Abstract

Absorption (a) and backscattering (bb) coefficients play a key role in determining the light field; they also serve as the link between remote sensing and concentrations of optically active water constituents. Here we present an updated scheme to derive hyperspectral a and bb with hyperspectral remote-sensing reflectance (Rrs) and diffuse attenuation coefficient (Kd) as the inputs. Results show that the system works very well from clear open oceans to highly turbid inland waters, with an overall difference less than 25% between these retrievals and those from instrument measurements. This updated scheme advocates the measurement and generation of hyperspectral a and bb from hyperspectral Rrs and Kd, as an independent data source for cross-evaluation of in situ measurements of a and bb and for the development and/or evaluation of remote sensing algorithms for such optical properties.

© 2018 Optical Society of America

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2017 (1)

2016 (2)

D. Doxaran, E. Leymarie, B. Nechad, A. Dogliotti, K. Ruddick, P. Gernez, and E. Knaeps, “Improved correction methods for field measurements of particulate light backscattering in turbid waters,” Opt. Express 24(4), 3615–3637 (2016).
[PubMed]

J. Wei, Z. Lee, and S. Shang, “A system to measure the data quality of spectral remote ensing reflectance of aquatic environments,” Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans 121, 8189–8207 (2016).

2015 (3)

2014 (2)

J. Wei, M. R. Lewis, R. Dommelen, C. J. Zappa, and M. S. Twardowski, “Wave-induced light field fluctuations in measured irradiance depth profiles: A wavelet analysis,” Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans 119, 1344–1364 (2014).

Z. Lee, S. Shang, K. Du, J. Wei, and R. Arnone, “Usable solar radiation and its attenuation in the upper water column,” Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans 119, 1488–1497 (2014).

2013 (7)

R. Röttgers, D. McKee, and S. B. Woźniak, “Evaluation of scatter corrections for ac-9 absorption measurements in coastal waters,” Methods in Oceanography 7, 21–39 (2013).

E. Boss, M. Picheral, T. Leeuw, A. Chase, E. Karsenti, G. Gorsky, L. Taylor, W. Slade, J. Ras, and H. Claustre, “The characteristics of particulate absorption, scattering and attenuation coefficients in the surface ocean; Contribution of the Tara Oceans expedition,” Methods in Oceanography 7, 52–62 (2013).

D. McKee, J. Piskozub, R. Röttgers, and R. A. Reynolds, “Evaluation and improvement of an iterative scattering correction scheme for in situ absorption and attenuation measurements,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 30, 1527–1541 (2013).

X. Liu, Y. Zhang, Y. Yin, M. Wang, and B. Qin, “Wind and submerged aquatic vegetation influence bio‐optical properties in large shallow Lake Taihu, China,” J. Geophys. Res. Biogeosci. 118, 713–727 (2013).

J. Wollschläger, M. Grunwald, R. Röttgers, and W. Petersen, “Flow-through PSICAM: a new approach for determining water constituents absorption continuously,” Ocean Dyn. 63, 761–775 (2013).

D. D’Alimonte, E. B. Shybanov, G. Zibordi, and T. Kajiyama, “Regression of in-water radiometric profile data,” Opt. Express 21(23), 27707–27733 (2013).
[PubMed]

Z. Lee, C. Hu, S. Shang, K. Du, M. Lewis, R. Arnone, and R. Brewin, “Penetration of UV‐visible solar radiation in the global oceans: Insights from ocean color remote sensing,” Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans 118, 4241–4255 (2013).

2011 (2)

Z. P. Lee, K. Du, K. J. Voss, G. Zibordi, B. Lubac, R. Arnone, and A. Weidemann, “An inherent-optical-property-centered approach to correct the angular effects in water-leaving radiance,” Appl. Opt. 50(19), 3155–3167 (2011).
[PubMed]

Y. Zhang, Y. Yin, X. Liu, Z. Shi, L. Feng, M. Liu, G. Zhu, Z. Gong, and B. Qin, “Spatial-seasonal dynamics of chromophoric dissolved organic matter in Lake Taihu, a large eutrophic, shallow lake in China,” Org. Geochem. 42, 510–519 (2011).

2010 (1)

2009 (3)

2008 (1)

2006 (1)

M. Tzortziou, J. R. Herman, C. L. Gallegos, P. J. Neale, A. Subramaniam, L. W. Harding, and Z. Ahmad, “Bio-optics of the Chesapeake Bay from measurements and radiative transfer closure,” Estuar. Coast. Shelf Sci. 68, 348–362 (2006).

2005 (3)

P. J. Werdell and S. W. Bailey, “An improved in-situ bio-optical data set for ocean color algorithm development and satellite data product validation,” Remote Sens. Environ. 98, 122–140 (2005).

Y. Huot, C. A. Brown, and J. J. Cullen, “New algorithms for MODIS sun‐induced chlorophyll fluorescence and a comparison with present data products,” Limnol. Oceanogr. Methods 3, 108–130 (2005).

D. McKee and A. Cunningham, “Evidence for wavelength dependence of the scattering phase function and its implication for modeling radiance transfer in shelf seas,” Appl. Opt. 44(1), 126–135 (2005).
[PubMed]

2004 (2)

Z. Lee, K. L. Carder, and K. Du, “Effects of molecular and particle scatterings on the model parameter for remote-sensing reflectance,” Appl. Opt. 43(25), 4957–4964 (2004).
[PubMed]

G. Zibordi, D. D’Alimonte, and J.-F. Berthon, “An evaluation of depth resolution requirements for optical profiling in coastal waters,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 21, 1059–1073 (2004).

2003 (2)

C. S. Roesler and E. Boss, “Spectral beam attenuation coefficient retrieved from ocean color inversion,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 30, 1468 (2003).

D. McKee, A. Cunningham, and S. Craig, “Semi-empirical correction algorithm for AC-9 measurements in a coccolithophore bloom,” Appl. Opt. 42(21), 4369–4374 (2003).
[PubMed]

2002 (3)

2001 (1)

E. Boss, W. S. Pegau, W. D. Gardner, J. R. V. Zaneveld, A. H. Barnard, M. S. Twardowski, G. Chang, and T. Dickey, “Spectral particulate attenuation and particle size distribution in the bottom boundary layer of a continental shelf,” Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans 106, 9509–9516 (2001).

2000 (2)

1998 (2)

1997 (3)

R. A. Maffione and D. R. Dana, “Instruments and methods for measuring the backward-scattering coefficient of ocean waters,” Appl. Opt. 36(24), 6057–6067 (1997).
[PubMed]

S. A. Garver and D. A. Siegel, “Inherent optical property inversion of ocean color spectra and its biogeochemical interpretation: 1. Time series from the Sargasso Sea,” Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans 102, 18607–18625 (1997).

R. M. Pope and E. S. Fry, “Absorption spectrum (380-700 nm) of pure water. II. Integrating cavity measurements,” Appl. Opt. 36(33), 8710–8723 (1997).
[PubMed]

1996 (1)

1995 (1)

J. Berwald, D. Stramski, C. D. Mobley, and D. A. Kiefer, “Influences of absorption and scattering on vertical changes in the average cosine of the underwater light field,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 40, 1347–1357 (1995).

1993 (1)

1991 (1)

H. R. Gordon, “Absorption and scattering estimates from irradiance measurements: Monte Carlo simulations,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 36, 769–777 (1991).

1990 (2)

W. W. Gregg and K. L. Carder, “A simple spectral solar irradiance model for cloudless maritime atmospheres,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 35, 1657–1675 (1990).

B. G. Mitchell, “Algorithms for determining the absorption coefficient for aquatic particulates using the quantitative filter technique (QFT),” Proc. SPIE 1320, 137–148 (1990).

1989 (2)

H. R. Gordon, “Can the Lambert‐Beer law be applied to the diffuse attenuation coefficient of ocean water?” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 1389–1409 (1989).

J. R. V. Zaneveld, “An asymptotic closure theory for irradiance in the sea and its inversion to obtain the inherent optical properties,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 1442–1452 (1989).

1988 (3)

S. Sathyendranath and T. Platt, “The spectral irradiance field at the surface and in the interior of the ocean: a model for applications in oceanography and remote sensing,” Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans 93, 9270–9280 (1988).

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, and D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res., D, Atmospheres 93, 10909–10924 (1988).

A. Morel, “Optical modeling of the upper ocean in relation to its biogenous matter content (case I waters),” Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans (1978–2012) 93, 10749– 10768 (1988).

1986 (1)

D. Stramski, “Fluctuations of solar irradiance induced by surface waves in the Baltic,” Bull. Pol. Acad. Sci. Earth Sci. 34, 333–344 (1986).

1970 (1)

1962 (1)

C. S. Yentsch, “Measurement of visible light absorption by particulate matter in the ocean,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 7, 207–217 (1962).

Ahmad, Z.

M. Tzortziou, J. R. Herman, C. L. Gallegos, P. J. Neale, A. Subramaniam, L. W. Harding, and Z. Ahmad, “Bio-optics of the Chesapeake Bay from measurements and radiative transfer closure,” Estuar. Coast. Shelf Sci. 68, 348–362 (2006).

Arnone, R.

Z. Lee, S. Shang, K. Du, J. Wei, and R. Arnone, “Usable solar radiation and its attenuation in the upper water column,” Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans 119, 1488–1497 (2014).

Z. Lee, C. Hu, S. Shang, K. Du, M. Lewis, R. Arnone, and R. Brewin, “Penetration of UV‐visible solar radiation in the global oceans: Insights from ocean color remote sensing,” Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans 118, 4241–4255 (2013).

Z. P. Lee, K. Du, K. J. Voss, G. Zibordi, B. Lubac, R. Arnone, and A. Weidemann, “An inherent-optical-property-centered approach to correct the angular effects in water-leaving radiance,” Appl. Opt. 50(19), 3155–3167 (2011).
[PubMed]

Arnone, R. A.

Babin, M.

Bailey, S. W.

P. J. Werdell and S. W. Bailey, “An improved in-situ bio-optical data set for ocean color algorithm development and satellite data product validation,” Remote Sens. Environ. 98, 122–140 (2005).

Baker, K. S.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, and D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res., D, Atmospheres 93, 10909–10924 (1988).

Barnard, A. H.

E. Boss, W. S. Pegau, W. D. Gardner, J. R. V. Zaneveld, A. H. Barnard, M. S. Twardowski, G. Chang, and T. Dickey, “Spectral particulate attenuation and particle size distribution in the bottom boundary layer of a continental shelf,” Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans 106, 9509–9516 (2001).

Behrenfeld, M.

Berthon, J.-F.

G. Zibordi, D. D’Alimonte, and J.-F. Berthon, “An evaluation of depth resolution requirements for optical profiling in coastal waters,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 21, 1059–1073 (2004).

Berwald, J.

J. Berwald, D. Stramski, C. D. Mobley, and D. A. Kiefer, “Influences of absorption and scattering on vertical changes in the average cosine of the underwater light field,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 40, 1347–1357 (1995).

Boss, E.

W. H. Slade and E. Boss, “Spectral attenuation and backscattering as indicators of average particle size,” Appl. Opt. 54(24), 7264–7277 (2015).
[PubMed]

E. Boss, M. Picheral, T. Leeuw, A. Chase, E. Karsenti, G. Gorsky, L. Taylor, W. Slade, J. Ras, and H. Claustre, “The characteristics of particulate absorption, scattering and attenuation coefficients in the surface ocean; Contribution of the Tara Oceans expedition,” Methods in Oceanography 7, 52–62 (2013).

E. Boss, W. H. Slade, M. Behrenfeld, and G. Dall’Olmo, “Acceptance angle effects on the beam attenuation in the ocean,” Opt. Express 17(3), 1535–1550 (2009).
[PubMed]

C. S. Roesler and E. Boss, “Spectral beam attenuation coefficient retrieved from ocean color inversion,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 30, 1468 (2003).

C. D. Mobley, L. K. Sundman, and E. Boss, “Phase function effects on oceanic light fields,” Appl. Opt. 41(6), 1035–1050 (2002).
[PubMed]

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E. Boss, M. Picheral, T. Leeuw, A. Chase, E. Karsenti, G. Gorsky, L. Taylor, W. Slade, J. Ras, and H. Claustre, “The characteristics of particulate absorption, scattering and attenuation coefficients in the surface ocean; Contribution of the Tara Oceans expedition,” Methods in Oceanography 7, 52–62 (2013).

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H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, and D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res., D, Atmospheres 93, 10909–10924 (1988).

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E. Boss, M. Picheral, T. Leeuw, A. Chase, E. Karsenti, G. Gorsky, L. Taylor, W. Slade, J. Ras, and H. Claustre, “The characteristics of particulate absorption, scattering and attenuation coefficients in the surface ocean; Contribution of the Tara Oceans expedition,” Methods in Oceanography 7, 52–62 (2013).

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Du, K.

Z. Lee, S. Shang, K. Du, J. Wei, and R. Arnone, “Usable solar radiation and its attenuation in the upper water column,” Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans 119, 1488–1497 (2014).

Z. Lee, C. Hu, S. Shang, K. Du, M. Lewis, R. Arnone, and R. Brewin, “Penetration of UV‐visible solar radiation in the global oceans: Insights from ocean color remote sensing,” Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans 118, 4241–4255 (2013).

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H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, and D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res., D, Atmospheres 93, 10909–10924 (1988).

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Y. Zhang, Y. Yin, X. Liu, Z. Shi, L. Feng, M. Liu, G. Zhu, Z. Gong, and B. Qin, “Spatial-seasonal dynamics of chromophoric dissolved organic matter in Lake Taihu, a large eutrophic, shallow lake in China,” Org. Geochem. 42, 510–519 (2011).

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E. Boss, W. S. Pegau, W. D. Gardner, J. R. V. Zaneveld, A. H. Barnard, M. S. Twardowski, G. Chang, and T. Dickey, “Spectral particulate attenuation and particle size distribution in the bottom boundary layer of a continental shelf,” Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans 106, 9509–9516 (2001).

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M. Tzortziou, J. R. Herman, C. L. Gallegos, P. J. Neale, A. Subramaniam, L. W. Harding, and Z. Ahmad, “Bio-optics of the Chesapeake Bay from measurements and radiative transfer closure,” Estuar. Coast. Shelf Sci. 68, 348–362 (2006).

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M. Tzortziou, J. R. Herman, C. L. Gallegos, P. J. Neale, A. Subramaniam, L. W. Harding, and Z. Ahmad, “Bio-optics of the Chesapeake Bay from measurements and radiative transfer closure,” Estuar. Coast. Shelf Sci. 68, 348–362 (2006).

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Z. Lee, C. Hu, S. Shang, K. Du, M. Lewis, R. Arnone, and R. Brewin, “Penetration of UV‐visible solar radiation in the global oceans: Insights from ocean color remote sensing,” Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans 118, 4241–4255 (2013).

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Karsenti, E.

E. Boss, M. Picheral, T. Leeuw, A. Chase, E. Karsenti, G. Gorsky, L. Taylor, W. Slade, J. Ras, and H. Claustre, “The characteristics of particulate absorption, scattering and attenuation coefficients in the surface ocean; Contribution of the Tara Oceans expedition,” Methods in Oceanography 7, 52–62 (2013).

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Lee, Z.

J. Wei, Z. Lee, and S. Shang, “A system to measure the data quality of spectral remote ensing reflectance of aquatic environments,” Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans 121, 8189–8207 (2016).

Z. Lee, J. Wei, K. Voss, M. Lewis, A. Bricaud, and Y. Huot, “Hyperspectral absorption coefficient of “pure” seawater in the range of 350–550 nm inverted from remote sensing reflectance,” Appl. Opt. 54, 546–558 (2015).

Z. Lee, S. Shang, K. Du, J. Wei, and R. Arnone, “Usable solar radiation and its attenuation in the upper water column,” Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans 119, 1488–1497 (2014).

Z. Lee, C. Hu, S. Shang, K. Du, M. Lewis, R. Arnone, and R. Brewin, “Penetration of UV‐visible solar radiation in the global oceans: Insights from ocean color remote sensing,” Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans 118, 4241–4255 (2013).

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J. Wei, M. R. Lewis, R. Dommelen, C. J. Zappa, and M. S. Twardowski, “Wave-induced light field fluctuations in measured irradiance depth profiles: A wavelet analysis,” Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans 119, 1344–1364 (2014).

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X. Liu, Y. Zhang, Y. Yin, M. Wang, and B. Qin, “Wind and submerged aquatic vegetation influence bio‐optical properties in large shallow Lake Taihu, China,” J. Geophys. Res. Biogeosci. 118, 713–727 (2013).

Y. Zhang, Y. Yin, X. Liu, Z. Shi, L. Feng, M. Liu, G. Zhu, Z. Gong, and B. Qin, “Spatial-seasonal dynamics of chromophoric dissolved organic matter in Lake Taihu, a large eutrophic, shallow lake in China,” Org. Geochem. 42, 510–519 (2011).

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Neale, P. J.

M. Tzortziou, J. R. Herman, C. L. Gallegos, P. J. Neale, A. Subramaniam, L. W. Harding, and Z. Ahmad, “Bio-optics of the Chesapeake Bay from measurements and radiative transfer closure,” Estuar. Coast. Shelf Sci. 68, 348–362 (2006).

Nechad, B.

Pan, D.

R. Ma, D. Pan, H. Duan, and Q. Song, “Absorption and scattering properties of water body in Taihu Lake, China: backscattering,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 30, 2321–2335 (2009).

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E. Boss, W. S. Pegau, W. D. Gardner, J. R. V. Zaneveld, A. H. Barnard, M. S. Twardowski, G. Chang, and T. Dickey, “Spectral particulate attenuation and particle size distribution in the bottom boundary layer of a continental shelf,” Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans 106, 9509–9516 (2001).

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J. Wollschläger, M. Grunwald, R. Röttgers, and W. Petersen, “Flow-through PSICAM: a new approach for determining water constituents absorption continuously,” Ocean Dyn. 63, 761–775 (2013).

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E. Boss, M. Picheral, T. Leeuw, A. Chase, E. Karsenti, G. Gorsky, L. Taylor, W. Slade, J. Ras, and H. Claustre, “The characteristics of particulate absorption, scattering and attenuation coefficients in the surface ocean; Contribution of the Tara Oceans expedition,” Methods in Oceanography 7, 52–62 (2013).

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D. McKee, J. Piskozub, R. Röttgers, and R. A. Reynolds, “Evaluation and improvement of an iterative scattering correction scheme for in situ absorption and attenuation measurements,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 30, 1527–1541 (2013).

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X. Liu, Y. Zhang, Y. Yin, M. Wang, and B. Qin, “Wind and submerged aquatic vegetation influence bio‐optical properties in large shallow Lake Taihu, China,” J. Geophys. Res. Biogeosci. 118, 713–727 (2013).

Y. Zhang, Y. Yin, X. Liu, Z. Shi, L. Feng, M. Liu, G. Zhu, Z. Gong, and B. Qin, “Spatial-seasonal dynamics of chromophoric dissolved organic matter in Lake Taihu, a large eutrophic, shallow lake in China,” Org. Geochem. 42, 510–519 (2011).

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E. Boss, M. Picheral, T. Leeuw, A. Chase, E. Karsenti, G. Gorsky, L. Taylor, W. Slade, J. Ras, and H. Claustre, “The characteristics of particulate absorption, scattering and attenuation coefficients in the surface ocean; Contribution of the Tara Oceans expedition,” Methods in Oceanography 7, 52–62 (2013).

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D. McKee, J. Piskozub, R. Röttgers, and R. A. Reynolds, “Evaluation and improvement of an iterative scattering correction scheme for in situ absorption and attenuation measurements,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 30, 1527–1541 (2013).

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R. Röttgers, D. McKee, and S. B. Woźniak, “Evaluation of scatter corrections for ac-9 absorption measurements in coastal waters,” Methods in Oceanography 7, 21–39 (2013).

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J. Wei, Z. Lee, and S. Shang, “A system to measure the data quality of spectral remote ensing reflectance of aquatic environments,” Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans 121, 8189–8207 (2016).

Z. Lee, S. Shang, K. Du, J. Wei, and R. Arnone, “Usable solar radiation and its attenuation in the upper water column,” Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans 119, 1488–1497 (2014).

Z. Lee, C. Hu, S. Shang, K. Du, M. Lewis, R. Arnone, and R. Brewin, “Penetration of UV‐visible solar radiation in the global oceans: Insights from ocean color remote sensing,” Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans 118, 4241–4255 (2013).

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Y. Zhang, Y. Yin, X. Liu, Z. Shi, L. Feng, M. Liu, G. Zhu, Z. Gong, and B. Qin, “Spatial-seasonal dynamics of chromophoric dissolved organic matter in Lake Taihu, a large eutrophic, shallow lake in China,” Org. Geochem. 42, 510–519 (2011).

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S. A. Garver and D. A. Siegel, “Inherent optical property inversion of ocean color spectra and its biogeochemical interpretation: 1. Time series from the Sargasso Sea,” Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans 102, 18607–18625 (1997).

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E. Boss, M. Picheral, T. Leeuw, A. Chase, E. Karsenti, G. Gorsky, L. Taylor, W. Slade, J. Ras, and H. Claustre, “The characteristics of particulate absorption, scattering and attenuation coefficients in the surface ocean; Contribution of the Tara Oceans expedition,” Methods in Oceanography 7, 52–62 (2013).

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Sundman, L. K.

Taylor, L.

E. Boss, M. Picheral, T. Leeuw, A. Chase, E. Karsenti, G. Gorsky, L. Taylor, W. Slade, J. Ras, and H. Claustre, “The characteristics of particulate absorption, scattering and attenuation coefficients in the surface ocean; Contribution of the Tara Oceans expedition,” Methods in Oceanography 7, 52–62 (2013).

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J. Wei, M. R. Lewis, R. Dommelen, C. J. Zappa, and M. S. Twardowski, “Wave-induced light field fluctuations in measured irradiance depth profiles: A wavelet analysis,” Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans 119, 1344–1364 (2014).

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M. Tzortziou, J. R. Herman, C. L. Gallegos, P. J. Neale, A. Subramaniam, L. W. Harding, and Z. Ahmad, “Bio-optics of the Chesapeake Bay from measurements and radiative transfer closure,” Estuar. Coast. Shelf Sci. 68, 348–362 (2006).

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J. Wei, Z. Lee, and S. Shang, “A system to measure the data quality of spectral remote ensing reflectance of aquatic environments,” Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans 121, 8189–8207 (2016).

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Figures (17)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Locations of field measurements for (a) NOMAD data set, (b) VIIRS2014 data set, and (c) Taihu Lake data set.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 A self-consistency test of Hydrolight simulated data showing the reliability of retrieved a&bb with the updated scheme (all wavelengths included, x-axis representing Hydrolight-input a and bb, and the y-axis representing estimated a and bb from Rrs&Kd).
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 A histogram of the ratios of η calculated from retrieved bbp(λ) to those calculated from Hydrolight-input bbp(λ).
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 An example of application to Rrs(λ) and Kd(λ) in NOMAD data set for retrieval of a(λ) and bb(λ).
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Comparison (NOMAD data set) between in situ a and those derived from Rrs and Kd with the updated scheme.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 As Fig. 5, but for bb based on the NOMAD data set.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 (a) Distribution of the retrieved η with fitting determination coefficient (R2) higher than 0.85 (NOMAD data set); (b) Histogram of the ratios of retrieved η to those calculated from field bbp(λ) (all data points included).
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 As Fig. 4, but for the VIIRS2014 data set.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 ACS-measured a (VIIRS2014 data set) compared with those derived from rrs and Kd.
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 As Fig. 9 but for bb based on the VIIRS2014 data set.
Fig. 11
Fig. 11 As Fig. 7, but for the VIIRS2014 data.
Fig. 12
Fig. 12 Histograms of the standard deviation (STD) for total absorption coefficients estimated from multicasts of Ed(z) and Lu(z) (black bar) and those measured by ACS meters (magenta bar).
Fig. 13
Fig. 13 Similar as Fig. 12 but for the coefficient of variation (CV).
Fig. 14
Fig. 14 Measured a (Lake Taihu data set) compared with those derived from Rrs and Kd.
Fig. 15
Fig. 15 Comparison of other two approaches [18, 47] for estimation of a and bb with the same data of rrs and Kd calculated from Hydrolight simulations.
Fig. 16
Fig. 16 Comparison of the approach of Loisel [18] with the updated scheme for estimation of IOPs with NOMAD, VIIRS2014, and Taihu data sets, respectively.
Fig. 17
Fig. 17 As Fig. 16, but for the approach of Morel [47].

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 List of data sets.

Tables Icon

Table 2 Parameters of rrs model (Eq. 2).

Tables Icon

Table 3 Impact of Rrs&Kd error on derived a&bb with the updated scheme.

Equations (9)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

r rs (Ω)=( G 0 w ( Ω )+ G 1 w ( Ω ) b bw a+ b b ) b bw a+ b b +( G 0 p ( Ω )+ G 1 p ( Ω ) b bp a+ b b ) b bp a+ b b
G 0 w ( θ s )= x 0 e x 1 ( θ s θ s0 )
G 1 w ( θ s )= x 2 e x 3 ( θ s θ s0 )
G 0 p ( θ s )= ( y 0 + y 1 ( θ s θ s0 )+ y 2 ( θ s θ s0 ) 2 ) 1
G 1 p ( θ s )= ( y 3 + y 4 ( θ s θ s0 )+ y 5 ( θ s θ s0 ) 2 ) 1
K d =( 1+ m 0 θ s )a+( 1γ b bw b b ) m 1 ( 1 m 2 e m 3 a ) b b
r rs = R rs 0.52+1.7 R rs
MAPD= 1 n i=1 n | x k x m x k |
b bp (λ)= b bp ( λ 0 ) ( λ 0 λ ) η

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