Abstract

Following the very promising results obtained by the solar cell community, metal halide perovskite materials are increasingly attracting the attention of other optoelectronics researchers, especially for light emission applications. Lasing with both engineered and self-assembled resonator structures, such as microcrystal networks, has now been successfully observed, with the low cost and the simple solution-based process being a particular attraction. The ultimate in simplicity, however, would be to observe lasing from a continuous thin film, which has not been reported yet. Here, we show random lasing action from such a simple perovskite layer. Our lasers work at room temperature; they are deposited on unpatterned glass substrates and they exhibit a minimum threshold value of 10 µJ/cm2. By carefully controlling the solution processing conditions, we can determine whether random lasing occurs or not, using identical precursors. A rather special feature is that some of the films exhibit single and dual mode lasing action, which is rarely observed in random lasers. Our work fully exploits the simplicity of the solution-based process and thereby adds an important capability into the emerging field of perovskite-based light emitters.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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2017 (1)

N. Pourdavoud, S. Wang, A. Mayer, T. Hu, Y. Chen, A. Marianovich, W. Kowalsky, R. Heiderhoff, H. C. Scheer, and T. Riedl, “Photonic Nanostructures Patterned by Thermal Nanoimprint Directly into Organo-Metal Halide Perovskites,” Adv. Mater. 29(12), 1605003 (2017).
[PubMed]

2016 (8)

Y. Jia, R. A. Kerner, A. J. Grede, A. N. Brigeman, B. P. Rand, and N. C. Giebink, “Diode-Pumped Organo-Lead Halide Perovskite Lasing in a Metal-Clad Distributed Feedback Resonator,” Nano Lett. 16(7), 4624–4629 (2016).
[PubMed]

P. Brenner, M. Stulz, D. Kapp, T. Abzieher, U. W. Paetzold, A. Quintilla, A. Ian, H. Kalt, U. Lemmer, P. Brenner, M. Stulz, D. Kapp, and T. Abzieher, “Highly stable solution processed metal-halide perovskite lasers on nanoimprinted distributed feedback structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109, 141106 (2016).

M. Saliba, S. M. Wood, J. B. Patel, P. K. Nayak, J. Huang, J. A. Alexander-Webber, B. Wenger, S. D. Stranks, M. T. Hörantner, J. T. W. Wang, R. J. Nicholas, L. M. Herz, M. B. Johnston, S. M. Morris, H. J. Snaith, and M. K. Riede, “Structured Organic-Inorganic Perovskite toward a Distributed Feedback Laser,” Adv. Mater. 28(5), 923–929 (2016).
[PubMed]

S. A. Veldhuis, P. P. Boix, N. Yantara, M. Li, T. C. Sum, N. Mathews, and S. G. Mhaisalkar, “Perovskite Materials for Light-Emitting Diodes and Lasers,” Adv. Mater. 28(32), 6804–6834 (2016).
[PubMed]

H. Tsai, W. Nie, J.-C. Blancon, C. C. Stoumpos, R. Asadpour, B. Harutyunyan, A. J. Neukirch, R. Verduzco, J. J. Crochet, S. Tretiak, L. Pedesseau, J. Even, M. A. Alam, G. Gupta, J. Lou, P. M. Ajayan, M. J. Bedzyk, and M. G. Kanatzidis, “High-efficiency two-dimensional Ruddlesden-Popper perovskite solar cells,” Nature 536(7616), 312–316 (2016).
[PubMed]

G. L. Whitworth, J. R. Harwell, D. N. Miller, G. J. Hedley, W. Zhang, H. J. Snaith, G. A. Turnbull, and I. D. W. Samuel, “Nanoimprinted distributed feedback lasers of solution processed hybrid perovskites,” Opt. Express 24(21), 23677–23684 (2016).
[PubMed]

P. Docampo and T. Bein, “A Long-Term View on Perovskite Optoelectronics,” Acc. Chem. Res. 49(2), 339–346 (2016).
[PubMed]

J. Xing, F. Yan, Y. Zhao, S. Chen, H. Yu, Q. Zhang, R. Zeng, H. V. Demir, X. Sun, A. Huan, and Q. Xiong, “High-Efficiency Light-Emitting Diodes of Organometal Halide Perovskite Amorphous Nanoparticles,” ACS Nano 10(7), 6623–6630 (2016).
[PubMed]

2015 (9)

N. Yantara, S. Bhaumik, F. Yan, D. Sabba, H. A. Dewi, N. Mathews, P. P. Boix, H. V. Demir, and S. Mhaisalkar, “Inorganic Halide Perovskites for Efficient Light-Emitting Diodes,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 6(21), 4360–4364 (2015).
[PubMed]

C. Motta, F. El-Mellouhi, and S. Sanvito, “Charge carrier mobility in hybrid halide perovskites,” Sci. Rep. 5, 12746 (2015).
[PubMed]

H. Zhu, Y. Fu, F. Meng, X. Wu, Z. Gong, Q. Ding, M. V. Gustafsson, M. T. Trinh, S. Jin, and X. Y. Zhu, “Lead halide perovskite nanowire lasers with low lasing thresholds and high quality factors,” Nat. Mater. 14(6), 636–642 (2015).
[PubMed]

S. D. Stranks and H. J. Snaith, “Metal-halide perovskites for photovoltaic and light-emitting devices,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(5), 391–402 (2015).
[PubMed]

Y. Tian, A. Merdasa, E. Unger, M. Abdellah, K. Zheng, S. McKibbin, A. Mikkelsen, T. Pullerits, A. Yartsev, V. Sundström, and I. G. Scheblykin, “Enhanced Organo-Metal Halide Perovskite Photoluminescence from Nanosized Defect-Free Crystallites and Emitting Sites,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 6(20), 4171–4177 (2015).
[PubMed]

S. Yakunin, L. Protesescu, F. Krieg, M. I. Bodnarchuk, G. Nedelcu, M. Humer, G. De Luca, M. Fiebig, W. Heiss, and M. V. Kovalenko, “Low-threshold amplified spontaneous emission and lasing from colloidal nanocrystals of caesium lead halide perovskites,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8056–8064 (2015).
[PubMed]

L. Protesescu, S. Yakunin, M. I. Bodnarchuk, F. Krieg, R. Caputo, C. H. Hendon, R. X. Yang, A. Walsh, and M. V. Kovalenko, “Nanocrystals of Cesium Lead Halide Perovskites (CsPbX3, X = Cl, Br, and I): Novel Optoelectronic Materials Showing Bright Emission with Wide Color Gamut,” Nano Lett. 15(6), 3692–3696 (2015).
[PubMed]

L. Qin, L. Lv, Y. Ning, C. Li, Q. Lu, L. Zhu, Y. Hu, Z. Lou, F. Teng, and Y. Hou, “Enhanced amplified spontaneous emission from morphology-controlled organic-inorganic halide perovskite films,” RSC Advances 5, 103674 (2015).

Y. Zhou, M. Yang, W. Wu, A. L. Vasiliev, K. Zhu, and N. P. Padture, “Room-Temperature Crystallization of Hybrid-Perovskite Thin Films via Solvent-Solvent Extraction for High-Performance Solar Cells,” J. Mater. Chem. A Mater. Energy Sustain. 3, 8178–8184 (2015).

2014 (8)

Z. Xiao, C. Bi, Y. Shao, Q. Dong, Q. Wang, Y. Yuan, C. Wang, Y. Gao, and J. Huang, “Efficient, high yield perovskite photovoltaic devices grown by interdiffusion of solution-processed precursor stacking layers,” Energy Environ. Sci. 7(8), 2619 (2014).

C. Chiang, Z. Tseng, and C.-G. Wu, “Planar heterojunction perovskite/PC71BM solar cells with enhanced open-circuit voltage via a (2/1)-step spin-coating process,” J. Mater. Chem. A Mater. Energy Sustain. 2, 15897–15903 (2014).

Z. K. Tan, R. S. Moghaddam, M. L. Lai, P. Docampo, R. Higler, F. Deschler, M. Price, A. Sadhanala, L. M. Pazos, D. Credgington, F. Hanusch, T. Bein, H. J. Snaith, and R. H. Friend, “Bright light-emitting diodes based on organometal halide perovskite,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(9), 687–692 (2014).
[PubMed]

G. Xing, N. Mathews, S. S. Lim, N. Yantara, X. Liu, D. Sabba, M. Grätzel, S. Mhaisalkar, and T. C. Sum, “Low-temperature solution-processed wavelength-tunable perovskites for lasing,” Nat. Mater. 13(5), 476–480 (2014).
[PubMed]

T. S. Kao, Y. H. Chou, C. H. Chou, F. C. Chen, and T. C. Lu, “Lasing behaviors upon phase transition in solution-processed perovskite thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105, 231108 (2014).

R. Dhanker, A. N. Brigeman, A. V. Larsen, R. J. Stewart, J. B. Asbury, and N. C. Giebink, “Random lasing in organo-lead halide perovskite microcrystal networks,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105, 151112 (2014).

F. Deschler, M. Price, S. Pathak, L. E. Klintberg, D. D. Jarausch, R. Higler, S. Hüttner, T. Leijtens, S. D. Stranks, H. J. Snaith, M. Atatüre, R. T. Phillips, and R. H. Friend, “High photoluminescence efficiency and optically pumped lasing in solution-processed mixed halide perovskite semiconductors,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 5(8), 1421–1426 (2014).
[PubMed]

Q. Zhang, S. T. Ha, X. Liu, T. C. Sum, and Q. Xiong, “Room-Temperature Near-Infrared High-Q Perovskite Whispering-Gallery Planar Nanolasers,” Nano Lett. 14(10), 5995–6001 (2014).
[PubMed]

2013 (2)

J. Burschka, N. Pellet, S. J. Moon, R. Humphry-Baker, P. Gao, M. K. Nazeeruddin, and M. Grätzel, “Sequential deposition as a route to high-performance perovskite-sensitized solar cells,” Nature 499(7458), 316–319 (2013).
[PubMed]

T. Baikie, Y. Fang, J. M. Kadro, M. Schreyer, F. Wei, S. G. Mhaisalkar, M. Graetzeld, and T. J. White, “Synthesis and crystal chemistry of the hybrid perovskite (CH3NH3)PbI3 for solid-state sensitised solar cell applications,” J. Mater. Chem. A Mater. Energy Sustain. 1, 5628–5641 (2013).

2012 (1)

L. Etgar, P. Gao, Z. Xue, Q. Peng, A. K. Chandiran, B. Liu, M. K. Nazeeruddin, and M. Grätzel, “Mesoscopic CH3NH3PbI3/TiO2 Heterojunction Solar Cells,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 134(42), 17396–17399 (2012).
[PubMed]

2011 (1)

2010 (1)

Y. Wang, G. Tsiminis, Y. Yang, A. Ruseckas, and A. L. Kanibolotsky, “Broadly tunable deep blue laser based on a star-shaped oligofluorene truxene,” Synth. Met. 160, 1397–1400 (2010).

2004 (1)

S. F. Yu, C. Yuen, S. P. Lau, W. I. Park, and G. C. Yi, “Random laser action in ZnO nanorod arrays embedded in ZnO epilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(17), 3241–3243 (2004).

2003 (1)

H. Cao, J. Y. Xu, Y. Ling, A. L. Burin, E. W. Seeling, X. Liu, and R. P. H. Chang, “Random Lasers with Coherent Feedback,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9(1), 111–119 (2003).

1999 (1)

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, Q. H. Wang, and R. P. H. Chang, “Random laser action in semiconductor powder,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(11), 2278–2281 (1999).

Abdellah, M.

Y. Tian, A. Merdasa, E. Unger, M. Abdellah, K. Zheng, S. McKibbin, A. Mikkelsen, T. Pullerits, A. Yartsev, V. Sundström, and I. G. Scheblykin, “Enhanced Organo-Metal Halide Perovskite Photoluminescence from Nanosized Defect-Free Crystallites and Emitting Sites,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 6(20), 4171–4177 (2015).
[PubMed]

Abzieher, T.

P. Brenner, M. Stulz, D. Kapp, T. Abzieher, U. W. Paetzold, A. Quintilla, A. Ian, H. Kalt, U. Lemmer, P. Brenner, M. Stulz, D. Kapp, and T. Abzieher, “Highly stable solution processed metal-halide perovskite lasers on nanoimprinted distributed feedback structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109, 141106 (2016).

P. Brenner, M. Stulz, D. Kapp, T. Abzieher, U. W. Paetzold, A. Quintilla, A. Ian, H. Kalt, U. Lemmer, P. Brenner, M. Stulz, D. Kapp, and T. Abzieher, “Highly stable solution processed metal-halide perovskite lasers on nanoimprinted distributed feedback structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109, 141106 (2016).

Ajayan, P. M.

H. Tsai, W. Nie, J.-C. Blancon, C. C. Stoumpos, R. Asadpour, B. Harutyunyan, A. J. Neukirch, R. Verduzco, J. J. Crochet, S. Tretiak, L. Pedesseau, J. Even, M. A. Alam, G. Gupta, J. Lou, P. M. Ajayan, M. J. Bedzyk, and M. G. Kanatzidis, “High-efficiency two-dimensional Ruddlesden-Popper perovskite solar cells,” Nature 536(7616), 312–316 (2016).
[PubMed]

Alam, M. A.

H. Tsai, W. Nie, J.-C. Blancon, C. C. Stoumpos, R. Asadpour, B. Harutyunyan, A. J. Neukirch, R. Verduzco, J. J. Crochet, S. Tretiak, L. Pedesseau, J. Even, M. A. Alam, G. Gupta, J. Lou, P. M. Ajayan, M. J. Bedzyk, and M. G. Kanatzidis, “High-efficiency two-dimensional Ruddlesden-Popper perovskite solar cells,” Nature 536(7616), 312–316 (2016).
[PubMed]

Alexander-Webber, J. A.

M. Saliba, S. M. Wood, J. B. Patel, P. K. Nayak, J. Huang, J. A. Alexander-Webber, B. Wenger, S. D. Stranks, M. T. Hörantner, J. T. W. Wang, R. J. Nicholas, L. M. Herz, M. B. Johnston, S. M. Morris, H. J. Snaith, and M. K. Riede, “Structured Organic-Inorganic Perovskite toward a Distributed Feedback Laser,” Adv. Mater. 28(5), 923–929 (2016).
[PubMed]

Asadpour, R.

H. Tsai, W. Nie, J.-C. Blancon, C. C. Stoumpos, R. Asadpour, B. Harutyunyan, A. J. Neukirch, R. Verduzco, J. J. Crochet, S. Tretiak, L. Pedesseau, J. Even, M. A. Alam, G. Gupta, J. Lou, P. M. Ajayan, M. J. Bedzyk, and M. G. Kanatzidis, “High-efficiency two-dimensional Ruddlesden-Popper perovskite solar cells,” Nature 536(7616), 312–316 (2016).
[PubMed]

Asbury, J. B.

R. Dhanker, A. N. Brigeman, A. V. Larsen, R. J. Stewart, J. B. Asbury, and N. C. Giebink, “Random lasing in organo-lead halide perovskite microcrystal networks,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105, 151112 (2014).

Atatüre, M.

F. Deschler, M. Price, S. Pathak, L. E. Klintberg, D. D. Jarausch, R. Higler, S. Hüttner, T. Leijtens, S. D. Stranks, H. J. Snaith, M. Atatüre, R. T. Phillips, and R. H. Friend, “High photoluminescence efficiency and optically pumped lasing in solution-processed mixed halide perovskite semiconductors,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 5(8), 1421–1426 (2014).
[PubMed]

Baikie, T.

T. Baikie, Y. Fang, J. M. Kadro, M. Schreyer, F. Wei, S. G. Mhaisalkar, M. Graetzeld, and T. J. White, “Synthesis and crystal chemistry of the hybrid perovskite (CH3NH3)PbI3 for solid-state sensitised solar cell applications,” J. Mater. Chem. A Mater. Energy Sustain. 1, 5628–5641 (2013).

Bedzyk, M. J.

H. Tsai, W. Nie, J.-C. Blancon, C. C. Stoumpos, R. Asadpour, B. Harutyunyan, A. J. Neukirch, R. Verduzco, J. J. Crochet, S. Tretiak, L. Pedesseau, J. Even, M. A. Alam, G. Gupta, J. Lou, P. M. Ajayan, M. J. Bedzyk, and M. G. Kanatzidis, “High-efficiency two-dimensional Ruddlesden-Popper perovskite solar cells,” Nature 536(7616), 312–316 (2016).
[PubMed]

Bein, T.

P. Docampo and T. Bein, “A Long-Term View on Perovskite Optoelectronics,” Acc. Chem. Res. 49(2), 339–346 (2016).
[PubMed]

Z. K. Tan, R. S. Moghaddam, M. L. Lai, P. Docampo, R. Higler, F. Deschler, M. Price, A. Sadhanala, L. M. Pazos, D. Credgington, F. Hanusch, T. Bein, H. J. Snaith, and R. H. Friend, “Bright light-emitting diodes based on organometal halide perovskite,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(9), 687–692 (2014).
[PubMed]

Bhaumik, S.

N. Yantara, S. Bhaumik, F. Yan, D. Sabba, H. A. Dewi, N. Mathews, P. P. Boix, H. V. Demir, and S. Mhaisalkar, “Inorganic Halide Perovskites for Efficient Light-Emitting Diodes,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 6(21), 4360–4364 (2015).
[PubMed]

Bi, C.

Z. Xiao, C. Bi, Y. Shao, Q. Dong, Q. Wang, Y. Yuan, C. Wang, Y. Gao, and J. Huang, “Efficient, high yield perovskite photovoltaic devices grown by interdiffusion of solution-processed precursor stacking layers,” Energy Environ. Sci. 7(8), 2619 (2014).

Blancon, J.-C.

H. Tsai, W. Nie, J.-C. Blancon, C. C. Stoumpos, R. Asadpour, B. Harutyunyan, A. J. Neukirch, R. Verduzco, J. J. Crochet, S. Tretiak, L. Pedesseau, J. Even, M. A. Alam, G. Gupta, J. Lou, P. M. Ajayan, M. J. Bedzyk, and M. G. Kanatzidis, “High-efficiency two-dimensional Ruddlesden-Popper perovskite solar cells,” Nature 536(7616), 312–316 (2016).
[PubMed]

Bodnarchuk, M. I.

S. Yakunin, L. Protesescu, F. Krieg, M. I. Bodnarchuk, G. Nedelcu, M. Humer, G. De Luca, M. Fiebig, W. Heiss, and M. V. Kovalenko, “Low-threshold amplified spontaneous emission and lasing from colloidal nanocrystals of caesium lead halide perovskites,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8056–8064 (2015).
[PubMed]

L. Protesescu, S. Yakunin, M. I. Bodnarchuk, F. Krieg, R. Caputo, C. H. Hendon, R. X. Yang, A. Walsh, and M. V. Kovalenko, “Nanocrystals of Cesium Lead Halide Perovskites (CsPbX3, X = Cl, Br, and I): Novel Optoelectronic Materials Showing Bright Emission with Wide Color Gamut,” Nano Lett. 15(6), 3692–3696 (2015).
[PubMed]

Boix, P. P.

S. A. Veldhuis, P. P. Boix, N. Yantara, M. Li, T. C. Sum, N. Mathews, and S. G. Mhaisalkar, “Perovskite Materials for Light-Emitting Diodes and Lasers,” Adv. Mater. 28(32), 6804–6834 (2016).
[PubMed]

N. Yantara, S. Bhaumik, F. Yan, D. Sabba, H. A. Dewi, N. Mathews, P. P. Boix, H. V. Demir, and S. Mhaisalkar, “Inorganic Halide Perovskites for Efficient Light-Emitting Diodes,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 6(21), 4360–4364 (2015).
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Brenner, P.

P. Brenner, M. Stulz, D. Kapp, T. Abzieher, U. W. Paetzold, A. Quintilla, A. Ian, H. Kalt, U. Lemmer, P. Brenner, M. Stulz, D. Kapp, and T. Abzieher, “Highly stable solution processed metal-halide perovskite lasers on nanoimprinted distributed feedback structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109, 141106 (2016).

P. Brenner, M. Stulz, D. Kapp, T. Abzieher, U. W. Paetzold, A. Quintilla, A. Ian, H. Kalt, U. Lemmer, P. Brenner, M. Stulz, D. Kapp, and T. Abzieher, “Highly stable solution processed metal-halide perovskite lasers on nanoimprinted distributed feedback structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109, 141106 (2016).

Brigeman, A. N.

Y. Jia, R. A. Kerner, A. J. Grede, A. N. Brigeman, B. P. Rand, and N. C. Giebink, “Diode-Pumped Organo-Lead Halide Perovskite Lasing in a Metal-Clad Distributed Feedback Resonator,” Nano Lett. 16(7), 4624–4629 (2016).
[PubMed]

R. Dhanker, A. N. Brigeman, A. V. Larsen, R. J. Stewart, J. B. Asbury, and N. C. Giebink, “Random lasing in organo-lead halide perovskite microcrystal networks,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105, 151112 (2014).

Burin, A. L.

H. Cao, J. Y. Xu, Y. Ling, A. L. Burin, E. W. Seeling, X. Liu, and R. P. H. Chang, “Random Lasers with Coherent Feedback,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9(1), 111–119 (2003).

Burschka, J.

J. Burschka, N. Pellet, S. J. Moon, R. Humphry-Baker, P. Gao, M. K. Nazeeruddin, and M. Grätzel, “Sequential deposition as a route to high-performance perovskite-sensitized solar cells,” Nature 499(7458), 316–319 (2013).
[PubMed]

Cao, H.

H. Cao, J. Y. Xu, Y. Ling, A. L. Burin, E. W. Seeling, X. Liu, and R. P. H. Chang, “Random Lasers with Coherent Feedback,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9(1), 111–119 (2003).

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, Q. H. Wang, and R. P. H. Chang, “Random laser action in semiconductor powder,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(11), 2278–2281 (1999).

Caputo, R.

L. Protesescu, S. Yakunin, M. I. Bodnarchuk, F. Krieg, R. Caputo, C. H. Hendon, R. X. Yang, A. Walsh, and M. V. Kovalenko, “Nanocrystals of Cesium Lead Halide Perovskites (CsPbX3, X = Cl, Br, and I): Novel Optoelectronic Materials Showing Bright Emission with Wide Color Gamut,” Nano Lett. 15(6), 3692–3696 (2015).
[PubMed]

Chandiran, A. K.

L. Etgar, P. Gao, Z. Xue, Q. Peng, A. K. Chandiran, B. Liu, M. K. Nazeeruddin, and M. Grätzel, “Mesoscopic CH3NH3PbI3/TiO2 Heterojunction Solar Cells,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 134(42), 17396–17399 (2012).
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Chang, R. P. H.

H. Cao, J. Y. Xu, Y. Ling, A. L. Burin, E. W. Seeling, X. Liu, and R. P. H. Chang, “Random Lasers with Coherent Feedback,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9(1), 111–119 (2003).

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, Q. H. Wang, and R. P. H. Chang, “Random laser action in semiconductor powder,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(11), 2278–2281 (1999).

Chen, F. C.

T. S. Kao, Y. H. Chou, C. H. Chou, F. C. Chen, and T. C. Lu, “Lasing behaviors upon phase transition in solution-processed perovskite thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105, 231108 (2014).

Chen, S.

J. Xing, F. Yan, Y. Zhao, S. Chen, H. Yu, Q. Zhang, R. Zeng, H. V. Demir, X. Sun, A. Huan, and Q. Xiong, “High-Efficiency Light-Emitting Diodes of Organometal Halide Perovskite Amorphous Nanoparticles,” ACS Nano 10(7), 6623–6630 (2016).
[PubMed]

Chen, Y.

N. Pourdavoud, S. Wang, A. Mayer, T. Hu, Y. Chen, A. Marianovich, W. Kowalsky, R. Heiderhoff, H. C. Scheer, and T. Riedl, “Photonic Nanostructures Patterned by Thermal Nanoimprint Directly into Organo-Metal Halide Perovskites,” Adv. Mater. 29(12), 1605003 (2017).
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Chiang, C.

C. Chiang, Z. Tseng, and C.-G. Wu, “Planar heterojunction perovskite/PC71BM solar cells with enhanced open-circuit voltage via a (2/1)-step spin-coating process,” J. Mater. Chem. A Mater. Energy Sustain. 2, 15897–15903 (2014).

Chou, C. H.

T. S. Kao, Y. H. Chou, C. H. Chou, F. C. Chen, and T. C. Lu, “Lasing behaviors upon phase transition in solution-processed perovskite thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105, 231108 (2014).

Chou, Y. H.

T. S. Kao, Y. H. Chou, C. H. Chou, F. C. Chen, and T. C. Lu, “Lasing behaviors upon phase transition in solution-processed perovskite thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105, 231108 (2014).

Credgington, D.

Z. K. Tan, R. S. Moghaddam, M. L. Lai, P. Docampo, R. Higler, F. Deschler, M. Price, A. Sadhanala, L. M. Pazos, D. Credgington, F. Hanusch, T. Bein, H. J. Snaith, and R. H. Friend, “Bright light-emitting diodes based on organometal halide perovskite,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(9), 687–692 (2014).
[PubMed]

Crochet, J. J.

H. Tsai, W. Nie, J.-C. Blancon, C. C. Stoumpos, R. Asadpour, B. Harutyunyan, A. J. Neukirch, R. Verduzco, J. J. Crochet, S. Tretiak, L. Pedesseau, J. Even, M. A. Alam, G. Gupta, J. Lou, P. M. Ajayan, M. J. Bedzyk, and M. G. Kanatzidis, “High-efficiency two-dimensional Ruddlesden-Popper perovskite solar cells,” Nature 536(7616), 312–316 (2016).
[PubMed]

De Luca, G.

S. Yakunin, L. Protesescu, F. Krieg, M. I. Bodnarchuk, G. Nedelcu, M. Humer, G. De Luca, M. Fiebig, W. Heiss, and M. V. Kovalenko, “Low-threshold amplified spontaneous emission and lasing from colloidal nanocrystals of caesium lead halide perovskites,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8056–8064 (2015).
[PubMed]

Demir, H. V.

J. Xing, F. Yan, Y. Zhao, S. Chen, H. Yu, Q. Zhang, R. Zeng, H. V. Demir, X. Sun, A. Huan, and Q. Xiong, “High-Efficiency Light-Emitting Diodes of Organometal Halide Perovskite Amorphous Nanoparticles,” ACS Nano 10(7), 6623–6630 (2016).
[PubMed]

N. Yantara, S. Bhaumik, F. Yan, D. Sabba, H. A. Dewi, N. Mathews, P. P. Boix, H. V. Demir, and S. Mhaisalkar, “Inorganic Halide Perovskites for Efficient Light-Emitting Diodes,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 6(21), 4360–4364 (2015).
[PubMed]

Deschler, F.

F. Deschler, M. Price, S. Pathak, L. E. Klintberg, D. D. Jarausch, R. Higler, S. Hüttner, T. Leijtens, S. D. Stranks, H. J. Snaith, M. Atatüre, R. T. Phillips, and R. H. Friend, “High photoluminescence efficiency and optically pumped lasing in solution-processed mixed halide perovskite semiconductors,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 5(8), 1421–1426 (2014).
[PubMed]

Z. K. Tan, R. S. Moghaddam, M. L. Lai, P. Docampo, R. Higler, F. Deschler, M. Price, A. Sadhanala, L. M. Pazos, D. Credgington, F. Hanusch, T. Bein, H. J. Snaith, and R. H. Friend, “Bright light-emitting diodes based on organometal halide perovskite,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(9), 687–692 (2014).
[PubMed]

Dewi, H. A.

N. Yantara, S. Bhaumik, F. Yan, D. Sabba, H. A. Dewi, N. Mathews, P. P. Boix, H. V. Demir, and S. Mhaisalkar, “Inorganic Halide Perovskites for Efficient Light-Emitting Diodes,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 6(21), 4360–4364 (2015).
[PubMed]

Dhanker, R.

R. Dhanker, A. N. Brigeman, A. V. Larsen, R. J. Stewart, J. B. Asbury, and N. C. Giebink, “Random lasing in organo-lead halide perovskite microcrystal networks,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105, 151112 (2014).

Ding, Q.

H. Zhu, Y. Fu, F. Meng, X. Wu, Z. Gong, Q. Ding, M. V. Gustafsson, M. T. Trinh, S. Jin, and X. Y. Zhu, “Lead halide perovskite nanowire lasers with low lasing thresholds and high quality factors,” Nat. Mater. 14(6), 636–642 (2015).
[PubMed]

Docampo, P.

P. Docampo and T. Bein, “A Long-Term View on Perovskite Optoelectronics,” Acc. Chem. Res. 49(2), 339–346 (2016).
[PubMed]

Z. K. Tan, R. S. Moghaddam, M. L. Lai, P. Docampo, R. Higler, F. Deschler, M. Price, A. Sadhanala, L. M. Pazos, D. Credgington, F. Hanusch, T. Bein, H. J. Snaith, and R. H. Friend, “Bright light-emitting diodes based on organometal halide perovskite,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(9), 687–692 (2014).
[PubMed]

Dong, Q.

Z. Xiao, C. Bi, Y. Shao, Q. Dong, Q. Wang, Y. Yuan, C. Wang, Y. Gao, and J. Huang, “Efficient, high yield perovskite photovoltaic devices grown by interdiffusion of solution-processed precursor stacking layers,” Energy Environ. Sci. 7(8), 2619 (2014).

El-Mellouhi, F.

C. Motta, F. El-Mellouhi, and S. Sanvito, “Charge carrier mobility in hybrid halide perovskites,” Sci. Rep. 5, 12746 (2015).
[PubMed]

Etgar, L.

L. Etgar, P. Gao, Z. Xue, Q. Peng, A. K. Chandiran, B. Liu, M. K. Nazeeruddin, and M. Grätzel, “Mesoscopic CH3NH3PbI3/TiO2 Heterojunction Solar Cells,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 134(42), 17396–17399 (2012).
[PubMed]

Even, J.

H. Tsai, W. Nie, J.-C. Blancon, C. C. Stoumpos, R. Asadpour, B. Harutyunyan, A. J. Neukirch, R. Verduzco, J. J. Crochet, S. Tretiak, L. Pedesseau, J. Even, M. A. Alam, G. Gupta, J. Lou, P. M. Ajayan, M. J. Bedzyk, and M. G. Kanatzidis, “High-efficiency two-dimensional Ruddlesden-Popper perovskite solar cells,” Nature 536(7616), 312–316 (2016).
[PubMed]

Fang, Y.

T. Baikie, Y. Fang, J. M. Kadro, M. Schreyer, F. Wei, S. G. Mhaisalkar, M. Graetzeld, and T. J. White, “Synthesis and crystal chemistry of the hybrid perovskite (CH3NH3)PbI3 for solid-state sensitised solar cell applications,” J. Mater. Chem. A Mater. Energy Sustain. 1, 5628–5641 (2013).

Fiebig, M.

S. Yakunin, L. Protesescu, F. Krieg, M. I. Bodnarchuk, G. Nedelcu, M. Humer, G. De Luca, M. Fiebig, W. Heiss, and M. V. Kovalenko, “Low-threshold amplified spontaneous emission and lasing from colloidal nanocrystals of caesium lead halide perovskites,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8056–8064 (2015).
[PubMed]

Friend, R. H.

F. Deschler, M. Price, S. Pathak, L. E. Klintberg, D. D. Jarausch, R. Higler, S. Hüttner, T. Leijtens, S. D. Stranks, H. J. Snaith, M. Atatüre, R. T. Phillips, and R. H. Friend, “High photoluminescence efficiency and optically pumped lasing in solution-processed mixed halide perovskite semiconductors,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 5(8), 1421–1426 (2014).
[PubMed]

Z. K. Tan, R. S. Moghaddam, M. L. Lai, P. Docampo, R. Higler, F. Deschler, M. Price, A. Sadhanala, L. M. Pazos, D. Credgington, F. Hanusch, T. Bein, H. J. Snaith, and R. H. Friend, “Bright light-emitting diodes based on organometal halide perovskite,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(9), 687–692 (2014).
[PubMed]

Fu, Y.

H. Zhu, Y. Fu, F. Meng, X. Wu, Z. Gong, Q. Ding, M. V. Gustafsson, M. T. Trinh, S. Jin, and X. Y. Zhu, “Lead halide perovskite nanowire lasers with low lasing thresholds and high quality factors,” Nat. Mater. 14(6), 636–642 (2015).
[PubMed]

Gao, P.

J. Burschka, N. Pellet, S. J. Moon, R. Humphry-Baker, P. Gao, M. K. Nazeeruddin, and M. Grätzel, “Sequential deposition as a route to high-performance perovskite-sensitized solar cells,” Nature 499(7458), 316–319 (2013).
[PubMed]

L. Etgar, P. Gao, Z. Xue, Q. Peng, A. K. Chandiran, B. Liu, M. K. Nazeeruddin, and M. Grätzel, “Mesoscopic CH3NH3PbI3/TiO2 Heterojunction Solar Cells,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 134(42), 17396–17399 (2012).
[PubMed]

Gao, Y.

Z. Xiao, C. Bi, Y. Shao, Q. Dong, Q. Wang, Y. Yuan, C. Wang, Y. Gao, and J. Huang, “Efficient, high yield perovskite photovoltaic devices grown by interdiffusion of solution-processed precursor stacking layers,” Energy Environ. Sci. 7(8), 2619 (2014).

Giebink, N. C.

Y. Jia, R. A. Kerner, A. J. Grede, A. N. Brigeman, B. P. Rand, and N. C. Giebink, “Diode-Pumped Organo-Lead Halide Perovskite Lasing in a Metal-Clad Distributed Feedback Resonator,” Nano Lett. 16(7), 4624–4629 (2016).
[PubMed]

R. Dhanker, A. N. Brigeman, A. V. Larsen, R. J. Stewart, J. B. Asbury, and N. C. Giebink, “Random lasing in organo-lead halide perovskite microcrystal networks,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105, 151112 (2014).

Gong, Z.

H. Zhu, Y. Fu, F. Meng, X. Wu, Z. Gong, Q. Ding, M. V. Gustafsson, M. T. Trinh, S. Jin, and X. Y. Zhu, “Lead halide perovskite nanowire lasers with low lasing thresholds and high quality factors,” Nat. Mater. 14(6), 636–642 (2015).
[PubMed]

Graetzeld, M.

T. Baikie, Y. Fang, J. M. Kadro, M. Schreyer, F. Wei, S. G. Mhaisalkar, M. Graetzeld, and T. J. White, “Synthesis and crystal chemistry of the hybrid perovskite (CH3NH3)PbI3 for solid-state sensitised solar cell applications,” J. Mater. Chem. A Mater. Energy Sustain. 1, 5628–5641 (2013).

Grätzel, M.

G. Xing, N. Mathews, S. S. Lim, N. Yantara, X. Liu, D. Sabba, M. Grätzel, S. Mhaisalkar, and T. C. Sum, “Low-temperature solution-processed wavelength-tunable perovskites for lasing,” Nat. Mater. 13(5), 476–480 (2014).
[PubMed]

J. Burschka, N. Pellet, S. J. Moon, R. Humphry-Baker, P. Gao, M. K. Nazeeruddin, and M. Grätzel, “Sequential deposition as a route to high-performance perovskite-sensitized solar cells,” Nature 499(7458), 316–319 (2013).
[PubMed]

L. Etgar, P. Gao, Z. Xue, Q. Peng, A. K. Chandiran, B. Liu, M. K. Nazeeruddin, and M. Grätzel, “Mesoscopic CH3NH3PbI3/TiO2 Heterojunction Solar Cells,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 134(42), 17396–17399 (2012).
[PubMed]

Grede, A. J.

Y. Jia, R. A. Kerner, A. J. Grede, A. N. Brigeman, B. P. Rand, and N. C. Giebink, “Diode-Pumped Organo-Lead Halide Perovskite Lasing in a Metal-Clad Distributed Feedback Resonator,” Nano Lett. 16(7), 4624–4629 (2016).
[PubMed]

Gupta, G.

H. Tsai, W. Nie, J.-C. Blancon, C. C. Stoumpos, R. Asadpour, B. Harutyunyan, A. J. Neukirch, R. Verduzco, J. J. Crochet, S. Tretiak, L. Pedesseau, J. Even, M. A. Alam, G. Gupta, J. Lou, P. M. Ajayan, M. J. Bedzyk, and M. G. Kanatzidis, “High-efficiency two-dimensional Ruddlesden-Popper perovskite solar cells,” Nature 536(7616), 312–316 (2016).
[PubMed]

Gustafsson, M. V.

H. Zhu, Y. Fu, F. Meng, X. Wu, Z. Gong, Q. Ding, M. V. Gustafsson, M. T. Trinh, S. Jin, and X. Y. Zhu, “Lead halide perovskite nanowire lasers with low lasing thresholds and high quality factors,” Nat. Mater. 14(6), 636–642 (2015).
[PubMed]

Ha, S. T.

Q. Zhang, S. T. Ha, X. Liu, T. C. Sum, and Q. Xiong, “Room-Temperature Near-Infrared High-Q Perovskite Whispering-Gallery Planar Nanolasers,” Nano Lett. 14(10), 5995–6001 (2014).
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Hanusch, F.

Z. K. Tan, R. S. Moghaddam, M. L. Lai, P. Docampo, R. Higler, F. Deschler, M. Price, A. Sadhanala, L. M. Pazos, D. Credgington, F. Hanusch, T. Bein, H. J. Snaith, and R. H. Friend, “Bright light-emitting diodes based on organometal halide perovskite,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(9), 687–692 (2014).
[PubMed]

Harutyunyan, B.

H. Tsai, W. Nie, J.-C. Blancon, C. C. Stoumpos, R. Asadpour, B. Harutyunyan, A. J. Neukirch, R. Verduzco, J. J. Crochet, S. Tretiak, L. Pedesseau, J. Even, M. A. Alam, G. Gupta, J. Lou, P. M. Ajayan, M. J. Bedzyk, and M. G. Kanatzidis, “High-efficiency two-dimensional Ruddlesden-Popper perovskite solar cells,” Nature 536(7616), 312–316 (2016).
[PubMed]

Harwell, J. R.

Hedley, G. J.

Heiderhoff, R.

N. Pourdavoud, S. Wang, A. Mayer, T. Hu, Y. Chen, A. Marianovich, W. Kowalsky, R. Heiderhoff, H. C. Scheer, and T. Riedl, “Photonic Nanostructures Patterned by Thermal Nanoimprint Directly into Organo-Metal Halide Perovskites,” Adv. Mater. 29(12), 1605003 (2017).
[PubMed]

Heiss, W.

S. Yakunin, L. Protesescu, F. Krieg, M. I. Bodnarchuk, G. Nedelcu, M. Humer, G. De Luca, M. Fiebig, W. Heiss, and M. V. Kovalenko, “Low-threshold amplified spontaneous emission and lasing from colloidal nanocrystals of caesium lead halide perovskites,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8056–8064 (2015).
[PubMed]

Hendon, C. H.

L. Protesescu, S. Yakunin, M. I. Bodnarchuk, F. Krieg, R. Caputo, C. H. Hendon, R. X. Yang, A. Walsh, and M. V. Kovalenko, “Nanocrystals of Cesium Lead Halide Perovskites (CsPbX3, X = Cl, Br, and I): Novel Optoelectronic Materials Showing Bright Emission with Wide Color Gamut,” Nano Lett. 15(6), 3692–3696 (2015).
[PubMed]

Herz, L. M.

M. Saliba, S. M. Wood, J. B. Patel, P. K. Nayak, J. Huang, J. A. Alexander-Webber, B. Wenger, S. D. Stranks, M. T. Hörantner, J. T. W. Wang, R. J. Nicholas, L. M. Herz, M. B. Johnston, S. M. Morris, H. J. Snaith, and M. K. Riede, “Structured Organic-Inorganic Perovskite toward a Distributed Feedback Laser,” Adv. Mater. 28(5), 923–929 (2016).
[PubMed]

Higler, R.

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P. Brenner, M. Stulz, D. Kapp, T. Abzieher, U. W. Paetzold, A. Quintilla, A. Ian, H. Kalt, U. Lemmer, P. Brenner, M. Stulz, D. Kapp, and T. Abzieher, “Highly stable solution processed metal-halide perovskite lasers on nanoimprinted distributed feedback structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109, 141106 (2016).

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Kerner, R. A.

Y. Jia, R. A. Kerner, A. J. Grede, A. N. Brigeman, B. P. Rand, and N. C. Giebink, “Diode-Pumped Organo-Lead Halide Perovskite Lasing in a Metal-Clad Distributed Feedback Resonator,” Nano Lett. 16(7), 4624–4629 (2016).
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L. Qin, L. Lv, Y. Ning, C. Li, Q. Lu, L. Zhu, Y. Hu, Z. Lou, F. Teng, and Y. Hou, “Enhanced amplified spontaneous emission from morphology-controlled organic-inorganic halide perovskite films,” RSC Advances 5, 103674 (2015).

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L. Qin, L. Lv, Y. Ning, C. Li, Q. Lu, L. Zhu, Y. Hu, Z. Lou, F. Teng, and Y. Hou, “Enhanced amplified spontaneous emission from morphology-controlled organic-inorganic halide perovskite films,” RSC Advances 5, 103674 (2015).

Marianovich, A.

N. Pourdavoud, S. Wang, A. Mayer, T. Hu, Y. Chen, A. Marianovich, W. Kowalsky, R. Heiderhoff, H. C. Scheer, and T. Riedl, “Photonic Nanostructures Patterned by Thermal Nanoimprint Directly into Organo-Metal Halide Perovskites,” Adv. Mater. 29(12), 1605003 (2017).
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Y. Tian, A. Merdasa, E. Unger, M. Abdellah, K. Zheng, S. McKibbin, A. Mikkelsen, T. Pullerits, A. Yartsev, V. Sundström, and I. G. Scheblykin, “Enhanced Organo-Metal Halide Perovskite Photoluminescence from Nanosized Defect-Free Crystallites and Emitting Sites,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 6(20), 4171–4177 (2015).
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H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, Q. H. Wang, and R. P. H. Chang, “Random laser action in semiconductor powder,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(11), 2278–2281 (1999).

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N. Pourdavoud, S. Wang, A. Mayer, T. Hu, Y. Chen, A. Marianovich, W. Kowalsky, R. Heiderhoff, H. C. Scheer, and T. Riedl, “Photonic Nanostructures Patterned by Thermal Nanoimprint Directly into Organo-Metal Halide Perovskites,” Adv. Mater. 29(12), 1605003 (2017).
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M. Saliba, S. M. Wood, J. B. Patel, P. K. Nayak, J. Huang, J. A. Alexander-Webber, B. Wenger, S. D. Stranks, M. T. Hörantner, J. T. W. Wang, R. J. Nicholas, L. M. Herz, M. B. Johnston, S. M. Morris, H. J. Snaith, and M. K. Riede, “Structured Organic-Inorganic Perovskite toward a Distributed Feedback Laser,” Adv. Mater. 28(5), 923–929 (2016).
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Y. Zhou, M. Yang, W. Wu, A. L. Vasiliev, K. Zhu, and N. P. Padture, “Room-Temperature Crystallization of Hybrid-Perovskite Thin Films via Solvent-Solvent Extraction for High-Performance Solar Cells,” J. Mater. Chem. A Mater. Energy Sustain. 3, 8178–8184 (2015).

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H. Zhu, Y. Fu, F. Meng, X. Wu, Z. Gong, Q. Ding, M. V. Gustafsson, M. T. Trinh, S. Jin, and X. Y. Zhu, “Lead halide perovskite nanowire lasers with low lasing thresholds and high quality factors,” Nat. Mater. 14(6), 636–642 (2015).
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G. Xing, N. Mathews, S. S. Lim, N. Yantara, X. Liu, D. Sabba, M. Grätzel, S. Mhaisalkar, and T. C. Sum, “Low-temperature solution-processed wavelength-tunable perovskites for lasing,” Nat. Mater. 13(5), 476–480 (2014).
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J. Xing, F. Yan, Y. Zhao, S. Chen, H. Yu, Q. Zhang, R. Zeng, H. V. Demir, X. Sun, A. Huan, and Q. Xiong, “High-Efficiency Light-Emitting Diodes of Organometal Halide Perovskite Amorphous Nanoparticles,” ACS Nano 10(7), 6623–6630 (2016).
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Q. Zhang, S. T. Ha, X. Liu, T. C. Sum, and Q. Xiong, “Room-Temperature Near-Infrared High-Q Perovskite Whispering-Gallery Planar Nanolasers,” Nano Lett. 14(10), 5995–6001 (2014).
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L. Etgar, P. Gao, Z. Xue, Q. Peng, A. K. Chandiran, B. Liu, M. K. Nazeeruddin, and M. Grätzel, “Mesoscopic CH3NH3PbI3/TiO2 Heterojunction Solar Cells,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 134(42), 17396–17399 (2012).
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Y. Zhou, M. Yang, W. Wu, A. L. Vasiliev, K. Zhu, and N. P. Padture, “Room-Temperature Crystallization of Hybrid-Perovskite Thin Films via Solvent-Solvent Extraction for High-Performance Solar Cells,” J. Mater. Chem. A Mater. Energy Sustain. 3, 8178–8184 (2015).

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L. Protesescu, S. Yakunin, M. I. Bodnarchuk, F. Krieg, R. Caputo, C. H. Hendon, R. X. Yang, A. Walsh, and M. V. Kovalenko, “Nanocrystals of Cesium Lead Halide Perovskites (CsPbX3, X = Cl, Br, and I): Novel Optoelectronic Materials Showing Bright Emission with Wide Color Gamut,” Nano Lett. 15(6), 3692–3696 (2015).
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Y. Wang, G. Tsiminis, Y. Yang, A. Ruseckas, and A. L. Kanibolotsky, “Broadly tunable deep blue laser based on a star-shaped oligofluorene truxene,” Synth. Met. 160, 1397–1400 (2010).

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S. A. Veldhuis, P. P. Boix, N. Yantara, M. Li, T. C. Sum, N. Mathews, and S. G. Mhaisalkar, “Perovskite Materials for Light-Emitting Diodes and Lasers,” Adv. Mater. 28(32), 6804–6834 (2016).
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J. Xing, F. Yan, Y. Zhao, S. Chen, H. Yu, Q. Zhang, R. Zeng, H. V. Demir, X. Sun, A. Huan, and Q. Xiong, “High-Efficiency Light-Emitting Diodes of Organometal Halide Perovskite Amorphous Nanoparticles,” ACS Nano 10(7), 6623–6630 (2016).
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S. F. Yu, C. Yuen, S. P. Lau, W. I. Park, and G. C. Yi, “Random laser action in ZnO nanorod arrays embedded in ZnO epilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(17), 3241–3243 (2004).

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Z. Xiao, C. Bi, Y. Shao, Q. Dong, Q. Wang, Y. Yuan, C. Wang, Y. Gao, and J. Huang, “Efficient, high yield perovskite photovoltaic devices grown by interdiffusion of solution-processed precursor stacking layers,” Energy Environ. Sci. 7(8), 2619 (2014).

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S. F. Yu, C. Yuen, S. P. Lau, W. I. Park, and G. C. Yi, “Random laser action in ZnO nanorod arrays embedded in ZnO epilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(17), 3241–3243 (2004).

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J. Xing, F. Yan, Y. Zhao, S. Chen, H. Yu, Q. Zhang, R. Zeng, H. V. Demir, X. Sun, A. Huan, and Q. Xiong, “High-Efficiency Light-Emitting Diodes of Organometal Halide Perovskite Amorphous Nanoparticles,” ACS Nano 10(7), 6623–6630 (2016).
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J. Xing, F. Yan, Y. Zhao, S. Chen, H. Yu, Q. Zhang, R. Zeng, H. V. Demir, X. Sun, A. Huan, and Q. Xiong, “High-Efficiency Light-Emitting Diodes of Organometal Halide Perovskite Amorphous Nanoparticles,” ACS Nano 10(7), 6623–6630 (2016).
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Q. Zhang, S. T. Ha, X. Liu, T. C. Sum, and Q. Xiong, “Room-Temperature Near-Infrared High-Q Perovskite Whispering-Gallery Planar Nanolasers,” Nano Lett. 14(10), 5995–6001 (2014).
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J. Xing, F. Yan, Y. Zhao, S. Chen, H. Yu, Q. Zhang, R. Zeng, H. V. Demir, X. Sun, A. Huan, and Q. Xiong, “High-Efficiency Light-Emitting Diodes of Organometal Halide Perovskite Amorphous Nanoparticles,” ACS Nano 10(7), 6623–6630 (2016).
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H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, Q. H. Wang, and R. P. H. Chang, “Random laser action in semiconductor powder,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(11), 2278–2281 (1999).

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Y. Tian, A. Merdasa, E. Unger, M. Abdellah, K. Zheng, S. McKibbin, A. Mikkelsen, T. Pullerits, A. Yartsev, V. Sundström, and I. G. Scheblykin, “Enhanced Organo-Metal Halide Perovskite Photoluminescence from Nanosized Defect-Free Crystallites and Emitting Sites,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 6(20), 4171–4177 (2015).
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Y. Zhou, M. Yang, W. Wu, A. L. Vasiliev, K. Zhu, and N. P. Padture, “Room-Temperature Crystallization of Hybrid-Perovskite Thin Films via Solvent-Solvent Extraction for High-Performance Solar Cells,” J. Mater. Chem. A Mater. Energy Sustain. 3, 8178–8184 (2015).

Zhu, H.

H. Zhu, Y. Fu, F. Meng, X. Wu, Z. Gong, Q. Ding, M. V. Gustafsson, M. T. Trinh, S. Jin, and X. Y. Zhu, “Lead halide perovskite nanowire lasers with low lasing thresholds and high quality factors,” Nat. Mater. 14(6), 636–642 (2015).
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Y. Zhou, M. Yang, W. Wu, A. L. Vasiliev, K. Zhu, and N. P. Padture, “Room-Temperature Crystallization of Hybrid-Perovskite Thin Films via Solvent-Solvent Extraction for High-Performance Solar Cells,” J. Mater. Chem. A Mater. Energy Sustain. 3, 8178–8184 (2015).

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L. Qin, L. Lv, Y. Ning, C. Li, Q. Lu, L. Zhu, Y. Hu, Z. Lou, F. Teng, and Y. Hou, “Enhanced amplified spontaneous emission from morphology-controlled organic-inorganic halide perovskite films,” RSC Advances 5, 103674 (2015).

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H. Zhu, Y. Fu, F. Meng, X. Wu, Z. Gong, Q. Ding, M. V. Gustafsson, M. T. Trinh, S. Jin, and X. Y. Zhu, “Lead halide perovskite nanowire lasers with low lasing thresholds and high quality factors,” Nat. Mater. 14(6), 636–642 (2015).
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J. Xing, F. Yan, Y. Zhao, S. Chen, H. Yu, Q. Zhang, R. Zeng, H. V. Demir, X. Sun, A. Huan, and Q. Xiong, “High-Efficiency Light-Emitting Diodes of Organometal Halide Perovskite Amorphous Nanoparticles,” ACS Nano 10(7), 6623–6630 (2016).
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M. Saliba, S. M. Wood, J. B. Patel, P. K. Nayak, J. Huang, J. A. Alexander-Webber, B. Wenger, S. D. Stranks, M. T. Hörantner, J. T. W. Wang, R. J. Nicholas, L. M. Herz, M. B. Johnston, S. M. Morris, H. J. Snaith, and M. K. Riede, “Structured Organic-Inorganic Perovskite toward a Distributed Feedback Laser,” Adv. Mater. 28(5), 923–929 (2016).
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Energy Environ. Sci. (1)

Z. Xiao, C. Bi, Y. Shao, Q. Dong, Q. Wang, Y. Yuan, C. Wang, Y. Gao, and J. Huang, “Efficient, high yield perovskite photovoltaic devices grown by interdiffusion of solution-processed precursor stacking layers,” Energy Environ. Sci. 7(8), 2619 (2014).

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H. Cao, J. Y. Xu, Y. Ling, A. L. Burin, E. W. Seeling, X. Liu, and R. P. H. Chang, “Random Lasers with Coherent Feedback,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9(1), 111–119 (2003).

J. Am. Chem. Soc. (1)

L. Etgar, P. Gao, Z. Xue, Q. Peng, A. K. Chandiran, B. Liu, M. K. Nazeeruddin, and M. Grätzel, “Mesoscopic CH3NH3PbI3/TiO2 Heterojunction Solar Cells,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 134(42), 17396–17399 (2012).
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C. Chiang, Z. Tseng, and C.-G. Wu, “Planar heterojunction perovskite/PC71BM solar cells with enhanced open-circuit voltage via a (2/1)-step spin-coating process,” J. Mater. Chem. A Mater. Energy Sustain. 2, 15897–15903 (2014).

T. Baikie, Y. Fang, J. M. Kadro, M. Schreyer, F. Wei, S. G. Mhaisalkar, M. Graetzeld, and T. J. White, “Synthesis and crystal chemistry of the hybrid perovskite (CH3NH3)PbI3 for solid-state sensitised solar cell applications,” J. Mater. Chem. A Mater. Energy Sustain. 1, 5628–5641 (2013).

Y. Zhou, M. Yang, W. Wu, A. L. Vasiliev, K. Zhu, and N. P. Padture, “Room-Temperature Crystallization of Hybrid-Perovskite Thin Films via Solvent-Solvent Extraction for High-Performance Solar Cells,” J. Mater. Chem. A Mater. Energy Sustain. 3, 8178–8184 (2015).

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Y. Tian, A. Merdasa, E. Unger, M. Abdellah, K. Zheng, S. McKibbin, A. Mikkelsen, T. Pullerits, A. Yartsev, V. Sundström, and I. G. Scheblykin, “Enhanced Organo-Metal Halide Perovskite Photoluminescence from Nanosized Defect-Free Crystallites and Emitting Sites,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 6(20), 4171–4177 (2015).
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Nano Lett. (3)

Q. Zhang, S. T. Ha, X. Liu, T. C. Sum, and Q. Xiong, “Room-Temperature Near-Infrared High-Q Perovskite Whispering-Gallery Planar Nanolasers,” Nano Lett. 14(10), 5995–6001 (2014).
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Nat. Commun. (1)

S. Yakunin, L. Protesescu, F. Krieg, M. I. Bodnarchuk, G. Nedelcu, M. Humer, G. De Luca, M. Fiebig, W. Heiss, and M. V. Kovalenko, “Low-threshold amplified spontaneous emission and lasing from colloidal nanocrystals of caesium lead halide perovskites,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8056–8064 (2015).
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H. Zhu, Y. Fu, F. Meng, X. Wu, Z. Gong, Q. Ding, M. V. Gustafsson, M. T. Trinh, S. Jin, and X. Y. Zhu, “Lead halide perovskite nanowire lasers with low lasing thresholds and high quality factors,” Nat. Mater. 14(6), 636–642 (2015).
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G. Xing, N. Mathews, S. S. Lim, N. Yantara, X. Liu, D. Sabba, M. Grätzel, S. Mhaisalkar, and T. C. Sum, “Low-temperature solution-processed wavelength-tunable perovskites for lasing,” Nat. Mater. 13(5), 476–480 (2014).
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Nature (2)

J. Burschka, N. Pellet, S. J. Moon, R. Humphry-Baker, P. Gao, M. K. Nazeeruddin, and M. Grätzel, “Sequential deposition as a route to high-performance perovskite-sensitized solar cells,” Nature 499(7458), 316–319 (2013).
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Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, Q. H. Wang, and R. P. H. Chang, “Random laser action in semiconductor powder,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(11), 2278–2281 (1999).

RSC Advances (1)

L. Qin, L. Lv, Y. Ning, C. Li, Q. Lu, L. Zhu, Y. Hu, Z. Lou, F. Teng, and Y. Hou, “Enhanced amplified spontaneous emission from morphology-controlled organic-inorganic halide perovskite films,” RSC Advances 5, 103674 (2015).

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[PubMed]

Synth. Met. (1)

Y. Wang, G. Tsiminis, Y. Yang, A. Ruseckas, and A. L. Kanibolotsky, “Broadly tunable deep blue laser based on a star-shaped oligofluorene truxene,” Synth. Met. 160, 1397–1400 (2010).

Other (1)

D. Wiersma, “Light in strongly scattering and amplifying random media,” (1995).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Output emission spectra of perovskite films produced by the four methods, collected at an excitation energy of 212 µJ/cm2. The inset shows multimode lasing observed for a higher resolution scan with a film prepared using Method B3.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Morphology comparison for four different fabrication methods. (a): SEM image of perovskite film synthesized by the double deposition step method (Method A). (b): SEM image of perovskite film synthesized via solvent extraction method with 0 sec dip time (Method B1). (c) and (d): SEM images of perovskite films synthesized via solvent extraction method with 3 second (Method B2) and 120 second (Method B3) dip time; (e-h): AFM images of films produced by Method A, B1, B2 and B3; (i-j): cross-sectional SEM images of films produced by Method A and Method B3, viewed at an angle of 45°.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 X-ray diffraction patterns of tetragonal-phase iodide based perovskite films synthesized by four methods.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Random lasing observed in a perovskite uniform thin film: (a) Single mode lasing; (b) Dual mode lasing; and (c) Multimode random lasing. All spectra were taken from the same film prepared by Method B3, under a fixed excitation intensity of 13.4 µJ/cm2.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 All spectra collected are from Method B3 (120 sec) films. (a) Surface emission spectra for a film excited with a circular excitation spot with a diameter of 1.33 mm, with a laser threshold of 11 µJ/cm2 shown in (c) along with its Full Width Half Maximum (FWHM); (b) Amplified spontaneous emission spectra of films excited with a narrow stripe in 1.6 x 0.4 mm2 dimension and detected from the edge of the sample. The ASE threshold of 39 µJ/cm2 is shown in (d).
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Lasing stability of random laser for 500 Hz pumping rate.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 (a) Variable stripe length method based measurements for gain coefficient in perovskite films; (b) output emission intensity as a function of un-pumped region distant from the edge of the sample to determine loss coefficients in samples prepared by Method A, B2 and B3.

Tables (2)

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Table 1 Synthesis parameters for the four methods illustrated in Figs. 1 and 2.

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Table 2 ASE threshold and the gain and loss coefficient values.

Equations (2)

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I(λ)= A I ο g(λ) ( exp g(λ)L 1),
I= I ο e (αx) ,

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