Abstract

A hybrid silver nanowires (AgNWs)/indium tin oxide (ITO) contact was used as a transparent back-electrode to fabricate a bifacial CdS/CdTe thin-film solar cell. The photovoltaic properties of the bifacial CdS/CdTe thin-film solar cell were investigated under front and back illumination conditions. The hybrid AgNWs/ITO back contact changed the average conversion efficiency from 0.4% (front) and 3.5% (rear) to 8.1% (front) and 0.9% (rear), respectively, improving the sum efficiency from 3.9% (ITO-only) to 9.0%. Our research demonstrates the use of a nanowire network as a transparent electrode in CdS/CdTe thin-film solar cells for bifacial or tandem applications.

© 2017 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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  24. P. Kuang, J. M. Park, W. Leung, R. C. Mahadevapuram, K. S. Nalwa, T. G. Kim, S. Chaudhary, K. M. Ho, and K. Constant, “A new architecture for transparent electrodes: relieving the trade-off between electrical conductivity and optical transmittance,” Adv. Mater. 23(21), 2469–2473 (2011).
    [PubMed]
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  26. V. Scardaci, R. Coull, P. E. Lyons, D. Rickard, and J. N. Coleman, “Spray deposition of highly transparent, low-resistance networks of silver nanowires over large areas,” Small 7(18), 2621–2628 (2011).
    [PubMed]
  27. S. Trasatti, “Work function, electronegativity, and electrochemical behaviour of metals: III. Electrolytic hydrogen evolution in acid solutions,” J. Electroanal. Chem. 39(1), 163 (1972).
  28. D. Lee, H. Lee, Y. Ahn, Y. Jeong, D.-Y. Lee, and Y. Lee, “Highly stable and flexible silver nanowire-graphene hybrid transparent conducting electrodes for emerging optoelectronic devices,” Nanoscale 5(17), 7750–7755 (2013).
    [PubMed]
  29. J. Liang, H. Bi, D. Wan, and F. Huang, “Novel Cu nanowires/graphene as the back contact for CdTe solar cells,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 22(6), 1267 (2012).
  30. F. Li, C. Chen, F. Tan, C. Li, G. Yue, L. Shen, and W. Zhang, “Semitransparent inverted polymer solar cells employing a sol-gel-derived TiO2 electron-selective layer on FTO and MoO3/Ag/MoO3 transparent electrode,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 9(1), 579 (2014).
    [PubMed]
  31. E. C. Garnett, W. Cai, J. J. Cha, F. Mahmood, S. T. Connor, M. Greyson Christoforo, Y. Cui, M. D. McGehee, and M. L. Brongersma, “Self-limited plasmonic welding of silver nanowire junctions,” Nat. Mater. 11(3), 241–249 (2012).
    [PubMed]
  32. P. Ramasamy, D.-M. Seo, S.-H. Kim, and J. Kim, “Effects of TiO 2 shells on optical and thermal properties of silver nanowires,” J. Mater. Chem. 22(23), 11651 (2012).
  33. A. Kim, Y. Won, K. Woo, S. Jeong, and J. Moon, “All-solution-processed indium-free transparent composite electrodes based on Ag nanowire and metal oxide for thin-film solar cells,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 24(17), 2462 (2014).
  34. J. Chamonal, E. Molva, J. Pautrat, and L. Revoil, “Complex behaviour of Ag in CdTe,” J. Cryst. Growth 59(1–2), 297 (1982).
  35. J. Bollmann, M. Wienecke, J. Röhrich, and H. Kerkow, “Doping and compensation phenomena of Ag in CdTe,” J. Cryst. Growth 159(1–4), 384 (1996).
  36. G. Khrypunov, A. Romeo, F. Kurdesau, D. Bätzner, H. Zogg, and A. N. Tiwari, “Recent developments in evaporated CdTe solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 90(6), 664 (2006).

2017 (1)

M. A. Green, Y. Hishikawa, W. Warta, E. D. Dunlop, D. H. Levi, J. Hohl-Ebinger, and A. W. Ho-Baillie, “Solar cell efficiency tables (version 50),” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 25(7), 668 (2017).

2015 (3)

F. Lisco, P. M. Kaminski, A. Abbas, K. Bass, J. W. Bowers, G. Claudio, M. Losurdo, and J. Walls, “The structural properties of CdS deposited by chemical bath deposition and pulsed direct current magnetron sputtering,” Thin Solid Films 582, 323 (2015).

A. Lamoureux, K. Lee, M. Shlian, S. R. Forrest, and M. Shtein, “Dynamic kirigami structures for integrated solar tracking,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8092 (2015).
[PubMed]

C.-W. Chen, S.-Y. Hsiao, C.-Y. Chen, H.-W. Kang, Z.-Y. Huang, and H.-W. Lin, “Optical properties of organometal halide perovskite thin films and general device structure design rules for perovskite single and tandem solar cells,” J. Mater. Chem. A Mater. Energy Sustain. 3(17), 9152 (2015).

2014 (4)

J. Ge, J. Chu, J. Jiang, Y. Yan, and P. Yang, “Characteristics of in-substituted CZTS thin film and bifacial solar cell,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 6(23), 21118–21130 (2014).
[PubMed]

S. G. Kumar and K. K. Rao, “Physics and chemistry of CdTe/CdS thin film heterojunction photovoltaic devices: fundamental and critical aspects,” Energy Environ. Sci. 7(1), 45 (2014).

F. Li, C. Chen, F. Tan, C. Li, G. Yue, L. Shen, and W. Zhang, “Semitransparent inverted polymer solar cells employing a sol-gel-derived TiO2 electron-selective layer on FTO and MoO3/Ag/MoO3 transparent electrode,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 9(1), 579 (2014).
[PubMed]

A. Kim, Y. Won, K. Woo, S. Jeong, and J. Moon, “All-solution-processed indium-free transparent composite electrodes based on Ag nanowire and metal oxide for thin-film solar cells,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 24(17), 2462 (2014).

2013 (2)

D. Lee, H. Lee, Y. Ahn, Y. Jeong, D.-Y. Lee, and Y. Lee, “Highly stable and flexible silver nanowire-graphene hybrid transparent conducting electrodes for emerging optoelectronic devices,” Nanoscale 5(17), 7750–7755 (2013).
[PubMed]

P. More, “Role of Substrate Temperatures on Structural, Optical, Wetting and Electrical Transport Properties of CdS Thin Films,” J. Surf. Eng. Mater. Adv. Technol. 3(01), 43 (2013).

2012 (3)

J. Liang, H. Bi, D. Wan, and F. Huang, “Novel Cu nanowires/graphene as the back contact for CdTe solar cells,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 22(6), 1267 (2012).

E. C. Garnett, W. Cai, J. J. Cha, F. Mahmood, S. T. Connor, M. Greyson Christoforo, Y. Cui, M. D. McGehee, and M. L. Brongersma, “Self-limited plasmonic welding of silver nanowire junctions,” Nat. Mater. 11(3), 241–249 (2012).
[PubMed]

P. Ramasamy, D.-M. Seo, S.-H. Kim, and J. Kim, “Effects of TiO 2 shells on optical and thermal properties of silver nanowires,” J. Mater. Chem. 22(23), 11651 (2012).

2011 (5)

L. M. Peter, “Towards sustainable photovoltaics: the search for new materials,” Philos. T. Roy. Soc. A 369(1942), 1840 (2011).

P. Kuang, J. M. Park, W. Leung, R. C. Mahadevapuram, K. S. Nalwa, T. G. Kim, S. Chaudhary, K. M. Ho, and K. Constant, “A new architecture for transparent electrodes: relieving the trade-off between electrical conductivity and optical transmittance,” Adv. Mater. 23(21), 2469–2473 (2011).
[PubMed]

V. Scardaci, R. Coull, P. E. Lyons, D. Rickard, and J. N. Coleman, “Spray deposition of highly transparent, low-resistance networks of silver nanowires over large areas,” Small 7(18), 2621–2628 (2011).
[PubMed]

J. Major and K. Durose, “Early stage growth mechanisms of CdTe thin films deposited by close space sublimation for solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95(12), 3165 (2011).

W.-S. Jeong, J.-W. Lee, S. Jung, J. H. Yun, and N.-G. Park, “Evaluation of external quantum efficiency of a 12.35% tandem solar cell comprising dye-sensitized and CIGS solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95(12), 3419 (2011).

2010 (1)

A. R. Madaria, A. Kumar, F. N. Ishikawa, and C. Zhou, “Uniform, highly conductive, and patterned transparent films of a percolating silver nanowire network on rigid and flexible substrates using a dry transfer technique,” Nano Res. 3(8), 564 (2010).

2008 (2)

S. Ito, S. M. Zakeeruddin, P. Comte, P. Liska, D. Kuang, and M. Grätzel, “Bifacial dye-sensitized solar cells based on an ionic liquid electrolyte,” Nat. Photonics 2(11), 693 (2008).

C.-H. Su, “Energy band gap, intrinsic carrier concentration, and Fermi level of CdTe bulk crystal between 304 and 1067 K,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(8), 084903 (2008).

2007 (2)

A. Romeo, G. Khrypunov, S. Galassini, H. Zogg, and A. Tiwari, “Bifacial configurations for CdTe solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 91(15), 1388 (2007).

S. Marsillac, V. Parikh, and A. Compaan, “Ultra-thin bifacial CdTe solar cell,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 91(15), 1398 (2007).

2006 (1)

G. Khrypunov, A. Romeo, F. Kurdesau, D. Bätzner, H. Zogg, and A. N. Tiwari, “Recent developments in evaporated CdTe solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 90(6), 664 (2006).

2004 (3)

A. N. Tiwari, G. Khrypunov, F. Kurdzesau, D. Bätzner, A. Romeo, and H. Zogg, “CdTe solar cell in a novel configuration,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 12(1), 33 (2004).

A. D. Compaan, A. Gupta, S. Lee, S. Wang, and J. Drayton, “High efficiency, magnetron sputtered CdS/CdTe solar cells,” Sol. Energy 77(6), 815 (2004).

T. Nakada, Y. Hirabayashi, T. Tokado, D. Ohmori, and T. Mise, “Novel device structure for Cu (In, Ga) Se 2 thin film solar cells using transparent conducting oxide back and front contacts,” Sol. Energy 77(6), 739 (2004).

2000 (2)

H. Ohtsuka, M. Sakamoto, K. Tsutsui, and Y. Yazawa, “Bifacial silicon solar cells with 21· 3% front efficiency and 19·8% rear efficiency,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 8(4), 385 (2000).

E. Alsema, “Energy pay‐back time and CO2 emissions of PV systems,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 8(1), 17 (2000).

1999 (2)

A. Shah, P. Torres, R. Tscharner, N. Wyrsch, and H. Keppner, “Photovoltaic technology: the case for thin-film solar cells,” Science 285(5428), 692–698 (1999).
[PubMed]

K. Durose, P. Edwards, and D. Halliday, “Materials aspects of CdTe/CdS solar cells,” J. Cryst. Growth 197(3), 733 (1999).

1996 (1)

J. Bollmann, M. Wienecke, J. Röhrich, and H. Kerkow, “Doping and compensation phenomena of Ag in CdTe,” J. Cryst. Growth 159(1–4), 384 (1996).

1982 (2)

J. Chamonal, E. Molva, J. Pautrat, and L. Revoil, “Complex behaviour of Ag in CdTe,” J. Cryst. Growth 59(1–2), 297 (1982).

J. Chamonal, E. Molva, and J. Pautrat, “Identification of Cu and Ag acceptors in CdTe,” Solid State Commun. 43(11), 801 (1982).

1972 (1)

S. Trasatti, “Work function, electronegativity, and electrochemical behaviour of metals: III. Electrolytic hydrogen evolution in acid solutions,” J. Electroanal. Chem. 39(1), 163 (1972).

Abbas, A.

F. Lisco, P. M. Kaminski, A. Abbas, K. Bass, J. W. Bowers, G. Claudio, M. Losurdo, and J. Walls, “The structural properties of CdS deposited by chemical bath deposition and pulsed direct current magnetron sputtering,” Thin Solid Films 582, 323 (2015).

Ahn, Y.

D. Lee, H. Lee, Y. Ahn, Y. Jeong, D.-Y. Lee, and Y. Lee, “Highly stable and flexible silver nanowire-graphene hybrid transparent conducting electrodes for emerging optoelectronic devices,” Nanoscale 5(17), 7750–7755 (2013).
[PubMed]

Alsema, E.

E. Alsema, “Energy pay‐back time and CO2 emissions of PV systems,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 8(1), 17 (2000).

Bass, K.

F. Lisco, P. M. Kaminski, A. Abbas, K. Bass, J. W. Bowers, G. Claudio, M. Losurdo, and J. Walls, “The structural properties of CdS deposited by chemical bath deposition and pulsed direct current magnetron sputtering,” Thin Solid Films 582, 323 (2015).

Bätzner, D.

G. Khrypunov, A. Romeo, F. Kurdesau, D. Bätzner, H. Zogg, and A. N. Tiwari, “Recent developments in evaporated CdTe solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 90(6), 664 (2006).

A. N. Tiwari, G. Khrypunov, F. Kurdzesau, D. Bätzner, A. Romeo, and H. Zogg, “CdTe solar cell in a novel configuration,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 12(1), 33 (2004).

Bi, H.

J. Liang, H. Bi, D. Wan, and F. Huang, “Novel Cu nanowires/graphene as the back contact for CdTe solar cells,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 22(6), 1267 (2012).

Bollmann, J.

J. Bollmann, M. Wienecke, J. Röhrich, and H. Kerkow, “Doping and compensation phenomena of Ag in CdTe,” J. Cryst. Growth 159(1–4), 384 (1996).

Bowers, J. W.

F. Lisco, P. M. Kaminski, A. Abbas, K. Bass, J. W. Bowers, G. Claudio, M. Losurdo, and J. Walls, “The structural properties of CdS deposited by chemical bath deposition and pulsed direct current magnetron sputtering,” Thin Solid Films 582, 323 (2015).

Brongersma, M. L.

E. C. Garnett, W. Cai, J. J. Cha, F. Mahmood, S. T. Connor, M. Greyson Christoforo, Y. Cui, M. D. McGehee, and M. L. Brongersma, “Self-limited plasmonic welding of silver nanowire junctions,” Nat. Mater. 11(3), 241–249 (2012).
[PubMed]

Cai, W.

E. C. Garnett, W. Cai, J. J. Cha, F. Mahmood, S. T. Connor, M. Greyson Christoforo, Y. Cui, M. D. McGehee, and M. L. Brongersma, “Self-limited plasmonic welding of silver nanowire junctions,” Nat. Mater. 11(3), 241–249 (2012).
[PubMed]

Cha, J. J.

E. C. Garnett, W. Cai, J. J. Cha, F. Mahmood, S. T. Connor, M. Greyson Christoforo, Y. Cui, M. D. McGehee, and M. L. Brongersma, “Self-limited plasmonic welding of silver nanowire junctions,” Nat. Mater. 11(3), 241–249 (2012).
[PubMed]

Chamonal, J.

J. Chamonal, E. Molva, J. Pautrat, and L. Revoil, “Complex behaviour of Ag in CdTe,” J. Cryst. Growth 59(1–2), 297 (1982).

J. Chamonal, E. Molva, and J. Pautrat, “Identification of Cu and Ag acceptors in CdTe,” Solid State Commun. 43(11), 801 (1982).

Chaudhary, S.

P. Kuang, J. M. Park, W. Leung, R. C. Mahadevapuram, K. S. Nalwa, T. G. Kim, S. Chaudhary, K. M. Ho, and K. Constant, “A new architecture for transparent electrodes: relieving the trade-off between electrical conductivity and optical transmittance,” Adv. Mater. 23(21), 2469–2473 (2011).
[PubMed]

Chen, C.

F. Li, C. Chen, F. Tan, C. Li, G. Yue, L. Shen, and W. Zhang, “Semitransparent inverted polymer solar cells employing a sol-gel-derived TiO2 electron-selective layer on FTO and MoO3/Ag/MoO3 transparent electrode,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 9(1), 579 (2014).
[PubMed]

Chen, C.-W.

C.-W. Chen, S.-Y. Hsiao, C.-Y. Chen, H.-W. Kang, Z.-Y. Huang, and H.-W. Lin, “Optical properties of organometal halide perovskite thin films and general device structure design rules for perovskite single and tandem solar cells,” J. Mater. Chem. A Mater. Energy Sustain. 3(17), 9152 (2015).

Chen, C.-Y.

C.-W. Chen, S.-Y. Hsiao, C.-Y. Chen, H.-W. Kang, Z.-Y. Huang, and H.-W. Lin, “Optical properties of organometal halide perovskite thin films and general device structure design rules for perovskite single and tandem solar cells,” J. Mater. Chem. A Mater. Energy Sustain. 3(17), 9152 (2015).

Chu, J.

J. Ge, J. Chu, J. Jiang, Y. Yan, and P. Yang, “Characteristics of in-substituted CZTS thin film and bifacial solar cell,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 6(23), 21118–21130 (2014).
[PubMed]

Claudio, G.

F. Lisco, P. M. Kaminski, A. Abbas, K. Bass, J. W. Bowers, G. Claudio, M. Losurdo, and J. Walls, “The structural properties of CdS deposited by chemical bath deposition and pulsed direct current magnetron sputtering,” Thin Solid Films 582, 323 (2015).

Coleman, J. N.

V. Scardaci, R. Coull, P. E. Lyons, D. Rickard, and J. N. Coleman, “Spray deposition of highly transparent, low-resistance networks of silver nanowires over large areas,” Small 7(18), 2621–2628 (2011).
[PubMed]

Compaan, A.

S. Marsillac, V. Parikh, and A. Compaan, “Ultra-thin bifacial CdTe solar cell,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 91(15), 1398 (2007).

Compaan, A. D.

A. D. Compaan, A. Gupta, S. Lee, S. Wang, and J. Drayton, “High efficiency, magnetron sputtered CdS/CdTe solar cells,” Sol. Energy 77(6), 815 (2004).

Comte, P.

S. Ito, S. M. Zakeeruddin, P. Comte, P. Liska, D. Kuang, and M. Grätzel, “Bifacial dye-sensitized solar cells based on an ionic liquid electrolyte,” Nat. Photonics 2(11), 693 (2008).

Connor, S. T.

E. C. Garnett, W. Cai, J. J. Cha, F. Mahmood, S. T. Connor, M. Greyson Christoforo, Y. Cui, M. D. McGehee, and M. L. Brongersma, “Self-limited plasmonic welding of silver nanowire junctions,” Nat. Mater. 11(3), 241–249 (2012).
[PubMed]

Constant, K.

P. Kuang, J. M. Park, W. Leung, R. C. Mahadevapuram, K. S. Nalwa, T. G. Kim, S. Chaudhary, K. M. Ho, and K. Constant, “A new architecture for transparent electrodes: relieving the trade-off between electrical conductivity and optical transmittance,” Adv. Mater. 23(21), 2469–2473 (2011).
[PubMed]

Coull, R.

V. Scardaci, R. Coull, P. E. Lyons, D. Rickard, and J. N. Coleman, “Spray deposition of highly transparent, low-resistance networks of silver nanowires over large areas,” Small 7(18), 2621–2628 (2011).
[PubMed]

Cui, Y.

E. C. Garnett, W. Cai, J. J. Cha, F. Mahmood, S. T. Connor, M. Greyson Christoforo, Y. Cui, M. D. McGehee, and M. L. Brongersma, “Self-limited plasmonic welding of silver nanowire junctions,” Nat. Mater. 11(3), 241–249 (2012).
[PubMed]

Drayton, J.

A. D. Compaan, A. Gupta, S. Lee, S. Wang, and J. Drayton, “High efficiency, magnetron sputtered CdS/CdTe solar cells,” Sol. Energy 77(6), 815 (2004).

Dunlop, E. D.

M. A. Green, Y. Hishikawa, W. Warta, E. D. Dunlop, D. H. Levi, J. Hohl-Ebinger, and A. W. Ho-Baillie, “Solar cell efficiency tables (version 50),” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 25(7), 668 (2017).

Durose, K.

J. Major and K. Durose, “Early stage growth mechanisms of CdTe thin films deposited by close space sublimation for solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95(12), 3165 (2011).

K. Durose, P. Edwards, and D. Halliday, “Materials aspects of CdTe/CdS solar cells,” J. Cryst. Growth 197(3), 733 (1999).

Edwards, P.

K. Durose, P. Edwards, and D. Halliday, “Materials aspects of CdTe/CdS solar cells,” J. Cryst. Growth 197(3), 733 (1999).

Forrest, S. R.

A. Lamoureux, K. Lee, M. Shlian, S. R. Forrest, and M. Shtein, “Dynamic kirigami structures for integrated solar tracking,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8092 (2015).
[PubMed]

Galassini, S.

A. Romeo, G. Khrypunov, S. Galassini, H. Zogg, and A. Tiwari, “Bifacial configurations for CdTe solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 91(15), 1388 (2007).

Garnett, E. C.

E. C. Garnett, W. Cai, J. J. Cha, F. Mahmood, S. T. Connor, M. Greyson Christoforo, Y. Cui, M. D. McGehee, and M. L. Brongersma, “Self-limited plasmonic welding of silver nanowire junctions,” Nat. Mater. 11(3), 241–249 (2012).
[PubMed]

Ge, J.

J. Ge, J. Chu, J. Jiang, Y. Yan, and P. Yang, “Characteristics of in-substituted CZTS thin film and bifacial solar cell,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 6(23), 21118–21130 (2014).
[PubMed]

Grätzel, M.

S. Ito, S. M. Zakeeruddin, P. Comte, P. Liska, D. Kuang, and M. Grätzel, “Bifacial dye-sensitized solar cells based on an ionic liquid electrolyte,” Nat. Photonics 2(11), 693 (2008).

Green, M. A.

M. A. Green, Y. Hishikawa, W. Warta, E. D. Dunlop, D. H. Levi, J. Hohl-Ebinger, and A. W. Ho-Baillie, “Solar cell efficiency tables (version 50),” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 25(7), 668 (2017).

Greyson Christoforo, M.

E. C. Garnett, W. Cai, J. J. Cha, F. Mahmood, S. T. Connor, M. Greyson Christoforo, Y. Cui, M. D. McGehee, and M. L. Brongersma, “Self-limited plasmonic welding of silver nanowire junctions,” Nat. Mater. 11(3), 241–249 (2012).
[PubMed]

Gupta, A.

A. D. Compaan, A. Gupta, S. Lee, S. Wang, and J. Drayton, “High efficiency, magnetron sputtered CdS/CdTe solar cells,” Sol. Energy 77(6), 815 (2004).

Halliday, D.

K. Durose, P. Edwards, and D. Halliday, “Materials aspects of CdTe/CdS solar cells,” J. Cryst. Growth 197(3), 733 (1999).

Hirabayashi, Y.

T. Nakada, Y. Hirabayashi, T. Tokado, D. Ohmori, and T. Mise, “Novel device structure for Cu (In, Ga) Se 2 thin film solar cells using transparent conducting oxide back and front contacts,” Sol. Energy 77(6), 739 (2004).

Hishikawa, Y.

M. A. Green, Y. Hishikawa, W. Warta, E. D. Dunlop, D. H. Levi, J. Hohl-Ebinger, and A. W. Ho-Baillie, “Solar cell efficiency tables (version 50),” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 25(7), 668 (2017).

Ho, K. M.

P. Kuang, J. M. Park, W. Leung, R. C. Mahadevapuram, K. S. Nalwa, T. G. Kim, S. Chaudhary, K. M. Ho, and K. Constant, “A new architecture for transparent electrodes: relieving the trade-off between electrical conductivity and optical transmittance,” Adv. Mater. 23(21), 2469–2473 (2011).
[PubMed]

Ho-Baillie, A. W.

M. A. Green, Y. Hishikawa, W. Warta, E. D. Dunlop, D. H. Levi, J. Hohl-Ebinger, and A. W. Ho-Baillie, “Solar cell efficiency tables (version 50),” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 25(7), 668 (2017).

Hohl-Ebinger, J.

M. A. Green, Y. Hishikawa, W. Warta, E. D. Dunlop, D. H. Levi, J. Hohl-Ebinger, and A. W. Ho-Baillie, “Solar cell efficiency tables (version 50),” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 25(7), 668 (2017).

Hsiao, S.-Y.

C.-W. Chen, S.-Y. Hsiao, C.-Y. Chen, H.-W. Kang, Z.-Y. Huang, and H.-W. Lin, “Optical properties of organometal halide perovskite thin films and general device structure design rules for perovskite single and tandem solar cells,” J. Mater. Chem. A Mater. Energy Sustain. 3(17), 9152 (2015).

Huang, F.

J. Liang, H. Bi, D. Wan, and F. Huang, “Novel Cu nanowires/graphene as the back contact for CdTe solar cells,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 22(6), 1267 (2012).

Huang, Z.-Y.

C.-W. Chen, S.-Y. Hsiao, C.-Y. Chen, H.-W. Kang, Z.-Y. Huang, and H.-W. Lin, “Optical properties of organometal halide perovskite thin films and general device structure design rules for perovskite single and tandem solar cells,” J. Mater. Chem. A Mater. Energy Sustain. 3(17), 9152 (2015).

Ishikawa, F. N.

A. R. Madaria, A. Kumar, F. N. Ishikawa, and C. Zhou, “Uniform, highly conductive, and patterned transparent films of a percolating silver nanowire network on rigid and flexible substrates using a dry transfer technique,” Nano Res. 3(8), 564 (2010).

Ito, S.

S. Ito, S. M. Zakeeruddin, P. Comte, P. Liska, D. Kuang, and M. Grätzel, “Bifacial dye-sensitized solar cells based on an ionic liquid electrolyte,” Nat. Photonics 2(11), 693 (2008).

Jeong, S.

A. Kim, Y. Won, K. Woo, S. Jeong, and J. Moon, “All-solution-processed indium-free transparent composite electrodes based on Ag nanowire and metal oxide for thin-film solar cells,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 24(17), 2462 (2014).

Jeong, W.-S.

W.-S. Jeong, J.-W. Lee, S. Jung, J. H. Yun, and N.-G. Park, “Evaluation of external quantum efficiency of a 12.35% tandem solar cell comprising dye-sensitized and CIGS solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95(12), 3419 (2011).

Jeong, Y.

D. Lee, H. Lee, Y. Ahn, Y. Jeong, D.-Y. Lee, and Y. Lee, “Highly stable and flexible silver nanowire-graphene hybrid transparent conducting electrodes for emerging optoelectronic devices,” Nanoscale 5(17), 7750–7755 (2013).
[PubMed]

Jiang, J.

J. Ge, J. Chu, J. Jiang, Y. Yan, and P. Yang, “Characteristics of in-substituted CZTS thin film and bifacial solar cell,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 6(23), 21118–21130 (2014).
[PubMed]

Jung, S.

W.-S. Jeong, J.-W. Lee, S. Jung, J. H. Yun, and N.-G. Park, “Evaluation of external quantum efficiency of a 12.35% tandem solar cell comprising dye-sensitized and CIGS solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95(12), 3419 (2011).

Kaminski, P. M.

F. Lisco, P. M. Kaminski, A. Abbas, K. Bass, J. W. Bowers, G. Claudio, M. Losurdo, and J. Walls, “The structural properties of CdS deposited by chemical bath deposition and pulsed direct current magnetron sputtering,” Thin Solid Films 582, 323 (2015).

Kang, H.-W.

C.-W. Chen, S.-Y. Hsiao, C.-Y. Chen, H.-W. Kang, Z.-Y. Huang, and H.-W. Lin, “Optical properties of organometal halide perovskite thin films and general device structure design rules for perovskite single and tandem solar cells,” J. Mater. Chem. A Mater. Energy Sustain. 3(17), 9152 (2015).

Keppner, H.

A. Shah, P. Torres, R. Tscharner, N. Wyrsch, and H. Keppner, “Photovoltaic technology: the case for thin-film solar cells,” Science 285(5428), 692–698 (1999).
[PubMed]

Kerkow, H.

J. Bollmann, M. Wienecke, J. Röhrich, and H. Kerkow, “Doping and compensation phenomena of Ag in CdTe,” J. Cryst. Growth 159(1–4), 384 (1996).

Khrypunov, G.

A. Romeo, G. Khrypunov, S. Galassini, H. Zogg, and A. Tiwari, “Bifacial configurations for CdTe solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 91(15), 1388 (2007).

G. Khrypunov, A. Romeo, F. Kurdesau, D. Bätzner, H. Zogg, and A. N. Tiwari, “Recent developments in evaporated CdTe solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 90(6), 664 (2006).

A. N. Tiwari, G. Khrypunov, F. Kurdzesau, D. Bätzner, A. Romeo, and H. Zogg, “CdTe solar cell in a novel configuration,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 12(1), 33 (2004).

Kim, A.

A. Kim, Y. Won, K. Woo, S. Jeong, and J. Moon, “All-solution-processed indium-free transparent composite electrodes based on Ag nanowire and metal oxide for thin-film solar cells,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 24(17), 2462 (2014).

Kim, J.

P. Ramasamy, D.-M. Seo, S.-H. Kim, and J. Kim, “Effects of TiO 2 shells on optical and thermal properties of silver nanowires,” J. Mater. Chem. 22(23), 11651 (2012).

Kim, S.-H.

P. Ramasamy, D.-M. Seo, S.-H. Kim, and J. Kim, “Effects of TiO 2 shells on optical and thermal properties of silver nanowires,” J. Mater. Chem. 22(23), 11651 (2012).

Kim, T. G.

P. Kuang, J. M. Park, W. Leung, R. C. Mahadevapuram, K. S. Nalwa, T. G. Kim, S. Chaudhary, K. M. Ho, and K. Constant, “A new architecture for transparent electrodes: relieving the trade-off between electrical conductivity and optical transmittance,” Adv. Mater. 23(21), 2469–2473 (2011).
[PubMed]

Kuang, D.

S. Ito, S. M. Zakeeruddin, P. Comte, P. Liska, D. Kuang, and M. Grätzel, “Bifacial dye-sensitized solar cells based on an ionic liquid electrolyte,” Nat. Photonics 2(11), 693 (2008).

Kuang, P.

P. Kuang, J. M. Park, W. Leung, R. C. Mahadevapuram, K. S. Nalwa, T. G. Kim, S. Chaudhary, K. M. Ho, and K. Constant, “A new architecture for transparent electrodes: relieving the trade-off between electrical conductivity and optical transmittance,” Adv. Mater. 23(21), 2469–2473 (2011).
[PubMed]

Kumar, A.

A. R. Madaria, A. Kumar, F. N. Ishikawa, and C. Zhou, “Uniform, highly conductive, and patterned transparent films of a percolating silver nanowire network on rigid and flexible substrates using a dry transfer technique,” Nano Res. 3(8), 564 (2010).

Kumar, S. G.

S. G. Kumar and K. K. Rao, “Physics and chemistry of CdTe/CdS thin film heterojunction photovoltaic devices: fundamental and critical aspects,” Energy Environ. Sci. 7(1), 45 (2014).

Kurdesau, F.

G. Khrypunov, A. Romeo, F. Kurdesau, D. Bätzner, H. Zogg, and A. N. Tiwari, “Recent developments in evaporated CdTe solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 90(6), 664 (2006).

Kurdzesau, F.

A. N. Tiwari, G. Khrypunov, F. Kurdzesau, D. Bätzner, A. Romeo, and H. Zogg, “CdTe solar cell in a novel configuration,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 12(1), 33 (2004).

Lamoureux, A.

A. Lamoureux, K. Lee, M. Shlian, S. R. Forrest, and M. Shtein, “Dynamic kirigami structures for integrated solar tracking,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8092 (2015).
[PubMed]

Lee, D.

D. Lee, H. Lee, Y. Ahn, Y. Jeong, D.-Y. Lee, and Y. Lee, “Highly stable and flexible silver nanowire-graphene hybrid transparent conducting electrodes for emerging optoelectronic devices,” Nanoscale 5(17), 7750–7755 (2013).
[PubMed]

Lee, D.-Y.

D. Lee, H. Lee, Y. Ahn, Y. Jeong, D.-Y. Lee, and Y. Lee, “Highly stable and flexible silver nanowire-graphene hybrid transparent conducting electrodes for emerging optoelectronic devices,” Nanoscale 5(17), 7750–7755 (2013).
[PubMed]

Lee, H.

D. Lee, H. Lee, Y. Ahn, Y. Jeong, D.-Y. Lee, and Y. Lee, “Highly stable and flexible silver nanowire-graphene hybrid transparent conducting electrodes for emerging optoelectronic devices,” Nanoscale 5(17), 7750–7755 (2013).
[PubMed]

Lee, J.-W.

W.-S. Jeong, J.-W. Lee, S. Jung, J. H. Yun, and N.-G. Park, “Evaluation of external quantum efficiency of a 12.35% tandem solar cell comprising dye-sensitized and CIGS solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95(12), 3419 (2011).

Lee, K.

A. Lamoureux, K. Lee, M. Shlian, S. R. Forrest, and M. Shtein, “Dynamic kirigami structures for integrated solar tracking,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8092 (2015).
[PubMed]

Lee, S.

A. D. Compaan, A. Gupta, S. Lee, S. Wang, and J. Drayton, “High efficiency, magnetron sputtered CdS/CdTe solar cells,” Sol. Energy 77(6), 815 (2004).

Lee, Y.

D. Lee, H. Lee, Y. Ahn, Y. Jeong, D.-Y. Lee, and Y. Lee, “Highly stable and flexible silver nanowire-graphene hybrid transparent conducting electrodes for emerging optoelectronic devices,” Nanoscale 5(17), 7750–7755 (2013).
[PubMed]

Leung, W.

P. Kuang, J. M. Park, W. Leung, R. C. Mahadevapuram, K. S. Nalwa, T. G. Kim, S. Chaudhary, K. M. Ho, and K. Constant, “A new architecture for transparent electrodes: relieving the trade-off between electrical conductivity and optical transmittance,” Adv. Mater. 23(21), 2469–2473 (2011).
[PubMed]

Levi, D. H.

M. A. Green, Y. Hishikawa, W. Warta, E. D. Dunlop, D. H. Levi, J. Hohl-Ebinger, and A. W. Ho-Baillie, “Solar cell efficiency tables (version 50),” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 25(7), 668 (2017).

Li, C.

F. Li, C. Chen, F. Tan, C. Li, G. Yue, L. Shen, and W. Zhang, “Semitransparent inverted polymer solar cells employing a sol-gel-derived TiO2 electron-selective layer on FTO and MoO3/Ag/MoO3 transparent electrode,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 9(1), 579 (2014).
[PubMed]

Li, F.

F. Li, C. Chen, F. Tan, C. Li, G. Yue, L. Shen, and W. Zhang, “Semitransparent inverted polymer solar cells employing a sol-gel-derived TiO2 electron-selective layer on FTO and MoO3/Ag/MoO3 transparent electrode,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 9(1), 579 (2014).
[PubMed]

Liang, J.

J. Liang, H. Bi, D. Wan, and F. Huang, “Novel Cu nanowires/graphene as the back contact for CdTe solar cells,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 22(6), 1267 (2012).

Lin, H.-W.

C.-W. Chen, S.-Y. Hsiao, C.-Y. Chen, H.-W. Kang, Z.-Y. Huang, and H.-W. Lin, “Optical properties of organometal halide perovskite thin films and general device structure design rules for perovskite single and tandem solar cells,” J. Mater. Chem. A Mater. Energy Sustain. 3(17), 9152 (2015).

Lisco, F.

F. Lisco, P. M. Kaminski, A. Abbas, K. Bass, J. W. Bowers, G. Claudio, M. Losurdo, and J. Walls, “The structural properties of CdS deposited by chemical bath deposition and pulsed direct current magnetron sputtering,” Thin Solid Films 582, 323 (2015).

Liska, P.

S. Ito, S. M. Zakeeruddin, P. Comte, P. Liska, D. Kuang, and M. Grätzel, “Bifacial dye-sensitized solar cells based on an ionic liquid electrolyte,” Nat. Photonics 2(11), 693 (2008).

Losurdo, M.

F. Lisco, P. M. Kaminski, A. Abbas, K. Bass, J. W. Bowers, G. Claudio, M. Losurdo, and J. Walls, “The structural properties of CdS deposited by chemical bath deposition and pulsed direct current magnetron sputtering,” Thin Solid Films 582, 323 (2015).

Lyons, P. E.

V. Scardaci, R. Coull, P. E. Lyons, D. Rickard, and J. N. Coleman, “Spray deposition of highly transparent, low-resistance networks of silver nanowires over large areas,” Small 7(18), 2621–2628 (2011).
[PubMed]

Madaria, A. R.

A. R. Madaria, A. Kumar, F. N. Ishikawa, and C. Zhou, “Uniform, highly conductive, and patterned transparent films of a percolating silver nanowire network on rigid and flexible substrates using a dry transfer technique,” Nano Res. 3(8), 564 (2010).

Mahadevapuram, R. C.

P. Kuang, J. M. Park, W. Leung, R. C. Mahadevapuram, K. S. Nalwa, T. G. Kim, S. Chaudhary, K. M. Ho, and K. Constant, “A new architecture for transparent electrodes: relieving the trade-off between electrical conductivity and optical transmittance,” Adv. Mater. 23(21), 2469–2473 (2011).
[PubMed]

Mahmood, F.

E. C. Garnett, W. Cai, J. J. Cha, F. Mahmood, S. T. Connor, M. Greyson Christoforo, Y. Cui, M. D. McGehee, and M. L. Brongersma, “Self-limited plasmonic welding of silver nanowire junctions,” Nat. Mater. 11(3), 241–249 (2012).
[PubMed]

Major, J.

J. Major and K. Durose, “Early stage growth mechanisms of CdTe thin films deposited by close space sublimation for solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95(12), 3165 (2011).

Marsillac, S.

S. Marsillac, V. Parikh, and A. Compaan, “Ultra-thin bifacial CdTe solar cell,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 91(15), 1398 (2007).

McGehee, M. D.

E. C. Garnett, W. Cai, J. J. Cha, F. Mahmood, S. T. Connor, M. Greyson Christoforo, Y. Cui, M. D. McGehee, and M. L. Brongersma, “Self-limited plasmonic welding of silver nanowire junctions,” Nat. Mater. 11(3), 241–249 (2012).
[PubMed]

Mise, T.

T. Nakada, Y. Hirabayashi, T. Tokado, D. Ohmori, and T. Mise, “Novel device structure for Cu (In, Ga) Se 2 thin film solar cells using transparent conducting oxide back and front contacts,” Sol. Energy 77(6), 739 (2004).

Molva, E.

J. Chamonal, E. Molva, J. Pautrat, and L. Revoil, “Complex behaviour of Ag in CdTe,” J. Cryst. Growth 59(1–2), 297 (1982).

J. Chamonal, E. Molva, and J. Pautrat, “Identification of Cu and Ag acceptors in CdTe,” Solid State Commun. 43(11), 801 (1982).

Moon, J.

A. Kim, Y. Won, K. Woo, S. Jeong, and J. Moon, “All-solution-processed indium-free transparent composite electrodes based on Ag nanowire and metal oxide for thin-film solar cells,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 24(17), 2462 (2014).

More, P.

P. More, “Role of Substrate Temperatures on Structural, Optical, Wetting and Electrical Transport Properties of CdS Thin Films,” J. Surf. Eng. Mater. Adv. Technol. 3(01), 43 (2013).

Nakada, T.

T. Nakada, Y. Hirabayashi, T. Tokado, D. Ohmori, and T. Mise, “Novel device structure for Cu (In, Ga) Se 2 thin film solar cells using transparent conducting oxide back and front contacts,” Sol. Energy 77(6), 739 (2004).

Nalwa, K. S.

P. Kuang, J. M. Park, W. Leung, R. C. Mahadevapuram, K. S. Nalwa, T. G. Kim, S. Chaudhary, K. M. Ho, and K. Constant, “A new architecture for transparent electrodes: relieving the trade-off between electrical conductivity and optical transmittance,” Adv. Mater. 23(21), 2469–2473 (2011).
[PubMed]

Ohmori, D.

T. Nakada, Y. Hirabayashi, T. Tokado, D. Ohmori, and T. Mise, “Novel device structure for Cu (In, Ga) Se 2 thin film solar cells using transparent conducting oxide back and front contacts,” Sol. Energy 77(6), 739 (2004).

Ohtsuka, H.

H. Ohtsuka, M. Sakamoto, K. Tsutsui, and Y. Yazawa, “Bifacial silicon solar cells with 21· 3% front efficiency and 19·8% rear efficiency,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 8(4), 385 (2000).

Parikh, V.

S. Marsillac, V. Parikh, and A. Compaan, “Ultra-thin bifacial CdTe solar cell,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 91(15), 1398 (2007).

Park, J. M.

P. Kuang, J. M. Park, W. Leung, R. C. Mahadevapuram, K. S. Nalwa, T. G. Kim, S. Chaudhary, K. M. Ho, and K. Constant, “A new architecture for transparent electrodes: relieving the trade-off between electrical conductivity and optical transmittance,” Adv. Mater. 23(21), 2469–2473 (2011).
[PubMed]

Park, N.-G.

W.-S. Jeong, J.-W. Lee, S. Jung, J. H. Yun, and N.-G. Park, “Evaluation of external quantum efficiency of a 12.35% tandem solar cell comprising dye-sensitized and CIGS solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95(12), 3419 (2011).

Pautrat, J.

J. Chamonal, E. Molva, and J. Pautrat, “Identification of Cu and Ag acceptors in CdTe,” Solid State Commun. 43(11), 801 (1982).

J. Chamonal, E. Molva, J. Pautrat, and L. Revoil, “Complex behaviour of Ag in CdTe,” J. Cryst. Growth 59(1–2), 297 (1982).

Peter, L. M.

L. M. Peter, “Towards sustainable photovoltaics: the search for new materials,” Philos. T. Roy. Soc. A 369(1942), 1840 (2011).

Ramasamy, P.

P. Ramasamy, D.-M. Seo, S.-H. Kim, and J. Kim, “Effects of TiO 2 shells on optical and thermal properties of silver nanowires,” J. Mater. Chem. 22(23), 11651 (2012).

Rao, K. K.

S. G. Kumar and K. K. Rao, “Physics and chemistry of CdTe/CdS thin film heterojunction photovoltaic devices: fundamental and critical aspects,” Energy Environ. Sci. 7(1), 45 (2014).

Revoil, L.

J. Chamonal, E. Molva, J. Pautrat, and L. Revoil, “Complex behaviour of Ag in CdTe,” J. Cryst. Growth 59(1–2), 297 (1982).

Rickard, D.

V. Scardaci, R. Coull, P. E. Lyons, D. Rickard, and J. N. Coleman, “Spray deposition of highly transparent, low-resistance networks of silver nanowires over large areas,” Small 7(18), 2621–2628 (2011).
[PubMed]

Röhrich, J.

J. Bollmann, M. Wienecke, J. Röhrich, and H. Kerkow, “Doping and compensation phenomena of Ag in CdTe,” J. Cryst. Growth 159(1–4), 384 (1996).

Romeo, A.

A. Romeo, G. Khrypunov, S. Galassini, H. Zogg, and A. Tiwari, “Bifacial configurations for CdTe solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 91(15), 1388 (2007).

G. Khrypunov, A. Romeo, F. Kurdesau, D. Bätzner, H. Zogg, and A. N. Tiwari, “Recent developments in evaporated CdTe solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 90(6), 664 (2006).

A. N. Tiwari, G. Khrypunov, F. Kurdzesau, D. Bätzner, A. Romeo, and H. Zogg, “CdTe solar cell in a novel configuration,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 12(1), 33 (2004).

Sakamoto, M.

H. Ohtsuka, M. Sakamoto, K. Tsutsui, and Y. Yazawa, “Bifacial silicon solar cells with 21· 3% front efficiency and 19·8% rear efficiency,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 8(4), 385 (2000).

Scardaci, V.

V. Scardaci, R. Coull, P. E. Lyons, D. Rickard, and J. N. Coleman, “Spray deposition of highly transparent, low-resistance networks of silver nanowires over large areas,” Small 7(18), 2621–2628 (2011).
[PubMed]

Seo, D.-M.

P. Ramasamy, D.-M. Seo, S.-H. Kim, and J. Kim, “Effects of TiO 2 shells on optical and thermal properties of silver nanowires,” J. Mater. Chem. 22(23), 11651 (2012).

Shah, A.

A. Shah, P. Torres, R. Tscharner, N. Wyrsch, and H. Keppner, “Photovoltaic technology: the case for thin-film solar cells,” Science 285(5428), 692–698 (1999).
[PubMed]

Shen, L.

F. Li, C. Chen, F. Tan, C. Li, G. Yue, L. Shen, and W. Zhang, “Semitransparent inverted polymer solar cells employing a sol-gel-derived TiO2 electron-selective layer on FTO and MoO3/Ag/MoO3 transparent electrode,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 9(1), 579 (2014).
[PubMed]

Shlian, M.

A. Lamoureux, K. Lee, M. Shlian, S. R. Forrest, and M. Shtein, “Dynamic kirigami structures for integrated solar tracking,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8092 (2015).
[PubMed]

Shtein, M.

A. Lamoureux, K. Lee, M. Shlian, S. R. Forrest, and M. Shtein, “Dynamic kirigami structures for integrated solar tracking,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8092 (2015).
[PubMed]

Su, C.-H.

C.-H. Su, “Energy band gap, intrinsic carrier concentration, and Fermi level of CdTe bulk crystal between 304 and 1067 K,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(8), 084903 (2008).

Tan, F.

F. Li, C. Chen, F. Tan, C. Li, G. Yue, L. Shen, and W. Zhang, “Semitransparent inverted polymer solar cells employing a sol-gel-derived TiO2 electron-selective layer on FTO and MoO3/Ag/MoO3 transparent electrode,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 9(1), 579 (2014).
[PubMed]

Tiwari, A.

A. Romeo, G. Khrypunov, S. Galassini, H. Zogg, and A. Tiwari, “Bifacial configurations for CdTe solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 91(15), 1388 (2007).

Tiwari, A. N.

G. Khrypunov, A. Romeo, F. Kurdesau, D. Bätzner, H. Zogg, and A. N. Tiwari, “Recent developments in evaporated CdTe solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 90(6), 664 (2006).

A. N. Tiwari, G. Khrypunov, F. Kurdzesau, D. Bätzner, A. Romeo, and H. Zogg, “CdTe solar cell in a novel configuration,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 12(1), 33 (2004).

Tokado, T.

T. Nakada, Y. Hirabayashi, T. Tokado, D. Ohmori, and T. Mise, “Novel device structure for Cu (In, Ga) Se 2 thin film solar cells using transparent conducting oxide back and front contacts,” Sol. Energy 77(6), 739 (2004).

Torres, P.

A. Shah, P. Torres, R. Tscharner, N. Wyrsch, and H. Keppner, “Photovoltaic technology: the case for thin-film solar cells,” Science 285(5428), 692–698 (1999).
[PubMed]

Trasatti, S.

S. Trasatti, “Work function, electronegativity, and electrochemical behaviour of metals: III. Electrolytic hydrogen evolution in acid solutions,” J. Electroanal. Chem. 39(1), 163 (1972).

Tscharner, R.

A. Shah, P. Torres, R. Tscharner, N. Wyrsch, and H. Keppner, “Photovoltaic technology: the case for thin-film solar cells,” Science 285(5428), 692–698 (1999).
[PubMed]

Tsutsui, K.

H. Ohtsuka, M. Sakamoto, K. Tsutsui, and Y. Yazawa, “Bifacial silicon solar cells with 21· 3% front efficiency and 19·8% rear efficiency,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 8(4), 385 (2000).

Walls, J.

F. Lisco, P. M. Kaminski, A. Abbas, K. Bass, J. W. Bowers, G. Claudio, M. Losurdo, and J. Walls, “The structural properties of CdS deposited by chemical bath deposition and pulsed direct current magnetron sputtering,” Thin Solid Films 582, 323 (2015).

Wan, D.

J. Liang, H. Bi, D. Wan, and F. Huang, “Novel Cu nanowires/graphene as the back contact for CdTe solar cells,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 22(6), 1267 (2012).

Wang, S.

A. D. Compaan, A. Gupta, S. Lee, S. Wang, and J. Drayton, “High efficiency, magnetron sputtered CdS/CdTe solar cells,” Sol. Energy 77(6), 815 (2004).

Warta, W.

M. A. Green, Y. Hishikawa, W. Warta, E. D. Dunlop, D. H. Levi, J. Hohl-Ebinger, and A. W. Ho-Baillie, “Solar cell efficiency tables (version 50),” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 25(7), 668 (2017).

Wienecke, M.

J. Bollmann, M. Wienecke, J. Röhrich, and H. Kerkow, “Doping and compensation phenomena of Ag in CdTe,” J. Cryst. Growth 159(1–4), 384 (1996).

Won, Y.

A. Kim, Y. Won, K. Woo, S. Jeong, and J. Moon, “All-solution-processed indium-free transparent composite electrodes based on Ag nanowire and metal oxide for thin-film solar cells,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 24(17), 2462 (2014).

Woo, K.

A. Kim, Y. Won, K. Woo, S. Jeong, and J. Moon, “All-solution-processed indium-free transparent composite electrodes based on Ag nanowire and metal oxide for thin-film solar cells,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 24(17), 2462 (2014).

Wyrsch, N.

A. Shah, P. Torres, R. Tscharner, N. Wyrsch, and H. Keppner, “Photovoltaic technology: the case for thin-film solar cells,” Science 285(5428), 692–698 (1999).
[PubMed]

Yan, Y.

J. Ge, J. Chu, J. Jiang, Y. Yan, and P. Yang, “Characteristics of in-substituted CZTS thin film and bifacial solar cell,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 6(23), 21118–21130 (2014).
[PubMed]

Yang, P.

J. Ge, J. Chu, J. Jiang, Y. Yan, and P. Yang, “Characteristics of in-substituted CZTS thin film and bifacial solar cell,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 6(23), 21118–21130 (2014).
[PubMed]

Yazawa, Y.

H. Ohtsuka, M. Sakamoto, K. Tsutsui, and Y. Yazawa, “Bifacial silicon solar cells with 21· 3% front efficiency and 19·8% rear efficiency,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 8(4), 385 (2000).

Yue, G.

F. Li, C. Chen, F. Tan, C. Li, G. Yue, L. Shen, and W. Zhang, “Semitransparent inverted polymer solar cells employing a sol-gel-derived TiO2 electron-selective layer on FTO and MoO3/Ag/MoO3 transparent electrode,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 9(1), 579 (2014).
[PubMed]

Yun, J. H.

W.-S. Jeong, J.-W. Lee, S. Jung, J. H. Yun, and N.-G. Park, “Evaluation of external quantum efficiency of a 12.35% tandem solar cell comprising dye-sensitized and CIGS solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95(12), 3419 (2011).

Zakeeruddin, S. M.

S. Ito, S. M. Zakeeruddin, P. Comte, P. Liska, D. Kuang, and M. Grätzel, “Bifacial dye-sensitized solar cells based on an ionic liquid electrolyte,” Nat. Photonics 2(11), 693 (2008).

Zhang, W.

F. Li, C. Chen, F. Tan, C. Li, G. Yue, L. Shen, and W. Zhang, “Semitransparent inverted polymer solar cells employing a sol-gel-derived TiO2 electron-selective layer on FTO and MoO3/Ag/MoO3 transparent electrode,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 9(1), 579 (2014).
[PubMed]

Zhou, C.

A. R. Madaria, A. Kumar, F. N. Ishikawa, and C. Zhou, “Uniform, highly conductive, and patterned transparent films of a percolating silver nanowire network on rigid and flexible substrates using a dry transfer technique,” Nano Res. 3(8), 564 (2010).

Zogg, H.

A. Romeo, G. Khrypunov, S. Galassini, H. Zogg, and A. Tiwari, “Bifacial configurations for CdTe solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 91(15), 1388 (2007).

G. Khrypunov, A. Romeo, F. Kurdesau, D. Bätzner, H. Zogg, and A. N. Tiwari, “Recent developments in evaporated CdTe solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 90(6), 664 (2006).

A. N. Tiwari, G. Khrypunov, F. Kurdzesau, D. Bätzner, A. Romeo, and H. Zogg, “CdTe solar cell in a novel configuration,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 12(1), 33 (2004).

ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces (1)

J. Ge, J. Chu, J. Jiang, Y. Yan, and P. Yang, “Characteristics of in-substituted CZTS thin film and bifacial solar cell,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 6(23), 21118–21130 (2014).
[PubMed]

Adv. Funct. Mater. (2)

J. Liang, H. Bi, D. Wan, and F. Huang, “Novel Cu nanowires/graphene as the back contact for CdTe solar cells,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 22(6), 1267 (2012).

A. Kim, Y. Won, K. Woo, S. Jeong, and J. Moon, “All-solution-processed indium-free transparent composite electrodes based on Ag nanowire and metal oxide for thin-film solar cells,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 24(17), 2462 (2014).

Adv. Mater. (1)

P. Kuang, J. M. Park, W. Leung, R. C. Mahadevapuram, K. S. Nalwa, T. G. Kim, S. Chaudhary, K. M. Ho, and K. Constant, “A new architecture for transparent electrodes: relieving the trade-off between electrical conductivity and optical transmittance,” Adv. Mater. 23(21), 2469–2473 (2011).
[PubMed]

Energy Environ. Sci. (1)

S. G. Kumar and K. K. Rao, “Physics and chemistry of CdTe/CdS thin film heterojunction photovoltaic devices: fundamental and critical aspects,” Energy Environ. Sci. 7(1), 45 (2014).

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

C.-H. Su, “Energy band gap, intrinsic carrier concentration, and Fermi level of CdTe bulk crystal between 304 and 1067 K,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(8), 084903 (2008).

J. Cryst. Growth (3)

K. Durose, P. Edwards, and D. Halliday, “Materials aspects of CdTe/CdS solar cells,” J. Cryst. Growth 197(3), 733 (1999).

J. Chamonal, E. Molva, J. Pautrat, and L. Revoil, “Complex behaviour of Ag in CdTe,” J. Cryst. Growth 59(1–2), 297 (1982).

J. Bollmann, M. Wienecke, J. Röhrich, and H. Kerkow, “Doping and compensation phenomena of Ag in CdTe,” J. Cryst. Growth 159(1–4), 384 (1996).

J. Electroanal. Chem. (1)

S. Trasatti, “Work function, electronegativity, and electrochemical behaviour of metals: III. Electrolytic hydrogen evolution in acid solutions,” J. Electroanal. Chem. 39(1), 163 (1972).

J. Mater. Chem. (1)

P. Ramasamy, D.-M. Seo, S.-H. Kim, and J. Kim, “Effects of TiO 2 shells on optical and thermal properties of silver nanowires,” J. Mater. Chem. 22(23), 11651 (2012).

J. Mater. Chem. A Mater. Energy Sustain. (1)

C.-W. Chen, S.-Y. Hsiao, C.-Y. Chen, H.-W. Kang, Z.-Y. Huang, and H.-W. Lin, “Optical properties of organometal halide perovskite thin films and general device structure design rules for perovskite single and tandem solar cells,” J. Mater. Chem. A Mater. Energy Sustain. 3(17), 9152 (2015).

J. Surf. Eng. Mater. Adv. Technol. (1)

P. More, “Role of Substrate Temperatures on Structural, Optical, Wetting and Electrical Transport Properties of CdS Thin Films,” J. Surf. Eng. Mater. Adv. Technol. 3(01), 43 (2013).

Nano Res. (1)

A. R. Madaria, A. Kumar, F. N. Ishikawa, and C. Zhou, “Uniform, highly conductive, and patterned transparent films of a percolating silver nanowire network on rigid and flexible substrates using a dry transfer technique,” Nano Res. 3(8), 564 (2010).

Nanoscale (1)

D. Lee, H. Lee, Y. Ahn, Y. Jeong, D.-Y. Lee, and Y. Lee, “Highly stable and flexible silver nanowire-graphene hybrid transparent conducting electrodes for emerging optoelectronic devices,” Nanoscale 5(17), 7750–7755 (2013).
[PubMed]

Nanoscale Res. Lett. (1)

F. Li, C. Chen, F. Tan, C. Li, G. Yue, L. Shen, and W. Zhang, “Semitransparent inverted polymer solar cells employing a sol-gel-derived TiO2 electron-selective layer on FTO and MoO3/Ag/MoO3 transparent electrode,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 9(1), 579 (2014).
[PubMed]

Nat. Commun. (1)

A. Lamoureux, K. Lee, M. Shlian, S. R. Forrest, and M. Shtein, “Dynamic kirigami structures for integrated solar tracking,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8092 (2015).
[PubMed]

Nat. Mater. (1)

E. C. Garnett, W. Cai, J. J. Cha, F. Mahmood, S. T. Connor, M. Greyson Christoforo, Y. Cui, M. D. McGehee, and M. L. Brongersma, “Self-limited plasmonic welding of silver nanowire junctions,” Nat. Mater. 11(3), 241–249 (2012).
[PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (1)

S. Ito, S. M. Zakeeruddin, P. Comte, P. Liska, D. Kuang, and M. Grätzel, “Bifacial dye-sensitized solar cells based on an ionic liquid electrolyte,” Nat. Photonics 2(11), 693 (2008).

Philos. T. Roy. Soc. A (1)

L. M. Peter, “Towards sustainable photovoltaics: the search for new materials,” Philos. T. Roy. Soc. A 369(1942), 1840 (2011).

Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. (4)

A. N. Tiwari, G. Khrypunov, F. Kurdzesau, D. Bätzner, A. Romeo, and H. Zogg, “CdTe solar cell in a novel configuration,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 12(1), 33 (2004).

H. Ohtsuka, M. Sakamoto, K. Tsutsui, and Y. Yazawa, “Bifacial silicon solar cells with 21· 3% front efficiency and 19·8% rear efficiency,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 8(4), 385 (2000).

E. Alsema, “Energy pay‐back time and CO2 emissions of PV systems,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 8(1), 17 (2000).

M. A. Green, Y. Hishikawa, W. Warta, E. D. Dunlop, D. H. Levi, J. Hohl-Ebinger, and A. W. Ho-Baillie, “Solar cell efficiency tables (version 50),” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 25(7), 668 (2017).

Science (1)

A. Shah, P. Torres, R. Tscharner, N. Wyrsch, and H. Keppner, “Photovoltaic technology: the case for thin-film solar cells,” Science 285(5428), 692–698 (1999).
[PubMed]

Small (1)

V. Scardaci, R. Coull, P. E. Lyons, D. Rickard, and J. N. Coleman, “Spray deposition of highly transparent, low-resistance networks of silver nanowires over large areas,” Small 7(18), 2621–2628 (2011).
[PubMed]

Sol. Energy (2)

T. Nakada, Y. Hirabayashi, T. Tokado, D. Ohmori, and T. Mise, “Novel device structure for Cu (In, Ga) Se 2 thin film solar cells using transparent conducting oxide back and front contacts,” Sol. Energy 77(6), 739 (2004).

A. D. Compaan, A. Gupta, S. Lee, S. Wang, and J. Drayton, “High efficiency, magnetron sputtered CdS/CdTe solar cells,” Sol. Energy 77(6), 815 (2004).

Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells (5)

J. Major and K. Durose, “Early stage growth mechanisms of CdTe thin films deposited by close space sublimation for solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95(12), 3165 (2011).

W.-S. Jeong, J.-W. Lee, S. Jung, J. H. Yun, and N.-G. Park, “Evaluation of external quantum efficiency of a 12.35% tandem solar cell comprising dye-sensitized and CIGS solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95(12), 3419 (2011).

A. Romeo, G. Khrypunov, S. Galassini, H. Zogg, and A. Tiwari, “Bifacial configurations for CdTe solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 91(15), 1388 (2007).

S. Marsillac, V. Parikh, and A. Compaan, “Ultra-thin bifacial CdTe solar cell,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 91(15), 1398 (2007).

G. Khrypunov, A. Romeo, F. Kurdesau, D. Bätzner, H. Zogg, and A. N. Tiwari, “Recent developments in evaporated CdTe solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 90(6), 664 (2006).

Solid State Commun. (1)

J. Chamonal, E. Molva, and J. Pautrat, “Identification of Cu and Ag acceptors in CdTe,” Solid State Commun. 43(11), 801 (1982).

Thin Solid Films (1)

F. Lisco, P. M. Kaminski, A. Abbas, K. Bass, J. W. Bowers, G. Claudio, M. Losurdo, and J. Walls, “The structural properties of CdS deposited by chemical bath deposition and pulsed direct current magnetron sputtering,” Thin Solid Films 582, 323 (2015).

Other (1)

V. Barrioz, Y. Y. Proskuryakov, E. W. Jones, J. D. Major, S. J. Irvine, K. Durose, and D. A. Lamb, “Highly arsenic doped CdTe layers for the back contacts of CdTe solar cells,” MRS Online Proceedings Library Archive 1012, (2007).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematics of the layers in the bifacial CdS/CdTe thin-film solar cell. (a, b) The glass/ITO/i-ZnO/CdS/CdTe layers were deposited successively. (c) Optical microscope image of the spray-coated AgNWs, (d) The AgNWs were spray-coated onto the glass/ITO/i-ZnO/CdS/CdTe substrate and the ITO layer was subsequently deposited. (e) Energy band alignment of ITO/ZnO/CdS/CdTe/AgNW/ITO.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) optical transmittance of glass, glass/ITO and glass/AgNWs/ITO (b) Sheet resistances of ITO/glass and ITO/AgNWs/glass (c) photograph image of the bare glass and glass substrates coated with ITO-only and with AgNWs/ ITO, respectively.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Top-view and (b) cross-sectional SEM image of the AgNWs/ITO transparent electrode on the CdTe layer.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Photovoltaic properties of the bifacial CdS/CdTe thin-film solar cells with AgNWs/ITO back contact under (a) front-side and (b) rear-side illuminations.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) Illustration showing the incident angle of light according to the position of the sun during the day. (b) Quantum efficiency (QE) of the bifacial CdS/CdTe thin-film solar cell with AgNWs/ITO hybrid contact under front-side and rear-side illumination. (c) Sum of bifacial CdS/CdTe solar cell efficiencies under front-side and rear-side illumination.

Equations (1)

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h+A g Cd +A g i (A g Cd A g i + ) 0

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