Abstract

We experimentally demonstrate and characterize a wide optical stopband filter with transmission peaks constituted by two parallel rows of an anti-symmetric one-dimensional (1D) photonic crystal with defect in a multimode waveguide. The working principle is based on mode coupling for the wavelengths that meet the phase matching condition as the fundamental mode is coupled to a higher-order mode and then filtered out with linear tapers as they are reflected back. The defect in the photonic crystal works as a Fabry-Perot like cavity that allows for localized states in the stopband to quantify the effects of the design parameters and we show a Fabry-Perot filter that extends through the 200 nm stopband. A compact 7 μm2 device is demonstrated with standard fabrication techniques in Silicon-on-Insulator (SOI), and compared to Fabry-Perot filters in single mode waveguides, we obtain a larger bandwidth and lower back reflections. Applications include refractive index sensors, optical communications and on-chip spectroscopy.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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2017 (1)

2016 (5)

2015 (3)

2014 (2)

2013 (1)

2012 (1)

2011 (1)

2010 (3)

2009 (3)

2008 (1)

Y. B. Cho, B. K. Yang, J. H. Lee, J. B. Yoon, and S. Y. Shin, “Silicon photonic wire filter using asymmetric sidewall long-period waveguide grating in a two-mode waveguide,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20(7), 520–522 (2008).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

M. Gnan, G. Bellanca, H. M. H. Chong, P. Bassi, and R. M. De La Rue, “Modelling of Photonic Wire Bragg Gratings,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 38(1–3), 133–148 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (2)

J. Castro, D. F. Geraghty, S. Honkanen, C. M. Greiner, D. Iazikov, and T. W. Mossberg, “Demonstration of mode conversion using anti-symmetric waveguide Bragg gratings,” Opt. Express 13(11), 4180–4184 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. De Rossi, V. Ortiz, M. Calligaro, L. Lanco, S. Ducci, V. Berger, and I. Sagnes, “Measuring propagation loss in a multimode semiconductor waveguide,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(7), 073105 (2005).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

J. S. Foresi, P. R. Villeneuve, J. Ferrera, E. R. Thoen, G. Steinmeyer, S. Fan, J. D. Joannopoulos, L. C. Kimerling, H. I. Smith, and E. P. Ippen, “Photonic-bandgap microcavities in optical waveguides,” Nature 390(6656), 143–145 (1997).
[Crossref]

Adibi, A.

Ayache, M.

Ayotte, N.

Y. Painchaud, M. Poulin, C. Latrasse, N. Ayotte, M.-J. Picard, and M. Morin, “Bragg grating notch filters in silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” in Advanced Photonics Congress (2012), vol. 21, p. BW2E.3.
[Crossref]

Bassi, P.

M. Gnan, G. Bellanca, H. M. H. Chong, P. Bassi, and R. M. De La Rue, “Modelling of Photonic Wire Bragg Gratings,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 38(1–3), 133–148 (2006).
[Crossref]

Bellanca, G.

M. Gnan, G. Bellanca, H. M. H. Chong, P. Bassi, and R. M. De La Rue, “Modelling of Photonic Wire Bragg Gratings,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 38(1–3), 133–148 (2006).
[Crossref]

Berger, V.

A. De Rossi, V. Ortiz, M. Calligaro, L. Lanco, S. Ducci, V. Berger, and I. Sagnes, “Measuring propagation loss in a multimode semiconductor waveguide,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(7), 073105 (2005).
[Crossref]

Bojko, R.

Bruns, J.

Burr, J. R.

Calligaro, M.

A. De Rossi, V. Ortiz, M. Calligaro, L. Lanco, S. Ducci, V. Berger, and I. Sagnes, “Measuring propagation loss in a multimode semiconductor waveguide,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(7), 073105 (2005).
[Crossref]

Castro, J.

Caverley, M.

Chamanzar, M.

Chen, D.-R.

J. Zhu, S. K. Ozdemir, Y.-F. Xiao, L. Li, L. He, D.-R. Chen, and L. Yang, “On-chip single nanoparticle detection and sizing by mode splitting in an ultrahigh-Q microresonator,” Nat. Photonics 4(1), 46–49 (2010).
[Crossref]

Chen, Z.

Cho, Y. B.

Y. B. Cho, B. K. Yang, J. H. Lee, J. B. Yoon, and S. Y. Shin, “Silicon photonic wire filter using asymmetric sidewall long-period waveguide grating in a two-mode waveguide,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20(7), 520–522 (2008).
[Crossref]

Chong, H. M. H.

M. Gnan, G. Bellanca, H. M. H. Chong, P. Bassi, and R. M. De La Rue, “Modelling of Photonic Wire Bragg Gratings,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 38(1–3), 133–148 (2006).
[Crossref]

Chrostowski, L.

Cunningham, J. E.

Dai, T.

De La Rue, R. M.

M. Gnan, G. Bellanca, H. M. H. Chong, P. Bassi, and R. M. De La Rue, “Modelling of Photonic Wire Bragg Gratings,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 38(1–3), 133–148 (2006).
[Crossref]

De Rossi, A.

A. De Rossi, V. Ortiz, M. Calligaro, L. Lanco, S. Ducci, V. Berger, and I. Sagnes, “Measuring propagation loss in a multimode semiconductor waveguide,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(7), 073105 (2005).
[Crossref]

Ducci, S.

A. De Rossi, V. Ortiz, M. Calligaro, L. Lanco, S. Ducci, V. Berger, and I. Sagnes, “Measuring propagation loss in a multimode semiconductor waveguide,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(7), 073105 (2005).
[Crossref]

Eftekhar, A. A.

Fainman, Y.

Fan, S.

J. S. Foresi, P. R. Villeneuve, J. Ferrera, E. R. Thoen, G. Steinmeyer, S. Fan, J. D. Joannopoulos, L. C. Kimerling, H. I. Smith, and E. P. Ippen, “Photonic-bandgap microcavities in optical waveguides,” Nature 390(6656), 143–145 (1997).
[Crossref]

Ferrera, J.

J. S. Foresi, P. R. Villeneuve, J. Ferrera, E. R. Thoen, G. Steinmeyer, S. Fan, J. D. Joannopoulos, L. C. Kimerling, H. I. Smith, and E. P. Ippen, “Photonic-bandgap microcavities in optical waveguides,” Nature 390(6656), 143–145 (1997).
[Crossref]

Flueckiger, J.

Foresi, J. S.

J. S. Foresi, P. R. Villeneuve, J. Ferrera, E. R. Thoen, G. Steinmeyer, S. Fan, J. D. Joannopoulos, L. C. Kimerling, H. I. Smith, and E. P. Ippen, “Photonic-bandgap microcavities in optical waveguides,” Nature 390(6656), 143–145 (1997).
[Crossref]

Gajda, A.

Geraghty, D. F.

Giuntoni, I.

Gnan, M.

M. Gnan, G. Bellanca, H. M. H. Chong, P. Bassi, and R. M. De La Rue, “Modelling of Photonic Wire Bragg Gratings,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 38(1–3), 133–148 (2006).
[Crossref]

Greiner, C. M.

Grieco, A.

Grist, S.

Gu, Z.

Han, Z.

A. M. Prabhu, A. Tsay, Z. Han, and V. Van, “Ultracompact SOI microring add-drop filter with wide bandwidth and wide FSR,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 21(10), 651–653 (2009).
[Crossref]

He, L.

J. Zhu, S. K. Ozdemir, Y.-F. Xiao, L. Li, L. He, D.-R. Chen, and L. Yang, “On-chip single nanoparticle detection and sizing by mode splitting in an ultrahigh-Q microresonator,” Nat. Photonics 4(1), 46–49 (2010).
[Crossref]

Honkanen, S.

Huang, Q.

Huang, Y.

Iazikov, D.

Ikeda, K.

Ippen, E. P.

J. S. Foresi, P. R. Villeneuve, J. Ferrera, E. R. Thoen, G. Steinmeyer, S. Fan, J. D. Joannopoulos, L. C. Kimerling, H. I. Smith, and E. P. Ippen, “Photonic-bandgap microcavities in optical waveguides,” Nature 390(6656), 143–145 (1997).
[Crossref]

Jaeger, N. A. F.

Ji, Y.

D. Yang, C. Wang, and Y. Ji, “Silicon On-Chip One-Dimensional Photonic Crystal Nanobeam Bandgap Filter Integrated with Nanobeam Cavity for Accurate Refractive Index Sensing,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(2), 1–8 (2016).

Jiang, J.

Jiang, X.

Jie, K.

Joannopoulos, J. D.

J. S. Foresi, P. R. Villeneuve, J. Ferrera, E. R. Thoen, G. Steinmeyer, S. Fan, J. D. Joannopoulos, L. C. Kimerling, H. I. Smith, and E. P. Ippen, “Photonic-bandgap microcavities in optical waveguides,” Nature 390(6656), 143–145 (1997).
[Crossref]

Kee, J. S.

Khajavikhan, M.

Kimerling, L. C.

J. S. Foresi, P. R. Villeneuve, J. Ferrera, E. R. Thoen, G. Steinmeyer, S. Fan, J. D. Joannopoulos, L. C. Kimerling, H. I. Smith, and E. P. Ippen, “Photonic-bandgap microcavities in optical waveguides,” Nature 390(6656), 143–145 (1997).
[Crossref]

Krause, M.

Krishnamoorthy, A. V.

Lanco, L.

A. De Rossi, V. Ortiz, M. Calligaro, L. Lanco, S. Ducci, V. Berger, and I. Sagnes, “Measuring propagation loss in a multimode semiconductor waveguide,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(7), 073105 (2005).
[Crossref]

Latrasse, C.

Y. Painchaud, M. Poulin, C. Latrasse, N. Ayotte, M.-J. Picard, and M. Morin, “Bragg grating notch filters in silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” in Advanced Photonics Congress (2012), vol. 21, p. BW2E.3.
[Crossref]

Y. Painchaud, M. Poulin, C. Latrasse, and M.-J. Picard, “Bragg grating based Fabry-Perot filters for characterizing silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” in The 9th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP) (IEEE, 2012), pp. 180–182.
[Crossref]

Lee, J. H.

Y. B. Cho, B. K. Yang, J. H. Lee, J. B. Yoon, and S. Y. Shin, “Silicon photonic wire filter using asymmetric sidewall long-period waveguide grating in a two-mode waveguide,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20(7), 520–522 (2008).
[Crossref]

Li, G.

Li, L.

J. Zhu, S. K. Ozdemir, Y.-F. Xiao, L. Li, L. He, D.-R. Chen, and L. Yang, “On-chip single nanoparticle detection and sizing by mode splitting in an ultrahigh-Q microresonator,” Nat. Photonics 4(1), 46–49 (2010).
[Crossref]

Li, Q.

Liu, A.

Liu, Q.

Lu, Z.

Luo, Y.

Mekis, A.

Mendez-Astudillo, M.

M. Mendez-Astudillo, H. Takahisa, H. Okayama, and H. Nakajima, “Optical refractive index biosensor using evanescently coupled lateral Bragg gratings on silicon-on-insulator,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 55(8S3), 08RE09 (2016).
[Crossref]

Momeni, B.

Morin, M.

Y. Painchaud, M. Poulin, C. Latrasse, N. Ayotte, M.-J. Picard, and M. Morin, “Bragg grating notch filters in silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” in Advanced Photonics Congress (2012), vol. 21, p. BW2E.3.
[Crossref]

Mossberg, T. W.

Nakajima, H.

M. Mendez-Astudillo, H. Takahisa, H. Okayama, and H. Nakajima, “Optical refractive index biosensor using evanescently coupled lateral Bragg gratings on silicon-on-insulator,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 55(8S3), 08RE09 (2016).
[Crossref]

Nezhad, M. P.

Okayama, H.

H. Okayama, Y. Onawa, D. Shimura, H. Yaegashi, and H. Sasaki, “Silicon wire waveguide TE0/TE1 mode conversion Bragg grating with resonant cavity section,” Opt. Express 25(14), 16672–16680 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Mendez-Astudillo, H. Takahisa, H. Okayama, and H. Nakajima, “Optical refractive index biosensor using evanescently coupled lateral Bragg gratings on silicon-on-insulator,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 55(8S3), 08RE09 (2016).
[Crossref]

Onawa, Y.

Ortiz, V.

A. De Rossi, V. Ortiz, M. Calligaro, L. Lanco, S. Ducci, V. Berger, and I. Sagnes, “Measuring propagation loss in a multimode semiconductor waveguide,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(7), 073105 (2005).
[Crossref]

Ozdemir, S. K.

J. Zhu, S. K. Ozdemir, Y.-F. Xiao, L. Li, L. He, D.-R. Chen, and L. Yang, “On-chip single nanoparticle detection and sizing by mode splitting in an ultrahigh-Q microresonator,” Nat. Photonics 4(1), 46–49 (2010).
[Crossref]

Painchaud, Y.

Y. Painchaud, M. Poulin, C. Latrasse, and M.-J. Picard, “Bragg grating based Fabry-Perot filters for characterizing silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” in The 9th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP) (IEEE, 2012), pp. 180–182.
[Crossref]

Y. Painchaud, M. Poulin, C. Latrasse, N. Ayotte, M.-J. Picard, and M. Morin, “Bragg grating notch filters in silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” in Advanced Photonics Congress (2012), vol. 21, p. BW2E.3.
[Crossref]

Park, M. K.

Petermann, K.

Picard, M.-J.

Y. Painchaud, M. Poulin, C. Latrasse, N. Ayotte, M.-J. Picard, and M. Morin, “Bragg grating notch filters in silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” in Advanced Photonics Congress (2012), vol. 21, p. BW2E.3.
[Crossref]

Y. Painchaud, M. Poulin, C. Latrasse, and M.-J. Picard, “Bragg grating based Fabry-Perot filters for characterizing silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” in The 9th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP) (IEEE, 2012), pp. 180–182.
[Crossref]

Pinguet, T.

Pond, J.

Poulin, M.

Y. Painchaud, M. Poulin, C. Latrasse, and M.-J. Picard, “Bragg grating based Fabry-Perot filters for characterizing silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” in The 9th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP) (IEEE, 2012), pp. 180–182.
[Crossref]

Y. Painchaud, M. Poulin, C. Latrasse, N. Ayotte, M.-J. Picard, and M. Morin, “Bragg grating notch filters in silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” in Advanced Photonics Congress (2012), vol. 21, p. BW2E.3.
[Crossref]

Prabhu, A. M.

A. M. Prabhu, A. Tsay, Z. Han, and V. Van, “Ultracompact SOI microring add-drop filter with wide bandwidth and wide FSR,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 21(10), 651–653 (2009).
[Crossref]

Qiu, H.

Raj, K.

Reano, R. M.

Reid, A.

Sagnes, I.

A. De Rossi, V. Ortiz, M. Calligaro, L. Lanco, S. Ducci, V. Berger, and I. Sagnes, “Measuring propagation loss in a multimode semiconductor waveguide,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(7), 073105 (2005).
[Crossref]

Sasaki, H.

Shimura, D.

Shin, S. Y.

Y. B. Cho, B. K. Yang, J. H. Lee, J. B. Yoon, and S. Y. Shin, “Silicon photonic wire filter using asymmetric sidewall long-period waveguide grating in a two-mode waveguide,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20(7), 520–522 (2008).
[Crossref]

Shubin, I.

Slutsky, B.

Smith, H. I.

J. S. Foresi, P. R. Villeneuve, J. Ferrera, E. R. Thoen, G. Steinmeyer, S. Fan, J. D. Joannopoulos, L. C. Kimerling, H. I. Smith, and E. P. Ippen, “Photonic-bandgap microcavities in optical waveguides,” Nature 390(6656), 143–145 (1997).
[Crossref]

Soltani, M.

Steingrüber, R.

Steinmeyer, G.

J. S. Foresi, P. R. Villeneuve, J. Ferrera, E. R. Thoen, G. Steinmeyer, S. Fan, J. D. Joannopoulos, L. C. Kimerling, H. I. Smith, and E. P. Ippen, “Photonic-bandgap microcavities in optical waveguides,” Nature 390(6656), 143–145 (1997).
[Crossref]

Takahisa, H.

M. Mendez-Astudillo, H. Takahisa, H. Okayama, and H. Nakajima, “Optical refractive index biosensor using evanescently coupled lateral Bragg gratings on silicon-on-insulator,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 55(8S3), 08RE09 (2016).
[Crossref]

Tan, D. T. H.

Thacker, H.

Thoen, E. R.

J. S. Foresi, P. R. Villeneuve, J. Ferrera, E. R. Thoen, G. Steinmeyer, S. Fan, J. D. Joannopoulos, L. C. Kimerling, H. I. Smith, and E. P. Ippen, “Photonic-bandgap microcavities in optical waveguides,” Nature 390(6656), 143–145 (1997).
[Crossref]

Tsay, A.

A. M. Prabhu, A. Tsay, Z. Han, and V. Van, “Ultracompact SOI microring add-drop filter with wide bandwidth and wide FSR,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 21(10), 651–653 (2009).
[Crossref]

Van, V.

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D. Yang, C. Wang, and Y. Ji, “Silicon On-Chip One-Dimensional Photonic Crystal Nanobeam Bandgap Filter Integrated with Nanobeam Cavity for Accurate Refractive Index Sensing,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(2), 1–8 (2016).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Schematic of the proposed device and SEM image with Λ = 330 nm, d = 140 nm, L = Λ, W = 1000 nm, Δx = 500 nm, Δz = Λ/2, (b) mode profiles of the two existing modes in the unpatterned U and patterned P regions, (c) effective refractive index for the two TE modes considering dispersion.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Input field for the 2D simulation, (b) refractive indices, (c) transmission spectra for a 2D and a 3D FDTD simulation with Λ = 330 nm, d = 140 nm, W = 1000 nm, N = 10. The optical stopband of 205 nm is seen with center at around 1550 nm.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Transmission of the device with a defect L = Λ, Λ = 330 nm, d = 140 nm, N = 10, W = 1000 nm and (b) mode profiles for the reflected and transmitted waves using the 2D model. Corresponding wavelengths are indicated by dotted lines in (a).
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Experimental characterization of a 2D PhC with defect Δz = 1Λ for different (a) Period, d = 140 nm, W = 1000 nm, N = 10 (b) hole diameter Λ = 330 nm, N = 10, W = 1000 nm (c) waveguide width, Λ = 320 nm, d = 140 nm, N = 10 (d) number of periods, Λ = 320 nm, d = 140 nm, W = 1000 nm (e) row displacement Λ = 330 nm, d = 140 nm, N = 10 and (f) cladding refractive index.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Experimental results for photonic crystals with long defects with Λ = 330 nm, d = 140 nm, W = 1000 nm (a) Transmission spectrum for the whole stopband, (b) close up on the transmission for the 100Λ device, (c) measured group index

Equations (2)

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Δf= f B Λ 2π 4κ ( n g0 + n g1 ) ,
Δ λ e = λ 2 2L ( N 1 N 0 +λ d N 0 dλ λ d N 1 dλ ) 1 ,

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