Abstract

Solution processed organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites are emerging as a new generation materials for optoelectronics. However, the electroluminescence is highly limited in light emitting diodes (LED) due to the low exciton binding energy and the great challenge in stability. Here, we demonstrate a super air stable quasi-two dimensional perovskite film employing hydrophobic fluorine-containing organics as barrier layers, which can store in ambient for more than 4 months with no change. The dramatically reduced grain size of the perovskite crystal in contrast to three dimensional (3D) perovskites was achieved. Together with the natural quantum well of quasi-two dimensional perovskite confining the excitons to recombination, the LED exhibited the maximum luminance of 1.2 × 103 cd/m2 and current efficiency up to 0.3 cd/A, which is twenty fold enhancement than that of LED based on 3D analogues under the same condition.

© 2017 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

Full Article  |  PDF Article
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    [PubMed]
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    [PubMed]

2017 (6)

G. Xing, B. Wu, X. Wu, M. Li, B. Du, Q. Wei, J. Guo, E. K. L. Yeow, T. C. Sum, and W. Huang, “Transcending the slow bimolecular recombination in lead-halide perovskites for electroluminescence,” Nat. Commun. 8, 14558 (2017).
[PubMed]

Z. Xiao, R. A. Kerner, L. Zhao, N. L. Tran, K. M. Lee, T. Koh, G. D. Scholes, and B. P. Rand, “Efficient perovskite light-emitting diodes featuring nanometre-sized crystallites,” Nat. Photonics 11(2), 108–115 (2017).

Z. Chen, C. Zhang, X. F. Jiang, M. Liu, R. Xia, T. Shi, D. Chen, Q. Xue, Y. J. Zhao, S. Su, H. L. Yip, and Y. Cao, “High-Performance Color-Tunable Perovskite Light Emitting Devices through Structural Modulation from Bulk to Layered Film,” Adv. Mater. 29(8), 1603157 (2017).
[PubMed]

C. C. Stoumpos, C. M. M. Soe, H. Tsai, W. Nie, J. Blancon, D. H. Cao, F. Liu, B. Traoré, C. Katan, J. Even, A. D. Mohite, and M. G. Kanatzidis, “High Members of the 2D Ruddlesden-Popper Halide Perovskites: Synthesis, Optical Properties, and Solar Cells of (CH3(CH2)3NH3)2(CH3NH3)4Pb5I16,” Chem 2(3), 427–440 (2017).

D. J. Vogel, A. Kryjevski, T. Inerbaev, and D. S. Kilin, “Photoinduced Single- and Multiple-Electron Dynamics Processes Enhanced by Quantum Confinement in Lead Halide Perovskite Quantum Dots,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 8(13), 3032–3039 (2017).
[PubMed]

D. Cortecchia, S. Neutzner, A. R. Srimath Kandada, E. Mosconi, D. Meggiolaro, F. De Angelis, C. Soci, and A. Petrozza, “Broadband Emission in Two-Dimensional Hybrid Perovskites: The Role of Structural Deformation,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 139(1), 39–42 (2017).
[PubMed]

2016 (7)

Z. F. Shi, X. G. Sun, D. Wu, T. T. Xu, S. W. Zhuang, Y. T. Tian, X. J. Li, and G. T. Du, “High-performance planar green light-emitting diodes based on a PEDOT:PSS/CH3NH3PbBr3/ZnO sandwich structure,” Nanoscale 8(19), 10035–10042 (2016).
[PubMed]

N. Wang, L. Cheng, R. Ge, S. Zhang, Y. Miao, W. Zou, C. Yi, Y. Sun, Y. Cao, R. Yang, Y. Wei, Q. Guo, Y. Ke, M. Yu, Y. Jin, Y. Liu, Q. Ding, D. Di, L. Yang, G. Xing, H. Tian, C. Jin, F. Gao, R. H. Friend, J. Wang, and W. Huang, “Perovskite light-emitting diodes based on solution-processed self-organized multiple quantum wells,” Nat. Photonics 10(11), 699–704 (2016).

M. Yuan, L. N. Quan, R. Comin, G. Walters, R. Sabatini, O. Voznyy, S. Hoogland, Y. Zhao, E. M. Beauregard, P. Kanjanaboos, Z. Lu, D. H. Kim, and E. H. Sargent, “Perovskite energy funnels for efficient light-emitting diodes,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 11(10), 872–877 (2016).
[PubMed]

J. Byun, H. Cho, C. Wolf, M. Jang, A. Sadhanala, R. H. Friend, H. Yang, and T. W. Lee, “Efficient Visible Quasi-2D Perovskite Light-Emitting Diodes,” Adv. Mater. 28(34), 7515–7520 (2016).
[PubMed]

P. Docampo and T. Bein, “A Long-Term View on Perovskite Optoelectronics,” Acc. Chem. Res. 49(2), 339–346 (2016).
[PubMed]

Y. Zhao and K. Zhu, “Organic-inorganic hybrid lead halide perovskites for optoelectronic and electronic applications,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 45(3), 655–689 (2016).
[PubMed]

S. Kumar, J. Jagielski, S. Yakunin, P. Rice, Y. C. Chiu, M. Wang, G. Nedelcu, Y. Kim, S. Lin, E. J. G. Santos, M. V. Kovalenko, and C. J. Shih, “Efficient Blue Electroluminescence Using Quantum-Confined Two-Dimensional Perovskites,” ACS Nano 10(10), 9720–9729 (2016).
[PubMed]

2015 (4)

J. Wang, N. Wang, Y. Jin, J. Si, Z. K. Tan, H. Du, L. Cheng, X. Dai, S. Bai, H. He, Z. Ye, M. L. Lai, R. H. Friend, and W. Huang, “Interfacial Control Toward Efficient and Low-Voltage Perovskite Light-Emitting Diodes,” Adv. Mater. 27(14), 2311–2316 (2015).
[PubMed]

H. Cho, S. H. Jeong, M. H. Park, Y. H. Kim, C. Wolf, C. L. Lee, J. H. Heo, A. Sadhanala, N. Myoung, S. Yoo, S. H. Im, R. H. Friend, and T. W. Lee, “Overcoming the electroluminescence efficiency limitations of perovskite light-emitting diodes,” Science 350(6265), 1222–1225 (2015).
[PubMed]

D. Di, K. P. Musselman, G. Li, A. Sadhanala, Y. Ievskaya, Q. Song, Z. K. Tan, M. L. Lai, J. L. MacManus-Driscoll, N. C. Greenham, and R. H. Friend, “Size-Dependent Photon Emission from Organometal Halide Perovskite Nanocrystals Embedded in an Organic Matrix,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 6(3), 446–450 (2015).
[PubMed]

R. L. Z. Hoye, M. R. Chua, K. P. Musselman, G. Li, M. L. Lai, Z. K. Tan, N. C. Greenham, J. L. MacManus-Driscoll, R. H. Friend, and D. Credgington, “Enhanced Performance in Fluorene-Free Organometal Halide Perovskite Light-Emitting Diodes using Tunable, Low Electron Affinity Oxide Electron Injectors,” Adv. Mater. 27(8), 1414–1419 (2015).
[PubMed]

2014 (1)

Z. K. Tan, R. S. Moghaddam, M. L. Lai, P. Docampo, R. Higler, F. Deschler, M. Price, A. Sadhanala, L. M. Pazos, D. Credgington, F. Hanusch, T. Bein, H. J. Snaith, and R. H. Friend, “Bright light-emitting diodes based on organometal halide perovskite,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(9), 687–692 (2014).
[PubMed]

1994 (1)

M. Era, S. Morimoto, T. Tsutsui, and S. Saito, “Organic‐inorganic heterostructure electroluminescent device using a layered perovskite semiconductor (C6H5C2H4NH3)2PbI4,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65(6), 676–678 (1994).

1992 (1)

X. Hong, T. Ishihara, and A. V. Nurmikko, “Photoconductivity and electroluminescence in lead iodide based natural quantum well structures,” Solid State Commun. 84(6), 65–661 (1992).

1939 (1)

A. L. Pxtterson, “The Diffraction of I-Rays by Small Crystalline Particles,” Phys. Rev. 56(15), 972–977 (1939).

Bai, S.

J. Wang, N. Wang, Y. Jin, J. Si, Z. K. Tan, H. Du, L. Cheng, X. Dai, S. Bai, H. He, Z. Ye, M. L. Lai, R. H. Friend, and W. Huang, “Interfacial Control Toward Efficient and Low-Voltage Perovskite Light-Emitting Diodes,” Adv. Mater. 27(14), 2311–2316 (2015).
[PubMed]

Beauregard, E. M.

M. Yuan, L. N. Quan, R. Comin, G. Walters, R. Sabatini, O. Voznyy, S. Hoogland, Y. Zhao, E. M. Beauregard, P. Kanjanaboos, Z. Lu, D. H. Kim, and E. H. Sargent, “Perovskite energy funnels for efficient light-emitting diodes,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 11(10), 872–877 (2016).
[PubMed]

Bein, T.

P. Docampo and T. Bein, “A Long-Term View on Perovskite Optoelectronics,” Acc. Chem. Res. 49(2), 339–346 (2016).
[PubMed]

Z. K. Tan, R. S. Moghaddam, M. L. Lai, P. Docampo, R. Higler, F. Deschler, M. Price, A. Sadhanala, L. M. Pazos, D. Credgington, F. Hanusch, T. Bein, H. J. Snaith, and R. H. Friend, “Bright light-emitting diodes based on organometal halide perovskite,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(9), 687–692 (2014).
[PubMed]

Blancon, J.

C. C. Stoumpos, C. M. M. Soe, H. Tsai, W. Nie, J. Blancon, D. H. Cao, F. Liu, B. Traoré, C. Katan, J. Even, A. D. Mohite, and M. G. Kanatzidis, “High Members of the 2D Ruddlesden-Popper Halide Perovskites: Synthesis, Optical Properties, and Solar Cells of (CH3(CH2)3NH3)2(CH3NH3)4Pb5I16,” Chem 2(3), 427–440 (2017).

Byun, J.

J. Byun, H. Cho, C. Wolf, M. Jang, A. Sadhanala, R. H. Friend, H. Yang, and T. W. Lee, “Efficient Visible Quasi-2D Perovskite Light-Emitting Diodes,” Adv. Mater. 28(34), 7515–7520 (2016).
[PubMed]

Cao, D. H.

C. C. Stoumpos, C. M. M. Soe, H. Tsai, W. Nie, J. Blancon, D. H. Cao, F. Liu, B. Traoré, C. Katan, J. Even, A. D. Mohite, and M. G. Kanatzidis, “High Members of the 2D Ruddlesden-Popper Halide Perovskites: Synthesis, Optical Properties, and Solar Cells of (CH3(CH2)3NH3)2(CH3NH3)4Pb5I16,” Chem 2(3), 427–440 (2017).

Cao, Y.

Z. Chen, C. Zhang, X. F. Jiang, M. Liu, R. Xia, T. Shi, D. Chen, Q. Xue, Y. J. Zhao, S. Su, H. L. Yip, and Y. Cao, “High-Performance Color-Tunable Perovskite Light Emitting Devices through Structural Modulation from Bulk to Layered Film,” Adv. Mater. 29(8), 1603157 (2017).
[PubMed]

N. Wang, L. Cheng, R. Ge, S. Zhang, Y. Miao, W. Zou, C. Yi, Y. Sun, Y. Cao, R. Yang, Y. Wei, Q. Guo, Y. Ke, M. Yu, Y. Jin, Y. Liu, Q. Ding, D. Di, L. Yang, G. Xing, H. Tian, C. Jin, F. Gao, R. H. Friend, J. Wang, and W. Huang, “Perovskite light-emitting diodes based on solution-processed self-organized multiple quantum wells,” Nat. Photonics 10(11), 699–704 (2016).

Chen, D.

Z. Chen, C. Zhang, X. F. Jiang, M. Liu, R. Xia, T. Shi, D. Chen, Q. Xue, Y. J. Zhao, S. Su, H. L. Yip, and Y. Cao, “High-Performance Color-Tunable Perovskite Light Emitting Devices through Structural Modulation from Bulk to Layered Film,” Adv. Mater. 29(8), 1603157 (2017).
[PubMed]

Chen, Z.

Z. Chen, C. Zhang, X. F. Jiang, M. Liu, R. Xia, T. Shi, D. Chen, Q. Xue, Y. J. Zhao, S. Su, H. L. Yip, and Y. Cao, “High-Performance Color-Tunable Perovskite Light Emitting Devices through Structural Modulation from Bulk to Layered Film,” Adv. Mater. 29(8), 1603157 (2017).
[PubMed]

Cheng, L.

N. Wang, L. Cheng, R. Ge, S. Zhang, Y. Miao, W. Zou, C. Yi, Y. Sun, Y. Cao, R. Yang, Y. Wei, Q. Guo, Y. Ke, M. Yu, Y. Jin, Y. Liu, Q. Ding, D. Di, L. Yang, G. Xing, H. Tian, C. Jin, F. Gao, R. H. Friend, J. Wang, and W. Huang, “Perovskite light-emitting diodes based on solution-processed self-organized multiple quantum wells,” Nat. Photonics 10(11), 699–704 (2016).

J. Wang, N. Wang, Y. Jin, J. Si, Z. K. Tan, H. Du, L. Cheng, X. Dai, S. Bai, H. He, Z. Ye, M. L. Lai, R. H. Friend, and W. Huang, “Interfacial Control Toward Efficient and Low-Voltage Perovskite Light-Emitting Diodes,” Adv. Mater. 27(14), 2311–2316 (2015).
[PubMed]

Chiu, Y. C.

S. Kumar, J. Jagielski, S. Yakunin, P. Rice, Y. C. Chiu, M. Wang, G. Nedelcu, Y. Kim, S. Lin, E. J. G. Santos, M. V. Kovalenko, and C. J. Shih, “Efficient Blue Electroluminescence Using Quantum-Confined Two-Dimensional Perovskites,” ACS Nano 10(10), 9720–9729 (2016).
[PubMed]

Cho, H.

J. Byun, H. Cho, C. Wolf, M. Jang, A. Sadhanala, R. H. Friend, H. Yang, and T. W. Lee, “Efficient Visible Quasi-2D Perovskite Light-Emitting Diodes,” Adv. Mater. 28(34), 7515–7520 (2016).
[PubMed]

H. Cho, S. H. Jeong, M. H. Park, Y. H. Kim, C. Wolf, C. L. Lee, J. H. Heo, A. Sadhanala, N. Myoung, S. Yoo, S. H. Im, R. H. Friend, and T. W. Lee, “Overcoming the electroluminescence efficiency limitations of perovskite light-emitting diodes,” Science 350(6265), 1222–1225 (2015).
[PubMed]

Chua, M. R.

R. L. Z. Hoye, M. R. Chua, K. P. Musselman, G. Li, M. L. Lai, Z. K. Tan, N. C. Greenham, J. L. MacManus-Driscoll, R. H. Friend, and D. Credgington, “Enhanced Performance in Fluorene-Free Organometal Halide Perovskite Light-Emitting Diodes using Tunable, Low Electron Affinity Oxide Electron Injectors,” Adv. Mater. 27(8), 1414–1419 (2015).
[PubMed]

Comin, R.

M. Yuan, L. N. Quan, R. Comin, G. Walters, R. Sabatini, O. Voznyy, S. Hoogland, Y. Zhao, E. M. Beauregard, P. Kanjanaboos, Z. Lu, D. H. Kim, and E. H. Sargent, “Perovskite energy funnels for efficient light-emitting diodes,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 11(10), 872–877 (2016).
[PubMed]

Cortecchia, D.

D. Cortecchia, S. Neutzner, A. R. Srimath Kandada, E. Mosconi, D. Meggiolaro, F. De Angelis, C. Soci, and A. Petrozza, “Broadband Emission in Two-Dimensional Hybrid Perovskites: The Role of Structural Deformation,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 139(1), 39–42 (2017).
[PubMed]

Credgington, D.

R. L. Z. Hoye, M. R. Chua, K. P. Musselman, G. Li, M. L. Lai, Z. K. Tan, N. C. Greenham, J. L. MacManus-Driscoll, R. H. Friend, and D. Credgington, “Enhanced Performance in Fluorene-Free Organometal Halide Perovskite Light-Emitting Diodes using Tunable, Low Electron Affinity Oxide Electron Injectors,” Adv. Mater. 27(8), 1414–1419 (2015).
[PubMed]

Z. K. Tan, R. S. Moghaddam, M. L. Lai, P. Docampo, R. Higler, F. Deschler, M. Price, A. Sadhanala, L. M. Pazos, D. Credgington, F. Hanusch, T. Bein, H. J. Snaith, and R. H. Friend, “Bright light-emitting diodes based on organometal halide perovskite,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(9), 687–692 (2014).
[PubMed]

Dai, X.

J. Wang, N. Wang, Y. Jin, J. Si, Z. K. Tan, H. Du, L. Cheng, X. Dai, S. Bai, H. He, Z. Ye, M. L. Lai, R. H. Friend, and W. Huang, “Interfacial Control Toward Efficient and Low-Voltage Perovskite Light-Emitting Diodes,” Adv. Mater. 27(14), 2311–2316 (2015).
[PubMed]

De Angelis, F.

D. Cortecchia, S. Neutzner, A. R. Srimath Kandada, E. Mosconi, D. Meggiolaro, F. De Angelis, C. Soci, and A. Petrozza, “Broadband Emission in Two-Dimensional Hybrid Perovskites: The Role of Structural Deformation,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 139(1), 39–42 (2017).
[PubMed]

Deschler, F.

Z. K. Tan, R. S. Moghaddam, M. L. Lai, P. Docampo, R. Higler, F. Deschler, M. Price, A. Sadhanala, L. M. Pazos, D. Credgington, F. Hanusch, T. Bein, H. J. Snaith, and R. H. Friend, “Bright light-emitting diodes based on organometal halide perovskite,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(9), 687–692 (2014).
[PubMed]

Di, D.

N. Wang, L. Cheng, R. Ge, S. Zhang, Y. Miao, W. Zou, C. Yi, Y. Sun, Y. Cao, R. Yang, Y. Wei, Q. Guo, Y. Ke, M. Yu, Y. Jin, Y. Liu, Q. Ding, D. Di, L. Yang, G. Xing, H. Tian, C. Jin, F. Gao, R. H. Friend, J. Wang, and W. Huang, “Perovskite light-emitting diodes based on solution-processed self-organized multiple quantum wells,” Nat. Photonics 10(11), 699–704 (2016).

D. Di, K. P. Musselman, G. Li, A. Sadhanala, Y. Ievskaya, Q. Song, Z. K. Tan, M. L. Lai, J. L. MacManus-Driscoll, N. C. Greenham, and R. H. Friend, “Size-Dependent Photon Emission from Organometal Halide Perovskite Nanocrystals Embedded in an Organic Matrix,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 6(3), 446–450 (2015).
[PubMed]

Ding, Q.

N. Wang, L. Cheng, R. Ge, S. Zhang, Y. Miao, W. Zou, C. Yi, Y. Sun, Y. Cao, R. Yang, Y. Wei, Q. Guo, Y. Ke, M. Yu, Y. Jin, Y. Liu, Q. Ding, D. Di, L. Yang, G. Xing, H. Tian, C. Jin, F. Gao, R. H. Friend, J. Wang, and W. Huang, “Perovskite light-emitting diodes based on solution-processed self-organized multiple quantum wells,” Nat. Photonics 10(11), 699–704 (2016).

Docampo, P.

P. Docampo and T. Bein, “A Long-Term View on Perovskite Optoelectronics,” Acc. Chem. Res. 49(2), 339–346 (2016).
[PubMed]

Z. K. Tan, R. S. Moghaddam, M. L. Lai, P. Docampo, R. Higler, F. Deschler, M. Price, A. Sadhanala, L. M. Pazos, D. Credgington, F. Hanusch, T. Bein, H. J. Snaith, and R. H. Friend, “Bright light-emitting diodes based on organometal halide perovskite,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(9), 687–692 (2014).
[PubMed]

Du, B.

G. Xing, B. Wu, X. Wu, M. Li, B. Du, Q. Wei, J. Guo, E. K. L. Yeow, T. C. Sum, and W. Huang, “Transcending the slow bimolecular recombination in lead-halide perovskites for electroluminescence,” Nat. Commun. 8, 14558 (2017).
[PubMed]

Du, G. T.

Z. F. Shi, X. G. Sun, D. Wu, T. T. Xu, S. W. Zhuang, Y. T. Tian, X. J. Li, and G. T. Du, “High-performance planar green light-emitting diodes based on a PEDOT:PSS/CH3NH3PbBr3/ZnO sandwich structure,” Nanoscale 8(19), 10035–10042 (2016).
[PubMed]

Du, H.

J. Wang, N. Wang, Y. Jin, J. Si, Z. K. Tan, H. Du, L. Cheng, X. Dai, S. Bai, H. He, Z. Ye, M. L. Lai, R. H. Friend, and W. Huang, “Interfacial Control Toward Efficient and Low-Voltage Perovskite Light-Emitting Diodes,” Adv. Mater. 27(14), 2311–2316 (2015).
[PubMed]

Era, M.

M. Era, S. Morimoto, T. Tsutsui, and S. Saito, “Organic‐inorganic heterostructure electroluminescent device using a layered perovskite semiconductor (C6H5C2H4NH3)2PbI4,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65(6), 676–678 (1994).

Even, J.

C. C. Stoumpos, C. M. M. Soe, H. Tsai, W. Nie, J. Blancon, D. H. Cao, F. Liu, B. Traoré, C. Katan, J. Even, A. D. Mohite, and M. G. Kanatzidis, “High Members of the 2D Ruddlesden-Popper Halide Perovskites: Synthesis, Optical Properties, and Solar Cells of (CH3(CH2)3NH3)2(CH3NH3)4Pb5I16,” Chem 2(3), 427–440 (2017).

Friend, R. H.

J. Byun, H. Cho, C. Wolf, M. Jang, A. Sadhanala, R. H. Friend, H. Yang, and T. W. Lee, “Efficient Visible Quasi-2D Perovskite Light-Emitting Diodes,” Adv. Mater. 28(34), 7515–7520 (2016).
[PubMed]

N. Wang, L. Cheng, R. Ge, S. Zhang, Y. Miao, W. Zou, C. Yi, Y. Sun, Y. Cao, R. Yang, Y. Wei, Q. Guo, Y. Ke, M. Yu, Y. Jin, Y. Liu, Q. Ding, D. Di, L. Yang, G. Xing, H. Tian, C. Jin, F. Gao, R. H. Friend, J. Wang, and W. Huang, “Perovskite light-emitting diodes based on solution-processed self-organized multiple quantum wells,” Nat. Photonics 10(11), 699–704 (2016).

R. L. Z. Hoye, M. R. Chua, K. P. Musselman, G. Li, M. L. Lai, Z. K. Tan, N. C. Greenham, J. L. MacManus-Driscoll, R. H. Friend, and D. Credgington, “Enhanced Performance in Fluorene-Free Organometal Halide Perovskite Light-Emitting Diodes using Tunable, Low Electron Affinity Oxide Electron Injectors,” Adv. Mater. 27(8), 1414–1419 (2015).
[PubMed]

J. Wang, N. Wang, Y. Jin, J. Si, Z. K. Tan, H. Du, L. Cheng, X. Dai, S. Bai, H. He, Z. Ye, M. L. Lai, R. H. Friend, and W. Huang, “Interfacial Control Toward Efficient and Low-Voltage Perovskite Light-Emitting Diodes,” Adv. Mater. 27(14), 2311–2316 (2015).
[PubMed]

D. Di, K. P. Musselman, G. Li, A. Sadhanala, Y. Ievskaya, Q. Song, Z. K. Tan, M. L. Lai, J. L. MacManus-Driscoll, N. C. Greenham, and R. H. Friend, “Size-Dependent Photon Emission from Organometal Halide Perovskite Nanocrystals Embedded in an Organic Matrix,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 6(3), 446–450 (2015).
[PubMed]

H. Cho, S. H. Jeong, M. H. Park, Y. H. Kim, C. Wolf, C. L. Lee, J. H. Heo, A. Sadhanala, N. Myoung, S. Yoo, S. H. Im, R. H. Friend, and T. W. Lee, “Overcoming the electroluminescence efficiency limitations of perovskite light-emitting diodes,” Science 350(6265), 1222–1225 (2015).
[PubMed]

Z. K. Tan, R. S. Moghaddam, M. L. Lai, P. Docampo, R. Higler, F. Deschler, M. Price, A. Sadhanala, L. M. Pazos, D. Credgington, F. Hanusch, T. Bein, H. J. Snaith, and R. H. Friend, “Bright light-emitting diodes based on organometal halide perovskite,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(9), 687–692 (2014).
[PubMed]

Gao, F.

N. Wang, L. Cheng, R. Ge, S. Zhang, Y. Miao, W. Zou, C. Yi, Y. Sun, Y. Cao, R. Yang, Y. Wei, Q. Guo, Y. Ke, M. Yu, Y. Jin, Y. Liu, Q. Ding, D. Di, L. Yang, G. Xing, H. Tian, C. Jin, F. Gao, R. H. Friend, J. Wang, and W. Huang, “Perovskite light-emitting diodes based on solution-processed self-organized multiple quantum wells,” Nat. Photonics 10(11), 699–704 (2016).

Ge, R.

N. Wang, L. Cheng, R. Ge, S. Zhang, Y. Miao, W. Zou, C. Yi, Y. Sun, Y. Cao, R. Yang, Y. Wei, Q. Guo, Y. Ke, M. Yu, Y. Jin, Y. Liu, Q. Ding, D. Di, L. Yang, G. Xing, H. Tian, C. Jin, F. Gao, R. H. Friend, J. Wang, and W. Huang, “Perovskite light-emitting diodes based on solution-processed self-organized multiple quantum wells,” Nat. Photonics 10(11), 699–704 (2016).

Greenham, N. C.

R. L. Z. Hoye, M. R. Chua, K. P. Musselman, G. Li, M. L. Lai, Z. K. Tan, N. C. Greenham, J. L. MacManus-Driscoll, R. H. Friend, and D. Credgington, “Enhanced Performance in Fluorene-Free Organometal Halide Perovskite Light-Emitting Diodes using Tunable, Low Electron Affinity Oxide Electron Injectors,” Adv. Mater. 27(8), 1414–1419 (2015).
[PubMed]

D. Di, K. P. Musselman, G. Li, A. Sadhanala, Y. Ievskaya, Q. Song, Z. K. Tan, M. L. Lai, J. L. MacManus-Driscoll, N. C. Greenham, and R. H. Friend, “Size-Dependent Photon Emission from Organometal Halide Perovskite Nanocrystals Embedded in an Organic Matrix,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 6(3), 446–450 (2015).
[PubMed]

Guo, J.

G. Xing, B. Wu, X. Wu, M. Li, B. Du, Q. Wei, J. Guo, E. K. L. Yeow, T. C. Sum, and W. Huang, “Transcending the slow bimolecular recombination in lead-halide perovskites for electroluminescence,” Nat. Commun. 8, 14558 (2017).
[PubMed]

Guo, Q.

N. Wang, L. Cheng, R. Ge, S. Zhang, Y. Miao, W. Zou, C. Yi, Y. Sun, Y. Cao, R. Yang, Y. Wei, Q. Guo, Y. Ke, M. Yu, Y. Jin, Y. Liu, Q. Ding, D. Di, L. Yang, G. Xing, H. Tian, C. Jin, F. Gao, R. H. Friend, J. Wang, and W. Huang, “Perovskite light-emitting diodes based on solution-processed self-organized multiple quantum wells,” Nat. Photonics 10(11), 699–704 (2016).

Hanusch, F.

Z. K. Tan, R. S. Moghaddam, M. L. Lai, P. Docampo, R. Higler, F. Deschler, M. Price, A. Sadhanala, L. M. Pazos, D. Credgington, F. Hanusch, T. Bein, H. J. Snaith, and R. H. Friend, “Bright light-emitting diodes based on organometal halide perovskite,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(9), 687–692 (2014).
[PubMed]

He, H.

J. Wang, N. Wang, Y. Jin, J. Si, Z. K. Tan, H. Du, L. Cheng, X. Dai, S. Bai, H. He, Z. Ye, M. L. Lai, R. H. Friend, and W. Huang, “Interfacial Control Toward Efficient and Low-Voltage Perovskite Light-Emitting Diodes,” Adv. Mater. 27(14), 2311–2316 (2015).
[PubMed]

Heo, J. H.

H. Cho, S. H. Jeong, M. H. Park, Y. H. Kim, C. Wolf, C. L. Lee, J. H. Heo, A. Sadhanala, N. Myoung, S. Yoo, S. H. Im, R. H. Friend, and T. W. Lee, “Overcoming the electroluminescence efficiency limitations of perovskite light-emitting diodes,” Science 350(6265), 1222–1225 (2015).
[PubMed]

Higler, R.

Z. K. Tan, R. S. Moghaddam, M. L. Lai, P. Docampo, R. Higler, F. Deschler, M. Price, A. Sadhanala, L. M. Pazos, D. Credgington, F. Hanusch, T. Bein, H. J. Snaith, and R. H. Friend, “Bright light-emitting diodes based on organometal halide perovskite,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(9), 687–692 (2014).
[PubMed]

Hong, X.

X. Hong, T. Ishihara, and A. V. Nurmikko, “Photoconductivity and electroluminescence in lead iodide based natural quantum well structures,” Solid State Commun. 84(6), 65–661 (1992).

Hoogland, S.

M. Yuan, L. N. Quan, R. Comin, G. Walters, R. Sabatini, O. Voznyy, S. Hoogland, Y. Zhao, E. M. Beauregard, P. Kanjanaboos, Z. Lu, D. H. Kim, and E. H. Sargent, “Perovskite energy funnels for efficient light-emitting diodes,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 11(10), 872–877 (2016).
[PubMed]

Hoye, R. L. Z.

R. L. Z. Hoye, M. R. Chua, K. P. Musselman, G. Li, M. L. Lai, Z. K. Tan, N. C. Greenham, J. L. MacManus-Driscoll, R. H. Friend, and D. Credgington, “Enhanced Performance in Fluorene-Free Organometal Halide Perovskite Light-Emitting Diodes using Tunable, Low Electron Affinity Oxide Electron Injectors,” Adv. Mater. 27(8), 1414–1419 (2015).
[PubMed]

Huang, W.

G. Xing, B. Wu, X. Wu, M. Li, B. Du, Q. Wei, J. Guo, E. K. L. Yeow, T. C. Sum, and W. Huang, “Transcending the slow bimolecular recombination in lead-halide perovskites for electroluminescence,” Nat. Commun. 8, 14558 (2017).
[PubMed]

N. Wang, L. Cheng, R. Ge, S. Zhang, Y. Miao, W. Zou, C. Yi, Y. Sun, Y. Cao, R. Yang, Y. Wei, Q. Guo, Y. Ke, M. Yu, Y. Jin, Y. Liu, Q. Ding, D. Di, L. Yang, G. Xing, H. Tian, C. Jin, F. Gao, R. H. Friend, J. Wang, and W. Huang, “Perovskite light-emitting diodes based on solution-processed self-organized multiple quantum wells,” Nat. Photonics 10(11), 699–704 (2016).

J. Wang, N. Wang, Y. Jin, J. Si, Z. K. Tan, H. Du, L. Cheng, X. Dai, S. Bai, H. He, Z. Ye, M. L. Lai, R. H. Friend, and W. Huang, “Interfacial Control Toward Efficient and Low-Voltage Perovskite Light-Emitting Diodes,” Adv. Mater. 27(14), 2311–2316 (2015).
[PubMed]

Ievskaya, Y.

D. Di, K. P. Musselman, G. Li, A. Sadhanala, Y. Ievskaya, Q. Song, Z. K. Tan, M. L. Lai, J. L. MacManus-Driscoll, N. C. Greenham, and R. H. Friend, “Size-Dependent Photon Emission from Organometal Halide Perovskite Nanocrystals Embedded in an Organic Matrix,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 6(3), 446–450 (2015).
[PubMed]

Im, S. H.

H. Cho, S. H. Jeong, M. H. Park, Y. H. Kim, C. Wolf, C. L. Lee, J. H. Heo, A. Sadhanala, N. Myoung, S. Yoo, S. H. Im, R. H. Friend, and T. W. Lee, “Overcoming the electroluminescence efficiency limitations of perovskite light-emitting diodes,” Science 350(6265), 1222–1225 (2015).
[PubMed]

Inerbaev, T.

D. J. Vogel, A. Kryjevski, T. Inerbaev, and D. S. Kilin, “Photoinduced Single- and Multiple-Electron Dynamics Processes Enhanced by Quantum Confinement in Lead Halide Perovskite Quantum Dots,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 8(13), 3032–3039 (2017).
[PubMed]

Ishihara, T.

X. Hong, T. Ishihara, and A. V. Nurmikko, “Photoconductivity and electroluminescence in lead iodide based natural quantum well structures,” Solid State Commun. 84(6), 65–661 (1992).

Jagielski, J.

S. Kumar, J. Jagielski, S. Yakunin, P. Rice, Y. C. Chiu, M. Wang, G. Nedelcu, Y. Kim, S. Lin, E. J. G. Santos, M. V. Kovalenko, and C. J. Shih, “Efficient Blue Electroluminescence Using Quantum-Confined Two-Dimensional Perovskites,” ACS Nano 10(10), 9720–9729 (2016).
[PubMed]

Jang, M.

J. Byun, H. Cho, C. Wolf, M. Jang, A. Sadhanala, R. H. Friend, H. Yang, and T. W. Lee, “Efficient Visible Quasi-2D Perovskite Light-Emitting Diodes,” Adv. Mater. 28(34), 7515–7520 (2016).
[PubMed]

Jeong, S. H.

H. Cho, S. H. Jeong, M. H. Park, Y. H. Kim, C. Wolf, C. L. Lee, J. H. Heo, A. Sadhanala, N. Myoung, S. Yoo, S. H. Im, R. H. Friend, and T. W. Lee, “Overcoming the electroluminescence efficiency limitations of perovskite light-emitting diodes,” Science 350(6265), 1222–1225 (2015).
[PubMed]

Jiang, X. F.

Z. Chen, C. Zhang, X. F. Jiang, M. Liu, R. Xia, T. Shi, D. Chen, Q. Xue, Y. J. Zhao, S. Su, H. L. Yip, and Y. Cao, “High-Performance Color-Tunable Perovskite Light Emitting Devices through Structural Modulation from Bulk to Layered Film,” Adv. Mater. 29(8), 1603157 (2017).
[PubMed]

Jin, C.

N. Wang, L. Cheng, R. Ge, S. Zhang, Y. Miao, W. Zou, C. Yi, Y. Sun, Y. Cao, R. Yang, Y. Wei, Q. Guo, Y. Ke, M. Yu, Y. Jin, Y. Liu, Q. Ding, D. Di, L. Yang, G. Xing, H. Tian, C. Jin, F. Gao, R. H. Friend, J. Wang, and W. Huang, “Perovskite light-emitting diodes based on solution-processed self-organized multiple quantum wells,” Nat. Photonics 10(11), 699–704 (2016).

Jin, Y.

N. Wang, L. Cheng, R. Ge, S. Zhang, Y. Miao, W. Zou, C. Yi, Y. Sun, Y. Cao, R. Yang, Y. Wei, Q. Guo, Y. Ke, M. Yu, Y. Jin, Y. Liu, Q. Ding, D. Di, L. Yang, G. Xing, H. Tian, C. Jin, F. Gao, R. H. Friend, J. Wang, and W. Huang, “Perovskite light-emitting diodes based on solution-processed self-organized multiple quantum wells,” Nat. Photonics 10(11), 699–704 (2016).

J. Wang, N. Wang, Y. Jin, J. Si, Z. K. Tan, H. Du, L. Cheng, X. Dai, S. Bai, H. He, Z. Ye, M. L. Lai, R. H. Friend, and W. Huang, “Interfacial Control Toward Efficient and Low-Voltage Perovskite Light-Emitting Diodes,” Adv. Mater. 27(14), 2311–2316 (2015).
[PubMed]

Kanatzidis, M. G.

C. C. Stoumpos, C. M. M. Soe, H. Tsai, W. Nie, J. Blancon, D. H. Cao, F. Liu, B. Traoré, C. Katan, J. Even, A. D. Mohite, and M. G. Kanatzidis, “High Members of the 2D Ruddlesden-Popper Halide Perovskites: Synthesis, Optical Properties, and Solar Cells of (CH3(CH2)3NH3)2(CH3NH3)4Pb5I16,” Chem 2(3), 427–440 (2017).

Kanjanaboos, P.

M. Yuan, L. N. Quan, R. Comin, G. Walters, R. Sabatini, O. Voznyy, S. Hoogland, Y. Zhao, E. M. Beauregard, P. Kanjanaboos, Z. Lu, D. H. Kim, and E. H. Sargent, “Perovskite energy funnels for efficient light-emitting diodes,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 11(10), 872–877 (2016).
[PubMed]

Katan, C.

C. C. Stoumpos, C. M. M. Soe, H. Tsai, W. Nie, J. Blancon, D. H. Cao, F. Liu, B. Traoré, C. Katan, J. Even, A. D. Mohite, and M. G. Kanatzidis, “High Members of the 2D Ruddlesden-Popper Halide Perovskites: Synthesis, Optical Properties, and Solar Cells of (CH3(CH2)3NH3)2(CH3NH3)4Pb5I16,” Chem 2(3), 427–440 (2017).

Ke, Y.

N. Wang, L. Cheng, R. Ge, S. Zhang, Y. Miao, W. Zou, C. Yi, Y. Sun, Y. Cao, R. Yang, Y. Wei, Q. Guo, Y. Ke, M. Yu, Y. Jin, Y. Liu, Q. Ding, D. Di, L. Yang, G. Xing, H. Tian, C. Jin, F. Gao, R. H. Friend, J. Wang, and W. Huang, “Perovskite light-emitting diodes based on solution-processed self-organized multiple quantum wells,” Nat. Photonics 10(11), 699–704 (2016).

Kerner, R. A.

Z. Xiao, R. A. Kerner, L. Zhao, N. L. Tran, K. M. Lee, T. Koh, G. D. Scholes, and B. P. Rand, “Efficient perovskite light-emitting diodes featuring nanometre-sized crystallites,” Nat. Photonics 11(2), 108–115 (2017).

Kilin, D. S.

D. J. Vogel, A. Kryjevski, T. Inerbaev, and D. S. Kilin, “Photoinduced Single- and Multiple-Electron Dynamics Processes Enhanced by Quantum Confinement in Lead Halide Perovskite Quantum Dots,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 8(13), 3032–3039 (2017).
[PubMed]

Kim, D. H.

M. Yuan, L. N. Quan, R. Comin, G. Walters, R. Sabatini, O. Voznyy, S. Hoogland, Y. Zhao, E. M. Beauregard, P. Kanjanaboos, Z. Lu, D. H. Kim, and E. H. Sargent, “Perovskite energy funnels for efficient light-emitting diodes,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 11(10), 872–877 (2016).
[PubMed]

Kim, Y.

S. Kumar, J. Jagielski, S. Yakunin, P. Rice, Y. C. Chiu, M. Wang, G. Nedelcu, Y. Kim, S. Lin, E. J. G. Santos, M. V. Kovalenko, and C. J. Shih, “Efficient Blue Electroluminescence Using Quantum-Confined Two-Dimensional Perovskites,” ACS Nano 10(10), 9720–9729 (2016).
[PubMed]

Kim, Y. H.

H. Cho, S. H. Jeong, M. H. Park, Y. H. Kim, C. Wolf, C. L. Lee, J. H. Heo, A. Sadhanala, N. Myoung, S. Yoo, S. H. Im, R. H. Friend, and T. W. Lee, “Overcoming the electroluminescence efficiency limitations of perovskite light-emitting diodes,” Science 350(6265), 1222–1225 (2015).
[PubMed]

Koh, T.

Z. Xiao, R. A. Kerner, L. Zhao, N. L. Tran, K. M. Lee, T. Koh, G. D. Scholes, and B. P. Rand, “Efficient perovskite light-emitting diodes featuring nanometre-sized crystallites,” Nat. Photonics 11(2), 108–115 (2017).

Kovalenko, M. V.

S. Kumar, J. Jagielski, S. Yakunin, P. Rice, Y. C. Chiu, M. Wang, G. Nedelcu, Y. Kim, S. Lin, E. J. G. Santos, M. V. Kovalenko, and C. J. Shih, “Efficient Blue Electroluminescence Using Quantum-Confined Two-Dimensional Perovskites,” ACS Nano 10(10), 9720–9729 (2016).
[PubMed]

Kryjevski, A.

D. J. Vogel, A. Kryjevski, T. Inerbaev, and D. S. Kilin, “Photoinduced Single- and Multiple-Electron Dynamics Processes Enhanced by Quantum Confinement in Lead Halide Perovskite Quantum Dots,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 8(13), 3032–3039 (2017).
[PubMed]

Kumar, S.

S. Kumar, J. Jagielski, S. Yakunin, P. Rice, Y. C. Chiu, M. Wang, G. Nedelcu, Y. Kim, S. Lin, E. J. G. Santos, M. V. Kovalenko, and C. J. Shih, “Efficient Blue Electroluminescence Using Quantum-Confined Two-Dimensional Perovskites,” ACS Nano 10(10), 9720–9729 (2016).
[PubMed]

Lai, M. L.

D. Di, K. P. Musselman, G. Li, A. Sadhanala, Y. Ievskaya, Q. Song, Z. K. Tan, M. L. Lai, J. L. MacManus-Driscoll, N. C. Greenham, and R. H. Friend, “Size-Dependent Photon Emission from Organometal Halide Perovskite Nanocrystals Embedded in an Organic Matrix,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 6(3), 446–450 (2015).
[PubMed]

J. Wang, N. Wang, Y. Jin, J. Si, Z. K. Tan, H. Du, L. Cheng, X. Dai, S. Bai, H. He, Z. Ye, M. L. Lai, R. H. Friend, and W. Huang, “Interfacial Control Toward Efficient and Low-Voltage Perovskite Light-Emitting Diodes,” Adv. Mater. 27(14), 2311–2316 (2015).
[PubMed]

R. L. Z. Hoye, M. R. Chua, K. P. Musselman, G. Li, M. L. Lai, Z. K. Tan, N. C. Greenham, J. L. MacManus-Driscoll, R. H. Friend, and D. Credgington, “Enhanced Performance in Fluorene-Free Organometal Halide Perovskite Light-Emitting Diodes using Tunable, Low Electron Affinity Oxide Electron Injectors,” Adv. Mater. 27(8), 1414–1419 (2015).
[PubMed]

Z. K. Tan, R. S. Moghaddam, M. L. Lai, P. Docampo, R. Higler, F. Deschler, M. Price, A. Sadhanala, L. M. Pazos, D. Credgington, F. Hanusch, T. Bein, H. J. Snaith, and R. H. Friend, “Bright light-emitting diodes based on organometal halide perovskite,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(9), 687–692 (2014).
[PubMed]

Lee, C. L.

H. Cho, S. H. Jeong, M. H. Park, Y. H. Kim, C. Wolf, C. L. Lee, J. H. Heo, A. Sadhanala, N. Myoung, S. Yoo, S. H. Im, R. H. Friend, and T. W. Lee, “Overcoming the electroluminescence efficiency limitations of perovskite light-emitting diodes,” Science 350(6265), 1222–1225 (2015).
[PubMed]

Lee, K. M.

Z. Xiao, R. A. Kerner, L. Zhao, N. L. Tran, K. M. Lee, T. Koh, G. D. Scholes, and B. P. Rand, “Efficient perovskite light-emitting diodes featuring nanometre-sized crystallites,” Nat. Photonics 11(2), 108–115 (2017).

Lee, T. W.

J. Byun, H. Cho, C. Wolf, M. Jang, A. Sadhanala, R. H. Friend, H. Yang, and T. W. Lee, “Efficient Visible Quasi-2D Perovskite Light-Emitting Diodes,” Adv. Mater. 28(34), 7515–7520 (2016).
[PubMed]

H. Cho, S. H. Jeong, M. H. Park, Y. H. Kim, C. Wolf, C. L. Lee, J. H. Heo, A. Sadhanala, N. Myoung, S. Yoo, S. H. Im, R. H. Friend, and T. W. Lee, “Overcoming the electroluminescence efficiency limitations of perovskite light-emitting diodes,” Science 350(6265), 1222–1225 (2015).
[PubMed]

Li, G.

D. Di, K. P. Musselman, G. Li, A. Sadhanala, Y. Ievskaya, Q. Song, Z. K. Tan, M. L. Lai, J. L. MacManus-Driscoll, N. C. Greenham, and R. H. Friend, “Size-Dependent Photon Emission from Organometal Halide Perovskite Nanocrystals Embedded in an Organic Matrix,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 6(3), 446–450 (2015).
[PubMed]

R. L. Z. Hoye, M. R. Chua, K. P. Musselman, G. Li, M. L. Lai, Z. K. Tan, N. C. Greenham, J. L. MacManus-Driscoll, R. H. Friend, and D. Credgington, “Enhanced Performance in Fluorene-Free Organometal Halide Perovskite Light-Emitting Diodes using Tunable, Low Electron Affinity Oxide Electron Injectors,” Adv. Mater. 27(8), 1414–1419 (2015).
[PubMed]

Li, M.

G. Xing, B. Wu, X. Wu, M. Li, B. Du, Q. Wei, J. Guo, E. K. L. Yeow, T. C. Sum, and W. Huang, “Transcending the slow bimolecular recombination in lead-halide perovskites for electroluminescence,” Nat. Commun. 8, 14558 (2017).
[PubMed]

Li, X. J.

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S. Kumar, J. Jagielski, S. Yakunin, P. Rice, Y. C. Chiu, M. Wang, G. Nedelcu, Y. Kim, S. Lin, E. J. G. Santos, M. V. Kovalenko, and C. J. Shih, “Efficient Blue Electroluminescence Using Quantum-Confined Two-Dimensional Perovskites,” ACS Nano 10(10), 9720–9729 (2016).
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Z. Chen, C. Zhang, X. F. Jiang, M. Liu, R. Xia, T. Shi, D. Chen, Q. Xue, Y. J. Zhao, S. Su, H. L. Yip, and Y. Cao, “High-Performance Color-Tunable Perovskite Light Emitting Devices through Structural Modulation from Bulk to Layered Film,” Adv. Mater. 29(8), 1603157 (2017).
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J. Wang, N. Wang, Y. Jin, J. Si, Z. K. Tan, H. Du, L. Cheng, X. Dai, S. Bai, H. He, Z. Ye, M. L. Lai, R. H. Friend, and W. Huang, “Interfacial Control Toward Efficient and Low-Voltage Perovskite Light-Emitting Diodes,” Adv. Mater. 27(14), 2311–2316 (2015).
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Z. F. Shi, X. G. Sun, D. Wu, T. T. Xu, S. W. Zhuang, Y. T. Tian, X. J. Li, and G. T. Du, “High-performance planar green light-emitting diodes based on a PEDOT:PSS/CH3NH3PbBr3/ZnO sandwich structure,” Nanoscale 8(19), 10035–10042 (2016).
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C. C. Stoumpos, C. M. M. Soe, H. Tsai, W. Nie, J. Blancon, D. H. Cao, F. Liu, B. Traoré, C. Katan, J. Even, A. D. Mohite, and M. G. Kanatzidis, “High Members of the 2D Ruddlesden-Popper Halide Perovskites: Synthesis, Optical Properties, and Solar Cells of (CH3(CH2)3NH3)2(CH3NH3)4Pb5I16,” Chem 2(3), 427–440 (2017).

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M. Yuan, L. N. Quan, R. Comin, G. Walters, R. Sabatini, O. Voznyy, S. Hoogland, Y. Zhao, E. M. Beauregard, P. Kanjanaboos, Z. Lu, D. H. Kim, and E. H. Sargent, “Perovskite energy funnels for efficient light-emitting diodes,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 11(10), 872–877 (2016).
[PubMed]

Wang, J.

N. Wang, L. Cheng, R. Ge, S. Zhang, Y. Miao, W. Zou, C. Yi, Y. Sun, Y. Cao, R. Yang, Y. Wei, Q. Guo, Y. Ke, M. Yu, Y. Jin, Y. Liu, Q. Ding, D. Di, L. Yang, G. Xing, H. Tian, C. Jin, F. Gao, R. H. Friend, J. Wang, and W. Huang, “Perovskite light-emitting diodes based on solution-processed self-organized multiple quantum wells,” Nat. Photonics 10(11), 699–704 (2016).

J. Wang, N. Wang, Y. Jin, J. Si, Z. K. Tan, H. Du, L. Cheng, X. Dai, S. Bai, H. He, Z. Ye, M. L. Lai, R. H. Friend, and W. Huang, “Interfacial Control Toward Efficient and Low-Voltage Perovskite Light-Emitting Diodes,” Adv. Mater. 27(14), 2311–2316 (2015).
[PubMed]

Wang, M.

S. Kumar, J. Jagielski, S. Yakunin, P. Rice, Y. C. Chiu, M. Wang, G. Nedelcu, Y. Kim, S. Lin, E. J. G. Santos, M. V. Kovalenko, and C. J. Shih, “Efficient Blue Electroluminescence Using Quantum-Confined Two-Dimensional Perovskites,” ACS Nano 10(10), 9720–9729 (2016).
[PubMed]

Wang, N.

N. Wang, L. Cheng, R. Ge, S. Zhang, Y. Miao, W. Zou, C. Yi, Y. Sun, Y. Cao, R. Yang, Y. Wei, Q. Guo, Y. Ke, M. Yu, Y. Jin, Y. Liu, Q. Ding, D. Di, L. Yang, G. Xing, H. Tian, C. Jin, F. Gao, R. H. Friend, J. Wang, and W. Huang, “Perovskite light-emitting diodes based on solution-processed self-organized multiple quantum wells,” Nat. Photonics 10(11), 699–704 (2016).

J. Wang, N. Wang, Y. Jin, J. Si, Z. K. Tan, H. Du, L. Cheng, X. Dai, S. Bai, H. He, Z. Ye, M. L. Lai, R. H. Friend, and W. Huang, “Interfacial Control Toward Efficient and Low-Voltage Perovskite Light-Emitting Diodes,” Adv. Mater. 27(14), 2311–2316 (2015).
[PubMed]

Wei, Q.

G. Xing, B. Wu, X. Wu, M. Li, B. Du, Q. Wei, J. Guo, E. K. L. Yeow, T. C. Sum, and W. Huang, “Transcending the slow bimolecular recombination in lead-halide perovskites for electroluminescence,” Nat. Commun. 8, 14558 (2017).
[PubMed]

Wei, Y.

N. Wang, L. Cheng, R. Ge, S. Zhang, Y. Miao, W. Zou, C. Yi, Y. Sun, Y. Cao, R. Yang, Y. Wei, Q. Guo, Y. Ke, M. Yu, Y. Jin, Y. Liu, Q. Ding, D. Di, L. Yang, G. Xing, H. Tian, C. Jin, F. Gao, R. H. Friend, J. Wang, and W. Huang, “Perovskite light-emitting diodes based on solution-processed self-organized multiple quantum wells,” Nat. Photonics 10(11), 699–704 (2016).

Wolf, C.

J. Byun, H. Cho, C. Wolf, M. Jang, A. Sadhanala, R. H. Friend, H. Yang, and T. W. Lee, “Efficient Visible Quasi-2D Perovskite Light-Emitting Diodes,” Adv. Mater. 28(34), 7515–7520 (2016).
[PubMed]

H. Cho, S. H. Jeong, M. H. Park, Y. H. Kim, C. Wolf, C. L. Lee, J. H. Heo, A. Sadhanala, N. Myoung, S. Yoo, S. H. Im, R. H. Friend, and T. W. Lee, “Overcoming the electroluminescence efficiency limitations of perovskite light-emitting diodes,” Science 350(6265), 1222–1225 (2015).
[PubMed]

Wu, B.

G. Xing, B. Wu, X. Wu, M. Li, B. Du, Q. Wei, J. Guo, E. K. L. Yeow, T. C. Sum, and W. Huang, “Transcending the slow bimolecular recombination in lead-halide perovskites for electroluminescence,” Nat. Commun. 8, 14558 (2017).
[PubMed]

Wu, D.

Z. F. Shi, X. G. Sun, D. Wu, T. T. Xu, S. W. Zhuang, Y. T. Tian, X. J. Li, and G. T. Du, “High-performance planar green light-emitting diodes based on a PEDOT:PSS/CH3NH3PbBr3/ZnO sandwich structure,” Nanoscale 8(19), 10035–10042 (2016).
[PubMed]

Wu, X.

G. Xing, B. Wu, X. Wu, M. Li, B. Du, Q. Wei, J. Guo, E. K. L. Yeow, T. C. Sum, and W. Huang, “Transcending the slow bimolecular recombination in lead-halide perovskites for electroluminescence,” Nat. Commun. 8, 14558 (2017).
[PubMed]

Xia, R.

Z. Chen, C. Zhang, X. F. Jiang, M. Liu, R. Xia, T. Shi, D. Chen, Q. Xue, Y. J. Zhao, S. Su, H. L. Yip, and Y. Cao, “High-Performance Color-Tunable Perovskite Light Emitting Devices through Structural Modulation from Bulk to Layered Film,” Adv. Mater. 29(8), 1603157 (2017).
[PubMed]

Xiao, Z.

Z. Xiao, R. A. Kerner, L. Zhao, N. L. Tran, K. M. Lee, T. Koh, G. D. Scholes, and B. P. Rand, “Efficient perovskite light-emitting diodes featuring nanometre-sized crystallites,” Nat. Photonics 11(2), 108–115 (2017).

Xing, G.

G. Xing, B. Wu, X. Wu, M. Li, B. Du, Q. Wei, J. Guo, E. K. L. Yeow, T. C. Sum, and W. Huang, “Transcending the slow bimolecular recombination in lead-halide perovskites for electroluminescence,” Nat. Commun. 8, 14558 (2017).
[PubMed]

N. Wang, L. Cheng, R. Ge, S. Zhang, Y. Miao, W. Zou, C. Yi, Y. Sun, Y. Cao, R. Yang, Y. Wei, Q. Guo, Y. Ke, M. Yu, Y. Jin, Y. Liu, Q. Ding, D. Di, L. Yang, G. Xing, H. Tian, C. Jin, F. Gao, R. H. Friend, J. Wang, and W. Huang, “Perovskite light-emitting diodes based on solution-processed self-organized multiple quantum wells,” Nat. Photonics 10(11), 699–704 (2016).

Xu, T. T.

Z. F. Shi, X. G. Sun, D. Wu, T. T. Xu, S. W. Zhuang, Y. T. Tian, X. J. Li, and G. T. Du, “High-performance planar green light-emitting diodes based on a PEDOT:PSS/CH3NH3PbBr3/ZnO sandwich structure,” Nanoscale 8(19), 10035–10042 (2016).
[PubMed]

Xue, Q.

Z. Chen, C. Zhang, X. F. Jiang, M. Liu, R. Xia, T. Shi, D. Chen, Q. Xue, Y. J. Zhao, S. Su, H. L. Yip, and Y. Cao, “High-Performance Color-Tunable Perovskite Light Emitting Devices through Structural Modulation from Bulk to Layered Film,” Adv. Mater. 29(8), 1603157 (2017).
[PubMed]

Yakunin, S.

S. Kumar, J. Jagielski, S. Yakunin, P. Rice, Y. C. Chiu, M. Wang, G. Nedelcu, Y. Kim, S. Lin, E. J. G. Santos, M. V. Kovalenko, and C. J. Shih, “Efficient Blue Electroluminescence Using Quantum-Confined Two-Dimensional Perovskites,” ACS Nano 10(10), 9720–9729 (2016).
[PubMed]

Yang, H.

J. Byun, H. Cho, C. Wolf, M. Jang, A. Sadhanala, R. H. Friend, H. Yang, and T. W. Lee, “Efficient Visible Quasi-2D Perovskite Light-Emitting Diodes,” Adv. Mater. 28(34), 7515–7520 (2016).
[PubMed]

Yang, L.

N. Wang, L. Cheng, R. Ge, S. Zhang, Y. Miao, W. Zou, C. Yi, Y. Sun, Y. Cao, R. Yang, Y. Wei, Q. Guo, Y. Ke, M. Yu, Y. Jin, Y. Liu, Q. Ding, D. Di, L. Yang, G. Xing, H. Tian, C. Jin, F. Gao, R. H. Friend, J. Wang, and W. Huang, “Perovskite light-emitting diodes based on solution-processed self-organized multiple quantum wells,” Nat. Photonics 10(11), 699–704 (2016).

Yang, R.

N. Wang, L. Cheng, R. Ge, S. Zhang, Y. Miao, W. Zou, C. Yi, Y. Sun, Y. Cao, R. Yang, Y. Wei, Q. Guo, Y. Ke, M. Yu, Y. Jin, Y. Liu, Q. Ding, D. Di, L. Yang, G. Xing, H. Tian, C. Jin, F. Gao, R. H. Friend, J. Wang, and W. Huang, “Perovskite light-emitting diodes based on solution-processed self-organized multiple quantum wells,” Nat. Photonics 10(11), 699–704 (2016).

Ye, Z.

J. Wang, N. Wang, Y. Jin, J. Si, Z. K. Tan, H. Du, L. Cheng, X. Dai, S. Bai, H. He, Z. Ye, M. L. Lai, R. H. Friend, and W. Huang, “Interfacial Control Toward Efficient and Low-Voltage Perovskite Light-Emitting Diodes,” Adv. Mater. 27(14), 2311–2316 (2015).
[PubMed]

Yeow, E. K. L.

G. Xing, B. Wu, X. Wu, M. Li, B. Du, Q. Wei, J. Guo, E. K. L. Yeow, T. C. Sum, and W. Huang, “Transcending the slow bimolecular recombination in lead-halide perovskites for electroluminescence,” Nat. Commun. 8, 14558 (2017).
[PubMed]

Yi, C.

N. Wang, L. Cheng, R. Ge, S. Zhang, Y. Miao, W. Zou, C. Yi, Y. Sun, Y. Cao, R. Yang, Y. Wei, Q. Guo, Y. Ke, M. Yu, Y. Jin, Y. Liu, Q. Ding, D. Di, L. Yang, G. Xing, H. Tian, C. Jin, F. Gao, R. H. Friend, J. Wang, and W. Huang, “Perovskite light-emitting diodes based on solution-processed self-organized multiple quantum wells,” Nat. Photonics 10(11), 699–704 (2016).

Yip, H. L.

Z. Chen, C. Zhang, X. F. Jiang, M. Liu, R. Xia, T. Shi, D. Chen, Q. Xue, Y. J. Zhao, S. Su, H. L. Yip, and Y. Cao, “High-Performance Color-Tunable Perovskite Light Emitting Devices through Structural Modulation from Bulk to Layered Film,” Adv. Mater. 29(8), 1603157 (2017).
[PubMed]

Yoo, S.

H. Cho, S. H. Jeong, M. H. Park, Y. H. Kim, C. Wolf, C. L. Lee, J. H. Heo, A. Sadhanala, N. Myoung, S. Yoo, S. H. Im, R. H. Friend, and T. W. Lee, “Overcoming the electroluminescence efficiency limitations of perovskite light-emitting diodes,” Science 350(6265), 1222–1225 (2015).
[PubMed]

Yu, M.

N. Wang, L. Cheng, R. Ge, S. Zhang, Y. Miao, W. Zou, C. Yi, Y. Sun, Y. Cao, R. Yang, Y. Wei, Q. Guo, Y. Ke, M. Yu, Y. Jin, Y. Liu, Q. Ding, D. Di, L. Yang, G. Xing, H. Tian, C. Jin, F. Gao, R. H. Friend, J. Wang, and W. Huang, “Perovskite light-emitting diodes based on solution-processed self-organized multiple quantum wells,” Nat. Photonics 10(11), 699–704 (2016).

Yuan, M.

M. Yuan, L. N. Quan, R. Comin, G. Walters, R. Sabatini, O. Voznyy, S. Hoogland, Y. Zhao, E. M. Beauregard, P. Kanjanaboos, Z. Lu, D. H. Kim, and E. H. Sargent, “Perovskite energy funnels for efficient light-emitting diodes,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 11(10), 872–877 (2016).
[PubMed]

Zhang, C.

Z. Chen, C. Zhang, X. F. Jiang, M. Liu, R. Xia, T. Shi, D. Chen, Q. Xue, Y. J. Zhao, S. Su, H. L. Yip, and Y. Cao, “High-Performance Color-Tunable Perovskite Light Emitting Devices through Structural Modulation from Bulk to Layered Film,” Adv. Mater. 29(8), 1603157 (2017).
[PubMed]

Zhang, S.

N. Wang, L. Cheng, R. Ge, S. Zhang, Y. Miao, W. Zou, C. Yi, Y. Sun, Y. Cao, R. Yang, Y. Wei, Q. Guo, Y. Ke, M. Yu, Y. Jin, Y. Liu, Q. Ding, D. Di, L. Yang, G. Xing, H. Tian, C. Jin, F. Gao, R. H. Friend, J. Wang, and W. Huang, “Perovskite light-emitting diodes based on solution-processed self-organized multiple quantum wells,” Nat. Photonics 10(11), 699–704 (2016).

Zhao, L.

Z. Xiao, R. A. Kerner, L. Zhao, N. L. Tran, K. M. Lee, T. Koh, G. D. Scholes, and B. P. Rand, “Efficient perovskite light-emitting diodes featuring nanometre-sized crystallites,” Nat. Photonics 11(2), 108–115 (2017).

Zhao, Y.

M. Yuan, L. N. Quan, R. Comin, G. Walters, R. Sabatini, O. Voznyy, S. Hoogland, Y. Zhao, E. M. Beauregard, P. Kanjanaboos, Z. Lu, D. H. Kim, and E. H. Sargent, “Perovskite energy funnels for efficient light-emitting diodes,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 11(10), 872–877 (2016).
[PubMed]

Y. Zhao and K. Zhu, “Organic-inorganic hybrid lead halide perovskites for optoelectronic and electronic applications,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 45(3), 655–689 (2016).
[PubMed]

Zhao, Y. J.

Z. Chen, C. Zhang, X. F. Jiang, M. Liu, R. Xia, T. Shi, D. Chen, Q. Xue, Y. J. Zhao, S. Su, H. L. Yip, and Y. Cao, “High-Performance Color-Tunable Perovskite Light Emitting Devices through Structural Modulation from Bulk to Layered Film,” Adv. Mater. 29(8), 1603157 (2017).
[PubMed]

Zhu, K.

Y. Zhao and K. Zhu, “Organic-inorganic hybrid lead halide perovskites for optoelectronic and electronic applications,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 45(3), 655–689 (2016).
[PubMed]

Zhuang, S. W.

Z. F. Shi, X. G. Sun, D. Wu, T. T. Xu, S. W. Zhuang, Y. T. Tian, X. J. Li, and G. T. Du, “High-performance planar green light-emitting diodes based on a PEDOT:PSS/CH3NH3PbBr3/ZnO sandwich structure,” Nanoscale 8(19), 10035–10042 (2016).
[PubMed]

Zou, W.

N. Wang, L. Cheng, R. Ge, S. Zhang, Y. Miao, W. Zou, C. Yi, Y. Sun, Y. Cao, R. Yang, Y. Wei, Q. Guo, Y. Ke, M. Yu, Y. Jin, Y. Liu, Q. Ding, D. Di, L. Yang, G. Xing, H. Tian, C. Jin, F. Gao, R. H. Friend, J. Wang, and W. Huang, “Perovskite light-emitting diodes based on solution-processed self-organized multiple quantum wells,” Nat. Photonics 10(11), 699–704 (2016).

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S. Kumar, J. Jagielski, S. Yakunin, P. Rice, Y. C. Chiu, M. Wang, G. Nedelcu, Y. Kim, S. Lin, E. J. G. Santos, M. V. Kovalenko, and C. J. Shih, “Efficient Blue Electroluminescence Using Quantum-Confined Two-Dimensional Perovskites,” ACS Nano 10(10), 9720–9729 (2016).
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J. Wang, N. Wang, Y. Jin, J. Si, Z. K. Tan, H. Du, L. Cheng, X. Dai, S. Bai, H. He, Z. Ye, M. L. Lai, R. H. Friend, and W. Huang, “Interfacial Control Toward Efficient and Low-Voltage Perovskite Light-Emitting Diodes,” Adv. Mater. 27(14), 2311–2316 (2015).
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J. Byun, H. Cho, C. Wolf, M. Jang, A. Sadhanala, R. H. Friend, H. Yang, and T. W. Lee, “Efficient Visible Quasi-2D Perovskite Light-Emitting Diodes,” Adv. Mater. 28(34), 7515–7520 (2016).
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Z. Chen, C. Zhang, X. F. Jiang, M. Liu, R. Xia, T. Shi, D. Chen, Q. Xue, Y. J. Zhao, S. Su, H. L. Yip, and Y. Cao, “High-Performance Color-Tunable Perovskite Light Emitting Devices through Structural Modulation from Bulk to Layered Film,” Adv. Mater. 29(8), 1603157 (2017).
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C. C. Stoumpos, C. M. M. Soe, H. Tsai, W. Nie, J. Blancon, D. H. Cao, F. Liu, B. Traoré, C. Katan, J. Even, A. D. Mohite, and M. G. Kanatzidis, “High Members of the 2D Ruddlesden-Popper Halide Perovskites: Synthesis, Optical Properties, and Solar Cells of (CH3(CH2)3NH3)2(CH3NH3)4Pb5I16,” Chem 2(3), 427–440 (2017).

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Y. Zhao and K. Zhu, “Organic-inorganic hybrid lead halide perovskites for optoelectronic and electronic applications,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 45(3), 655–689 (2016).
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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 a) Structures of TFA molecule. b) Schematic diagrams of unite cell structure of (TFA)2MAn-1PbnBr3n + 1 quasi-2D layered perovskite, where n refers to the number of layers from n = 2 to n = 5, The TFA spacer layers terminated the perovskite layers. c) SEM and d) AFM images of perovskite films with different layers from n = 2 to n = 5.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 a) SEM and b) AFM images of 3D perovskite films (MAPbBr3).
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 a) XRD patterns of the layered perovskites with different n values from n = 2 to 5. The (100), (200), (210) and (300) labels correspond to preferred diffraction planes. b) Magnification of XRD profile based in the (100) and (200) characteristic peaks. c) Stability measurements on (TFA)2MA2Pb3Br10 (n = 3) layered perovskite films, which was fabricated in glove box and placed in the atmosphere for more than four months at the temperature of 30 °C ( ± 10 °C) and the humidity of 60% ( ± 10%). d) UV-vis absorption of layered perovskite films on quartz substrate from n = 2 to n = 5.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 a) XRD pattern and b) UV-vis absorption of 2D perovskite (n = 1, TFA2PbBr4).
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 a) Schematic illustrations of device architecture. Al, aluminum; LiF, lithium fluoride; TPBi, 1,3,5-Tris(1-phenyl-1H-benzimidazol-2-yl)benzene; PVK, Poly(9-vinylcarbazole); PEDOT:PSS, poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) polystyrene sulfonate; ITO, Indium tin oxide. b) Energy band diagram of PeLEDs. The energy level values of the layers were taken from the literatures [5,21].
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Optoelectronic characteristics of layered PeLED. a) J-V-L characteristics. b) Current efficiency versus voltage characteristics. c) EL spectra of devices. d) Color coordinates of the EL of n = 3 PeLEDs in the CIE chromaticity diagram.

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