. L. Roy, G. Li, D. Long, O. Lyulin, C. Mackie, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. Müller, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. Toon, V. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4 – 50 (2013).
[Crossref]

De Rooij, N. F.

Y. C. Chang, P. Wägli, V. Paeder, A. Homsy, L. Hvozdara, P. Van Der Wal, J. Di Francesco, N. F. De Rooij, and H. Peter Herzig, “Cocaine detection by a mid-infrared waveguide integrated with a microfluidic chip,” Lab Chip 12, 3020–3023 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Detz, H.

B. Schwarz, P. Reininger, D. Ristanić, H. Detz, A. M. Andrews, W. Schrenk, and G. Strasser, “Monolithically integrated mid-infrared lab-on-a-chip using plasmonics and quantum cascade structures,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4085 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Deutsch, E. R.

E. R. Deutsch, P. Kotidis, N. Zhu, A. K. Goyal, J. Ye, A. Mazurenko, M. Norman, K. Zafiriou, M. Baier, and R. Connors, “Active and passive infrared spectroscopy for the detection of environmental threats,” Proc. SPIE 9106, 9106 (2014).

Devi, V.

L. Rothman, I. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. Cohen, L. Coudert, V. Devi, B. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. L. Roy, G. Li, D. Long, O. Lyulin, C. Mackie, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. Müller, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. Toon, V. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4 – 50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Di Francesco, J.

Y. C. Chang, P. Wägli, V. Paeder, A. Homsy, L. Hvozdara, P. Van Der Wal, J. Di Francesco, N. F. De Rooij, and H. Peter Herzig, “Cocaine detection by a mid-infrared waveguide integrated with a microfluidic chip,” Lab Chip 12, 3020–3023 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Docherty, K. E.

M. M. Mirza, H. Zhou, P. Velha, X. Li, K. E. Docherty, A. Samarelli, G. Ternent, and D. J. Paul, “Nanofabrication of high aspect ratio (∼50:1) sub-10 nm silicon nanowires using inductively coupled plasma etching,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 30, 06FF02 (2012).
[Crossref]

Dou, W.

J. Margetis, S. Al-Kabi, W. Du, W. Dou, Y. Zhou, T. Pham, P. Grant, S. Ghetmiri, A. Mosleh, B. Li, J. Liu, G. Sun, R. Soref, J. Tolle, M. Mortazavi, and S.-Q. Yu, “Si-Based GeSn lasers with wavelength coverage of 2 - 3 µ m and operating temperatures up to 180 K,” ACS Photonics 5, 827–833 (2018).
[Crossref]

Drouin, B.

L. Rothman, I. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. Cohen, L. Coudert, V. Devi, B. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. L. Roy, G. Li, D. Long, O. Lyulin, C. Mackie, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. Müller, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. Toon, V. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4 – 50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Du, W.

J. Margetis, S. Al-Kabi, W. Du, W. Dou, Y. Zhou, T. Pham, P. Grant, S. Ghetmiri, A. Mosleh, B. Li, J. Liu, G. Sun, R. Soref, J. Tolle, M. Mortazavi, and S.-Q. Yu, “Si-Based GeSn lasers with wavelength coverage of 2 - 3 µ m and operating temperatures up to 180 K,” ACS Photonics 5, 827–833 (2018).
[Crossref]

Dumas, D. C. S.

Evangelisti, F.

L. Colace, G. Masini, F. Galluzzi, G. Assanto, G. Capellini, L. D. Gaspare, E. Palange, and F. Evangelisti, “Metal-Ge-Si heterostructures for near-infrared light detection,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 17, 465–467 (1999).
[Crossref]

Fayt, A.

L. Rothman, I. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. Cohen, L. Coudert, V. Devi, B. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. L. Roy, G. Li, D. Long, O. Lyulin, C. Mackie, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. Müller, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. Toon, V. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4 – 50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Fedeli, J.-M.

Fischer, M. P.

D. J. Paul, K. Gallacher, R. W. Millar, V. Giliberti, E. Calandrini, L. Baldassarre, M. P. Fischer, J. Frigerio, A. Ballabio, E. Sakat, G. Pellegrini, D. Brida, G. Isella, M. Ortolani, and P. Biagioni, “n-Ge on Si for mid-infrared plasmonic sensors,” in 2017 IEEE Photonics Society Summer Topical Meeting Series (SUM), (2017), pp. 125–126.

Flaud, J.-M.

L. Rothman, I. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. Cohen, L. Coudert, V. Devi, B. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. L. Roy, G. Li, D. Long, O. Lyulin, C. Mackie, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. Müller, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. Toon, V. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4 – 50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Fletcher, R. C.

H. B. Briggs and R. C. Fletcher, “New infrared absorption bands in p-type germanium,” Phys. Rev. 87, 1130–1131 (1952).
[Crossref]

Frigerio, J.

K. Gallacher, A. Ballabio, R. W. Millar, J. Frigerio, A. Bashir, I. MacLaren, G. Isella, M. Ortolani, and D. J. Paul, “Mid-infrared intersubband absorption from p-Ge quantum wells grown on Si substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108, 091114 (2016).
[Crossref]

L. Baldassarre, E. Sakat, J. Frigerio, A. Samarelli, K. Gallacher, E. Calandrini, G. Isella, D. J. Paul, M. Ortolani, and P. Biagioni, “Midinfrared plasmon-enhanced spectroscopy with germanium antennas on silicon substrates,” Nano Lett. 15, 7225–7231 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. J. Paul, K. Gallacher, R. W. Millar, V. Giliberti, E. Calandrini, L. Baldassarre, M. P. Fischer, J. Frigerio, A. Ballabio, E. Sakat, G. Pellegrini, D. Brida, G. Isella, M. Ortolani, and P. Biagioni, “n-Ge on Si for mid-infrared plasmonic sensors,” in 2017 IEEE Photonics Society Summer Topical Meeting Series (SUM), (2017), pp. 125–126.

Gallacher, K.

K. Gallacher, A. Ballabio, R. W. Millar, J. Frigerio, A. Bashir, I. MacLaren, G. Isella, M. Ortolani, and D. J. Paul, “Mid-infrared intersubband absorption from p-Ge quantum wells grown on Si substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108, 091114 (2016).
[Crossref]

F. Pezzoli, A. Giorgioni, K. Gallacher, F. Isa, P. Biagioni, R. W. Millar, E. Gatti, E. Grilli, E. Bonera, G. Isella, D. J. Paul, and L. Miglio, “Disentangling nonradiative recombination processes in Ge micro-crystals on Si substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108, 262103 (2016).
[Crossref]

L. Baldassarre, E. Sakat, J. Frigerio, A. Samarelli, K. Gallacher, E. Calandrini, G. Isella, D. J. Paul, M. Ortolani, and P. Biagioni, “Midinfrared plasmon-enhanced spectroscopy with germanium antennas on silicon substrates,” Nano Lett. 15, 7225–7231 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. J. Paul, K. Gallacher, R. W. Millar, V. Giliberti, E. Calandrini, L. Baldassarre, M. P. Fischer, J. Frigerio, A. Ballabio, E. Sakat, G. Pellegrini, D. Brida, G. Isella, M. Ortolani, and P. Biagioni, “n-Ge on Si for mid-infrared plasmonic sensors,” in 2017 IEEE Photonics Society Summer Topical Meeting Series (SUM), (2017), pp. 125–126.

Gallacher, K. F.

Galluzzi, F.

L. Colace, G. Masini, F. Galluzzi, G. Assanto, G. Capellini, L. D. Gaspare, E. Palange, and F. Evangelisti, “Metal-Ge-Si heterostructures for near-infrared light detection,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 17, 465–467 (1999).
[Crossref]

Gamache, R.

L. Rothman, I. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. Cohen, L. Coudert, V. Devi, B. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. L. Roy, G. Li, D. Long, O. Lyulin, C. Mackie, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. Müller, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. Toon, V. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4 – 50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Gardes, F. Y.

M. Nedeljkovic, J. S. Penadés, C. J. Mitchell, A. Z. Khokhar, S. Stankovic, T. D. Bucio, C. G. Littlejohns, F. Y. Gardes, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Surface-grating-coupled low-loss Ge-on-Si rib waveguides and multimode interferometers,” IEEE Photonic Tech L 27, 1040–1043 (2015).
[Crossref]

Gaspare, L. D.

L. Colace, G. Masini, F. Galluzzi, G. Assanto, G. Capellini, L. D. Gaspare, E. Palange, and F. Evangelisti, “Metal-Ge-Si heterostructures for near-infrared light detection,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 17, 465–467 (1999).
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Gatti, E.

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B. Schwarz, P. Reininger, D. Ristanić, H. Detz, A. M. Andrews, W. Schrenk, and G. Strasser, “Monolithically integrated mid-infrared lab-on-a-chip using plasmonics and quantum cascade structures,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4085 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sciancalepore, C.

C. Bellegarde, E. Pargon, C. Sciancalepore, C. Petit-Etienne, V. Hugues, D. Robin-Brosse, J. M. Hartmann, and P. Lyan, “Improvement of sidewall roughness of submicron SOI waveguides by hydrogen plasma and annealing,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 30, 591–594 (2018).
[Crossref]

Sinobad, M.

Smith, M.

L. Rothman, I. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. Cohen, L. Coudert, V. Devi, B. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. L. Roy, G. Li, D. Long, O. Lyulin, C. Mackie, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. Müller, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. Toon, V. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4 – 50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Soref, R.

J. Margetis, S. Al-Kabi, W. Du, W. Dou, Y. Zhou, T. Pham, P. Grant, S. Ghetmiri, A. Mosleh, B. Li, J. Liu, G. Sun, R. Soref, J. Tolle, M. Mortazavi, and S.-Q. Yu, “Si-Based GeSn lasers with wavelength coverage of 2 - 3 µ m and operating temperatures up to 180 K,” ACS Photonics 5, 827–833 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. Nedeljkovic, R. Soref, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Predictions of free-carrier electroabsorption and electrorefraction in germanium,” IEEE Photonics J. 7, 1–14 (2015).
[Crossref]

N. K. Hon, R. Soref, and B. Jalali, “The third-order nonlinear optical coefficients of Si, Ge, and Si1−x Gex in the midwave and longwave infrared,” J. Appl. Phys. 110, 011301 (2011).
[Crossref]

R. Soref, “Mid-infrared photonics in silicon and germanium,” Nat. Photonics 4, 495–497 (2010).
[Crossref]

Sparacin, D. K.

D. K. Sparacin, S. J. Spector, and L. C. Kimerling, “Silicon waveguide sidewall smoothing by wet chemical oxidation,” J. Light. Technol. 23, 2455–2461 (2005).
[Crossref]

Spector, S. J.

D. K. Sparacin, S. J. Spector, and L. C. Kimerling, “Silicon waveguide sidewall smoothing by wet chemical oxidation,” J. Light. Technol. 23, 2455–2461 (2005).
[Crossref]

Stankovic, S.

M. Nedeljkovic, J. S. Penadés, C. J. Mitchell, A. Z. Khokhar, S. Stankovic, T. D. Bucio, C. G. Littlejohns, F. Y. Gardes, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Surface-grating-coupled low-loss Ge-on-Si rib waveguides and multimode interferometers,” IEEE Photonic Tech L 27, 1040–1043 (2015).
[Crossref]

Starikova, E.

L. Rothman, I. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. Cohen, L. Coudert, V. Devi, B. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. L. Roy, G. Li, D. Long, O. Lyulin, C. Mackie, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. Müller, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. Toon, V. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4 – 50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Strasser, G.

B. Schwarz, P. Reininger, D. Ristanić, H. Detz, A. M. Andrews, W. Schrenk, and G. Strasser, “Monolithically integrated mid-infrared lab-on-a-chip using plasmonics and quantum cascade structures,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4085 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sun, G.

J. Margetis, S. Al-Kabi, W. Du, W. Dou, Y. Zhou, T. Pham, P. Grant, S. Ghetmiri, A. Mosleh, B. Li, J. Liu, G. Sun, R. Soref, J. Tolle, M. Mortazavi, and S.-Q. Yu, “Si-Based GeSn lasers with wavelength coverage of 2 - 3 µ m and operating temperatures up to 180 K,” ACS Photonics 5, 827–833 (2018).
[Crossref]

Sung, K.

L. Rothman, I. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. Cohen, L. Coudert, V. Devi, B. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. L. Roy, G. Li, D. Long, O. Lyulin, C. Mackie, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. Müller, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. Toon, V. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4 – 50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Tashkun, S.

L. Rothman, I. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. Cohen, L. Coudert, V. Devi, B. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. L. Roy, G. Li, D. Long, O. Lyulin, C. Mackie, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. Müller, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. Toon, V. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4 – 50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Tennyson, J.

L. Rothman, I. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. Cohen, L. Coudert, V. Devi, B. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. L. Roy, G. Li, D. Long, O. Lyulin, C. Mackie, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. Müller, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. Toon, V. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4 – 50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ternent, G.

M. M. Mirza, H. Zhou, P. Velha, X. Li, K. E. Docherty, A. Samarelli, G. Ternent, and D. J. Paul, “Nanofabrication of high aspect ratio (∼50:1) sub-10 nm silicon nanowires using inductively coupled plasma etching,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 30, 06FF02 (2012).
[Crossref]

Tolle, J.

J. Margetis, S. Al-Kabi, W. Du, W. Dou, Y. Zhou, T. Pham, P. Grant, S. Ghetmiri, A. Mosleh, B. Li, J. Liu, G. Sun, R. Soref, J. Tolle, M. Mortazavi, and S.-Q. Yu, “Si-Based GeSn lasers with wavelength coverage of 2 - 3 µ m and operating temperatures up to 180 K,” ACS Photonics 5, 827–833 (2018).
[Crossref]

Toon, G.

L. Rothman, I. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. Cohen, L. Coudert, V. Devi, B. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. L. Roy, G. Li, D. Long, O. Lyulin, C. Mackie, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. Müller, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. Toon, V. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4 – 50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Troia, B.

Tyler, W. W.

R. Newman and W. W. Tyler, “Effect of impurities on free-hole infrared absorption in p-type germanium, ” Phys. Rev. 105, 885–886 (1957).
[Crossref]

Tyuterev, V.

L. Rothman, I. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. Cohen, L. Coudert, V. Devi, B. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. L. Roy, G. Li, D. Long, O. Lyulin, C. Mackie, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. Müller, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. Toon, V. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4 – 50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Van Der Wal, P.

Y. C. Chang, P. Wägli, V. Paeder, A. Homsy, L. Hvozdara, P. Van Der Wal, J. Di Francesco, N. F. De Rooij, and H. Peter Herzig, “Cocaine detection by a mid-infrared waveguide integrated with a microfluidic chip,” Lab Chip 12, 3020–3023 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Velha, P.

M. M. Mirza, H. Zhou, P. Velha, X. Li, K. E. Docherty, A. Samarelli, G. Ternent, and D. J. Paul, “Nanofabrication of high aspect ratio (∼50:1) sub-10 nm silicon nanowires using inductively coupled plasma etching,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 30, 06FF02 (2012).
[Crossref]

Wada, K.

Wägli, P.

Y. C. Chang, P. Wägli, V. Paeder, A. Homsy, L. Hvozdara, P. Van Der Wal, J. Di Francesco, N. F. De Rooij, and H. Peter Herzig, “Cocaine detection by a mid-infrared waveguide integrated with a microfluidic chip,” Lab Chip 12, 3020–3023 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wagner, G.

L. Rothman, I. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. Cohen, L. Coudert, V. Devi, B. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. L. Roy, G. Li, D. Long, O. Lyulin, C. Mackie, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. Müller, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. Toon, V. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4 – 50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wang, J.

Wangüemert-Pérez, J. G.

Wilkinson, J. S.

Xu, Y.

Yang, M.

Ye, J.

E. R. Deutsch, P. Kotidis, N. Zhu, A. K. Goyal, J. Ye, A. Mazurenko, M. Norman, K. Zafiriou, M. Baier, and R. Connors, “Active and passive infrared spectroscopy for the detection of environmental threats,” Proc. SPIE 9106, 9106 (2014).

Yu, S.-Q.

J. Margetis, S. Al-Kabi, W. Du, W. Dou, Y. Zhou, T. Pham, P. Grant, S. Ghetmiri, A. Mosleh, B. Li, J. Liu, G. Sun, R. Soref, J. Tolle, M. Mortazavi, and S.-Q. Yu, “Si-Based GeSn lasers with wavelength coverage of 2 - 3 µ m and operating temperatures up to 180 K,” ACS Photonics 5, 827–833 (2018).
[Crossref]

Zafiriou, K.

E. R. Deutsch, P. Kotidis, N. Zhu, A. K. Goyal, J. Ye, A. Mazurenko, M. Norman, K. Zafiriou, M. Baier, and R. Connors, “Active and passive infrared spectroscopy for the detection of environmental threats,” Proc. SPIE 9106, 9106 (2014).

Zhang, L.

Zhou, H.

M. M. Mirza, H. Zhou, P. Velha, X. Li, K. E. Docherty, A. Samarelli, G. Ternent, and D. J. Paul, “Nanofabrication of high aspect ratio (∼50:1) sub-10 nm silicon nanowires using inductively coupled plasma etching,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 30, 06FF02 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zhou, Y.

J. Margetis, S. Al-Kabi, W. Du, W. Dou, Y. Zhou, T. Pham, P. Grant, S. Ghetmiri, A. Mosleh, B. Li, J. Liu, G. Sun, R. Soref, J. Tolle, M. Mortazavi, and S.-Q. Yu, “Si-Based GeSn lasers with wavelength coverage of 2 - 3 µ m and operating temperatures up to 180 K,” ACS Photonics 5, 827–833 (2018).
[Crossref]

Zhu, N.

E. R. Deutsch, P. Kotidis, N. Zhu, A. K. Goyal, J. Ye, A. Mazurenko, M. Norman, K. Zafiriou, M. Baier, and R. Connors, “Active and passive infrared spectroscopy for the detection of environmental threats,” Proc. SPIE 9106, 9106 (2014).

ACS Photonics (1)

J. Margetis, S. Al-Kabi, W. Du, W. Dou, Y. Zhou, T. Pham, P. Grant, S. Ghetmiri, A. Mosleh, B. Li, J. Liu, G. Sun, R. Soref, J. Tolle, M. Mortazavi, and S.-Q. Yu, “Si-Based GeSn lasers with wavelength coverage of 2 - 3 µ m and operating temperatures up to 180 K,” ACS Photonics 5, 827–833 (2018).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

K. Gallacher, A. Ballabio, R. W. Millar, J. Frigerio, A. Bashir, I. MacLaren, G. Isella, M. Ortolani, and D. J. Paul, “Mid-infrared intersubband absorption from p-Ge quantum wells grown on Si substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108, 091114 (2016).
[Crossref]

F. Pezzoli, A. Giorgioni, K. Gallacher, F. Isa, P. Biagioni, R. W. Millar, E. Gatti, E. Grilli, E. Bonera, G. Isella, D. J. Paul, and L. Miglio, “Disentangling nonradiative recombination processes in Ge micro-crystals on Si substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108, 262103 (2016).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

C. Bellegarde, E. Pargon, C. Sciancalepore, C. Petit-Etienne, V. Hugues, D. Robin-Brosse, J. M. Hartmann, and P. Lyan, “Improvement of sidewall roughness of submicron SOI waveguides by hydrogen plasma and annealing,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 30, 591–594 (2018).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonic Tech L (1)

M. Nedeljkovic, J. S. Penadés, C. J. Mitchell, A. Z. Khokhar, S. Stankovic, T. D. Bucio, C. G. Littlejohns, F. Y. Gardes, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Surface-grating-coupled low-loss Ge-on-Si rib waveguides and multimode interferometers,” IEEE Photonic Tech L 27, 1040–1043 (2015).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics J. (1)

M. Nedeljkovic, R. Soref, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Predictions of free-carrier electroabsorption and electrorefraction in germanium,” IEEE Photonics J. 7, 1–14 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

N. K. Hon, R. Soref, and B. Jalali, “The third-order nonlinear optical coefficients of Si, Ge, and Si1−x Gex in the midwave and longwave infrared,” J. Appl. Phys. 110, 011301 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Light. Technol. (1)

D. K. Sparacin, S. J. Spector, and L. C. Kimerling, “Silicon waveguide sidewall smoothing by wet chemical oxidation,” J. Light. Technol. 23, 2455–2461 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. (1)

D. E. Hagan and A. P. Knights, “Mechanisms for optical loss in SOI waveguides for mid-infrared wavelengths around 2 µ m,” J. Opt. 19, 025801 (2017).
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H. H. Li, “Refractive index of silicon and germanium and its wavelength and temperature derivatives,” J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 9, 561–658 (1980).
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R. C. Newman, “Oxygen diffusion and precipitation in Czochralski silicon,” J. Physics: Condens. Matter 12, R335 (2000).

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L. Rothman, I. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. Cohen, L. Coudert, V. Devi, B. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. L. Roy, G. Li, D. Long, O. Lyulin, C. Mackie, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. Müller, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. Toon, V. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4 – 50 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B (2)

M. M. Mirza, H. Zhou, P. Velha, X. Li, K. E. Docherty, A. Samarelli, G. Ternent, and D. J. Paul, “Nanofabrication of high aspect ratio (∼50:1) sub-10 nm silicon nanowires using inductively coupled plasma etching,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 30, 06FF02 (2012).
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L. Colace, G. Masini, F. Galluzzi, G. Assanto, G. Capellini, L. D. Gaspare, E. Palange, and F. Evangelisti, “Metal-Ge-Si heterostructures for near-infrared light detection,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 17, 465–467 (1999).
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Y. C. Chang, P. Wägli, V. Paeder, A. Homsy, L. Hvozdara, P. Van Der Wal, J. Di Francesco, N. F. De Rooij, and H. Peter Herzig, “Cocaine detection by a mid-infrared waveguide integrated with a microfluidic chip,” Lab Chip 12, 3020–3023 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nano Lett. (1)

L. Baldassarre, E. Sakat, J. Frigerio, A. Samarelli, K. Gallacher, E. Calandrini, G. Isella, D. J. Paul, M. Ortolani, and P. Biagioni, “Midinfrared plasmon-enhanced spectroscopy with germanium antennas on silicon substrates,” Nano Lett. 15, 7225–7231 (2015).
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Nat. Commun. (1)

B. Schwarz, P. Reininger, D. Ristanić, H. Detz, A. M. Andrews, W. Schrenk, and G. Strasser, “Monolithically integrated mid-infrared lab-on-a-chip using plasmonics and quantum cascade structures,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4085 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (1)

R. Soref, “Mid-infrared photonics in silicon and germanium,” Nat. Photonics 4, 495–497 (2010).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (3)

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D. J. Paul, K. Gallacher, R. W. Millar, V. Giliberti, E. Calandrini, L. Baldassarre, M. P. Fischer, J. Frigerio, A. Ballabio, E. Sakat, G. Pellegrini, D. Brida, G. Isella, M. Ortolani, and P. Biagioni, “n-Ge on Si for mid-infrared plasmonic sensors,” in 2017 IEEE Photonics Society Summer Topical Meeting Series (SUM), (2017), pp. 125–126.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 The calculated free carrier absorption for different levels of n and p-type doping concentrations (units of cm−3) in Ge. Data from [22–25]. The inset shows the secondary ion mass spectrometry measurement of the phosphorous doping concentration in the 2 µm thick Ge epitaxial layers.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) A scanning electron microscope image showing the sidewall of a 1 µm deep etched Ge-on-Si rib-waveguide. (b) The modeled TE mode profile for a Ge-on-Si rib-waveguide at 8 µm wavelength.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) A schematic diagram showing the optical characterization setup. (b) The Fabry-Perot fringes observed from transmission through a 22.5 mm long Ge-on-Si rib waveguide, as the sample is thermally tuned. Thermal expansion of the stage causes a drift in the alignment, producing a slope in the raw data, which is subsequently corrected.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) - The propagation losses from a 4 µm wide Ge-on-Si rib waveguide for both transverse electric (TE) and transverse magnetic (TM) polarizations. The error bars denote the standard deviation of the losses calculated by successive Fabry-Perot fringes in the transmission measurement. (b) - The Si substrate absorption measured by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The corresponding waveguide loss caused by the optical overlap of the TE and TM modes in the Ge-on-Si rib waveguide with the Si substrate as modeled by Lumerical Mode Solutions.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) and (b) The measured waveguide loss (solid lines) and the calculated loss following the subtraction of the Si absorption (grey dashed lines), for TM and TE modes respectively. The data points are fitted with a second order polynomial. (c) The scattering losses as calculated by an analytical scattering model (Payne and Lacey) for a 4 µm wide fully etched ridge Ge-on-Si waveguide for three different rms roughness amplitude values. A correlation length of 150 nm was used.

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