Abstract

We propose an effective way to enhance the out-coupling efficiencies of organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) using graphene as a transparent electrode. In this study, we investigated the detrimental adsorption and internal optics occurring in OLEDs with graphene anodes. The optical out-coupling efficiencies of previous OLEDs with transparent graphene electrodes barely exceeded those of OLEDs with conventional transparent electrodes because of the weak microcavity effect. To overcome this issue, we introduced an internal random scattering layer for light extraction and reduced the optical absorption of the graphene by reducing the number of layers in the multilayered graphene film. The efficiencies of the graphene-OLEDs increased significantly with decreasing the number of graphene layers, strongly indicating absorption reduction. The maximum light extraction efficiency was obtained by using a single-layer graphene electrode together with a scattering layer. As a result, a widened angular luminance distribution with a remarkable external quantum efficiency and a luminous efficacy enhancement of 52.8% and 48.5%, respectively, was achieved. Our approach provides a demonstration of graphene-OLED having a performance comparable to that of conventional OLEDs.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2017 (3)

T.-H. Han, H. Kim, S.-J. Kwon, and T.-W. Lee, “Graphene-based flexible electronic devices,” Mater. Sci. Eng. R Rep. 118, 1–43 (2017).
[Crossref]

S.-H. Jeong, S.-H. Woo, T.-H. Han, M.-H. Park, H. Cho, Y.-H. Kim, H. Cho, H. Kim, S. Yoo, and T.-W. Lee, “Universal high work function flexible anode for simplified ITO-free organic and pervokite light emitting diodes with ultra-high efficiency,” NPG Asia Mater. 9(7), e411 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. Cho, E. Kim, J. Moon, C. W. Joo, E. Kim, S. K. Park, J. Lee, B.-G. Yu, J.-I. Lee, S. Yoo, and N. S. Cho, “Organic wrinkles embedded in high-index medium as planar internal scattering structures for organic light-emitting diodes,” Org. Electron. 46, 139–144 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (3)

K. Lee, J.-W. Shin, J.-H. Park, J. Lee, C. W. Joo, J.-I. Lee, D.-H. Cho, J. T. Lim, M.-C. Oh, B.-K. Ju, and J. Moon, “A Light Scattering layer for internal light extraction of organic light-emitting diodes based on silver nanowires,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 8(27), 17409–17415 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Cho, J.-W. Shin, N. S. Cho, J. Moon, J.-H. Han, Y.-D. Kwon, S. Cho, and J.-I. Lee, “Optical effects of graphene electrodes on organic light-emitting diodes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 22(1), 2000306 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Lee, T.-H. Han, M.-H. Park, D. Y. Jung, J. Seo, H.-K. Seo, H. Cho, E. Kim, J. Chung, S.-Y. Choi, T.-S. Kim, T.-W. Lee, and S. Yoo, “Synergetic electrode architecture for efficient graphene-based flexible organic light-emitting diodes,” Nat. Commun. 7, 11791 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (3)

J. Moon, J.-W. Shin, H. Cho, J.-H. Han, N. S. Cho, T. J. Lim, S. K. Park, H. K. Choi, S.-Y. Choi, J.-H. Kim, M.-J. Maeng, J. Seo, Y. Park, and J.-I. Lee, “Technical issues in graphene anode organic light emitting diodes,” Diamond Related Materials 57, 68–73 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. W. Joo, J. Moon, J.-H. Han, J. W. Huh, J.-W. Shin, D.-H. Cho, J. Lee, N. S. Cho, and J.-I. Lee, “White transparent organic light-emitting diodes with high top and bottom color rendering indices,” J. Inf. Disp. 16(3), 161–168 (2015).
[Crossref]

B. Jiao, Y. Yu, Y. Dai, X. Hou, and Z. Wu, “Improvement of light extraction in organic light-emitting diodes using a corrugated microcavity,” Opt. Express 23(4), 4055–4064 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (7)

J.-W. Kim, J.-H. Jang, M.-C. Oh, J.-W. Shin, D.-H. Cho, J. H. Moon, and J. I. Lee, “FDTD analysis of the light extraction efficiency of OLEDs with a random scattering layer,” Opt. Express 22(1), 498–507 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J.-W. Shin, D.-H. Cho, J. Moon, C. W. Joo, J. Lee, J. W. Huh, S. K. Park, J.-H. Han, N. S. Cho, J. Hwang, H. Y. Chu, and J.-I. Lee, “Random nanostructure scattering layer for suppression of microcavity effect and light extraction in OLEDs,” Opt. Lett. 39(12), 3527–3530 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. H. Cho, J. W. Shin, J. Moon, S. K. Park, C. W. Joo, N. S. Cho, J. W. Huh, J. H. Han, J. Lee, H. Y. Chu, and J. I. Lee, “Surface control of planarization layer on embossed glass for light extraction in OLEDs,” ETRI J. 36(5), 847–855 (2014).
[Crossref]

J.-W. Shin, D.-H. Cho, J. Moon, C. W. Joo, S. K. Park, J. Lee, J.-H. Han, N. S. Cho, J. Hwang, J. W. Huh, H. Y. Chu, and J.-I. Lee, “Random nano-structures as light extraction functionals for organic light-emitting diode applications,” Org. Electron. 15(1), 196–202 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Ryu, Y. Kim, D. Won, N. Kim, J. S. Park, E.-K. Lee, D. Cho, S.-P. Cho, S. J. Kim, G. H. Ryu, H.-A.-S. Shin, Z. Lee, B. H. Hong, and S. Cho, “Fast synthesis of high-performance graphene films by hydrogen-free rapid thermal chemical vapor deposition,” ACS Nano 8(1), 950–956 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. J. Kim, J. Ryu, S. Son, J. M. Yoo, J. B. Park, D. Won, E.-K. Lee, S.-P. Cho, S. Bae, S. Cho, and B. H. Hong, “Simultaneous etching and doping by cu-stabilizing agent for high-performance graphene-based transparent electrodes,” Chem. Mater. 26(7), 2332–2336 (2014).
[Crossref]

T.-B. Song and N. Li, “Emerging transparent conducting electrodes for organic light emitting diodes,” Electronics (Basel) 3(1), 190–204 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

C. Lee and J. J. Kim, “Enhanced light out-coupling of OLEDs with low haze by inserting randomly dispersed nanopillar arrays formed by lateral phase separation of polymer blends,” Small 9(22), 3858–3863 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (5)

C. W. Joo, J. Moon, J. Hwang, J.-H. Han, J.-W. Shin, D.-H. Cho, J. W. Huh, H. Y. Chu, and J.-I. Lee, “Improved device performances in phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes by microcavity Effects,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 51(9S2), 09HM01 (2012).
[Crossref]

W. H. Koo, W. Youn, P. Zhu, X. H. Li, N. Tansu, and F. So, “Light extraction of organic light emitting diodes by defective hexagonal-close-Packed array,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 22(16), 3454–3459 (2012).
[Crossref]

H. K. Hwang, H. Kyw Choi, J. Moon, T. Yong Kim, J.-W. Shin, C. Woong Joo, J.-H. Han, D.-H. Cho, J. Woo Huh, S.-Y. Choi, J.-I. Lee, and H. Yong Chu, “Multilayered graphene anode for blue phosphorescent organic light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(13), 133304 (2012).
[Crossref]

K. S. Novoselov, V. I. Fal’ko, L. Colombo, P. R. Gellert, M. G. Schwab, and K. Kim, “Roadmap for graphene,” Nature 490(7419), 192–200 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. H. Han, Y. Lee, M.-R. Choi, S.-H. Woo, S.-H. Bae, B. H. Hong, J.-H. Ahn, and T.-W. Lee, “Extremely efficient flexible organic light-emitting diodes with modified graphene anode,” Nat. Photonics 6(2), 105–110 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (3)

Z. Chen, W. Ren, L. Gao, B. Liu, S. Pei, and H.-M. Cheng, “Three-dimensional flexible and conductive interconnected graphene networks grown by chemical vapour deposition,” Nat. Mater. 10(6), 424–428 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Yu, Q. Zhang, L. Li, Q. Chen, X. Niu, J. Liu, and Q. Pei, “Highly flexible silver nanowire electrodes for shape-memory polymer light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 23(5), 664–668 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Kim, H.-J. Kwon, S. Lee, H. Shim, Y. Chun, W. Choi, J. Kwack, D. Han, M. Song, S. Kim, S. Mohammadi, I. Kee, and S. Y. Lee, “Low-power flexible organic light-emitting diode display device,” Adv. Mater. 23(31), 3511–3516 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (7)

R. Meerheim, M. Furno, S. Hofmann, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “Quantification of energy loss mechanisms in organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(25), 253305 (2010).
[Crossref]

A. R. Rathmell, S. M. Bergin, Y.-L. Hua, Z.-Y. Li, and B. J. Wiley, “The growth mechanism of copper nanowires and their properties in flexible, transparent conducting films,” Adv. Mater. 22(32), 3558–3563 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 4(9), 611–622 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Wu, M. Agrawal, H. A. Becerril, Z. Bao, Z. Liu, Y. Chen, and P. Peumans, “Organic light-emitting diodes on solution-processed Graphene Transparent Electrodes,” ACS Nano 4(1), 43–48 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Bae, H. Kim, Y. Lee, X. Xu, J.-S. Park, Y. Zheng, J. Balakrishnan, T. Lei, H. R. Kim, Y. I. Song, Y.-J. Kim, K. S. Kim, B. Özyilmaz, J.-H. Ahn, B. H. Hong, and S. Iijima, “Roll-to-roll production of 30-inch graphene films for transparent electrodes,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(8), 574–578 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Lee, S. Bae, H. Jang, S. Jang, S.-E. Zhu, S. H. Sim, Y. I. Song, B. H. Hong, and J.-H. Ahn, “Wafer-scale synthesis and transfer of graphene films,” Nano Lett. 10(2), 490–493 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. M. Song and B. J. Cho, “Investigation of interaction between graphene and dielectrics,” Nanotechnology 21(33), 335706 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (3)

K. S. Kim, Y. Zhao, H. Jang, S. Y. Lee, J. M. Kim, K. S. Kim, J.-H. Ahn, P. Kim, J.-Y. Choi, and B. J. Hong, “Large-scale pattern growth of graphene films for stretchable transparent electrodes,” Nature 457, 706–710 (2009).

A. K. Geim, “Graphene: Status and prospects,” Science 324, 1530–1534 (2009).

K. Saxena, V. K. Jain, and D. S. Mehta, “A review on the light extraction techniques in organic electroluminescent devices,” Opt. Mater. 32(1), 221–233 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

S. Nowy, C. Krummacher, J. Frischeisen, N. A. Reinke, and W. Brütting, “Light extraction and optical loss mechanisms in organic light-emitting diodes: Influence of the emitter quantum efficiency,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(12), 123109 (2008).
[Crossref]

R. R. Nair, P. Blake, A. N. Grigorenko, K. S. Novoselov, T. J. Booth, T. Stauber, N. M. R. Peres, and A. K. Geim, “Fine structure constant defines visual transparency of graphene,” Science 320, 1308 (2008).

2007 (3)

K. Ishihara, M. Fujita, I. Matsubara, T. Asano, S. Noda, H. Ohata, A. Hirasawa, H. Nakada, and N. Shimoji, “Organic light-emitting diodes with photonic crystals on glass substrate fabricated by nanoimprint lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(11), 111114 (2007).
[Crossref]

Z. H. Ni, H. M. Wang, J. Kasim, H. M. Fan, T. Yu, Y. H. Wu, Y. P. Feng, and Z. X. Shen, “Graphene thickness determination using reflection and contrast spectroscopy,” Nano Lett. 7(9), 2758–2763 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Blake, E. W. Hill, A. H. Castro Neto, K. S. Novoselov, D. Jiang, R. Yang, T. J. Booth, and A. K. Geim, “Making graphene visible,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(6), 063124 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

D. Zhang, K. Ryu, X. Liu, E. Polikarpov, J. Ly, M. E. Tompson, and C. Zhou, “Transparent, conductive, and flexible carbon nanotube films and their application in organic light-emitting diodes,” Nano Lett. 6(9), 1880–1886 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

M. Fujita, K. Ishihara, T. Ueno, T. Asano, S. Noda, H. Ohata, T. Tsuji, H. Nakada, and N. Shimoji, “Optical and electrical characteristics of organic light-emitting diodes with two-dimensional photonic crystals in organic/electrode layers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(6A), 3669–3677 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (2)

J. Lewis, S. Grego, B. Chalamala, E. Vick, and D. Temple, “Highly flexible transparent electrodes for organic light-emitting diode-based displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 18(16), 3450–3452 (2004).
[Crossref]

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Dubonos, I. V. Grigorieva, and A. A. Firsov, “Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films,” Science 306(5696), 666–669 (2004).
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2002 (1)

N. K. Patel, S. Cinà, and J. H. Burroughes, “High-Efficiency organic light-emitting diodes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(2), 346–361 (2002).
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Agrawal, M.

J. Wu, M. Agrawal, H. A. Becerril, Z. Bao, Z. Liu, Y. Chen, and P. Peumans, “Organic light-emitting diodes on solution-processed Graphene Transparent Electrodes,” ACS Nano 4(1), 43–48 (2010).
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Ahn, J.-H.

T. H. Han, Y. Lee, M.-R. Choi, S.-H. Woo, S.-H. Bae, B. H. Hong, J.-H. Ahn, and T.-W. Lee, “Extremely efficient flexible organic light-emitting diodes with modified graphene anode,” Nat. Photonics 6(2), 105–110 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Bae, H. Kim, Y. Lee, X. Xu, J.-S. Park, Y. Zheng, J. Balakrishnan, T. Lei, H. R. Kim, Y. I. Song, Y.-J. Kim, K. S. Kim, B. Özyilmaz, J.-H. Ahn, B. H. Hong, and S. Iijima, “Roll-to-roll production of 30-inch graphene films for transparent electrodes,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(8), 574–578 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Lee, S. Bae, H. Jang, S. Jang, S.-E. Zhu, S. H. Sim, Y. I. Song, B. H. Hong, and J.-H. Ahn, “Wafer-scale synthesis and transfer of graphene films,” Nano Lett. 10(2), 490–493 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. S. Kim, Y. Zhao, H. Jang, S. Y. Lee, J. M. Kim, K. S. Kim, J.-H. Ahn, P. Kim, J.-Y. Choi, and B. J. Hong, “Large-scale pattern growth of graphene films for stretchable transparent electrodes,” Nature 457, 706–710 (2009).

Asano, T.

K. Ishihara, M. Fujita, I. Matsubara, T. Asano, S. Noda, H. Ohata, A. Hirasawa, H. Nakada, and N. Shimoji, “Organic light-emitting diodes with photonic crystals on glass substrate fabricated by nanoimprint lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(11), 111114 (2007).
[Crossref]

M. Fujita, K. Ishihara, T. Ueno, T. Asano, S. Noda, H. Ohata, T. Tsuji, H. Nakada, and N. Shimoji, “Optical and electrical characteristics of organic light-emitting diodes with two-dimensional photonic crystals in organic/electrode layers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(6A), 3669–3677 (2005).
[Crossref]

Bae, S.

S. J. Kim, J. Ryu, S. Son, J. M. Yoo, J. B. Park, D. Won, E.-K. Lee, S.-P. Cho, S. Bae, S. Cho, and B. H. Hong, “Simultaneous etching and doping by cu-stabilizing agent for high-performance graphene-based transparent electrodes,” Chem. Mater. 26(7), 2332–2336 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Lee, S. Bae, H. Jang, S. Jang, S.-E. Zhu, S. H. Sim, Y. I. Song, B. H. Hong, and J.-H. Ahn, “Wafer-scale synthesis and transfer of graphene films,” Nano Lett. 10(2), 490–493 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Bae, H. Kim, Y. Lee, X. Xu, J.-S. Park, Y. Zheng, J. Balakrishnan, T. Lei, H. R. Kim, Y. I. Song, Y.-J. Kim, K. S. Kim, B. Özyilmaz, J.-H. Ahn, B. H. Hong, and S. Iijima, “Roll-to-roll production of 30-inch graphene films for transparent electrodes,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(8), 574–578 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bae, S.-H.

T. H. Han, Y. Lee, M.-R. Choi, S.-H. Woo, S.-H. Bae, B. H. Hong, J.-H. Ahn, and T.-W. Lee, “Extremely efficient flexible organic light-emitting diodes with modified graphene anode,” Nat. Photonics 6(2), 105–110 (2012).
[Crossref]

Balakrishnan, J.

S. Bae, H. Kim, Y. Lee, X. Xu, J.-S. Park, Y. Zheng, J. Balakrishnan, T. Lei, H. R. Kim, Y. I. Song, Y.-J. Kim, K. S. Kim, B. Özyilmaz, J.-H. Ahn, B. H. Hong, and S. Iijima, “Roll-to-roll production of 30-inch graphene films for transparent electrodes,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(8), 574–578 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bao, Z.

J. Wu, M. Agrawal, H. A. Becerril, Z. Bao, Z. Liu, Y. Chen, and P. Peumans, “Organic light-emitting diodes on solution-processed Graphene Transparent Electrodes,” ACS Nano 4(1), 43–48 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Becerril, H. A.

J. Wu, M. Agrawal, H. A. Becerril, Z. Bao, Z. Liu, Y. Chen, and P. Peumans, “Organic light-emitting diodes on solution-processed Graphene Transparent Electrodes,” ACS Nano 4(1), 43–48 (2010).
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Bergin, S. M.

A. R. Rathmell, S. M. Bergin, Y.-L. Hua, Z.-Y. Li, and B. J. Wiley, “The growth mechanism of copper nanowires and their properties in flexible, transparent conducting films,” Adv. Mater. 22(32), 3558–3563 (2010).
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Blake, P.

R. R. Nair, P. Blake, A. N. Grigorenko, K. S. Novoselov, T. J. Booth, T. Stauber, N. M. R. Peres, and A. K. Geim, “Fine structure constant defines visual transparency of graphene,” Science 320, 1308 (2008).

P. Blake, E. W. Hill, A. H. Castro Neto, K. S. Novoselov, D. Jiang, R. Yang, T. J. Booth, and A. K. Geim, “Making graphene visible,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(6), 063124 (2007).
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Bonaccorso, F.

F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 4(9), 611–622 (2010).
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Booth, T. J.

R. R. Nair, P. Blake, A. N. Grigorenko, K. S. Novoselov, T. J. Booth, T. Stauber, N. M. R. Peres, and A. K. Geim, “Fine structure constant defines visual transparency of graphene,” Science 320, 1308 (2008).

P. Blake, E. W. Hill, A. H. Castro Neto, K. S. Novoselov, D. Jiang, R. Yang, T. J. Booth, and A. K. Geim, “Making graphene visible,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(6), 063124 (2007).
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Brütting, W.

S. Nowy, C. Krummacher, J. Frischeisen, N. A. Reinke, and W. Brütting, “Light extraction and optical loss mechanisms in organic light-emitting diodes: Influence of the emitter quantum efficiency,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(12), 123109 (2008).
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Burroughes, J. H.

N. K. Patel, S. Cinà, and J. H. Burroughes, “High-Efficiency organic light-emitting diodes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(2), 346–361 (2002).
[Crossref]

Castro Neto, A. H.

P. Blake, E. W. Hill, A. H. Castro Neto, K. S. Novoselov, D. Jiang, R. Yang, T. J. Booth, and A. K. Geim, “Making graphene visible,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(6), 063124 (2007).
[Crossref]

Chalamala, B.

J. Lewis, S. Grego, B. Chalamala, E. Vick, and D. Temple, “Highly flexible transparent electrodes for organic light-emitting diode-based displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 18(16), 3450–3452 (2004).
[Crossref]

Chen, Q.

Z. Yu, Q. Zhang, L. Li, Q. Chen, X. Niu, J. Liu, and Q. Pei, “Highly flexible silver nanowire electrodes for shape-memory polymer light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 23(5), 664–668 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, Y.

J. Wu, M. Agrawal, H. A. Becerril, Z. Bao, Z. Liu, Y. Chen, and P. Peumans, “Organic light-emitting diodes on solution-processed Graphene Transparent Electrodes,” ACS Nano 4(1), 43–48 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, Z.

Z. Chen, W. Ren, L. Gao, B. Liu, S. Pei, and H.-M. Cheng, “Three-dimensional flexible and conductive interconnected graphene networks grown by chemical vapour deposition,” Nat. Mater. 10(6), 424–428 (2011).
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Cheng, H.-M.

Z. Chen, W. Ren, L. Gao, B. Liu, S. Pei, and H.-M. Cheng, “Three-dimensional flexible and conductive interconnected graphene networks grown by chemical vapour deposition,” Nat. Mater. 10(6), 424–428 (2011).
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Cho, B. J.

S. M. Song and B. J. Cho, “Investigation of interaction between graphene and dielectrics,” Nanotechnology 21(33), 335706 (2010).
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Cho, D.

J. Ryu, Y. Kim, D. Won, N. Kim, J. S. Park, E.-K. Lee, D. Cho, S.-P. Cho, S. J. Kim, G. H. Ryu, H.-A.-S. Shin, Z. Lee, B. H. Hong, and S. Cho, “Fast synthesis of high-performance graphene films by hydrogen-free rapid thermal chemical vapor deposition,” ACS Nano 8(1), 950–956 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cho, D. H.

D. H. Cho, J. W. Shin, J. Moon, S. K. Park, C. W. Joo, N. S. Cho, J. W. Huh, J. H. Han, J. Lee, H. Y. Chu, and J. I. Lee, “Surface control of planarization layer on embossed glass for light extraction in OLEDs,” ETRI J. 36(5), 847–855 (2014).
[Crossref]

Cho, D.-H.

K. Lee, J.-W. Shin, J.-H. Park, J. Lee, C. W. Joo, J.-I. Lee, D.-H. Cho, J. T. Lim, M.-C. Oh, B.-K. Ju, and J. Moon, “A Light Scattering layer for internal light extraction of organic light-emitting diodes based on silver nanowires,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 8(27), 17409–17415 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. W. Joo, J. Moon, J.-H. Han, J. W. Huh, J.-W. Shin, D.-H. Cho, J. Lee, N. S. Cho, and J.-I. Lee, “White transparent organic light-emitting diodes with high top and bottom color rendering indices,” J. Inf. Disp. 16(3), 161–168 (2015).
[Crossref]

J.-W. Kim, J.-H. Jang, M.-C. Oh, J.-W. Shin, D.-H. Cho, J. H. Moon, and J. I. Lee, “FDTD analysis of the light extraction efficiency of OLEDs with a random scattering layer,” Opt. Express 22(1), 498–507 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J.-W. Shin, D.-H. Cho, J. Moon, C. W. Joo, J. Lee, J. W. Huh, S. K. Park, J.-H. Han, N. S. Cho, J. Hwang, H. Y. Chu, and J.-I. Lee, “Random nanostructure scattering layer for suppression of microcavity effect and light extraction in OLEDs,” Opt. Lett. 39(12), 3527–3530 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J.-W. Shin, D.-H. Cho, J. Moon, C. W. Joo, S. K. Park, J. Lee, J.-H. Han, N. S. Cho, J. Hwang, J. W. Huh, H. Y. Chu, and J.-I. Lee, “Random nano-structures as light extraction functionals for organic light-emitting diode applications,” Org. Electron. 15(1), 196–202 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. K. Hwang, H. Kyw Choi, J. Moon, T. Yong Kim, J.-W. Shin, C. Woong Joo, J.-H. Han, D.-H. Cho, J. Woo Huh, S.-Y. Choi, J.-I. Lee, and H. Yong Chu, “Multilayered graphene anode for blue phosphorescent organic light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(13), 133304 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. W. Joo, J. Moon, J. Hwang, J.-H. Han, J.-W. Shin, D.-H. Cho, J. W. Huh, H. Y. Chu, and J.-I. Lee, “Improved device performances in phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes by microcavity Effects,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 51(9S2), 09HM01 (2012).
[Crossref]

Cho, H.

H. Cho, E. Kim, J. Moon, C. W. Joo, E. Kim, S. K. Park, J. Lee, B.-G. Yu, J.-I. Lee, S. Yoo, and N. S. Cho, “Organic wrinkles embedded in high-index medium as planar internal scattering structures for organic light-emitting diodes,” Org. Electron. 46, 139–144 (2017).
[Crossref]

S.-H. Jeong, S.-H. Woo, T.-H. Han, M.-H. Park, H. Cho, Y.-H. Kim, H. Cho, H. Kim, S. Yoo, and T.-W. Lee, “Universal high work function flexible anode for simplified ITO-free organic and pervokite light emitting diodes with ultra-high efficiency,” NPG Asia Mater. 9(7), e411 (2017).
[Crossref]

S.-H. Jeong, S.-H. Woo, T.-H. Han, M.-H. Park, H. Cho, Y.-H. Kim, H. Cho, H. Kim, S. Yoo, and T.-W. Lee, “Universal high work function flexible anode for simplified ITO-free organic and pervokite light emitting diodes with ultra-high efficiency,” NPG Asia Mater. 9(7), e411 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Lee, T.-H. Han, M.-H. Park, D. Y. Jung, J. Seo, H.-K. Seo, H. Cho, E. Kim, J. Chung, S.-Y. Choi, T.-S. Kim, T.-W. Lee, and S. Yoo, “Synergetic electrode architecture for efficient graphene-based flexible organic light-emitting diodes,” Nat. Commun. 7, 11791 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Cho, J.-W. Shin, N. S. Cho, J. Moon, J.-H. Han, Y.-D. Kwon, S. Cho, and J.-I. Lee, “Optical effects of graphene electrodes on organic light-emitting diodes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 22(1), 2000306 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Moon, J.-W. Shin, H. Cho, J.-H. Han, N. S. Cho, T. J. Lim, S. K. Park, H. K. Choi, S.-Y. Choi, J.-H. Kim, M.-J. Maeng, J. Seo, Y. Park, and J.-I. Lee, “Technical issues in graphene anode organic light emitting diodes,” Diamond Related Materials 57, 68–73 (2015).
[Crossref]

Cho, N. S.

H. Cho, E. Kim, J. Moon, C. W. Joo, E. Kim, S. K. Park, J. Lee, B.-G. Yu, J.-I. Lee, S. Yoo, and N. S. Cho, “Organic wrinkles embedded in high-index medium as planar internal scattering structures for organic light-emitting diodes,” Org. Electron. 46, 139–144 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. Cho, J.-W. Shin, N. S. Cho, J. Moon, J.-H. Han, Y.-D. Kwon, S. Cho, and J.-I. Lee, “Optical effects of graphene electrodes on organic light-emitting diodes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 22(1), 2000306 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Moon, J.-W. Shin, H. Cho, J.-H. Han, N. S. Cho, T. J. Lim, S. K. Park, H. K. Choi, S.-Y. Choi, J.-H. Kim, M.-J. Maeng, J. Seo, Y. Park, and J.-I. Lee, “Technical issues in graphene anode organic light emitting diodes,” Diamond Related Materials 57, 68–73 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. W. Joo, J. Moon, J.-H. Han, J. W. Huh, J.-W. Shin, D.-H. Cho, J. Lee, N. S. Cho, and J.-I. Lee, “White transparent organic light-emitting diodes with high top and bottom color rendering indices,” J. Inf. Disp. 16(3), 161–168 (2015).
[Crossref]

J.-W. Shin, D.-H. Cho, J. Moon, C. W. Joo, J. Lee, J. W. Huh, S. K. Park, J.-H. Han, N. S. Cho, J. Hwang, H. Y. Chu, and J.-I. Lee, “Random nanostructure scattering layer for suppression of microcavity effect and light extraction in OLEDs,” Opt. Lett. 39(12), 3527–3530 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. H. Cho, J. W. Shin, J. Moon, S. K. Park, C. W. Joo, N. S. Cho, J. W. Huh, J. H. Han, J. Lee, H. Y. Chu, and J. I. Lee, “Surface control of planarization layer on embossed glass for light extraction in OLEDs,” ETRI J. 36(5), 847–855 (2014).
[Crossref]

J.-W. Shin, D.-H. Cho, J. Moon, C. W. Joo, S. K. Park, J. Lee, J.-H. Han, N. S. Cho, J. Hwang, J. W. Huh, H. Y. Chu, and J.-I. Lee, “Random nano-structures as light extraction functionals for organic light-emitting diode applications,” Org. Electron. 15(1), 196–202 (2014).
[Crossref]

Cho, S.

H. Cho, J.-W. Shin, N. S. Cho, J. Moon, J.-H. Han, Y.-D. Kwon, S. Cho, and J.-I. Lee, “Optical effects of graphene electrodes on organic light-emitting diodes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 22(1), 2000306 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. J. Kim, J. Ryu, S. Son, J. M. Yoo, J. B. Park, D. Won, E.-K. Lee, S.-P. Cho, S. Bae, S. Cho, and B. H. Hong, “Simultaneous etching and doping by cu-stabilizing agent for high-performance graphene-based transparent electrodes,” Chem. Mater. 26(7), 2332–2336 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Ryu, Y. Kim, D. Won, N. Kim, J. S. Park, E.-K. Lee, D. Cho, S.-P. Cho, S. J. Kim, G. H. Ryu, H.-A.-S. Shin, Z. Lee, B. H. Hong, and S. Cho, “Fast synthesis of high-performance graphene films by hydrogen-free rapid thermal chemical vapor deposition,” ACS Nano 8(1), 950–956 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cho, S.-P.

J. Ryu, Y. Kim, D. Won, N. Kim, J. S. Park, E.-K. Lee, D. Cho, S.-P. Cho, S. J. Kim, G. H. Ryu, H.-A.-S. Shin, Z. Lee, B. H. Hong, and S. Cho, “Fast synthesis of high-performance graphene films by hydrogen-free rapid thermal chemical vapor deposition,” ACS Nano 8(1), 950–956 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. J. Kim, J. Ryu, S. Son, J. M. Yoo, J. B. Park, D. Won, E.-K. Lee, S.-P. Cho, S. Bae, S. Cho, and B. H. Hong, “Simultaneous etching and doping by cu-stabilizing agent for high-performance graphene-based transparent electrodes,” Chem. Mater. 26(7), 2332–2336 (2014).
[Crossref]

Choi, H. K.

J. Moon, J.-W. Shin, H. Cho, J.-H. Han, N. S. Cho, T. J. Lim, S. K. Park, H. K. Choi, S.-Y. Choi, J.-H. Kim, M.-J. Maeng, J. Seo, Y. Park, and J.-I. Lee, “Technical issues in graphene anode organic light emitting diodes,” Diamond Related Materials 57, 68–73 (2015).
[Crossref]

Choi, J.-Y.

K. S. Kim, Y. Zhao, H. Jang, S. Y. Lee, J. M. Kim, K. S. Kim, J.-H. Ahn, P. Kim, J.-Y. Choi, and B. J. Hong, “Large-scale pattern growth of graphene films for stretchable transparent electrodes,” Nature 457, 706–710 (2009).

Choi, M.-R.

T. H. Han, Y. Lee, M.-R. Choi, S.-H. Woo, S.-H. Bae, B. H. Hong, J.-H. Ahn, and T.-W. Lee, “Extremely efficient flexible organic light-emitting diodes with modified graphene anode,” Nat. Photonics 6(2), 105–110 (2012).
[Crossref]

Choi, S.-Y.

J. Lee, T.-H. Han, M.-H. Park, D. Y. Jung, J. Seo, H.-K. Seo, H. Cho, E. Kim, J. Chung, S.-Y. Choi, T.-S. Kim, T.-W. Lee, and S. Yoo, “Synergetic electrode architecture for efficient graphene-based flexible organic light-emitting diodes,” Nat. Commun. 7, 11791 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Moon, J.-W. Shin, H. Cho, J.-H. Han, N. S. Cho, T. J. Lim, S. K. Park, H. K. Choi, S.-Y. Choi, J.-H. Kim, M.-J. Maeng, J. Seo, Y. Park, and J.-I. Lee, “Technical issues in graphene anode organic light emitting diodes,” Diamond Related Materials 57, 68–73 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. K. Hwang, H. Kyw Choi, J. Moon, T. Yong Kim, J.-W. Shin, C. Woong Joo, J.-H. Han, D.-H. Cho, J. Woo Huh, S.-Y. Choi, J.-I. Lee, and H. Yong Chu, “Multilayered graphene anode for blue phosphorescent organic light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(13), 133304 (2012).
[Crossref]

Choi, W.

S. Kim, H.-J. Kwon, S. Lee, H. Shim, Y. Chun, W. Choi, J. Kwack, D. Han, M. Song, S. Kim, S. Mohammadi, I. Kee, and S. Y. Lee, “Low-power flexible organic light-emitting diode display device,” Adv. Mater. 23(31), 3511–3516 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chu, H. Y.

J.-W. Shin, D.-H. Cho, J. Moon, C. W. Joo, S. K. Park, J. Lee, J.-H. Han, N. S. Cho, J. Hwang, J. W. Huh, H. Y. Chu, and J.-I. Lee, “Random nano-structures as light extraction functionals for organic light-emitting diode applications,” Org. Electron. 15(1), 196–202 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. H. Cho, J. W. Shin, J. Moon, S. K. Park, C. W. Joo, N. S. Cho, J. W. Huh, J. H. Han, J. Lee, H. Y. Chu, and J. I. Lee, “Surface control of planarization layer on embossed glass for light extraction in OLEDs,” ETRI J. 36(5), 847–855 (2014).
[Crossref]

J.-W. Shin, D.-H. Cho, J. Moon, C. W. Joo, J. Lee, J. W. Huh, S. K. Park, J.-H. Han, N. S. Cho, J. Hwang, H. Y. Chu, and J.-I. Lee, “Random nanostructure scattering layer for suppression of microcavity effect and light extraction in OLEDs,” Opt. Lett. 39(12), 3527–3530 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. W. Joo, J. Moon, J. Hwang, J.-H. Han, J.-W. Shin, D.-H. Cho, J. W. Huh, H. Y. Chu, and J.-I. Lee, “Improved device performances in phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes by microcavity Effects,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 51(9S2), 09HM01 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chun, Y.

S. Kim, H.-J. Kwon, S. Lee, H. Shim, Y. Chun, W. Choi, J. Kwack, D. Han, M. Song, S. Kim, S. Mohammadi, I. Kee, and S. Y. Lee, “Low-power flexible organic light-emitting diode display device,” Adv. Mater. 23(31), 3511–3516 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chung, J.

J. Lee, T.-H. Han, M.-H. Park, D. Y. Jung, J. Seo, H.-K. Seo, H. Cho, E. Kim, J. Chung, S.-Y. Choi, T.-S. Kim, T.-W. Lee, and S. Yoo, “Synergetic electrode architecture for efficient graphene-based flexible organic light-emitting diodes,” Nat. Commun. 7, 11791 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cinà, S.

N. K. Patel, S. Cinà, and J. H. Burroughes, “High-Efficiency organic light-emitting diodes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(2), 346–361 (2002).
[Crossref]

Colombo, L.

K. S. Novoselov, V. I. Fal’ko, L. Colombo, P. R. Gellert, M. G. Schwab, and K. Kim, “Roadmap for graphene,” Nature 490(7419), 192–200 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dai, Y.

Dubonos, S. V.

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Dubonos, I. V. Grigorieva, and A. A. Firsov, “Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films,” Science 306(5696), 666–669 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fal’ko, V. I.

K. S. Novoselov, V. I. Fal’ko, L. Colombo, P. R. Gellert, M. G. Schwab, and K. Kim, “Roadmap for graphene,” Nature 490(7419), 192–200 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fan, H. M.

Z. H. Ni, H. M. Wang, J. Kasim, H. M. Fan, T. Yu, Y. H. Wu, Y. P. Feng, and Z. X. Shen, “Graphene thickness determination using reflection and contrast spectroscopy,” Nano Lett. 7(9), 2758–2763 (2007).
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Kim, J.-H.

J. Moon, J.-W. Shin, H. Cho, J.-H. Han, N. S. Cho, T. J. Lim, S. K. Park, H. K. Choi, S.-Y. Choi, J.-H. Kim, M.-J. Maeng, J. Seo, Y. Park, and J.-I. Lee, “Technical issues in graphene anode organic light emitting diodes,” Diamond Related Materials 57, 68–73 (2015).
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Kim, J.-W.

Kim, K.

K. S. Novoselov, V. I. Fal’ko, L. Colombo, P. R. Gellert, M. G. Schwab, and K. Kim, “Roadmap for graphene,” Nature 490(7419), 192–200 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, K. S.

S. Bae, H. Kim, Y. Lee, X. Xu, J.-S. Park, Y. Zheng, J. Balakrishnan, T. Lei, H. R. Kim, Y. I. Song, Y.-J. Kim, K. S. Kim, B. Özyilmaz, J.-H. Ahn, B. H. Hong, and S. Iijima, “Roll-to-roll production of 30-inch graphene films for transparent electrodes,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(8), 574–578 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. S. Kim, Y. Zhao, H. Jang, S. Y. Lee, J. M. Kim, K. S. Kim, J.-H. Ahn, P. Kim, J.-Y. Choi, and B. J. Hong, “Large-scale pattern growth of graphene films for stretchable transparent electrodes,” Nature 457, 706–710 (2009).

K. S. Kim, Y. Zhao, H. Jang, S. Y. Lee, J. M. Kim, K. S. Kim, J.-H. Ahn, P. Kim, J.-Y. Choi, and B. J. Hong, “Large-scale pattern growth of graphene films for stretchable transparent electrodes,” Nature 457, 706–710 (2009).

Kim, N.

J. Ryu, Y. Kim, D. Won, N. Kim, J. S. Park, E.-K. Lee, D. Cho, S.-P. Cho, S. J. Kim, G. H. Ryu, H.-A.-S. Shin, Z. Lee, B. H. Hong, and S. Cho, “Fast synthesis of high-performance graphene films by hydrogen-free rapid thermal chemical vapor deposition,” ACS Nano 8(1), 950–956 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, P.

K. S. Kim, Y. Zhao, H. Jang, S. Y. Lee, J. M. Kim, K. S. Kim, J.-H. Ahn, P. Kim, J.-Y. Choi, and B. J. Hong, “Large-scale pattern growth of graphene films for stretchable transparent electrodes,” Nature 457, 706–710 (2009).

Kim, S.

S. Kim, H.-J. Kwon, S. Lee, H. Shim, Y. Chun, W. Choi, J. Kwack, D. Han, M. Song, S. Kim, S. Mohammadi, I. Kee, and S. Y. Lee, “Low-power flexible organic light-emitting diode display device,” Adv. Mater. 23(31), 3511–3516 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Kim, H.-J. Kwon, S. Lee, H. Shim, Y. Chun, W. Choi, J. Kwack, D. Han, M. Song, S. Kim, S. Mohammadi, I. Kee, and S. Y. Lee, “Low-power flexible organic light-emitting diode display device,” Adv. Mater. 23(31), 3511–3516 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, S. J.

J. Ryu, Y. Kim, D. Won, N. Kim, J. S. Park, E.-K. Lee, D. Cho, S.-P. Cho, S. J. Kim, G. H. Ryu, H.-A.-S. Shin, Z. Lee, B. H. Hong, and S. Cho, “Fast synthesis of high-performance graphene films by hydrogen-free rapid thermal chemical vapor deposition,” ACS Nano 8(1), 950–956 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. J. Kim, J. Ryu, S. Son, J. M. Yoo, J. B. Park, D. Won, E.-K. Lee, S.-P. Cho, S. Bae, S. Cho, and B. H. Hong, “Simultaneous etching and doping by cu-stabilizing agent for high-performance graphene-based transparent electrodes,” Chem. Mater. 26(7), 2332–2336 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kim, T.-S.

J. Lee, T.-H. Han, M.-H. Park, D. Y. Jung, J. Seo, H.-K. Seo, H. Cho, E. Kim, J. Chung, S.-Y. Choi, T.-S. Kim, T.-W. Lee, and S. Yoo, “Synergetic electrode architecture for efficient graphene-based flexible organic light-emitting diodes,” Nat. Commun. 7, 11791 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, Y.

J. Ryu, Y. Kim, D. Won, N. Kim, J. S. Park, E.-K. Lee, D. Cho, S.-P. Cho, S. J. Kim, G. H. Ryu, H.-A.-S. Shin, Z. Lee, B. H. Hong, and S. Cho, “Fast synthesis of high-performance graphene films by hydrogen-free rapid thermal chemical vapor deposition,” ACS Nano 8(1), 950–956 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, Y.-H.

S.-H. Jeong, S.-H. Woo, T.-H. Han, M.-H. Park, H. Cho, Y.-H. Kim, H. Cho, H. Kim, S. Yoo, and T.-W. Lee, “Universal high work function flexible anode for simplified ITO-free organic and pervokite light emitting diodes with ultra-high efficiency,” NPG Asia Mater. 9(7), e411 (2017).
[Crossref]

Kim, Y.-J.

S. Bae, H. Kim, Y. Lee, X. Xu, J.-S. Park, Y. Zheng, J. Balakrishnan, T. Lei, H. R. Kim, Y. I. Song, Y.-J. Kim, K. S. Kim, B. Özyilmaz, J.-H. Ahn, B. H. Hong, and S. Iijima, “Roll-to-roll production of 30-inch graphene films for transparent electrodes,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(8), 574–578 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Koo, W. H.

W. H. Koo, W. Youn, P. Zhu, X. H. Li, N. Tansu, and F. So, “Light extraction of organic light emitting diodes by defective hexagonal-close-Packed array,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 22(16), 3454–3459 (2012).
[Crossref]

Krummacher, C.

S. Nowy, C. Krummacher, J. Frischeisen, N. A. Reinke, and W. Brütting, “Light extraction and optical loss mechanisms in organic light-emitting diodes: Influence of the emitter quantum efficiency,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(12), 123109 (2008).
[Crossref]

Kwack, J.

S. Kim, H.-J. Kwon, S. Lee, H. Shim, Y. Chun, W. Choi, J. Kwack, D. Han, M. Song, S. Kim, S. Mohammadi, I. Kee, and S. Y. Lee, “Low-power flexible organic light-emitting diode display device,” Adv. Mater. 23(31), 3511–3516 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kwon, H.-J.

S. Kim, H.-J. Kwon, S. Lee, H. Shim, Y. Chun, W. Choi, J. Kwack, D. Han, M. Song, S. Kim, S. Mohammadi, I. Kee, and S. Y. Lee, “Low-power flexible organic light-emitting diode display device,” Adv. Mater. 23(31), 3511–3516 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kwon, S.-J.

T.-H. Han, H. Kim, S.-J. Kwon, and T.-W. Lee, “Graphene-based flexible electronic devices,” Mater. Sci. Eng. R Rep. 118, 1–43 (2017).
[Crossref]

Kwon, Y.-D.

H. Cho, J.-W. Shin, N. S. Cho, J. Moon, J.-H. Han, Y.-D. Kwon, S. Cho, and J.-I. Lee, “Optical effects of graphene electrodes on organic light-emitting diodes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 22(1), 2000306 (2016).
[Crossref]

Kyw Choi, H.

H. K. Hwang, H. Kyw Choi, J. Moon, T. Yong Kim, J.-W. Shin, C. Woong Joo, J.-H. Han, D.-H. Cho, J. Woo Huh, S.-Y. Choi, J.-I. Lee, and H. Yong Chu, “Multilayered graphene anode for blue phosphorescent organic light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(13), 133304 (2012).
[Crossref]

Lee, C.

C. Lee and J. J. Kim, “Enhanced light out-coupling of OLEDs with low haze by inserting randomly dispersed nanopillar arrays formed by lateral phase separation of polymer blends,” Small 9(22), 3858–3863 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, E.-K.

J. Ryu, Y. Kim, D. Won, N. Kim, J. S. Park, E.-K. Lee, D. Cho, S.-P. Cho, S. J. Kim, G. H. Ryu, H.-A.-S. Shin, Z. Lee, B. H. Hong, and S. Cho, “Fast synthesis of high-performance graphene films by hydrogen-free rapid thermal chemical vapor deposition,” ACS Nano 8(1), 950–956 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. J. Kim, J. Ryu, S. Son, J. M. Yoo, J. B. Park, D. Won, E.-K. Lee, S.-P. Cho, S. Bae, S. Cho, and B. H. Hong, “Simultaneous etching and doping by cu-stabilizing agent for high-performance graphene-based transparent electrodes,” Chem. Mater. 26(7), 2332–2336 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lee, J.

H. Cho, E. Kim, J. Moon, C. W. Joo, E. Kim, S. K. Park, J. Lee, B.-G. Yu, J.-I. Lee, S. Yoo, and N. S. Cho, “Organic wrinkles embedded in high-index medium as planar internal scattering structures for organic light-emitting diodes,” Org. Electron. 46, 139–144 (2017).
[Crossref]

K. Lee, J.-W. Shin, J.-H. Park, J. Lee, C. W. Joo, J.-I. Lee, D.-H. Cho, J. T. Lim, M.-C. Oh, B.-K. Ju, and J. Moon, “A Light Scattering layer for internal light extraction of organic light-emitting diodes based on silver nanowires,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 8(27), 17409–17415 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Lee, T.-H. Han, M.-H. Park, D. Y. Jung, J. Seo, H.-K. Seo, H. Cho, E. Kim, J. Chung, S.-Y. Choi, T.-S. Kim, T.-W. Lee, and S. Yoo, “Synergetic electrode architecture for efficient graphene-based flexible organic light-emitting diodes,” Nat. Commun. 7, 11791 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. W. Joo, J. Moon, J.-H. Han, J. W. Huh, J.-W. Shin, D.-H. Cho, J. Lee, N. S. Cho, and J.-I. Lee, “White transparent organic light-emitting diodes with high top and bottom color rendering indices,” J. Inf. Disp. 16(3), 161–168 (2015).
[Crossref]

J.-W. Shin, D.-H. Cho, J. Moon, C. W. Joo, J. Lee, J. W. Huh, S. K. Park, J.-H. Han, N. S. Cho, J. Hwang, H. Y. Chu, and J.-I. Lee, “Random nanostructure scattering layer for suppression of microcavity effect and light extraction in OLEDs,” Opt. Lett. 39(12), 3527–3530 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. H. Cho, J. W. Shin, J. Moon, S. K. Park, C. W. Joo, N. S. Cho, J. W. Huh, J. H. Han, J. Lee, H. Y. Chu, and J. I. Lee, “Surface control of planarization layer on embossed glass for light extraction in OLEDs,” ETRI J. 36(5), 847–855 (2014).
[Crossref]

J.-W. Shin, D.-H. Cho, J. Moon, C. W. Joo, S. K. Park, J. Lee, J.-H. Han, N. S. Cho, J. Hwang, J. W. Huh, H. Y. Chu, and J.-I. Lee, “Random nano-structures as light extraction functionals for organic light-emitting diode applications,” Org. Electron. 15(1), 196–202 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lee, J. I.

D. H. Cho, J. W. Shin, J. Moon, S. K. Park, C. W. Joo, N. S. Cho, J. W. Huh, J. H. Han, J. Lee, H. Y. Chu, and J. I. Lee, “Surface control of planarization layer on embossed glass for light extraction in OLEDs,” ETRI J. 36(5), 847–855 (2014).
[Crossref]

J.-W. Kim, J.-H. Jang, M.-C. Oh, J.-W. Shin, D.-H. Cho, J. H. Moon, and J. I. Lee, “FDTD analysis of the light extraction efficiency of OLEDs with a random scattering layer,” Opt. Express 22(1), 498–507 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, J.-I.

H. Cho, E. Kim, J. Moon, C. W. Joo, E. Kim, S. K. Park, J. Lee, B.-G. Yu, J.-I. Lee, S. Yoo, and N. S. Cho, “Organic wrinkles embedded in high-index medium as planar internal scattering structures for organic light-emitting diodes,” Org. Electron. 46, 139–144 (2017).
[Crossref]

K. Lee, J.-W. Shin, J.-H. Park, J. Lee, C. W. Joo, J.-I. Lee, D.-H. Cho, J. T. Lim, M.-C. Oh, B.-K. Ju, and J. Moon, “A Light Scattering layer for internal light extraction of organic light-emitting diodes based on silver nanowires,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 8(27), 17409–17415 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Cho, J.-W. Shin, N. S. Cho, J. Moon, J.-H. Han, Y.-D. Kwon, S. Cho, and J.-I. Lee, “Optical effects of graphene electrodes on organic light-emitting diodes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 22(1), 2000306 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Moon, J.-W. Shin, H. Cho, J.-H. Han, N. S. Cho, T. J. Lim, S. K. Park, H. K. Choi, S.-Y. Choi, J.-H. Kim, M.-J. Maeng, J. Seo, Y. Park, and J.-I. Lee, “Technical issues in graphene anode organic light emitting diodes,” Diamond Related Materials 57, 68–73 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. W. Joo, J. Moon, J.-H. Han, J. W. Huh, J.-W. Shin, D.-H. Cho, J. Lee, N. S. Cho, and J.-I. Lee, “White transparent organic light-emitting diodes with high top and bottom color rendering indices,” J. Inf. Disp. 16(3), 161–168 (2015).
[Crossref]

J.-W. Shin, D.-H. Cho, J. Moon, C. W. Joo, J. Lee, J. W. Huh, S. K. Park, J.-H. Han, N. S. Cho, J. Hwang, H. Y. Chu, and J.-I. Lee, “Random nanostructure scattering layer for suppression of microcavity effect and light extraction in OLEDs,” Opt. Lett. 39(12), 3527–3530 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J.-W. Shin, D.-H. Cho, J. Moon, C. W. Joo, S. K. Park, J. Lee, J.-H. Han, N. S. Cho, J. Hwang, J. W. Huh, H. Y. Chu, and J.-I. Lee, “Random nano-structures as light extraction functionals for organic light-emitting diode applications,” Org. Electron. 15(1), 196–202 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. K. Hwang, H. Kyw Choi, J. Moon, T. Yong Kim, J.-W. Shin, C. Woong Joo, J.-H. Han, D.-H. Cho, J. Woo Huh, S.-Y. Choi, J.-I. Lee, and H. Yong Chu, “Multilayered graphene anode for blue phosphorescent organic light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(13), 133304 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. W. Joo, J. Moon, J. Hwang, J.-H. Han, J.-W. Shin, D.-H. Cho, J. W. Huh, H. Y. Chu, and J.-I. Lee, “Improved device performances in phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes by microcavity Effects,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 51(9S2), 09HM01 (2012).
[Crossref]

Lee, K.

K. Lee, J.-W. Shin, J.-H. Park, J. Lee, C. W. Joo, J.-I. Lee, D.-H. Cho, J. T. Lim, M.-C. Oh, B.-K. Ju, and J. Moon, “A Light Scattering layer for internal light extraction of organic light-emitting diodes based on silver nanowires,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 8(27), 17409–17415 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, S.

S. Kim, H.-J. Kwon, S. Lee, H. Shim, Y. Chun, W. Choi, J. Kwack, D. Han, M. Song, S. Kim, S. Mohammadi, I. Kee, and S. Y. Lee, “Low-power flexible organic light-emitting diode display device,” Adv. Mater. 23(31), 3511–3516 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, S. Y.

S. Kim, H.-J. Kwon, S. Lee, H. Shim, Y. Chun, W. Choi, J. Kwack, D. Han, M. Song, S. Kim, S. Mohammadi, I. Kee, and S. Y. Lee, “Low-power flexible organic light-emitting diode display device,” Adv. Mater. 23(31), 3511–3516 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. S. Kim, Y. Zhao, H. Jang, S. Y. Lee, J. M. Kim, K. S. Kim, J.-H. Ahn, P. Kim, J.-Y. Choi, and B. J. Hong, “Large-scale pattern growth of graphene films for stretchable transparent electrodes,” Nature 457, 706–710 (2009).

Lee, T.-W.

T.-H. Han, H. Kim, S.-J. Kwon, and T.-W. Lee, “Graphene-based flexible electronic devices,” Mater. Sci. Eng. R Rep. 118, 1–43 (2017).
[Crossref]

S.-H. Jeong, S.-H. Woo, T.-H. Han, M.-H. Park, H. Cho, Y.-H. Kim, H. Cho, H. Kim, S. Yoo, and T.-W. Lee, “Universal high work function flexible anode for simplified ITO-free organic and pervokite light emitting diodes with ultra-high efficiency,” NPG Asia Mater. 9(7), e411 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Lee, T.-H. Han, M.-H. Park, D. Y. Jung, J. Seo, H.-K. Seo, H. Cho, E. Kim, J. Chung, S.-Y. Choi, T.-S. Kim, T.-W. Lee, and S. Yoo, “Synergetic electrode architecture for efficient graphene-based flexible organic light-emitting diodes,” Nat. Commun. 7, 11791 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. H. Han, Y. Lee, M.-R. Choi, S.-H. Woo, S.-H. Bae, B. H. Hong, J.-H. Ahn, and T.-W. Lee, “Extremely efficient flexible organic light-emitting diodes with modified graphene anode,” Nat. Photonics 6(2), 105–110 (2012).
[Crossref]

Lee, Y.

T. H. Han, Y. Lee, M.-R. Choi, S.-H. Woo, S.-H. Bae, B. H. Hong, J.-H. Ahn, and T.-W. Lee, “Extremely efficient flexible organic light-emitting diodes with modified graphene anode,” Nat. Photonics 6(2), 105–110 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Bae, H. Kim, Y. Lee, X. Xu, J.-S. Park, Y. Zheng, J. Balakrishnan, T. Lei, H. R. Kim, Y. I. Song, Y.-J. Kim, K. S. Kim, B. Özyilmaz, J.-H. Ahn, B. H. Hong, and S. Iijima, “Roll-to-roll production of 30-inch graphene films for transparent electrodes,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(8), 574–578 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Lee, S. Bae, H. Jang, S. Jang, S.-E. Zhu, S. H. Sim, Y. I. Song, B. H. Hong, and J.-H. Ahn, “Wafer-scale synthesis and transfer of graphene films,” Nano Lett. 10(2), 490–493 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, Z.

J. Ryu, Y. Kim, D. Won, N. Kim, J. S. Park, E.-K. Lee, D. Cho, S.-P. Cho, S. J. Kim, G. H. Ryu, H.-A.-S. Shin, Z. Lee, B. H. Hong, and S. Cho, “Fast synthesis of high-performance graphene films by hydrogen-free rapid thermal chemical vapor deposition,” ACS Nano 8(1), 950–956 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lei, T.

S. Bae, H. Kim, Y. Lee, X. Xu, J.-S. Park, Y. Zheng, J. Balakrishnan, T. Lei, H. R. Kim, Y. I. Song, Y.-J. Kim, K. S. Kim, B. Özyilmaz, J.-H. Ahn, B. H. Hong, and S. Iijima, “Roll-to-roll production of 30-inch graphene films for transparent electrodes,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(8), 574–578 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Leo, K.

R. Meerheim, M. Furno, S. Hofmann, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “Quantification of energy loss mechanisms in organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(25), 253305 (2010).
[Crossref]

Lewis, J.

J. Lewis, S. Grego, B. Chalamala, E. Vick, and D. Temple, “Highly flexible transparent electrodes for organic light-emitting diode-based displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 18(16), 3450–3452 (2004).
[Crossref]

Li, L.

Z. Yu, Q. Zhang, L. Li, Q. Chen, X. Niu, J. Liu, and Q. Pei, “Highly flexible silver nanowire electrodes for shape-memory polymer light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 23(5), 664–668 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, N.

T.-B. Song and N. Li, “Emerging transparent conducting electrodes for organic light emitting diodes,” Electronics (Basel) 3(1), 190–204 (2014).
[Crossref]

Li, X. H.

W. H. Koo, W. Youn, P. Zhu, X. H. Li, N. Tansu, and F. So, “Light extraction of organic light emitting diodes by defective hexagonal-close-Packed array,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 22(16), 3454–3459 (2012).
[Crossref]

Li, Z.-Y.

A. R. Rathmell, S. M. Bergin, Y.-L. Hua, Z.-Y. Li, and B. J. Wiley, “The growth mechanism of copper nanowires and their properties in flexible, transparent conducting films,” Adv. Mater. 22(32), 3558–3563 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lim, J. T.

K. Lee, J.-W. Shin, J.-H. Park, J. Lee, C. W. Joo, J.-I. Lee, D.-H. Cho, J. T. Lim, M.-C. Oh, B.-K. Ju, and J. Moon, “A Light Scattering layer for internal light extraction of organic light-emitting diodes based on silver nanowires,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 8(27), 17409–17415 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lim, T. J.

J. Moon, J.-W. Shin, H. Cho, J.-H. Han, N. S. Cho, T. J. Lim, S. K. Park, H. K. Choi, S.-Y. Choi, J.-H. Kim, M.-J. Maeng, J. Seo, Y. Park, and J.-I. Lee, “Technical issues in graphene anode organic light emitting diodes,” Diamond Related Materials 57, 68–73 (2015).
[Crossref]

Liu, B.

Z. Chen, W. Ren, L. Gao, B. Liu, S. Pei, and H.-M. Cheng, “Three-dimensional flexible and conductive interconnected graphene networks grown by chemical vapour deposition,” Nat. Mater. 10(6), 424–428 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, J.

Z. Yu, Q. Zhang, L. Li, Q. Chen, X. Niu, J. Liu, and Q. Pei, “Highly flexible silver nanowire electrodes for shape-memory polymer light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 23(5), 664–668 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, X.

D. Zhang, K. Ryu, X. Liu, E. Polikarpov, J. Ly, M. E. Tompson, and C. Zhou, “Transparent, conductive, and flexible carbon nanotube films and their application in organic light-emitting diodes,” Nano Lett. 6(9), 1880–1886 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, Z.

J. Wu, M. Agrawal, H. A. Becerril, Z. Bao, Z. Liu, Y. Chen, and P. Peumans, “Organic light-emitting diodes on solution-processed Graphene Transparent Electrodes,” ACS Nano 4(1), 43–48 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lüssem, B.

R. Meerheim, M. Furno, S. Hofmann, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “Quantification of energy loss mechanisms in organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(25), 253305 (2010).
[Crossref]

Ly, J.

D. Zhang, K. Ryu, X. Liu, E. Polikarpov, J. Ly, M. E. Tompson, and C. Zhou, “Transparent, conductive, and flexible carbon nanotube films and their application in organic light-emitting diodes,” Nano Lett. 6(9), 1880–1886 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Maeng, M.-J.

J. Moon, J.-W. Shin, H. Cho, J.-H. Han, N. S. Cho, T. J. Lim, S. K. Park, H. K. Choi, S.-Y. Choi, J.-H. Kim, M.-J. Maeng, J. Seo, Y. Park, and J.-I. Lee, “Technical issues in graphene anode organic light emitting diodes,” Diamond Related Materials 57, 68–73 (2015).
[Crossref]

Matsubara, I.

K. Ishihara, M. Fujita, I. Matsubara, T. Asano, S. Noda, H. Ohata, A. Hirasawa, H. Nakada, and N. Shimoji, “Organic light-emitting diodes with photonic crystals on glass substrate fabricated by nanoimprint lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(11), 111114 (2007).
[Crossref]

Meerheim, R.

R. Meerheim, M. Furno, S. Hofmann, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “Quantification of energy loss mechanisms in organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(25), 253305 (2010).
[Crossref]

Mehta, D. S.

K. Saxena, V. K. Jain, and D. S. Mehta, “A review on the light extraction techniques in organic electroluminescent devices,” Opt. Mater. 32(1), 221–233 (2009).
[Crossref]

Mohammadi, S.

S. Kim, H.-J. Kwon, S. Lee, H. Shim, Y. Chun, W. Choi, J. Kwack, D. Han, M. Song, S. Kim, S. Mohammadi, I. Kee, and S. Y. Lee, “Low-power flexible organic light-emitting diode display device,” Adv. Mater. 23(31), 3511–3516 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Moon, J.

H. Cho, E. Kim, J. Moon, C. W. Joo, E. Kim, S. K. Park, J. Lee, B.-G. Yu, J.-I. Lee, S. Yoo, and N. S. Cho, “Organic wrinkles embedded in high-index medium as planar internal scattering structures for organic light-emitting diodes,” Org. Electron. 46, 139–144 (2017).
[Crossref]

K. Lee, J.-W. Shin, J.-H. Park, J. Lee, C. W. Joo, J.-I. Lee, D.-H. Cho, J. T. Lim, M.-C. Oh, B.-K. Ju, and J. Moon, “A Light Scattering layer for internal light extraction of organic light-emitting diodes based on silver nanowires,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 8(27), 17409–17415 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Cho, J.-W. Shin, N. S. Cho, J. Moon, J.-H. Han, Y.-D. Kwon, S. Cho, and J.-I. Lee, “Optical effects of graphene electrodes on organic light-emitting diodes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 22(1), 2000306 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Moon, J.-W. Shin, H. Cho, J.-H. Han, N. S. Cho, T. J. Lim, S. K. Park, H. K. Choi, S.-Y. Choi, J.-H. Kim, M.-J. Maeng, J. Seo, Y. Park, and J.-I. Lee, “Technical issues in graphene anode organic light emitting diodes,” Diamond Related Materials 57, 68–73 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. W. Joo, J. Moon, J.-H. Han, J. W. Huh, J.-W. Shin, D.-H. Cho, J. Lee, N. S. Cho, and J.-I. Lee, “White transparent organic light-emitting diodes with high top and bottom color rendering indices,” J. Inf. Disp. 16(3), 161–168 (2015).
[Crossref]

J.-W. Shin, D.-H. Cho, J. Moon, C. W. Joo, J. Lee, J. W. Huh, S. K. Park, J.-H. Han, N. S. Cho, J. Hwang, H. Y. Chu, and J.-I. Lee, “Random nanostructure scattering layer for suppression of microcavity effect and light extraction in OLEDs,” Opt. Lett. 39(12), 3527–3530 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. H. Cho, J. W. Shin, J. Moon, S. K. Park, C. W. Joo, N. S. Cho, J. W. Huh, J. H. Han, J. Lee, H. Y. Chu, and J. I. Lee, “Surface control of planarization layer on embossed glass for light extraction in OLEDs,” ETRI J. 36(5), 847–855 (2014).
[Crossref]

J.-W. Shin, D.-H. Cho, J. Moon, C. W. Joo, S. K. Park, J. Lee, J.-H. Han, N. S. Cho, J. Hwang, J. W. Huh, H. Y. Chu, and J.-I. Lee, “Random nano-structures as light extraction functionals for organic light-emitting diode applications,” Org. Electron. 15(1), 196–202 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. K. Hwang, H. Kyw Choi, J. Moon, T. Yong Kim, J.-W. Shin, C. Woong Joo, J.-H. Han, D.-H. Cho, J. Woo Huh, S.-Y. Choi, J.-I. Lee, and H. Yong Chu, “Multilayered graphene anode for blue phosphorescent organic light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(13), 133304 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. W. Joo, J. Moon, J. Hwang, J.-H. Han, J.-W. Shin, D.-H. Cho, J. W. Huh, H. Y. Chu, and J.-I. Lee, “Improved device performances in phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes by microcavity Effects,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 51(9S2), 09HM01 (2012).
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Moon, J. H.

Morozov, S. V.

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K. Ishihara, M. Fujita, I. Matsubara, T. Asano, S. Noda, H. Ohata, A. Hirasawa, H. Nakada, and N. Shimoji, “Organic light-emitting diodes with photonic crystals on glass substrate fabricated by nanoimprint lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(11), 111114 (2007).
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Z. H. Ni, H. M. Wang, J. Kasim, H. M. Fan, T. Yu, Y. H. Wu, Y. P. Feng, and Z. X. Shen, “Graphene thickness determination using reflection and contrast spectroscopy,” Nano Lett. 7(9), 2758–2763 (2007).
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Niu, X.

Z. Yu, Q. Zhang, L. Li, Q. Chen, X. Niu, J. Liu, and Q. Pei, “Highly flexible silver nanowire electrodes for shape-memory polymer light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 23(5), 664–668 (2011).
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K. Ishihara, M. Fujita, I. Matsubara, T. Asano, S. Noda, H. Ohata, A. Hirasawa, H. Nakada, and N. Shimoji, “Organic light-emitting diodes with photonic crystals on glass substrate fabricated by nanoimprint lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(11), 111114 (2007).
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M. Fujita, K. Ishihara, T. Ueno, T. Asano, S. Noda, H. Ohata, T. Tsuji, H. Nakada, and N. Shimoji, “Optical and electrical characteristics of organic light-emitting diodes with two-dimensional photonic crystals in organic/electrode layers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(6A), 3669–3677 (2005).
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K. S. Novoselov, V. I. Fal’ko, L. Colombo, P. R. Gellert, M. G. Schwab, and K. Kim, “Roadmap for graphene,” Nature 490(7419), 192–200 (2012).
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R. R. Nair, P. Blake, A. N. Grigorenko, K. S. Novoselov, T. J. Booth, T. Stauber, N. M. R. Peres, and A. K. Geim, “Fine structure constant defines visual transparency of graphene,” Science 320, 1308 (2008).

P. Blake, E. W. Hill, A. H. Castro Neto, K. S. Novoselov, D. Jiang, R. Yang, T. J. Booth, and A. K. Geim, “Making graphene visible,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(6), 063124 (2007).
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K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Dubonos, I. V. Grigorieva, and A. A. Firsov, “Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films,” Science 306(5696), 666–669 (2004).
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S. Nowy, C. Krummacher, J. Frischeisen, N. A. Reinke, and W. Brütting, “Light extraction and optical loss mechanisms in organic light-emitting diodes: Influence of the emitter quantum efficiency,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(12), 123109 (2008).
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Oh, M.-C.

K. Lee, J.-W. Shin, J.-H. Park, J. Lee, C. W. Joo, J.-I. Lee, D.-H. Cho, J. T. Lim, M.-C. Oh, B.-K. Ju, and J. Moon, “A Light Scattering layer for internal light extraction of organic light-emitting diodes based on silver nanowires,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 8(27), 17409–17415 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J.-W. Kim, J.-H. Jang, M.-C. Oh, J.-W. Shin, D.-H. Cho, J. H. Moon, and J. I. Lee, “FDTD analysis of the light extraction efficiency of OLEDs with a random scattering layer,” Opt. Express 22(1), 498–507 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ohata, H.

K. Ishihara, M. Fujita, I. Matsubara, T. Asano, S. Noda, H. Ohata, A. Hirasawa, H. Nakada, and N. Shimoji, “Organic light-emitting diodes with photonic crystals on glass substrate fabricated by nanoimprint lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(11), 111114 (2007).
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M. Fujita, K. Ishihara, T. Ueno, T. Asano, S. Noda, H. Ohata, T. Tsuji, H. Nakada, and N. Shimoji, “Optical and electrical characteristics of organic light-emitting diodes with two-dimensional photonic crystals in organic/electrode layers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(6A), 3669–3677 (2005).
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S. Bae, H. Kim, Y. Lee, X. Xu, J.-S. Park, Y. Zheng, J. Balakrishnan, T. Lei, H. R. Kim, Y. I. Song, Y.-J. Kim, K. S. Kim, B. Özyilmaz, J.-H. Ahn, B. H. Hong, and S. Iijima, “Roll-to-roll production of 30-inch graphene films for transparent electrodes,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(8), 574–578 (2010).
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Park, J. B.

S. J. Kim, J. Ryu, S. Son, J. M. Yoo, J. B. Park, D. Won, E.-K. Lee, S.-P. Cho, S. Bae, S. Cho, and B. H. Hong, “Simultaneous etching and doping by cu-stabilizing agent for high-performance graphene-based transparent electrodes,” Chem. Mater. 26(7), 2332–2336 (2014).
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Park, J. S.

J. Ryu, Y. Kim, D. Won, N. Kim, J. S. Park, E.-K. Lee, D. Cho, S.-P. Cho, S. J. Kim, G. H. Ryu, H.-A.-S. Shin, Z. Lee, B. H. Hong, and S. Cho, “Fast synthesis of high-performance graphene films by hydrogen-free rapid thermal chemical vapor deposition,” ACS Nano 8(1), 950–956 (2014).
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Park, J.-H.

K. Lee, J.-W. Shin, J.-H. Park, J. Lee, C. W. Joo, J.-I. Lee, D.-H. Cho, J. T. Lim, M.-C. Oh, B.-K. Ju, and J. Moon, “A Light Scattering layer for internal light extraction of organic light-emitting diodes based on silver nanowires,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 8(27), 17409–17415 (2016).
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Park, J.-S.

S. Bae, H. Kim, Y. Lee, X. Xu, J.-S. Park, Y. Zheng, J. Balakrishnan, T. Lei, H. R. Kim, Y. I. Song, Y.-J. Kim, K. S. Kim, B. Özyilmaz, J.-H. Ahn, B. H. Hong, and S. Iijima, “Roll-to-roll production of 30-inch graphene films for transparent electrodes,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(8), 574–578 (2010).
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Park, M.-H.

S.-H. Jeong, S.-H. Woo, T.-H. Han, M.-H. Park, H. Cho, Y.-H. Kim, H. Cho, H. Kim, S. Yoo, and T.-W. Lee, “Universal high work function flexible anode for simplified ITO-free organic and pervokite light emitting diodes with ultra-high efficiency,” NPG Asia Mater. 9(7), e411 (2017).
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J. Lee, T.-H. Han, M.-H. Park, D. Y. Jung, J. Seo, H.-K. Seo, H. Cho, E. Kim, J. Chung, S.-Y. Choi, T.-S. Kim, T.-W. Lee, and S. Yoo, “Synergetic electrode architecture for efficient graphene-based flexible organic light-emitting diodes,” Nat. Commun. 7, 11791 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Park, S. K.

H. Cho, E. Kim, J. Moon, C. W. Joo, E. Kim, S. K. Park, J. Lee, B.-G. Yu, J.-I. Lee, S. Yoo, and N. S. Cho, “Organic wrinkles embedded in high-index medium as planar internal scattering structures for organic light-emitting diodes,” Org. Electron. 46, 139–144 (2017).
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J. Moon, J.-W. Shin, H. Cho, J.-H. Han, N. S. Cho, T. J. Lim, S. K. Park, H. K. Choi, S.-Y. Choi, J.-H. Kim, M.-J. Maeng, J. Seo, Y. Park, and J.-I. Lee, “Technical issues in graphene anode organic light emitting diodes,” Diamond Related Materials 57, 68–73 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. H. Cho, J. W. Shin, J. Moon, S. K. Park, C. W. Joo, N. S. Cho, J. W. Huh, J. H. Han, J. Lee, H. Y. Chu, and J. I. Lee, “Surface control of planarization layer on embossed glass for light extraction in OLEDs,” ETRI J. 36(5), 847–855 (2014).
[Crossref]

J.-W. Shin, D.-H. Cho, J. Moon, C. W. Joo, S. K. Park, J. Lee, J.-H. Han, N. S. Cho, J. Hwang, J. W. Huh, H. Y. Chu, and J.-I. Lee, “Random nano-structures as light extraction functionals for organic light-emitting diode applications,” Org. Electron. 15(1), 196–202 (2014).
[Crossref]

J.-W. Shin, D.-H. Cho, J. Moon, C. W. Joo, J. Lee, J. W. Huh, S. K. Park, J.-H. Han, N. S. Cho, J. Hwang, H. Y. Chu, and J.-I. Lee, “Random nanostructure scattering layer for suppression of microcavity effect and light extraction in OLEDs,” Opt. Lett. 39(12), 3527–3530 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Park, Y.

J. Moon, J.-W. Shin, H. Cho, J.-H. Han, N. S. Cho, T. J. Lim, S. K. Park, H. K. Choi, S.-Y. Choi, J.-H. Kim, M.-J. Maeng, J. Seo, Y. Park, and J.-I. Lee, “Technical issues in graphene anode organic light emitting diodes,” Diamond Related Materials 57, 68–73 (2015).
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N. K. Patel, S. Cinà, and J. H. Burroughes, “High-Efficiency organic light-emitting diodes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(2), 346–361 (2002).
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Z. Yu, Q. Zhang, L. Li, Q. Chen, X. Niu, J. Liu, and Q. Pei, “Highly flexible silver nanowire electrodes for shape-memory polymer light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 23(5), 664–668 (2011).
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Z. Chen, W. Ren, L. Gao, B. Liu, S. Pei, and H.-M. Cheng, “Three-dimensional flexible and conductive interconnected graphene networks grown by chemical vapour deposition,” Nat. Mater. 10(6), 424–428 (2011).
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R. R. Nair, P. Blake, A. N. Grigorenko, K. S. Novoselov, T. J. Booth, T. Stauber, N. M. R. Peres, and A. K. Geim, “Fine structure constant defines visual transparency of graphene,” Science 320, 1308 (2008).

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J. Wu, M. Agrawal, H. A. Becerril, Z. Bao, Z. Liu, Y. Chen, and P. Peumans, “Organic light-emitting diodes on solution-processed Graphene Transparent Electrodes,” ACS Nano 4(1), 43–48 (2010).
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D. Zhang, K. Ryu, X. Liu, E. Polikarpov, J. Ly, M. E. Tompson, and C. Zhou, “Transparent, conductive, and flexible carbon nanotube films and their application in organic light-emitting diodes,” Nano Lett. 6(9), 1880–1886 (2006).
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A. R. Rathmell, S. M. Bergin, Y.-L. Hua, Z.-Y. Li, and B. J. Wiley, “The growth mechanism of copper nanowires and their properties in flexible, transparent conducting films,” Adv. Mater. 22(32), 3558–3563 (2010).
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S. Nowy, C. Krummacher, J. Frischeisen, N. A. Reinke, and W. Brütting, “Light extraction and optical loss mechanisms in organic light-emitting diodes: Influence of the emitter quantum efficiency,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(12), 123109 (2008).
[Crossref]

Ren, W.

Z. Chen, W. Ren, L. Gao, B. Liu, S. Pei, and H.-M. Cheng, “Three-dimensional flexible and conductive interconnected graphene networks grown by chemical vapour deposition,” Nat. Mater. 10(6), 424–428 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ryu, G. H.

J. Ryu, Y. Kim, D. Won, N. Kim, J. S. Park, E.-K. Lee, D. Cho, S.-P. Cho, S. J. Kim, G. H. Ryu, H.-A.-S. Shin, Z. Lee, B. H. Hong, and S. Cho, “Fast synthesis of high-performance graphene films by hydrogen-free rapid thermal chemical vapor deposition,” ACS Nano 8(1), 950–956 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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J. Ryu, Y. Kim, D. Won, N. Kim, J. S. Park, E.-K. Lee, D. Cho, S.-P. Cho, S. J. Kim, G. H. Ryu, H.-A.-S. Shin, Z. Lee, B. H. Hong, and S. Cho, “Fast synthesis of high-performance graphene films by hydrogen-free rapid thermal chemical vapor deposition,” ACS Nano 8(1), 950–956 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. J. Kim, J. Ryu, S. Son, J. M. Yoo, J. B. Park, D. Won, E.-K. Lee, S.-P. Cho, S. Bae, S. Cho, and B. H. Hong, “Simultaneous etching and doping by cu-stabilizing agent for high-performance graphene-based transparent electrodes,” Chem. Mater. 26(7), 2332–2336 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ryu, K.

D. Zhang, K. Ryu, X. Liu, E. Polikarpov, J. Ly, M. E. Tompson, and C. Zhou, “Transparent, conductive, and flexible carbon nanotube films and their application in organic light-emitting diodes,” Nano Lett. 6(9), 1880–1886 (2006).
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K. S. Novoselov, V. I. Fal’ko, L. Colombo, P. R. Gellert, M. G. Schwab, and K. Kim, “Roadmap for graphene,” Nature 490(7419), 192–200 (2012).
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Seo, H.-K.

J. Lee, T.-H. Han, M.-H. Park, D. Y. Jung, J. Seo, H.-K. Seo, H. Cho, E. Kim, J. Chung, S.-Y. Choi, T.-S. Kim, T.-W. Lee, and S. Yoo, “Synergetic electrode architecture for efficient graphene-based flexible organic light-emitting diodes,” Nat. Commun. 7, 11791 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Seo, J.

J. Lee, T.-H. Han, M.-H. Park, D. Y. Jung, J. Seo, H.-K. Seo, H. Cho, E. Kim, J. Chung, S.-Y. Choi, T.-S. Kim, T.-W. Lee, and S. Yoo, “Synergetic electrode architecture for efficient graphene-based flexible organic light-emitting diodes,” Nat. Commun. 7, 11791 (2016).
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J. Moon, J.-W. Shin, H. Cho, J.-H. Han, N. S. Cho, T. J. Lim, S. K. Park, H. K. Choi, S.-Y. Choi, J.-H. Kim, M.-J. Maeng, J. Seo, Y. Park, and J.-I. Lee, “Technical issues in graphene anode organic light emitting diodes,” Diamond Related Materials 57, 68–73 (2015).
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Shen, Z. X.

Z. H. Ni, H. M. Wang, J. Kasim, H. M. Fan, T. Yu, Y. H. Wu, Y. P. Feng, and Z. X. Shen, “Graphene thickness determination using reflection and contrast spectroscopy,” Nano Lett. 7(9), 2758–2763 (2007).
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Shim, H.

S. Kim, H.-J. Kwon, S. Lee, H. Shim, Y. Chun, W. Choi, J. Kwack, D. Han, M. Song, S. Kim, S. Mohammadi, I. Kee, and S. Y. Lee, “Low-power flexible organic light-emitting diode display device,” Adv. Mater. 23(31), 3511–3516 (2011).
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Shimoji, N.

K. Ishihara, M. Fujita, I. Matsubara, T. Asano, S. Noda, H. Ohata, A. Hirasawa, H. Nakada, and N. Shimoji, “Organic light-emitting diodes with photonic crystals on glass substrate fabricated by nanoimprint lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(11), 111114 (2007).
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M. Fujita, K. Ishihara, T. Ueno, T. Asano, S. Noda, H. Ohata, T. Tsuji, H. Nakada, and N. Shimoji, “Optical and electrical characteristics of organic light-emitting diodes with two-dimensional photonic crystals in organic/electrode layers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(6A), 3669–3677 (2005).
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Shin, H.-A.-S.

J. Ryu, Y. Kim, D. Won, N. Kim, J. S. Park, E.-K. Lee, D. Cho, S.-P. Cho, S. J. Kim, G. H. Ryu, H.-A.-S. Shin, Z. Lee, B. H. Hong, and S. Cho, “Fast synthesis of high-performance graphene films by hydrogen-free rapid thermal chemical vapor deposition,” ACS Nano 8(1), 950–956 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shin, J. W.

D. H. Cho, J. W. Shin, J. Moon, S. K. Park, C. W. Joo, N. S. Cho, J. W. Huh, J. H. Han, J. Lee, H. Y. Chu, and J. I. Lee, “Surface control of planarization layer on embossed glass for light extraction in OLEDs,” ETRI J. 36(5), 847–855 (2014).
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Shin, J.-W.

K. Lee, J.-W. Shin, J.-H. Park, J. Lee, C. W. Joo, J.-I. Lee, D.-H. Cho, J. T. Lim, M.-C. Oh, B.-K. Ju, and J. Moon, “A Light Scattering layer for internal light extraction of organic light-emitting diodes based on silver nanowires,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 8(27), 17409–17415 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Cho, J.-W. Shin, N. S. Cho, J. Moon, J.-H. Han, Y.-D. Kwon, S. Cho, and J.-I. Lee, “Optical effects of graphene electrodes on organic light-emitting diodes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 22(1), 2000306 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Moon, J.-W. Shin, H. Cho, J.-H. Han, N. S. Cho, T. J. Lim, S. K. Park, H. K. Choi, S.-Y. Choi, J.-H. Kim, M.-J. Maeng, J. Seo, Y. Park, and J.-I. Lee, “Technical issues in graphene anode organic light emitting diodes,” Diamond Related Materials 57, 68–73 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. W. Joo, J. Moon, J.-H. Han, J. W. Huh, J.-W. Shin, D.-H. Cho, J. Lee, N. S. Cho, and J.-I. Lee, “White transparent organic light-emitting diodes with high top and bottom color rendering indices,” J. Inf. Disp. 16(3), 161–168 (2015).
[Crossref]

J.-W. Kim, J.-H. Jang, M.-C. Oh, J.-W. Shin, D.-H. Cho, J. H. Moon, and J. I. Lee, “FDTD analysis of the light extraction efficiency of OLEDs with a random scattering layer,” Opt. Express 22(1), 498–507 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J.-W. Shin, D.-H. Cho, J. Moon, C. W. Joo, J. Lee, J. W. Huh, S. K. Park, J.-H. Han, N. S. Cho, J. Hwang, H. Y. Chu, and J.-I. Lee, “Random nanostructure scattering layer for suppression of microcavity effect and light extraction in OLEDs,” Opt. Lett. 39(12), 3527–3530 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J.-W. Shin, D.-H. Cho, J. Moon, C. W. Joo, S. K. Park, J. Lee, J.-H. Han, N. S. Cho, J. Hwang, J. W. Huh, H. Y. Chu, and J.-I. Lee, “Random nano-structures as light extraction functionals for organic light-emitting diode applications,” Org. Electron. 15(1), 196–202 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. K. Hwang, H. Kyw Choi, J. Moon, T. Yong Kim, J.-W. Shin, C. Woong Joo, J.-H. Han, D.-H. Cho, J. Woo Huh, S.-Y. Choi, J.-I. Lee, and H. Yong Chu, “Multilayered graphene anode for blue phosphorescent organic light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(13), 133304 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. W. Joo, J. Moon, J. Hwang, J.-H. Han, J.-W. Shin, D.-H. Cho, J. W. Huh, H. Y. Chu, and J.-I. Lee, “Improved device performances in phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes by microcavity Effects,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 51(9S2), 09HM01 (2012).
[Crossref]

Sim, S. H.

Y. Lee, S. Bae, H. Jang, S. Jang, S.-E. Zhu, S. H. Sim, Y. I. Song, B. H. Hong, and J.-H. Ahn, “Wafer-scale synthesis and transfer of graphene films,” Nano Lett. 10(2), 490–493 (2010).
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So, F.

W. H. Koo, W. Youn, P. Zhu, X. H. Li, N. Tansu, and F. So, “Light extraction of organic light emitting diodes by defective hexagonal-close-Packed array,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 22(16), 3454–3459 (2012).
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Son, S.

S. J. Kim, J. Ryu, S. Son, J. M. Yoo, J. B. Park, D. Won, E.-K. Lee, S.-P. Cho, S. Bae, S. Cho, and B. H. Hong, “Simultaneous etching and doping by cu-stabilizing agent for high-performance graphene-based transparent electrodes,” Chem. Mater. 26(7), 2332–2336 (2014).
[Crossref]

Song, M.

S. Kim, H.-J. Kwon, S. Lee, H. Shim, Y. Chun, W. Choi, J. Kwack, D. Han, M. Song, S. Kim, S. Mohammadi, I. Kee, and S. Y. Lee, “Low-power flexible organic light-emitting diode display device,” Adv. Mater. 23(31), 3511–3516 (2011).
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Song, S. M.

S. M. Song and B. J. Cho, “Investigation of interaction between graphene and dielectrics,” Nanotechnology 21(33), 335706 (2010).
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Song, T.-B.

T.-B. Song and N. Li, “Emerging transparent conducting electrodes for organic light emitting diodes,” Electronics (Basel) 3(1), 190–204 (2014).
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Song, Y. I.

Y. Lee, S. Bae, H. Jang, S. Jang, S.-E. Zhu, S. H. Sim, Y. I. Song, B. H. Hong, and J.-H. Ahn, “Wafer-scale synthesis and transfer of graphene films,” Nano Lett. 10(2), 490–493 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Bae, H. Kim, Y. Lee, X. Xu, J.-S. Park, Y. Zheng, J. Balakrishnan, T. Lei, H. R. Kim, Y. I. Song, Y.-J. Kim, K. S. Kim, B. Özyilmaz, J.-H. Ahn, B. H. Hong, and S. Iijima, “Roll-to-roll production of 30-inch graphene films for transparent electrodes,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(8), 574–578 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stauber, T.

R. R. Nair, P. Blake, A. N. Grigorenko, K. S. Novoselov, T. J. Booth, T. Stauber, N. M. R. Peres, and A. K. Geim, “Fine structure constant defines visual transparency of graphene,” Science 320, 1308 (2008).

Sun, Z.

F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 4(9), 611–622 (2010).
[Crossref]

Tansu, N.

W. H. Koo, W. Youn, P. Zhu, X. H. Li, N. Tansu, and F. So, “Light extraction of organic light emitting diodes by defective hexagonal-close-Packed array,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 22(16), 3454–3459 (2012).
[Crossref]

Temple, D.

J. Lewis, S. Grego, B. Chalamala, E. Vick, and D. Temple, “Highly flexible transparent electrodes for organic light-emitting diode-based displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 18(16), 3450–3452 (2004).
[Crossref]

Tompson, M. E.

D. Zhang, K. Ryu, X. Liu, E. Polikarpov, J. Ly, M. E. Tompson, and C. Zhou, “Transparent, conductive, and flexible carbon nanotube films and their application in organic light-emitting diodes,” Nano Lett. 6(9), 1880–1886 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tsuji, T.

M. Fujita, K. Ishihara, T. Ueno, T. Asano, S. Noda, H. Ohata, T. Tsuji, H. Nakada, and N. Shimoji, “Optical and electrical characteristics of organic light-emitting diodes with two-dimensional photonic crystals in organic/electrode layers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(6A), 3669–3677 (2005).
[Crossref]

Ueno, T.

M. Fujita, K. Ishihara, T. Ueno, T. Asano, S. Noda, H. Ohata, T. Tsuji, H. Nakada, and N. Shimoji, “Optical and electrical characteristics of organic light-emitting diodes with two-dimensional photonic crystals in organic/electrode layers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(6A), 3669–3677 (2005).
[Crossref]

Vick, E.

J. Lewis, S. Grego, B. Chalamala, E. Vick, and D. Temple, “Highly flexible transparent electrodes for organic light-emitting diode-based displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 18(16), 3450–3452 (2004).
[Crossref]

Wang, H. M.

Z. H. Ni, H. M. Wang, J. Kasim, H. M. Fan, T. Yu, Y. H. Wu, Y. P. Feng, and Z. X. Shen, “Graphene thickness determination using reflection and contrast spectroscopy,” Nano Lett. 7(9), 2758–2763 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wiley, B. J.

A. R. Rathmell, S. M. Bergin, Y.-L. Hua, Z.-Y. Li, and B. J. Wiley, “The growth mechanism of copper nanowires and their properties in flexible, transparent conducting films,” Adv. Mater. 22(32), 3558–3563 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Won, D.

S. J. Kim, J. Ryu, S. Son, J. M. Yoo, J. B. Park, D. Won, E.-K. Lee, S.-P. Cho, S. Bae, S. Cho, and B. H. Hong, “Simultaneous etching and doping by cu-stabilizing agent for high-performance graphene-based transparent electrodes,” Chem. Mater. 26(7), 2332–2336 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Ryu, Y. Kim, D. Won, N. Kim, J. S. Park, E.-K. Lee, D. Cho, S.-P. Cho, S. J. Kim, G. H. Ryu, H.-A.-S. Shin, Z. Lee, B. H. Hong, and S. Cho, “Fast synthesis of high-performance graphene films by hydrogen-free rapid thermal chemical vapor deposition,” ACS Nano 8(1), 950–956 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Woo, S.-H.

S.-H. Jeong, S.-H. Woo, T.-H. Han, M.-H. Park, H. Cho, Y.-H. Kim, H. Cho, H. Kim, S. Yoo, and T.-W. Lee, “Universal high work function flexible anode for simplified ITO-free organic and pervokite light emitting diodes with ultra-high efficiency,” NPG Asia Mater. 9(7), e411 (2017).
[Crossref]

T. H. Han, Y. Lee, M.-R. Choi, S.-H. Woo, S.-H. Bae, B. H. Hong, J.-H. Ahn, and T.-W. Lee, “Extremely efficient flexible organic light-emitting diodes with modified graphene anode,” Nat. Photonics 6(2), 105–110 (2012).
[Crossref]

Woo Huh, J.

H. K. Hwang, H. Kyw Choi, J. Moon, T. Yong Kim, J.-W. Shin, C. Woong Joo, J.-H. Han, D.-H. Cho, J. Woo Huh, S.-Y. Choi, J.-I. Lee, and H. Yong Chu, “Multilayered graphene anode for blue phosphorescent organic light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(13), 133304 (2012).
[Crossref]

Woong Joo, C.

H. K. Hwang, H. Kyw Choi, J. Moon, T. Yong Kim, J.-W. Shin, C. Woong Joo, J.-H. Han, D.-H. Cho, J. Woo Huh, S.-Y. Choi, J.-I. Lee, and H. Yong Chu, “Multilayered graphene anode for blue phosphorescent organic light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(13), 133304 (2012).
[Crossref]

Wu, J.

J. Wu, M. Agrawal, H. A. Becerril, Z. Bao, Z. Liu, Y. Chen, and P. Peumans, “Organic light-emitting diodes on solution-processed Graphene Transparent Electrodes,” ACS Nano 4(1), 43–48 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wu, Y. H.

Z. H. Ni, H. M. Wang, J. Kasim, H. M. Fan, T. Yu, Y. H. Wu, Y. P. Feng, and Z. X. Shen, “Graphene thickness determination using reflection and contrast spectroscopy,” Nano Lett. 7(9), 2758–2763 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wu, Z.

Xu, X.

S. Bae, H. Kim, Y. Lee, X. Xu, J.-S. Park, Y. Zheng, J. Balakrishnan, T. Lei, H. R. Kim, Y. I. Song, Y.-J. Kim, K. S. Kim, B. Özyilmaz, J.-H. Ahn, B. H. Hong, and S. Iijima, “Roll-to-roll production of 30-inch graphene films for transparent electrodes,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(8), 574–578 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, R.

P. Blake, E. W. Hill, A. H. Castro Neto, K. S. Novoselov, D. Jiang, R. Yang, T. J. Booth, and A. K. Geim, “Making graphene visible,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(6), 063124 (2007).
[Crossref]

Yong Chu, H.

H. K. Hwang, H. Kyw Choi, J. Moon, T. Yong Kim, J.-W. Shin, C. Woong Joo, J.-H. Han, D.-H. Cho, J. Woo Huh, S.-Y. Choi, J.-I. Lee, and H. Yong Chu, “Multilayered graphene anode for blue phosphorescent organic light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(13), 133304 (2012).
[Crossref]

Yong Kim, T.

H. K. Hwang, H. Kyw Choi, J. Moon, T. Yong Kim, J.-W. Shin, C. Woong Joo, J.-H. Han, D.-H. Cho, J. Woo Huh, S.-Y. Choi, J.-I. Lee, and H. Yong Chu, “Multilayered graphene anode for blue phosphorescent organic light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(13), 133304 (2012).
[Crossref]

Yoo, J. M.

S. J. Kim, J. Ryu, S. Son, J. M. Yoo, J. B. Park, D. Won, E.-K. Lee, S.-P. Cho, S. Bae, S. Cho, and B. H. Hong, “Simultaneous etching and doping by cu-stabilizing agent for high-performance graphene-based transparent electrodes,” Chem. Mater. 26(7), 2332–2336 (2014).
[Crossref]

Yoo, S.

H. Cho, E. Kim, J. Moon, C. W. Joo, E. Kim, S. K. Park, J. Lee, B.-G. Yu, J.-I. Lee, S. Yoo, and N. S. Cho, “Organic wrinkles embedded in high-index medium as planar internal scattering structures for organic light-emitting diodes,” Org. Electron. 46, 139–144 (2017).
[Crossref]

S.-H. Jeong, S.-H. Woo, T.-H. Han, M.-H. Park, H. Cho, Y.-H. Kim, H. Cho, H. Kim, S. Yoo, and T.-W. Lee, “Universal high work function flexible anode for simplified ITO-free organic and pervokite light emitting diodes with ultra-high efficiency,” NPG Asia Mater. 9(7), e411 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Lee, T.-H. Han, M.-H. Park, D. Y. Jung, J. Seo, H.-K. Seo, H. Cho, E. Kim, J. Chung, S.-Y. Choi, T.-S. Kim, T.-W. Lee, and S. Yoo, “Synergetic electrode architecture for efficient graphene-based flexible organic light-emitting diodes,” Nat. Commun. 7, 11791 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Youn, W.

W. H. Koo, W. Youn, P. Zhu, X. H. Li, N. Tansu, and F. So, “Light extraction of organic light emitting diodes by defective hexagonal-close-Packed array,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 22(16), 3454–3459 (2012).
[Crossref]

Yu, B.-G.

H. Cho, E. Kim, J. Moon, C. W. Joo, E. Kim, S. K. Park, J. Lee, B.-G. Yu, J.-I. Lee, S. Yoo, and N. S. Cho, “Organic wrinkles embedded in high-index medium as planar internal scattering structures for organic light-emitting diodes,” Org. Electron. 46, 139–144 (2017).
[Crossref]

Yu, T.

Z. H. Ni, H. M. Wang, J. Kasim, H. M. Fan, T. Yu, Y. H. Wu, Y. P. Feng, and Z. X. Shen, “Graphene thickness determination using reflection and contrast spectroscopy,” Nano Lett. 7(9), 2758–2763 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yu, Y.

Yu, Z.

Z. Yu, Q. Zhang, L. Li, Q. Chen, X. Niu, J. Liu, and Q. Pei, “Highly flexible silver nanowire electrodes for shape-memory polymer light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 23(5), 664–668 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, D.

D. Zhang, K. Ryu, X. Liu, E. Polikarpov, J. Ly, M. E. Tompson, and C. Zhou, “Transparent, conductive, and flexible carbon nanotube films and their application in organic light-emitting diodes,” Nano Lett. 6(9), 1880–1886 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, Q.

Z. Yu, Q. Zhang, L. Li, Q. Chen, X. Niu, J. Liu, and Q. Pei, “Highly flexible silver nanowire electrodes for shape-memory polymer light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 23(5), 664–668 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, Y.

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Dubonos, I. V. Grigorieva, and A. A. Firsov, “Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films,” Science 306(5696), 666–669 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhao, Y.

K. S. Kim, Y. Zhao, H. Jang, S. Y. Lee, J. M. Kim, K. S. Kim, J.-H. Ahn, P. Kim, J.-Y. Choi, and B. J. Hong, “Large-scale pattern growth of graphene films for stretchable transparent electrodes,” Nature 457, 706–710 (2009).

Zheng, Y.

S. Bae, H. Kim, Y. Lee, X. Xu, J.-S. Park, Y. Zheng, J. Balakrishnan, T. Lei, H. R. Kim, Y. I. Song, Y.-J. Kim, K. S. Kim, B. Özyilmaz, J.-H. Ahn, B. H. Hong, and S. Iijima, “Roll-to-roll production of 30-inch graphene films for transparent electrodes,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(8), 574–578 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhou, C.

D. Zhang, K. Ryu, X. Liu, E. Polikarpov, J. Ly, M. E. Tompson, and C. Zhou, “Transparent, conductive, and flexible carbon nanotube films and their application in organic light-emitting diodes,” Nano Lett. 6(9), 1880–1886 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhu, P.

W. H. Koo, W. Youn, P. Zhu, X. H. Li, N. Tansu, and F. So, “Light extraction of organic light emitting diodes by defective hexagonal-close-Packed array,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 22(16), 3454–3459 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zhu, S.-E.

Y. Lee, S. Bae, H. Jang, S. Jang, S.-E. Zhu, S. H. Sim, Y. I. Song, B. H. Hong, and J.-H. Ahn, “Wafer-scale synthesis and transfer of graphene films,” Nano Lett. 10(2), 490–493 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces (1)

K. Lee, J.-W. Shin, J.-H. Park, J. Lee, C. W. Joo, J.-I. Lee, D.-H. Cho, J. T. Lim, M.-C. Oh, B.-K. Ju, and J. Moon, “A Light Scattering layer for internal light extraction of organic light-emitting diodes based on silver nanowires,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 8(27), 17409–17415 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

ACS Nano (2)

J. Ryu, Y. Kim, D. Won, N. Kim, J. S. Park, E.-K. Lee, D. Cho, S.-P. Cho, S. J. Kim, G. H. Ryu, H.-A.-S. Shin, Z. Lee, B. H. Hong, and S. Cho, “Fast synthesis of high-performance graphene films by hydrogen-free rapid thermal chemical vapor deposition,” ACS Nano 8(1), 950–956 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wu, M. Agrawal, H. A. Becerril, Z. Bao, Z. Liu, Y. Chen, and P. Peumans, “Organic light-emitting diodes on solution-processed Graphene Transparent Electrodes,” ACS Nano 4(1), 43–48 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Adv. Funct. Mater. (1)

W. H. Koo, W. Youn, P. Zhu, X. H. Li, N. Tansu, and F. So, “Light extraction of organic light emitting diodes by defective hexagonal-close-Packed array,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 22(16), 3454–3459 (2012).
[Crossref]

Adv. Mater. (3)

A. R. Rathmell, S. M. Bergin, Y.-L. Hua, Z.-Y. Li, and B. J. Wiley, “The growth mechanism of copper nanowires and their properties in flexible, transparent conducting films,” Adv. Mater. 22(32), 3558–3563 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Yu, Q. Zhang, L. Li, Q. Chen, X. Niu, J. Liu, and Q. Pei, “Highly flexible silver nanowire electrodes for shape-memory polymer light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 23(5), 664–668 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Kim, H.-J. Kwon, S. Lee, H. Shim, Y. Chun, W. Choi, J. Kwack, D. Han, M. Song, S. Kim, S. Mohammadi, I. Kee, and S. Y. Lee, “Low-power flexible organic light-emitting diode display device,” Adv. Mater. 23(31), 3511–3516 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (5)

J. Lewis, S. Grego, B. Chalamala, E. Vick, and D. Temple, “Highly flexible transparent electrodes for organic light-emitting diode-based displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 18(16), 3450–3452 (2004).
[Crossref]

H. K. Hwang, H. Kyw Choi, J. Moon, T. Yong Kim, J.-W. Shin, C. Woong Joo, J.-H. Han, D.-H. Cho, J. Woo Huh, S.-Y. Choi, J.-I. Lee, and H. Yong Chu, “Multilayered graphene anode for blue phosphorescent organic light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(13), 133304 (2012).
[Crossref]

R. Meerheim, M. Furno, S. Hofmann, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “Quantification of energy loss mechanisms in organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(25), 253305 (2010).
[Crossref]

K. Ishihara, M. Fujita, I. Matsubara, T. Asano, S. Noda, H. Ohata, A. Hirasawa, H. Nakada, and N. Shimoji, “Organic light-emitting diodes with photonic crystals on glass substrate fabricated by nanoimprint lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(11), 111114 (2007).
[Crossref]

P. Blake, E. W. Hill, A. H. Castro Neto, K. S. Novoselov, D. Jiang, R. Yang, T. J. Booth, and A. K. Geim, “Making graphene visible,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(6), 063124 (2007).
[Crossref]

Chem. Mater. (1)

S. J. Kim, J. Ryu, S. Son, J. M. Yoo, J. B. Park, D. Won, E.-K. Lee, S.-P. Cho, S. Bae, S. Cho, and B. H. Hong, “Simultaneous etching and doping by cu-stabilizing agent for high-performance graphene-based transparent electrodes,” Chem. Mater. 26(7), 2332–2336 (2014).
[Crossref]

Diamond Related Materials (1)

J. Moon, J.-W. Shin, H. Cho, J.-H. Han, N. S. Cho, T. J. Lim, S. K. Park, H. K. Choi, S.-Y. Choi, J.-H. Kim, M.-J. Maeng, J. Seo, Y. Park, and J.-I. Lee, “Technical issues in graphene anode organic light emitting diodes,” Diamond Related Materials 57, 68–73 (2015).
[Crossref]

Electronics (Basel) (1)

T.-B. Song and N. Li, “Emerging transparent conducting electrodes for organic light emitting diodes,” Electronics (Basel) 3(1), 190–204 (2014).
[Crossref]

ETRI J. (1)

D. H. Cho, J. W. Shin, J. Moon, S. K. Park, C. W. Joo, N. S. Cho, J. W. Huh, J. H. Han, J. Lee, H. Y. Chu, and J. I. Lee, “Surface control of planarization layer on embossed glass for light extraction in OLEDs,” ETRI J. 36(5), 847–855 (2014).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (2)

H. Cho, J.-W. Shin, N. S. Cho, J. Moon, J.-H. Han, Y.-D. Kwon, S. Cho, and J.-I. Lee, “Optical effects of graphene electrodes on organic light-emitting diodes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 22(1), 2000306 (2016).
[Crossref]

N. K. Patel, S. Cinà, and J. H. Burroughes, “High-Efficiency organic light-emitting diodes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(2), 346–361 (2002).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

S. Nowy, C. Krummacher, J. Frischeisen, N. A. Reinke, and W. Brütting, “Light extraction and optical loss mechanisms in organic light-emitting diodes: Influence of the emitter quantum efficiency,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(12), 123109 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Inf. Disp. (1)

C. W. Joo, J. Moon, J.-H. Han, J. W. Huh, J.-W. Shin, D.-H. Cho, J. Lee, N. S. Cho, and J.-I. Lee, “White transparent organic light-emitting diodes with high top and bottom color rendering indices,” J. Inf. Disp. 16(3), 161–168 (2015).
[Crossref]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (2)

C. W. Joo, J. Moon, J. Hwang, J.-H. Han, J.-W. Shin, D.-H. Cho, J. W. Huh, H. Y. Chu, and J.-I. Lee, “Improved device performances in phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes by microcavity Effects,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 51(9S2), 09HM01 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Fujita, K. Ishihara, T. Ueno, T. Asano, S. Noda, H. Ohata, T. Tsuji, H. Nakada, and N. Shimoji, “Optical and electrical characteristics of organic light-emitting diodes with two-dimensional photonic crystals in organic/electrode layers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(6A), 3669–3677 (2005).
[Crossref]

Mater. Sci. Eng. R Rep. (1)

T.-H. Han, H. Kim, S.-J. Kwon, and T.-W. Lee, “Graphene-based flexible electronic devices,” Mater. Sci. Eng. R Rep. 118, 1–43 (2017).
[Crossref]

Nano Lett. (3)

D. Zhang, K. Ryu, X. Liu, E. Polikarpov, J. Ly, M. E. Tompson, and C. Zhou, “Transparent, conductive, and flexible carbon nanotube films and their application in organic light-emitting diodes,” Nano Lett. 6(9), 1880–1886 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Lee, S. Bae, H. Jang, S. Jang, S.-E. Zhu, S. H. Sim, Y. I. Song, B. H. Hong, and J.-H. Ahn, “Wafer-scale synthesis and transfer of graphene films,” Nano Lett. 10(2), 490–493 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. H. Ni, H. M. Wang, J. Kasim, H. M. Fan, T. Yu, Y. H. Wu, Y. P. Feng, and Z. X. Shen, “Graphene thickness determination using reflection and contrast spectroscopy,” Nano Lett. 7(9), 2758–2763 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nanotechnology (1)

S. M. Song and B. J. Cho, “Investigation of interaction between graphene and dielectrics,” Nanotechnology 21(33), 335706 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Commun. (1)

J. Lee, T.-H. Han, M.-H. Park, D. Y. Jung, J. Seo, H.-K. Seo, H. Cho, E. Kim, J. Chung, S.-Y. Choi, T.-S. Kim, T.-W. Lee, and S. Yoo, “Synergetic electrode architecture for efficient graphene-based flexible organic light-emitting diodes,” Nat. Commun. 7, 11791 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Mater. (1)

Z. Chen, W. Ren, L. Gao, B. Liu, S. Pei, and H.-M. Cheng, “Three-dimensional flexible and conductive interconnected graphene networks grown by chemical vapour deposition,” Nat. Mater. 10(6), 424–428 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Nanotechnol. (1)

S. Bae, H. Kim, Y. Lee, X. Xu, J.-S. Park, Y. Zheng, J. Balakrishnan, T. Lei, H. R. Kim, Y. I. Song, Y.-J. Kim, K. S. Kim, B. Özyilmaz, J.-H. Ahn, B. H. Hong, and S. Iijima, “Roll-to-roll production of 30-inch graphene films for transparent electrodes,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(8), 574–578 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (2)

T. H. Han, Y. Lee, M.-R. Choi, S.-H. Woo, S.-H. Bae, B. H. Hong, J.-H. Ahn, and T.-W. Lee, “Extremely efficient flexible organic light-emitting diodes with modified graphene anode,” Nat. Photonics 6(2), 105–110 (2012).
[Crossref]

F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 4(9), 611–622 (2010).
[Crossref]

Nature (2)

K. S. Kim, Y. Zhao, H. Jang, S. Y. Lee, J. M. Kim, K. S. Kim, J.-H. Ahn, P. Kim, J.-Y. Choi, and B. J. Hong, “Large-scale pattern growth of graphene films for stretchable transparent electrodes,” Nature 457, 706–710 (2009).

K. S. Novoselov, V. I. Fal’ko, L. Colombo, P. R. Gellert, M. G. Schwab, and K. Kim, “Roadmap for graphene,” Nature 490(7419), 192–200 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

NPG Asia Mater. (1)

S.-H. Jeong, S.-H. Woo, T.-H. Han, M.-H. Park, H. Cho, Y.-H. Kim, H. Cho, H. Kim, S. Yoo, and T.-W. Lee, “Universal high work function flexible anode for simplified ITO-free organic and pervokite light emitting diodes with ultra-high efficiency,” NPG Asia Mater. 9(7), e411 (2017).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Opt. Mater. (1)

K. Saxena, V. K. Jain, and D. S. Mehta, “A review on the light extraction techniques in organic electroluminescent devices,” Opt. Mater. 32(1), 221–233 (2009).
[Crossref]

Org. Electron. (2)

H. Cho, E. Kim, J. Moon, C. W. Joo, E. Kim, S. K. Park, J. Lee, B.-G. Yu, J.-I. Lee, S. Yoo, and N. S. Cho, “Organic wrinkles embedded in high-index medium as planar internal scattering structures for organic light-emitting diodes,” Org. Electron. 46, 139–144 (2017).
[Crossref]

J.-W. Shin, D.-H. Cho, J. Moon, C. W. Joo, S. K. Park, J. Lee, J.-H. Han, N. S. Cho, J. Hwang, J. W. Huh, H. Y. Chu, and J.-I. Lee, “Random nano-structures as light extraction functionals for organic light-emitting diode applications,” Org. Electron. 15(1), 196–202 (2014).
[Crossref]

Science (3)

R. R. Nair, P. Blake, A. N. Grigorenko, K. S. Novoselov, T. J. Booth, T. Stauber, N. M. R. Peres, and A. K. Geim, “Fine structure constant defines visual transparency of graphene,” Science 320, 1308 (2008).

A. K. Geim, “Graphene: Status and prospects,” Science 324, 1530–1534 (2009).

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Dubonos, I. V. Grigorieva, and A. A. Firsov, “Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films,” Science 306(5696), 666–669 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Small (1)

C. Lee and J. J. Kim, “Enhanced light out-coupling of OLEDs with low haze by inserting randomly dispersed nanopillar arrays formed by lateral phase separation of polymer blends,” Small 9(22), 3858–3863 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic of graphene OLED with the scattering layer (a), scanning electron microscope image of the nanostructure (b) and (c), and AFM measurement of the nanostructure (d) without and with the planarization layer.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 The simulation results; (a) the effect of the microcavity and optical absorption of graphene electrodes on OLEDs and (b) The absorption effect of graphene electrodes on OLEDs with and without the scattering layer. (Inset ; the experiment results of the reflectance of the glass substrate and the scattering layer on the glass)
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 The sheet resistances (a) and the direct transmittances (b) of the graphene films on the glass and on the scattering layer with the variation of the graphene layer as one, two, and four.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 J-V and EL spectra characteristics of graphene-OLEDs; planar devices ((a) and (c)) and scattering devices ((b) and (d)) the scattering layer. The number of the graphene layer was varied for one, two, and four and EL spectra of those OLEDs were measured at the normal direction.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 The EQE (a) and LE (b) of graphene-OLEDs as planar devices and scattering devices. the number of graphene layers was varied as one, two, and four
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 The angular-dependent luminance (L) of the graphene-OLEDs as planar devices (a) and scattering devices (b) with the variation of the graphene layer as one, two, and four.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 The Comparison of (a) EQE and LE, (b) 1931 Commission internationale del’éclairage (CIE) color coordinates and (c), (d) EL spectra of SLG-OLEDs and IZO-OLEDs with and without the scattering layer. EL spectra of those OLEDs were measured at the normal direction.

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