Abstract

Mid-infrared (mid-IR) silicon photonics is expected to lead key advances in different areas including spectroscopy, remote sensing, nonlinear optics or free-space communications, among others. Still, the inherent limitations of the silicon-on-insulator (SOI) technology, namely the early mid-IR absorption of silicon oxide and silicon at λ~3.6 µm and at λ ~8.5 µm respectively, remain the main stumbling blocks that prevent this platform to fully exploit the mid-IR spectrum (λ ~2-20 µm). Here, we propose using a compact Ge-rich graded-index Si1-xGex platform to overcome this constraint. A flat propagation loss characteristic as low as 2-3 dB/cm over a wavelength span from λ = 5.5 µm to 8.5 µm is demonstrated in Ge-rich Si1-xGex waveguides of only 6 µm thick. The comparison of three different waveguides design with different vertical index profiles demonstrates the benefit of reducing the fraction of the guided mode that overlaps with the Si substrate to obtain such flat low loss behavior. Such Ge-rich Si1-xGex platforms may open the route towards the implementation of mid-IR photonic integrated circuits with low-loss beyond the Si multi-phonon absorption band onset, hence truly exploiting the full Ge transparency window up to λ ~15 µm.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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2017 (7)

T. Hu, B. Dong, X. Luo, T.-Y. Liow, J. Song, C. Lee, and G.-Q. Lo, “Silicon photonic platforms for mid-infrared applications,” Photonics Res. 5(5), 417 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. A. Miller, M. Yu, X. Ji, A. G. Griffith, J. Cardenas, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “Low-loss silicon platform for broadband mid-infrared photonics,” Optica 4(7), 707 (2017).
[Crossref]

L. He, Y. Guo, Z. Han, K. Wada, L. C. Kimerling, J. Michel, A. M. Agarwal, G. Li, and L. Zhang, “Loss reduction of silicon-on-insulator waveguides for deep mid-infrared applications,” Opt. Lett. 42(17), 3454–3457 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Nedeljkovic, J. S. Penades, V. Mittal, G. S. Murugan, A. Z. Khokhar, C. LittleJohns, L. G. Carpenter, C. B. E. Gawith, J. S. Wilkinson, and G. Mashanovich, “Germanium-on-silicon waveguides operating at mid-infrared wavelengths up to 8.5 µm,” Opt. Express 25(22), 27431 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. M. Ramirez, V. Vakarin, C. Gilles, J. Frigerio, A. Ballabio, P. Chaisakul, X. L. Roux, C. Alonso-Ramos, G. Maisons, L. Vivien, M. Carras, G. Isella, and D. Marris-Morini, “Low-loss Ge-rich Si0.2Ge0.8 waveguides for mid-infrared photonics,” Opt. Lett. 42(1), 105–108 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Vakarin, J. M. Ramírez, J. Frigerio, A. Ballabio, X. Le Roux, Q. Liu, D. Bouville, L. Vivien, G. Isella, and D. Marris-Morini, “Ultra-wideband Ge-rich silicon germanium integrated Mach-Zehnder interferometer for mid-infrared spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 42(17), 3482–3485 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. M. Ramirez, V. Vakarin, J. Frigerio, P. Chaisakul, D. Chrastina, X. Le Roux, A. Ballabio, L. Vivien, G. Isella, and D. Marris-Morini, “Ge-rich graded-index Si1-xGex waveguides with broadband tight mode confinement and flat anomalous dispersion for nonlinear mid-infrared photonics,” Opt. Express 25(6), 6561–6567 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (3)

2015 (1)

A. G. Griffith, R. K. Lau, J. Cardenas, Y. Okawachi, A. Mohanty, R. Fain, Y. H. Lee, M. Yu, C. T. Phare, C. B. Poitras, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “Silicon-chip mid-infrared frequency comb generation,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6299 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (3)

V. Singh, P. T. Lin, N. Patel, H. Lin, L. Li, Y. Zou, F. Deng, C. Ni, J. Hu, J. Giammarco, A. P. Soliani, B. Zdyrko, I. Luzinov, S. Novak, J. Novak, P. Wachtel, S. Danto, J. D. Musgraves, K. Richardson, L. C. Kimerling, and A. M. Agarwal, “Mid-infrared materials and devices on a Si platform for optical sensing,” Sci. Technol. Adv. Mater. 15(1), 014603 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Brun, P. Labeye, G. Grand, J. M. Hartmann, F. Boulila, M. Carras, and S. Nicoletti, “Low loss SiGe graded index waveguides for mid-IR applications,” Opt. Express 22(1), 508–518 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Chaisakul, D. Marris-Morini, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, M. S. Rouifed, S. Cecchi, P. Crozat, G. Isella, and L. Vivien, “Integrated germanium optical interconnects on silicon substrates,” Nat. Photonics 8(6), 482–488 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

A. Malik, M. Muneeb, S. Pathak, Y. Shimura, J. Van Campenhout, R. Loo, and G. Roelkens, “Germanium-on-silicon mid-infrared arrayed waveguide grating multiplexers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(18), 1805–1808 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. J. Moss, R. Morandotti, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “New CMOS-compatible platforms based on silicon nitride and Hydex for nonlinear optics,” Nat. Photonics 7(8), 597–607 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (4)

Y. A. Vlasov, “Silicon CMOS-integrated nano-photonics for computer and data communications beyond 100 G,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 50(2), S67 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. Reimer, M. Nedeljkovic, D. J. M. Stothard, M. O. S. Esnault, C. Reardon, L. O’Faolain, M. Dunn, G. Z. Mashanovich, and T. F. Krauss, “Mid-infrared photonic crystal waveguides in silicon,” Opt. Express 20(28), 29361–29368 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. C. Chang, V. Paeder, L. Hvozdara, J. M. Hartmann, and H. P. Herzig, “Low-loss germanium strip waveguides on silicon for the mid-infrared,” Opt. Lett. 37(14), 2883–2885 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Cheng, X. Chen, C. Y. Wong, K. Xu, and H. K. Tsang, “Mid-infrared suspended membrane waveguide and ring resonator on silicon-on-insulator,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(5), 1510–1519 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

2010 (2)

2007 (1)

R. Soref, “The past, present, and future of silicon photonics,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1678–1687 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

V. Raghunathan, R. Shori, O. M. Stafsudd, and B. Jalali, “Nonlinear absorption in silicon and the prospects of mid-infrared silicon Raman lasers,” Phys. Status Solidi 203(5), R38–R40 (2006).
[Crossref]

Agarwal, A. M.

L. He, Y. Guo, Z. Han, K. Wada, L. C. Kimerling, J. Michel, A. M. Agarwal, G. Li, and L. Zhang, “Loss reduction of silicon-on-insulator waveguides for deep mid-infrared applications,” Opt. Lett. 42(17), 3454–3457 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Singh, P. T. Lin, N. Patel, H. Lin, L. Li, Y. Zou, F. Deng, C. Ni, J. Hu, J. Giammarco, A. P. Soliani, B. Zdyrko, I. Luzinov, S. Novak, J. Novak, P. Wachtel, S. Danto, J. D. Musgraves, K. Richardson, L. C. Kimerling, and A. M. Agarwal, “Mid-infrared materials and devices on a Si platform for optical sensing,” Sci. Technol. Adv. Mater. 15(1), 014603 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Allioux, D.

M. Sinobad, P. Ma, B. Luther-Davies, D. Allioux, R. Orobtchouk, D. J. Moss, S. Madden, S. Boutami, J.-M. Fedeli, C. Monat, and C. Grillet, “Dispersion engineered air-clad SiGe waveguides with low propagation loss in the mid-infrared,” in CLEO Europe, (2017), paper PD-2.5 WED.

Alonso-Ramos, C.

Asher, W.

Baehr-Jones, T.

Baets, R.

Ballabio, A.

Boulila, F.

Boutami, S.

M. Sinobad, P. Ma, B. Luther-Davies, D. Allioux, R. Orobtchouk, D. J. Moss, S. Madden, S. Boutami, J.-M. Fedeli, C. Monat, and C. Grillet, “Dispersion engineered air-clad SiGe waveguides with low propagation loss in the mid-infrared,” in CLEO Europe, (2017), paper PD-2.5 WED.

Bouville, D.

Brun, M.

Cardenas, J.

S. A. Miller, M. Yu, X. Ji, A. G. Griffith, J. Cardenas, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “Low-loss silicon platform for broadband mid-infrared photonics,” Optica 4(7), 707 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. G. Griffith, R. K. Lau, J. Cardenas, Y. Okawachi, A. Mohanty, R. Fain, Y. H. Lee, M. Yu, C. T. Phare, C. B. Poitras, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “Silicon-chip mid-infrared frequency comb generation,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6299 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Carpenter, L. G.

Carras, M.

Cecchi, S.

P. Chaisakul, D. Marris-Morini, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, M. S. Rouifed, S. Cecchi, P. Crozat, G. Isella, and L. Vivien, “Integrated germanium optical interconnects on silicon substrates,” Nat. Photonics 8(6), 482–488 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chaisakul, P.

Chang, Y. C.

Cheben, P.

Chen, X.

Z. Cheng, X. Chen, C. Y. Wong, K. Xu, and H. K. Tsang, “Mid-infrared suspended membrane waveguide and ring resonator on silicon-on-insulator,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(5), 1510–1519 (2012).
[Crossref]

Cheng, Z.

Z. Cheng, X. Chen, C. Y. Wong, K. Xu, and H. K. Tsang, “Mid-infrared suspended membrane waveguide and ring resonator on silicon-on-insulator,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(5), 1510–1519 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chrastina, D.

Crozat, P.

P. Chaisakul, D. Marris-Morini, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, M. S. Rouifed, S. Cecchi, P. Crozat, G. Isella, and L. Vivien, “Integrated germanium optical interconnects on silicon substrates,” Nat. Photonics 8(6), 482–488 (2014).
[Crossref]

Danto, S.

V. Singh, P. T. Lin, N. Patel, H. Lin, L. Li, Y. Zou, F. Deng, C. Ni, J. Hu, J. Giammarco, A. P. Soliani, B. Zdyrko, I. Luzinov, S. Novak, J. Novak, P. Wachtel, S. Danto, J. D. Musgraves, K. Richardson, L. C. Kimerling, and A. M. Agarwal, “Mid-infrared materials and devices on a Si platform for optical sensing,” Sci. Technol. Adv. Mater. 15(1), 014603 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Delâge, A.

M. Nedeljkovic, A. V. Velasco, A. Z. Khokhar, A. Delâge, P. Cheben, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Mid-infrared silicon-on-insulator Fourier-transform spectrometer chip,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(4), 528–531 (2016).
[Crossref]

Deng, F.

V. Singh, P. T. Lin, N. Patel, H. Lin, L. Li, Y. Zou, F. Deng, C. Ni, J. Hu, J. Giammarco, A. P. Soliani, B. Zdyrko, I. Luzinov, S. Novak, J. Novak, P. Wachtel, S. Danto, J. D. Musgraves, K. Richardson, L. C. Kimerling, and A. M. Agarwal, “Mid-infrared materials and devices on a Si platform for optical sensing,” Sci. Technol. Adv. Mater. 15(1), 014603 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dong, B.

T. Hu, B. Dong, X. Luo, T.-Y. Liow, J. Song, C. Lee, and G.-Q. Lo, “Silicon photonic platforms for mid-infrared applications,” Photonics Res. 5(5), 417 (2017).
[Crossref]

Dunn, M.

Esnault, M. O. S.

Fain, R.

A. G. Griffith, R. K. Lau, J. Cardenas, Y. Okawachi, A. Mohanty, R. Fain, Y. H. Lee, M. Yu, C. T. Phare, C. B. Poitras, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “Silicon-chip mid-infrared frequency comb generation,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6299 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fedeli, J.-M.

M. Sinobad, P. Ma, B. Luther-Davies, D. Allioux, R. Orobtchouk, D. J. Moss, S. Madden, S. Boutami, J.-M. Fedeli, C. Monat, and C. Grillet, “Dispersion engineered air-clad SiGe waveguides with low propagation loss in the mid-infrared,” in CLEO Europe, (2017), paper PD-2.5 WED.

Frigerio, J.

Gaeta, A. L.

S. A. Miller, M. Yu, X. Ji, A. G. Griffith, J. Cardenas, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “Low-loss silicon platform for broadband mid-infrared photonics,” Optica 4(7), 707 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. G. Griffith, R. K. Lau, J. Cardenas, Y. Okawachi, A. Mohanty, R. Fain, Y. H. Lee, M. Yu, C. T. Phare, C. B. Poitras, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “Silicon-chip mid-infrared frequency comb generation,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6299 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. J. Moss, R. Morandotti, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “New CMOS-compatible platforms based on silicon nitride and Hydex for nonlinear optics,” Nat. Photonics 7(8), 597–607 (2013).
[Crossref]

Gawith, C. B. E.

Giammarco, J.

V. Singh, P. T. Lin, N. Patel, H. Lin, L. Li, Y. Zou, F. Deng, C. Ni, J. Hu, J. Giammarco, A. P. Soliani, B. Zdyrko, I. Luzinov, S. Novak, J. Novak, P. Wachtel, S. Danto, J. D. Musgraves, K. Richardson, L. C. Kimerling, and A. M. Agarwal, “Mid-infrared materials and devices on a Si platform for optical sensing,” Sci. Technol. Adv. Mater. 15(1), 014603 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gilles, C.

Grand, G.

Green, W. M. J.

Griffith, A. G.

S. A. Miller, M. Yu, X. Ji, A. G. Griffith, J. Cardenas, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “Low-loss silicon platform for broadband mid-infrared photonics,” Optica 4(7), 707 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. G. Griffith, R. K. Lau, J. Cardenas, Y. Okawachi, A. Mohanty, R. Fain, Y. H. Lee, M. Yu, C. T. Phare, C. B. Poitras, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “Silicon-chip mid-infrared frequency comb generation,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6299 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Grillet, C.

M. Sinobad, P. Ma, B. Luther-Davies, D. Allioux, R. Orobtchouk, D. J. Moss, S. Madden, S. Boutami, J.-M. Fedeli, C. Monat, and C. Grillet, “Dispersion engineered air-clad SiGe waveguides with low propagation loss in the mid-infrared,” in CLEO Europe, (2017), paper PD-2.5 WED.

Guo, Y.

Halir, R.

Han, Z.

Hartmann, J. M.

He, L.

Herzig, H. P.

Hochberg, M.

Hu, J.

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T. Hu, B. Dong, X. Luo, T.-Y. Liow, J. Song, C. Lee, and G.-Q. Lo, “Silicon photonic platforms for mid-infrared applications,” Photonics Res. 5(5), 417 (2017).
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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Simulated fundamental TE mode at λ = 7.5 µm for the three studied waveguide approaches (panels (a), (b), (c)) with their corresponding refractive index profiles along the vertical direction (figures (d), (e), (f)). The x- and y-axis represent the simulation cross-section plane, with the y-axis origin marked by a horizontal dotted line.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Top view of the fabricated Si1-xGex spiral waveguides. (b) Magnified region of a single spiral waveguide corresponding to the red square area depicted in (a). (c) Typical far-field optical mode recorded at the waveguide output facet by the mid-IR camera. (d) Output signal transmittance of the quasi-TE propagating polarization as a function of the spiral waveguide length for a wavelength of λ = 7.5 µm. Dashed colored lines are linear fits of the data.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Propagation loss measured over a wavelength span from λ = 5.5 µm to λ = 8.5 µm for the three studied platforms.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) Evolution of the optical mode overlap with the Si substrate as a function of the operating wavelength for the double graded-index platform 4 µm thick (black straight line for quasi-TE and red dashed line for quasi-TM) and the graded-index layer 6 µm thick (green dotted line for quasi-TE and blue dashed-dotted line for quasi-TM). FEM simulations of the optical mode confinement in the double graded buffer platform are shown in (b) and (c) for the quasi-TE and quasi-TM polarizations, respectively. Simulations were conducted at a wavelength of λ = 7.5 µm.

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