Abstract

We demonstrated a method to obtain super flexible LEDs, based on high quality pyramid arrays grown directly on sapphire substrates. Laser lift-off (LLO) and dual transfer processes were applied to transfer pyramid arrays face up onto the flexible substrates, which is more efficient than back light emission. Ag grid and Ag nanowires were employed as the electrical connection. No significant performance reduction appeared until the device reached a curvature radius of 0.5 mm. The performance reduction results from cracks appearing at the junction of the Ag grid, which can be improved by replacing the Ag grid with a strip electrode.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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2017 (1)

Z. Tian, Y. Li, X. Su, L. Feng, S. Wang, M. Zhang, W. Ding, Q. Li, Y. Zhang, M. Guo, F. Yun, and S. W. R. Lee, “Growth, characterization, and application of well-defined separated GaN-based pyramid array on micropatterned sapphire substrate,” Appl. Phys. Express 10(9), 092101 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (4)

G. Tabares, S. Mhedhbi, M. Lesecq, B. Damilano, J. Brault, S. Chenot, A. Ebongue, P. Altuntas, N. Defrance, V. Hoel, and Y. Cordier, “Impact of the Bending on the Electroluminescence of Flexible InGaN/GaN Light-Emitting Diodes,” IEEE Photonics J. 28(15), 1661–1664 (2016).

K. Chung, H. Yoo, J. K. Hyun, H. Oh, Y. Tchoe, K. Lee, H. Baek, M. Kim, and G.-C. Yi, “Flexible GaN Light-Emitting Diodes Using GaN Microdisks Epitaxial Laterally Overgrown on Graphene Dots,” Adv. Mater. 28(35), 7688–7694 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. D. Harris, A. L. Elias, H.-J. Chung, K. D. Harris, A. L. Elias, and H.-J. Chung, “Flexible electronics under strain: a review of mechanical characterization and durability enhancement strategies,” J. Mater. Sci. 51(6), 2771–2805 (2016).

P. Tian, J. J. McKendry, E. Gu, Z. Chen, Y. Sun, G. Zhang, M. D. Dawson, and R. Liu, “Fabrication, characterization and applications of flexible vertical InGaN micro-light emitting diode arrays,” Opt. Express 24(1), 699–707 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (3)

R. H. Horng, C. H. Tien, S. H. Chuang, K. C. Liu, and D. S. Wuu, “External stress effects on the optical and electrical properties of flexible InGaN-based green light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Express 23(24), 31334–31341 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. H. Seo, J. Li, J. Lee, S. Gong, J. Lin, H. Jiang, and Z. Ma, “A simplified method of making flexible blue LEDs on a plastic substrate,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(2), 1–7 (2015).

B. Fu, Y. Cheng, Z. Si, T. Wei, X. Zeng, G. Yuan, Z. Liu, H. Lu, X. Yi, J. Li, and J. Wang, “Phosphor-free InGaN micro-pyramid white light emitting diodes with multilayer graphene electrode,” RSC Advances 5(122), 100646 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (4)

J. H. Choi, E. H. Cho, Y. S. Lee, M.-B. Shim, H. Y. Ahn, C.-W. Baik, E. H. Lee, K. Kim, T.-H. Kim, S. Kim, K.-S. Cho, J. Yoon, M. Kim, and S. Hwang, “Fully Flexible GaN Light-Emitting Diodes through Nanovoid-Mediated Transfer,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 2(3), 267–274 (2014).
[Crossref]

K. Chung, H. Beak, Y. Tchoe, H. Oh, H. Yoo, M. Kim, and G.-C. Yi, “Growth and characterizations of GaN micro-rods on graphene films for flexible light emitting diodes,” APL Mater. 2(9), 092512 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Tchoe, J. Jo, M. Kim, J. Heo, G. Yoo, C. Sone, G. C. Yi, Y. J. Park, and G.-C. Yi, “Variable-Color Light-Emitting Diodes Using GaN Microdonut arrays,” Adv. Mater. 26(19), 3019–3023 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Yang, Y. Jung, C. V. Cuervo, F. Ren, S. J. Pearton, and J. Kim, “GaN-based light-emitting diodes on graphene-coated flexible substrates,” Opt. Express 22(103), A812–A817 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (2)

J. Kang, Z. Li, H. Li, Z. Liu, X. Li, X. Yi, P. Ma, H. Zhu, and G. Wang, “Pyramid Array InGaN/GaN Core–Shell Light Emitting Diodes with Homogeneous Multilayer Graphene Electrodes,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(7), 072102 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. Langley, G. Giusti, C. Mayousse, C. Celle, D. Bellet, and J. P. Simonato, “Flexible transparent conductive materials based on silver nanowire networks: a review,” Nanotechnology 24(45), 452001 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (2)

Z. Lin, H. Yang, S. Zhou, H. Wang, X. Hong, and G. Li, “Pattern design of and epitaxial growth on patterned sapphire substrates for highly efficient GaN-based LEDs,” Cryst. Growth Des. 12(6), 2836–2841 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Chun, Y. Hwang, Y.-S. Choi, T. Jeong, J. H. Baek, H. C. Ko, and S.-J. Park, “Transfer of GaN LEDs from Sapphire to Flexible Substrates by Laser Lift-Off and Contact Printing,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(23), 2115–2119 (2012).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

J. A. Rogers, T. Someya, and Y. Huang, “Materials and mechanics for stretchable electronics,” Science 327(5973), 1603–1607 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

Z. Fan, H. Razavi, J.-W. Do, A. Moriwaki, O. Ergen, Y.-L. Chueh, P. W. Leu, J. C. Ho, T. Takahashi, L. A. Reichertz, S. Neale, K. Yu, M. Wu, J. W. Ager, and A. Javey, “Three-dimensional nanopillar-array photovoltaics on low-cost and flexible substrates,” Nat. Mater. 8(8), 648–653 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. I. Park, Y. Xiong, R. H. Kim, P. Elvikis, M. Meitl, D. H. Kim, J. Wu, J. Yoon, C.-J. Yu, Z. Liu, Y. Huang, K.-C. Hwang, P. Ferreira, X. Li, K. Choquette, and J. A. Rogers, “Printed assemblies of inorganic light-emitting diodes for deformable and semitransparent displays,” Science 325(5943), 977–981 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

M. Funato, K. Hayashi, M. Ueda, Y. Kawakami, Y. Narukawa, and T. Mukai, “Monolithic polychromatic light-emitting diodes based on InGaN microfacet quantum wells toward tailor-made solid-state lighting,” Appl. Phys. Express 1(1), 011106 (2008).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

D. S. Wuu, W. K. Wang, W. C. Shih, R. H. Horng, C. E. Lee, W. Y. Lin, and J. S. Fang, “Enhanced output power of near-ultraviolet InGaN-GaN LEDs grown on patterned sapphire substrates,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17(2), 288–290 (2005).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

H. Aziz, Z. D. Popovic, N. X. Hu, A. M. Hor, and G. Xu, “Degradation mechanism of small molecule-based organic light-emitting devices,” Science 283(5409), 1900–1902 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ager, J. W.

Z. Fan, H. Razavi, J.-W. Do, A. Moriwaki, O. Ergen, Y.-L. Chueh, P. W. Leu, J. C. Ho, T. Takahashi, L. A. Reichertz, S. Neale, K. Yu, M. Wu, J. W. Ager, and A. Javey, “Three-dimensional nanopillar-array photovoltaics on low-cost and flexible substrates,” Nat. Mater. 8(8), 648–653 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ahn, H. Y.

J. H. Choi, E. H. Cho, Y. S. Lee, M.-B. Shim, H. Y. Ahn, C.-W. Baik, E. H. Lee, K. Kim, T.-H. Kim, S. Kim, K.-S. Cho, J. Yoon, M. Kim, and S. Hwang, “Fully Flexible GaN Light-Emitting Diodes through Nanovoid-Mediated Transfer,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 2(3), 267–274 (2014).
[Crossref]

Altuntas, P.

G. Tabares, S. Mhedhbi, M. Lesecq, B. Damilano, J. Brault, S. Chenot, A. Ebongue, P. Altuntas, N. Defrance, V. Hoel, and Y. Cordier, “Impact of the Bending on the Electroluminescence of Flexible InGaN/GaN Light-Emitting Diodes,” IEEE Photonics J. 28(15), 1661–1664 (2016).

Aziz, H.

H. Aziz, Z. D. Popovic, N. X. Hu, A. M. Hor, and G. Xu, “Degradation mechanism of small molecule-based organic light-emitting devices,” Science 283(5409), 1900–1902 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baek, H.

K. Chung, H. Yoo, J. K. Hyun, H. Oh, Y. Tchoe, K. Lee, H. Baek, M. Kim, and G.-C. Yi, “Flexible GaN Light-Emitting Diodes Using GaN Microdisks Epitaxial Laterally Overgrown on Graphene Dots,” Adv. Mater. 28(35), 7688–7694 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baek, J. H.

J. Chun, Y. Hwang, Y.-S. Choi, T. Jeong, J. H. Baek, H. C. Ko, and S.-J. Park, “Transfer of GaN LEDs from Sapphire to Flexible Substrates by Laser Lift-Off and Contact Printing,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(23), 2115–2119 (2012).
[Crossref]

Baik, C.-W.

J. H. Choi, E. H. Cho, Y. S. Lee, M.-B. Shim, H. Y. Ahn, C.-W. Baik, E. H. Lee, K. Kim, T.-H. Kim, S. Kim, K.-S. Cho, J. Yoon, M. Kim, and S. Hwang, “Fully Flexible GaN Light-Emitting Diodes through Nanovoid-Mediated Transfer,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 2(3), 267–274 (2014).
[Crossref]

Beak, H.

K. Chung, H. Beak, Y. Tchoe, H. Oh, H. Yoo, M. Kim, and G.-C. Yi, “Growth and characterizations of GaN micro-rods on graphene films for flexible light emitting diodes,” APL Mater. 2(9), 092512 (2014).
[Crossref]

Bellet, D.

D. Langley, G. Giusti, C. Mayousse, C. Celle, D. Bellet, and J. P. Simonato, “Flexible transparent conductive materials based on silver nanowire networks: a review,” Nanotechnology 24(45), 452001 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brault, J.

G. Tabares, S. Mhedhbi, M. Lesecq, B. Damilano, J. Brault, S. Chenot, A. Ebongue, P. Altuntas, N. Defrance, V. Hoel, and Y. Cordier, “Impact of the Bending on the Electroluminescence of Flexible InGaN/GaN Light-Emitting Diodes,” IEEE Photonics J. 28(15), 1661–1664 (2016).

Celle, C.

D. Langley, G. Giusti, C. Mayousse, C. Celle, D. Bellet, and J. P. Simonato, “Flexible transparent conductive materials based on silver nanowire networks: a review,” Nanotechnology 24(45), 452001 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, Z.

Cheng, Y.

B. Fu, Y. Cheng, Z. Si, T. Wei, X. Zeng, G. Yuan, Z. Liu, H. Lu, X. Yi, J. Li, and J. Wang, “Phosphor-free InGaN micro-pyramid white light emitting diodes with multilayer graphene electrode,” RSC Advances 5(122), 100646 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chenot, S.

G. Tabares, S. Mhedhbi, M. Lesecq, B. Damilano, J. Brault, S. Chenot, A. Ebongue, P. Altuntas, N. Defrance, V. Hoel, and Y. Cordier, “Impact of the Bending on the Electroluminescence of Flexible InGaN/GaN Light-Emitting Diodes,” IEEE Photonics J. 28(15), 1661–1664 (2016).

Cho, E. H.

J. H. Choi, E. H. Cho, Y. S. Lee, M.-B. Shim, H. Y. Ahn, C.-W. Baik, E. H. Lee, K. Kim, T.-H. Kim, S. Kim, K.-S. Cho, J. Yoon, M. Kim, and S. Hwang, “Fully Flexible GaN Light-Emitting Diodes through Nanovoid-Mediated Transfer,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 2(3), 267–274 (2014).
[Crossref]

Cho, K.-S.

J. H. Choi, E. H. Cho, Y. S. Lee, M.-B. Shim, H. Y. Ahn, C.-W. Baik, E. H. Lee, K. Kim, T.-H. Kim, S. Kim, K.-S. Cho, J. Yoon, M. Kim, and S. Hwang, “Fully Flexible GaN Light-Emitting Diodes through Nanovoid-Mediated Transfer,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 2(3), 267–274 (2014).
[Crossref]

Choi, J. H.

J. H. Choi, E. H. Cho, Y. S. Lee, M.-B. Shim, H. Y. Ahn, C.-W. Baik, E. H. Lee, K. Kim, T.-H. Kim, S. Kim, K.-S. Cho, J. Yoon, M. Kim, and S. Hwang, “Fully Flexible GaN Light-Emitting Diodes through Nanovoid-Mediated Transfer,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 2(3), 267–274 (2014).
[Crossref]

Choi, Y.-S.

J. Chun, Y. Hwang, Y.-S. Choi, T. Jeong, J. H. Baek, H. C. Ko, and S.-J. Park, “Transfer of GaN LEDs from Sapphire to Flexible Substrates by Laser Lift-Off and Contact Printing,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(23), 2115–2119 (2012).
[Crossref]

Choquette, K.

S. I. Park, Y. Xiong, R. H. Kim, P. Elvikis, M. Meitl, D. H. Kim, J. Wu, J. Yoon, C.-J. Yu, Z. Liu, Y. Huang, K.-C. Hwang, P. Ferreira, X. Li, K. Choquette, and J. A. Rogers, “Printed assemblies of inorganic light-emitting diodes for deformable and semitransparent displays,” Science 325(5943), 977–981 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chuang, S. H.

Chueh, Y.-L.

Z. Fan, H. Razavi, J.-W. Do, A. Moriwaki, O. Ergen, Y.-L. Chueh, P. W. Leu, J. C. Ho, T. Takahashi, L. A. Reichertz, S. Neale, K. Yu, M. Wu, J. W. Ager, and A. Javey, “Three-dimensional nanopillar-array photovoltaics on low-cost and flexible substrates,” Nat. Mater. 8(8), 648–653 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chun, J.

J. Chun, Y. Hwang, Y.-S. Choi, T. Jeong, J. H. Baek, H. C. Ko, and S.-J. Park, “Transfer of GaN LEDs from Sapphire to Flexible Substrates by Laser Lift-Off and Contact Printing,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(23), 2115–2119 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chung, H.-J.

K. D. Harris, A. L. Elias, H.-J. Chung, K. D. Harris, A. L. Elias, and H.-J. Chung, “Flexible electronics under strain: a review of mechanical characterization and durability enhancement strategies,” J. Mater. Sci. 51(6), 2771–2805 (2016).

K. D. Harris, A. L. Elias, H.-J. Chung, K. D. Harris, A. L. Elias, and H.-J. Chung, “Flexible electronics under strain: a review of mechanical characterization and durability enhancement strategies,” J. Mater. Sci. 51(6), 2771–2805 (2016).

Chung, K.

K. Chung, H. Yoo, J. K. Hyun, H. Oh, Y. Tchoe, K. Lee, H. Baek, M. Kim, and G.-C. Yi, “Flexible GaN Light-Emitting Diodes Using GaN Microdisks Epitaxial Laterally Overgrown on Graphene Dots,” Adv. Mater. 28(35), 7688–7694 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Chung, H. Beak, Y. Tchoe, H. Oh, H. Yoo, M. Kim, and G.-C. Yi, “Growth and characterizations of GaN micro-rods on graphene films for flexible light emitting diodes,” APL Mater. 2(9), 092512 (2014).
[Crossref]

Cordier, Y.

G. Tabares, S. Mhedhbi, M. Lesecq, B. Damilano, J. Brault, S. Chenot, A. Ebongue, P. Altuntas, N. Defrance, V. Hoel, and Y. Cordier, “Impact of the Bending on the Electroluminescence of Flexible InGaN/GaN Light-Emitting Diodes,” IEEE Photonics J. 28(15), 1661–1664 (2016).

Cuervo, C. V.

Damilano, B.

G. Tabares, S. Mhedhbi, M. Lesecq, B. Damilano, J. Brault, S. Chenot, A. Ebongue, P. Altuntas, N. Defrance, V. Hoel, and Y. Cordier, “Impact of the Bending on the Electroluminescence of Flexible InGaN/GaN Light-Emitting Diodes,” IEEE Photonics J. 28(15), 1661–1664 (2016).

Dawson, M. D.

Defrance, N.

G. Tabares, S. Mhedhbi, M. Lesecq, B. Damilano, J. Brault, S. Chenot, A. Ebongue, P. Altuntas, N. Defrance, V. Hoel, and Y. Cordier, “Impact of the Bending on the Electroluminescence of Flexible InGaN/GaN Light-Emitting Diodes,” IEEE Photonics J. 28(15), 1661–1664 (2016).

Ding, W.

Z. Tian, Y. Li, X. Su, L. Feng, S. Wang, M. Zhang, W. Ding, Q. Li, Y. Zhang, M. Guo, F. Yun, and S. W. R. Lee, “Growth, characterization, and application of well-defined separated GaN-based pyramid array on micropatterned sapphire substrate,” Appl. Phys. Express 10(9), 092101 (2017).
[Crossref]

Do, J.-W.

Z. Fan, H. Razavi, J.-W. Do, A. Moriwaki, O. Ergen, Y.-L. Chueh, P. W. Leu, J. C. Ho, T. Takahashi, L. A. Reichertz, S. Neale, K. Yu, M. Wu, J. W. Ager, and A. Javey, “Three-dimensional nanopillar-array photovoltaics on low-cost and flexible substrates,” Nat. Mater. 8(8), 648–653 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ebongue, A.

G. Tabares, S. Mhedhbi, M. Lesecq, B. Damilano, J. Brault, S. Chenot, A. Ebongue, P. Altuntas, N. Defrance, V. Hoel, and Y. Cordier, “Impact of the Bending on the Electroluminescence of Flexible InGaN/GaN Light-Emitting Diodes,” IEEE Photonics J. 28(15), 1661–1664 (2016).

Elias, A. L.

K. D. Harris, A. L. Elias, H.-J. Chung, K. D. Harris, A. L. Elias, and H.-J. Chung, “Flexible electronics under strain: a review of mechanical characterization and durability enhancement strategies,” J. Mater. Sci. 51(6), 2771–2805 (2016).

K. D. Harris, A. L. Elias, H.-J. Chung, K. D. Harris, A. L. Elias, and H.-J. Chung, “Flexible electronics under strain: a review of mechanical characterization and durability enhancement strategies,” J. Mater. Sci. 51(6), 2771–2805 (2016).

Elvikis, P.

S. I. Park, Y. Xiong, R. H. Kim, P. Elvikis, M. Meitl, D. H. Kim, J. Wu, J. Yoon, C.-J. Yu, Z. Liu, Y. Huang, K.-C. Hwang, P. Ferreira, X. Li, K. Choquette, and J. A. Rogers, “Printed assemblies of inorganic light-emitting diodes for deformable and semitransparent displays,” Science 325(5943), 977–981 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ergen, O.

Z. Fan, H. Razavi, J.-W. Do, A. Moriwaki, O. Ergen, Y.-L. Chueh, P. W. Leu, J. C. Ho, T. Takahashi, L. A. Reichertz, S. Neale, K. Yu, M. Wu, J. W. Ager, and A. Javey, “Three-dimensional nanopillar-array photovoltaics on low-cost and flexible substrates,” Nat. Mater. 8(8), 648–653 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fan, Z.

Z. Fan, H. Razavi, J.-W. Do, A. Moriwaki, O. Ergen, Y.-L. Chueh, P. W. Leu, J. C. Ho, T. Takahashi, L. A. Reichertz, S. Neale, K. Yu, M. Wu, J. W. Ager, and A. Javey, “Three-dimensional nanopillar-array photovoltaics on low-cost and flexible substrates,” Nat. Mater. 8(8), 648–653 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fang, J. S.

D. S. Wuu, W. K. Wang, W. C. Shih, R. H. Horng, C. E. Lee, W. Y. Lin, and J. S. Fang, “Enhanced output power of near-ultraviolet InGaN-GaN LEDs grown on patterned sapphire substrates,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17(2), 288–290 (2005).
[Crossref]

Feng, L.

Z. Tian, Y. Li, X. Su, L. Feng, S. Wang, M. Zhang, W. Ding, Q. Li, Y. Zhang, M. Guo, F. Yun, and S. W. R. Lee, “Growth, characterization, and application of well-defined separated GaN-based pyramid array on micropatterned sapphire substrate,” Appl. Phys. Express 10(9), 092101 (2017).
[Crossref]

Ferreira, P.

S. I. Park, Y. Xiong, R. H. Kim, P. Elvikis, M. Meitl, D. H. Kim, J. Wu, J. Yoon, C.-J. Yu, Z. Liu, Y. Huang, K.-C. Hwang, P. Ferreira, X. Li, K. Choquette, and J. A. Rogers, “Printed assemblies of inorganic light-emitting diodes for deformable and semitransparent displays,” Science 325(5943), 977–981 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fu, B.

B. Fu, Y. Cheng, Z. Si, T. Wei, X. Zeng, G. Yuan, Z. Liu, H. Lu, X. Yi, J. Li, and J. Wang, “Phosphor-free InGaN micro-pyramid white light emitting diodes with multilayer graphene electrode,” RSC Advances 5(122), 100646 (2015).
[Crossref]

Funato, M.

M. Funato, K. Hayashi, M. Ueda, Y. Kawakami, Y. Narukawa, and T. Mukai, “Monolithic polychromatic light-emitting diodes based on InGaN microfacet quantum wells toward tailor-made solid-state lighting,” Appl. Phys. Express 1(1), 011106 (2008).
[Crossref]

Giusti, G.

D. Langley, G. Giusti, C. Mayousse, C. Celle, D. Bellet, and J. P. Simonato, “Flexible transparent conductive materials based on silver nanowire networks: a review,” Nanotechnology 24(45), 452001 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gong, S.

J. H. Seo, J. Li, J. Lee, S. Gong, J. Lin, H. Jiang, and Z. Ma, “A simplified method of making flexible blue LEDs on a plastic substrate,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(2), 1–7 (2015).

Gu, E.

Guo, M.

Z. Tian, Y. Li, X. Su, L. Feng, S. Wang, M. Zhang, W. Ding, Q. Li, Y. Zhang, M. Guo, F. Yun, and S. W. R. Lee, “Growth, characterization, and application of well-defined separated GaN-based pyramid array on micropatterned sapphire substrate,” Appl. Phys. Express 10(9), 092101 (2017).
[Crossref]

Harris, K. D.

K. D. Harris, A. L. Elias, H.-J. Chung, K. D. Harris, A. L. Elias, and H.-J. Chung, “Flexible electronics under strain: a review of mechanical characterization and durability enhancement strategies,” J. Mater. Sci. 51(6), 2771–2805 (2016).

K. D. Harris, A. L. Elias, H.-J. Chung, K. D. Harris, A. L. Elias, and H.-J. Chung, “Flexible electronics under strain: a review of mechanical characterization and durability enhancement strategies,” J. Mater. Sci. 51(6), 2771–2805 (2016).

Hayashi, K.

M. Funato, K. Hayashi, M. Ueda, Y. Kawakami, Y. Narukawa, and T. Mukai, “Monolithic polychromatic light-emitting diodes based on InGaN microfacet quantum wells toward tailor-made solid-state lighting,” Appl. Phys. Express 1(1), 011106 (2008).
[Crossref]

Heo, J.

Y. Tchoe, J. Jo, M. Kim, J. Heo, G. Yoo, C. Sone, G. C. Yi, Y. J. Park, and G.-C. Yi, “Variable-Color Light-Emitting Diodes Using GaN Microdonut arrays,” Adv. Mater. 26(19), 3019–3023 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ho, J. C.

Z. Fan, H. Razavi, J.-W. Do, A. Moriwaki, O. Ergen, Y.-L. Chueh, P. W. Leu, J. C. Ho, T. Takahashi, L. A. Reichertz, S. Neale, K. Yu, M. Wu, J. W. Ager, and A. Javey, “Three-dimensional nanopillar-array photovoltaics on low-cost and flexible substrates,” Nat. Mater. 8(8), 648–653 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hoel, V.

G. Tabares, S. Mhedhbi, M. Lesecq, B. Damilano, J. Brault, S. Chenot, A. Ebongue, P. Altuntas, N. Defrance, V. Hoel, and Y. Cordier, “Impact of the Bending on the Electroluminescence of Flexible InGaN/GaN Light-Emitting Diodes,” IEEE Photonics J. 28(15), 1661–1664 (2016).

Hong, X.

Z. Lin, H. Yang, S. Zhou, H. Wang, X. Hong, and G. Li, “Pattern design of and epitaxial growth on patterned sapphire substrates for highly efficient GaN-based LEDs,” Cryst. Growth Des. 12(6), 2836–2841 (2012).
[Crossref]

Hor, A. M.

H. Aziz, Z. D. Popovic, N. X. Hu, A. M. Hor, and G. Xu, “Degradation mechanism of small molecule-based organic light-emitting devices,” Science 283(5409), 1900–1902 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Horng, R. H.

R. H. Horng, C. H. Tien, S. H. Chuang, K. C. Liu, and D. S. Wuu, “External stress effects on the optical and electrical properties of flexible InGaN-based green light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Express 23(24), 31334–31341 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. S. Wuu, W. K. Wang, W. C. Shih, R. H. Horng, C. E. Lee, W. Y. Lin, and J. S. Fang, “Enhanced output power of near-ultraviolet InGaN-GaN LEDs grown on patterned sapphire substrates,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17(2), 288–290 (2005).
[Crossref]

Hu, N. X.

H. Aziz, Z. D. Popovic, N. X. Hu, A. M. Hor, and G. Xu, “Degradation mechanism of small molecule-based organic light-emitting devices,” Science 283(5409), 1900–1902 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huang, Y.

J. A. Rogers, T. Someya, and Y. Huang, “Materials and mechanics for stretchable electronics,” Science 327(5973), 1603–1607 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. I. Park, Y. Xiong, R. H. Kim, P. Elvikis, M. Meitl, D. H. Kim, J. Wu, J. Yoon, C.-J. Yu, Z. Liu, Y. Huang, K.-C. Hwang, P. Ferreira, X. Li, K. Choquette, and J. A. Rogers, “Printed assemblies of inorganic light-emitting diodes for deformable and semitransparent displays,” Science 325(5943), 977–981 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hwang, K.-C.

S. I. Park, Y. Xiong, R. H. Kim, P. Elvikis, M. Meitl, D. H. Kim, J. Wu, J. Yoon, C.-J. Yu, Z. Liu, Y. Huang, K.-C. Hwang, P. Ferreira, X. Li, K. Choquette, and J. A. Rogers, “Printed assemblies of inorganic light-emitting diodes for deformable and semitransparent displays,” Science 325(5943), 977–981 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hwang, S.

J. H. Choi, E. H. Cho, Y. S. Lee, M.-B. Shim, H. Y. Ahn, C.-W. Baik, E. H. Lee, K. Kim, T.-H. Kim, S. Kim, K.-S. Cho, J. Yoon, M. Kim, and S. Hwang, “Fully Flexible GaN Light-Emitting Diodes through Nanovoid-Mediated Transfer,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 2(3), 267–274 (2014).
[Crossref]

Hwang, Y.

J. Chun, Y. Hwang, Y.-S. Choi, T. Jeong, J. H. Baek, H. C. Ko, and S.-J. Park, “Transfer of GaN LEDs from Sapphire to Flexible Substrates by Laser Lift-Off and Contact Printing,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(23), 2115–2119 (2012).
[Crossref]

Hyun, J. K.

K. Chung, H. Yoo, J. K. Hyun, H. Oh, Y. Tchoe, K. Lee, H. Baek, M. Kim, and G.-C. Yi, “Flexible GaN Light-Emitting Diodes Using GaN Microdisks Epitaxial Laterally Overgrown on Graphene Dots,” Adv. Mater. 28(35), 7688–7694 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Javey, A.

Z. Fan, H. Razavi, J.-W. Do, A. Moriwaki, O. Ergen, Y.-L. Chueh, P. W. Leu, J. C. Ho, T. Takahashi, L. A. Reichertz, S. Neale, K. Yu, M. Wu, J. W. Ager, and A. Javey, “Three-dimensional nanopillar-array photovoltaics on low-cost and flexible substrates,” Nat. Mater. 8(8), 648–653 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jeong, T.

J. Chun, Y. Hwang, Y.-S. Choi, T. Jeong, J. H. Baek, H. C. Ko, and S.-J. Park, “Transfer of GaN LEDs from Sapphire to Flexible Substrates by Laser Lift-Off and Contact Printing,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(23), 2115–2119 (2012).
[Crossref]

Jiang, H.

J. H. Seo, J. Li, J. Lee, S. Gong, J. Lin, H. Jiang, and Z. Ma, “A simplified method of making flexible blue LEDs on a plastic substrate,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(2), 1–7 (2015).

Jo, J.

Y. Tchoe, J. Jo, M. Kim, J. Heo, G. Yoo, C. Sone, G. C. Yi, Y. J. Park, and G.-C. Yi, “Variable-Color Light-Emitting Diodes Using GaN Microdonut arrays,” Adv. Mater. 26(19), 3019–3023 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jung, Y.

Kang, J.

J. Kang, Z. Li, H. Li, Z. Liu, X. Li, X. Yi, P. Ma, H. Zhu, and G. Wang, “Pyramid Array InGaN/GaN Core–Shell Light Emitting Diodes with Homogeneous Multilayer Graphene Electrodes,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(7), 072102 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kawakami, Y.

M. Funato, K. Hayashi, M. Ueda, Y. Kawakami, Y. Narukawa, and T. Mukai, “Monolithic polychromatic light-emitting diodes based on InGaN microfacet quantum wells toward tailor-made solid-state lighting,” Appl. Phys. Express 1(1), 011106 (2008).
[Crossref]

Kim, D. H.

S. I. Park, Y. Xiong, R. H. Kim, P. Elvikis, M. Meitl, D. H. Kim, J. Wu, J. Yoon, C.-J. Yu, Z. Liu, Y. Huang, K.-C. Hwang, P. Ferreira, X. Li, K. Choquette, and J. A. Rogers, “Printed assemblies of inorganic light-emitting diodes for deformable and semitransparent displays,” Science 325(5943), 977–981 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, J.

Kim, K.

J. H. Choi, E. H. Cho, Y. S. Lee, M.-B. Shim, H. Y. Ahn, C.-W. Baik, E. H. Lee, K. Kim, T.-H. Kim, S. Kim, K.-S. Cho, J. Yoon, M. Kim, and S. Hwang, “Fully Flexible GaN Light-Emitting Diodes through Nanovoid-Mediated Transfer,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 2(3), 267–274 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kim, M.

K. Chung, H. Yoo, J. K. Hyun, H. Oh, Y. Tchoe, K. Lee, H. Baek, M. Kim, and G.-C. Yi, “Flexible GaN Light-Emitting Diodes Using GaN Microdisks Epitaxial Laterally Overgrown on Graphene Dots,” Adv. Mater. 28(35), 7688–7694 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. H. Choi, E. H. Cho, Y. S. Lee, M.-B. Shim, H. Y. Ahn, C.-W. Baik, E. H. Lee, K. Kim, T.-H. Kim, S. Kim, K.-S. Cho, J. Yoon, M. Kim, and S. Hwang, “Fully Flexible GaN Light-Emitting Diodes through Nanovoid-Mediated Transfer,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 2(3), 267–274 (2014).
[Crossref]

K. Chung, H. Beak, Y. Tchoe, H. Oh, H. Yoo, M. Kim, and G.-C. Yi, “Growth and characterizations of GaN micro-rods on graphene films for flexible light emitting diodes,” APL Mater. 2(9), 092512 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Tchoe, J. Jo, M. Kim, J. Heo, G. Yoo, C. Sone, G. C. Yi, Y. J. Park, and G.-C. Yi, “Variable-Color Light-Emitting Diodes Using GaN Microdonut arrays,” Adv. Mater. 26(19), 3019–3023 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, R. H.

S. I. Park, Y. Xiong, R. H. Kim, P. Elvikis, M. Meitl, D. H. Kim, J. Wu, J. Yoon, C.-J. Yu, Z. Liu, Y. Huang, K.-C. Hwang, P. Ferreira, X. Li, K. Choquette, and J. A. Rogers, “Printed assemblies of inorganic light-emitting diodes for deformable and semitransparent displays,” Science 325(5943), 977–981 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, S.

J. H. Choi, E. H. Cho, Y. S. Lee, M.-B. Shim, H. Y. Ahn, C.-W. Baik, E. H. Lee, K. Kim, T.-H. Kim, S. Kim, K.-S. Cho, J. Yoon, M. Kim, and S. Hwang, “Fully Flexible GaN Light-Emitting Diodes through Nanovoid-Mediated Transfer,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 2(3), 267–274 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kim, T.-H.

J. H. Choi, E. H. Cho, Y. S. Lee, M.-B. Shim, H. Y. Ahn, C.-W. Baik, E. H. Lee, K. Kim, T.-H. Kim, S. Kim, K.-S. Cho, J. Yoon, M. Kim, and S. Hwang, “Fully Flexible GaN Light-Emitting Diodes through Nanovoid-Mediated Transfer,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 2(3), 267–274 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ko, H. C.

J. Chun, Y. Hwang, Y.-S. Choi, T. Jeong, J. H. Baek, H. C. Ko, and S.-J. Park, “Transfer of GaN LEDs from Sapphire to Flexible Substrates by Laser Lift-Off and Contact Printing,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(23), 2115–2119 (2012).
[Crossref]

Langley, D.

D. Langley, G. Giusti, C. Mayousse, C. Celle, D. Bellet, and J. P. Simonato, “Flexible transparent conductive materials based on silver nanowire networks: a review,” Nanotechnology 24(45), 452001 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, C. E.

D. S. Wuu, W. K. Wang, W. C. Shih, R. H. Horng, C. E. Lee, W. Y. Lin, and J. S. Fang, “Enhanced output power of near-ultraviolet InGaN-GaN LEDs grown on patterned sapphire substrates,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17(2), 288–290 (2005).
[Crossref]

Lee, E. H.

J. H. Choi, E. H. Cho, Y. S. Lee, M.-B. Shim, H. Y. Ahn, C.-W. Baik, E. H. Lee, K. Kim, T.-H. Kim, S. Kim, K.-S. Cho, J. Yoon, M. Kim, and S. Hwang, “Fully Flexible GaN Light-Emitting Diodes through Nanovoid-Mediated Transfer,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 2(3), 267–274 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lee, J.

J. H. Seo, J. Li, J. Lee, S. Gong, J. Lin, H. Jiang, and Z. Ma, “A simplified method of making flexible blue LEDs on a plastic substrate,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(2), 1–7 (2015).

Lee, K.

K. Chung, H. Yoo, J. K. Hyun, H. Oh, Y. Tchoe, K. Lee, H. Baek, M. Kim, and G.-C. Yi, “Flexible GaN Light-Emitting Diodes Using GaN Microdisks Epitaxial Laterally Overgrown on Graphene Dots,” Adv. Mater. 28(35), 7688–7694 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, S. W. R.

Z. Tian, Y. Li, X. Su, L. Feng, S. Wang, M. Zhang, W. Ding, Q. Li, Y. Zhang, M. Guo, F. Yun, and S. W. R. Lee, “Growth, characterization, and application of well-defined separated GaN-based pyramid array on micropatterned sapphire substrate,” Appl. Phys. Express 10(9), 092101 (2017).
[Crossref]

Lee, Y. S.

J. H. Choi, E. H. Cho, Y. S. Lee, M.-B. Shim, H. Y. Ahn, C.-W. Baik, E. H. Lee, K. Kim, T.-H. Kim, S. Kim, K.-S. Cho, J. Yoon, M. Kim, and S. Hwang, “Fully Flexible GaN Light-Emitting Diodes through Nanovoid-Mediated Transfer,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 2(3), 267–274 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lesecq, M.

G. Tabares, S. Mhedhbi, M. Lesecq, B. Damilano, J. Brault, S. Chenot, A. Ebongue, P. Altuntas, N. Defrance, V. Hoel, and Y. Cordier, “Impact of the Bending on the Electroluminescence of Flexible InGaN/GaN Light-Emitting Diodes,” IEEE Photonics J. 28(15), 1661–1664 (2016).

Leu, P. W.

Z. Fan, H. Razavi, J.-W. Do, A. Moriwaki, O. Ergen, Y.-L. Chueh, P. W. Leu, J. C. Ho, T. Takahashi, L. A. Reichertz, S. Neale, K. Yu, M. Wu, J. W. Ager, and A. Javey, “Three-dimensional nanopillar-array photovoltaics on low-cost and flexible substrates,” Nat. Mater. 8(8), 648–653 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, G.

Z. Lin, H. Yang, S. Zhou, H. Wang, X. Hong, and G. Li, “Pattern design of and epitaxial growth on patterned sapphire substrates for highly efficient GaN-based LEDs,” Cryst. Growth Des. 12(6), 2836–2841 (2012).
[Crossref]

Li, H.

J. Kang, Z. Li, H. Li, Z. Liu, X. Li, X. Yi, P. Ma, H. Zhu, and G. Wang, “Pyramid Array InGaN/GaN Core–Shell Light Emitting Diodes with Homogeneous Multilayer Graphene Electrodes,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(7), 072102 (2013).
[Crossref]

Li, J.

B. Fu, Y. Cheng, Z. Si, T. Wei, X. Zeng, G. Yuan, Z. Liu, H. Lu, X. Yi, J. Li, and J. Wang, “Phosphor-free InGaN micro-pyramid white light emitting diodes with multilayer graphene electrode,” RSC Advances 5(122), 100646 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. H. Seo, J. Li, J. Lee, S. Gong, J. Lin, H. Jiang, and Z. Ma, “A simplified method of making flexible blue LEDs on a plastic substrate,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(2), 1–7 (2015).

Li, Q.

Z. Tian, Y. Li, X. Su, L. Feng, S. Wang, M. Zhang, W. Ding, Q. Li, Y. Zhang, M. Guo, F. Yun, and S. W. R. Lee, “Growth, characterization, and application of well-defined separated GaN-based pyramid array on micropatterned sapphire substrate,” Appl. Phys. Express 10(9), 092101 (2017).
[Crossref]

Li, X.

J. Kang, Z. Li, H. Li, Z. Liu, X. Li, X. Yi, P. Ma, H. Zhu, and G. Wang, “Pyramid Array InGaN/GaN Core–Shell Light Emitting Diodes with Homogeneous Multilayer Graphene Electrodes,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(7), 072102 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. I. Park, Y. Xiong, R. H. Kim, P. Elvikis, M. Meitl, D. H. Kim, J. Wu, J. Yoon, C.-J. Yu, Z. Liu, Y. Huang, K.-C. Hwang, P. Ferreira, X. Li, K. Choquette, and J. A. Rogers, “Printed assemblies of inorganic light-emitting diodes for deformable and semitransparent displays,” Science 325(5943), 977–981 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, Y.

Z. Tian, Y. Li, X. Su, L. Feng, S. Wang, M. Zhang, W. Ding, Q. Li, Y. Zhang, M. Guo, F. Yun, and S. W. R. Lee, “Growth, characterization, and application of well-defined separated GaN-based pyramid array on micropatterned sapphire substrate,” Appl. Phys. Express 10(9), 092101 (2017).
[Crossref]

Li, Z.

J. Kang, Z. Li, H. Li, Z. Liu, X. Li, X. Yi, P. Ma, H. Zhu, and G. Wang, “Pyramid Array InGaN/GaN Core–Shell Light Emitting Diodes with Homogeneous Multilayer Graphene Electrodes,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(7), 072102 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lin, J.

J. H. Seo, J. Li, J. Lee, S. Gong, J. Lin, H. Jiang, and Z. Ma, “A simplified method of making flexible blue LEDs on a plastic substrate,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(2), 1–7 (2015).

Lin, W. Y.

D. S. Wuu, W. K. Wang, W. C. Shih, R. H. Horng, C. E. Lee, W. Y. Lin, and J. S. Fang, “Enhanced output power of near-ultraviolet InGaN-GaN LEDs grown on patterned sapphire substrates,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17(2), 288–290 (2005).
[Crossref]

Lin, Z.

Z. Lin, H. Yang, S. Zhou, H. Wang, X. Hong, and G. Li, “Pattern design of and epitaxial growth on patterned sapphire substrates for highly efficient GaN-based LEDs,” Cryst. Growth Des. 12(6), 2836–2841 (2012).
[Crossref]

Liu, K. C.

Liu, R.

Liu, Z.

B. Fu, Y. Cheng, Z. Si, T. Wei, X. Zeng, G. Yuan, Z. Liu, H. Lu, X. Yi, J. Li, and J. Wang, “Phosphor-free InGaN micro-pyramid white light emitting diodes with multilayer graphene electrode,” RSC Advances 5(122), 100646 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Kang, Z. Li, H. Li, Z. Liu, X. Li, X. Yi, P. Ma, H. Zhu, and G. Wang, “Pyramid Array InGaN/GaN Core–Shell Light Emitting Diodes with Homogeneous Multilayer Graphene Electrodes,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(7), 072102 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. I. Park, Y. Xiong, R. H. Kim, P. Elvikis, M. Meitl, D. H. Kim, J. Wu, J. Yoon, C.-J. Yu, Z. Liu, Y. Huang, K.-C. Hwang, P. Ferreira, X. Li, K. Choquette, and J. A. Rogers, “Printed assemblies of inorganic light-emitting diodes for deformable and semitransparent displays,” Science 325(5943), 977–981 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lu, H.

B. Fu, Y. Cheng, Z. Si, T. Wei, X. Zeng, G. Yuan, Z. Liu, H. Lu, X. Yi, J. Li, and J. Wang, “Phosphor-free InGaN micro-pyramid white light emitting diodes with multilayer graphene electrode,” RSC Advances 5(122), 100646 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ma, P.

J. Kang, Z. Li, H. Li, Z. Liu, X. Li, X. Yi, P. Ma, H. Zhu, and G. Wang, “Pyramid Array InGaN/GaN Core–Shell Light Emitting Diodes with Homogeneous Multilayer Graphene Electrodes,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(7), 072102 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ma, Z.

J. H. Seo, J. Li, J. Lee, S. Gong, J. Lin, H. Jiang, and Z. Ma, “A simplified method of making flexible blue LEDs on a plastic substrate,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(2), 1–7 (2015).

Mayousse, C.

D. Langley, G. Giusti, C. Mayousse, C. Celle, D. Bellet, and J. P. Simonato, “Flexible transparent conductive materials based on silver nanowire networks: a review,” Nanotechnology 24(45), 452001 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

McKendry, J. J.

Meitl, M.

S. I. Park, Y. Xiong, R. H. Kim, P. Elvikis, M. Meitl, D. H. Kim, J. Wu, J. Yoon, C.-J. Yu, Z. Liu, Y. Huang, K.-C. Hwang, P. Ferreira, X. Li, K. Choquette, and J. A. Rogers, “Printed assemblies of inorganic light-emitting diodes for deformable and semitransparent displays,” Science 325(5943), 977–981 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mhedhbi, S.

G. Tabares, S. Mhedhbi, M. Lesecq, B. Damilano, J. Brault, S. Chenot, A. Ebongue, P. Altuntas, N. Defrance, V. Hoel, and Y. Cordier, “Impact of the Bending on the Electroluminescence of Flexible InGaN/GaN Light-Emitting Diodes,” IEEE Photonics J. 28(15), 1661–1664 (2016).

Moriwaki, A.

Z. Fan, H. Razavi, J.-W. Do, A. Moriwaki, O. Ergen, Y.-L. Chueh, P. W. Leu, J. C. Ho, T. Takahashi, L. A. Reichertz, S. Neale, K. Yu, M. Wu, J. W. Ager, and A. Javey, “Three-dimensional nanopillar-array photovoltaics on low-cost and flexible substrates,” Nat. Mater. 8(8), 648–653 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mukai, T.

M. Funato, K. Hayashi, M. Ueda, Y. Kawakami, Y. Narukawa, and T. Mukai, “Monolithic polychromatic light-emitting diodes based on InGaN microfacet quantum wells toward tailor-made solid-state lighting,” Appl. Phys. Express 1(1), 011106 (2008).
[Crossref]

Narukawa, Y.

M. Funato, K. Hayashi, M. Ueda, Y. Kawakami, Y. Narukawa, and T. Mukai, “Monolithic polychromatic light-emitting diodes based on InGaN microfacet quantum wells toward tailor-made solid-state lighting,” Appl. Phys. Express 1(1), 011106 (2008).
[Crossref]

Neale, S.

Z. Fan, H. Razavi, J.-W. Do, A. Moriwaki, O. Ergen, Y.-L. Chueh, P. W. Leu, J. C. Ho, T. Takahashi, L. A. Reichertz, S. Neale, K. Yu, M. Wu, J. W. Ager, and A. Javey, “Three-dimensional nanopillar-array photovoltaics on low-cost and flexible substrates,” Nat. Mater. 8(8), 648–653 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Oh, H.

K. Chung, H. Yoo, J. K. Hyun, H. Oh, Y. Tchoe, K. Lee, H. Baek, M. Kim, and G.-C. Yi, “Flexible GaN Light-Emitting Diodes Using GaN Microdisks Epitaxial Laterally Overgrown on Graphene Dots,” Adv. Mater. 28(35), 7688–7694 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Chung, H. Beak, Y. Tchoe, H. Oh, H. Yoo, M. Kim, and G.-C. Yi, “Growth and characterizations of GaN micro-rods on graphene films for flexible light emitting diodes,” APL Mater. 2(9), 092512 (2014).
[Crossref]

Park, S. I.

S. I. Park, Y. Xiong, R. H. Kim, P. Elvikis, M. Meitl, D. H. Kim, J. Wu, J. Yoon, C.-J. Yu, Z. Liu, Y. Huang, K.-C. Hwang, P. Ferreira, X. Li, K. Choquette, and J. A. Rogers, “Printed assemblies of inorganic light-emitting diodes for deformable and semitransparent displays,” Science 325(5943), 977–981 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Park, S.-J.

J. Chun, Y. Hwang, Y.-S. Choi, T. Jeong, J. H. Baek, H. C. Ko, and S.-J. Park, “Transfer of GaN LEDs from Sapphire to Flexible Substrates by Laser Lift-Off and Contact Printing,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(23), 2115–2119 (2012).
[Crossref]

Park, Y. J.

Y. Tchoe, J. Jo, M. Kim, J. Heo, G. Yoo, C. Sone, G. C. Yi, Y. J. Park, and G.-C. Yi, “Variable-Color Light-Emitting Diodes Using GaN Microdonut arrays,” Adv. Mater. 26(19), 3019–3023 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pearton, S. J.

Popovic, Z. D.

H. Aziz, Z. D. Popovic, N. X. Hu, A. M. Hor, and G. Xu, “Degradation mechanism of small molecule-based organic light-emitting devices,” Science 283(5409), 1900–1902 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Razavi, H.

Z. Fan, H. Razavi, J.-W. Do, A. Moriwaki, O. Ergen, Y.-L. Chueh, P. W. Leu, J. C. Ho, T. Takahashi, L. A. Reichertz, S. Neale, K. Yu, M. Wu, J. W. Ager, and A. Javey, “Three-dimensional nanopillar-array photovoltaics on low-cost and flexible substrates,” Nat. Mater. 8(8), 648–653 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Reichertz, L. A.

Z. Fan, H. Razavi, J.-W. Do, A. Moriwaki, O. Ergen, Y.-L. Chueh, P. W. Leu, J. C. Ho, T. Takahashi, L. A. Reichertz, S. Neale, K. Yu, M. Wu, J. W. Ager, and A. Javey, “Three-dimensional nanopillar-array photovoltaics on low-cost and flexible substrates,” Nat. Mater. 8(8), 648–653 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ren, F.

Rogers, J. A.

J. A. Rogers, T. Someya, and Y. Huang, “Materials and mechanics for stretchable electronics,” Science 327(5973), 1603–1607 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. I. Park, Y. Xiong, R. H. Kim, P. Elvikis, M. Meitl, D. H. Kim, J. Wu, J. Yoon, C.-J. Yu, Z. Liu, Y. Huang, K.-C. Hwang, P. Ferreira, X. Li, K. Choquette, and J. A. Rogers, “Printed assemblies of inorganic light-emitting diodes for deformable and semitransparent displays,” Science 325(5943), 977–981 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Seo, J. H.

J. H. Seo, J. Li, J. Lee, S. Gong, J. Lin, H. Jiang, and Z. Ma, “A simplified method of making flexible blue LEDs on a plastic substrate,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(2), 1–7 (2015).

Shih, W. C.

D. S. Wuu, W. K. Wang, W. C. Shih, R. H. Horng, C. E. Lee, W. Y. Lin, and J. S. Fang, “Enhanced output power of near-ultraviolet InGaN-GaN LEDs grown on patterned sapphire substrates,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17(2), 288–290 (2005).
[Crossref]

Shim, M.-B.

J. H. Choi, E. H. Cho, Y. S. Lee, M.-B. Shim, H. Y. Ahn, C.-W. Baik, E. H. Lee, K. Kim, T.-H. Kim, S. Kim, K.-S. Cho, J. Yoon, M. Kim, and S. Hwang, “Fully Flexible GaN Light-Emitting Diodes through Nanovoid-Mediated Transfer,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 2(3), 267–274 (2014).
[Crossref]

Si, Z.

B. Fu, Y. Cheng, Z. Si, T. Wei, X. Zeng, G. Yuan, Z. Liu, H. Lu, X. Yi, J. Li, and J. Wang, “Phosphor-free InGaN micro-pyramid white light emitting diodes with multilayer graphene electrode,” RSC Advances 5(122), 100646 (2015).
[Crossref]

Simonato, J. P.

D. Langley, G. Giusti, C. Mayousse, C. Celle, D. Bellet, and J. P. Simonato, “Flexible transparent conductive materials based on silver nanowire networks: a review,” Nanotechnology 24(45), 452001 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Someya, T.

J. A. Rogers, T. Someya, and Y. Huang, “Materials and mechanics for stretchable electronics,” Science 327(5973), 1603–1607 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sone, C.

Y. Tchoe, J. Jo, M. Kim, J. Heo, G. Yoo, C. Sone, G. C. Yi, Y. J. Park, and G.-C. Yi, “Variable-Color Light-Emitting Diodes Using GaN Microdonut arrays,” Adv. Mater. 26(19), 3019–3023 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Su, X.

Z. Tian, Y. Li, X. Su, L. Feng, S. Wang, M. Zhang, W. Ding, Q. Li, Y. Zhang, M. Guo, F. Yun, and S. W. R. Lee, “Growth, characterization, and application of well-defined separated GaN-based pyramid array on micropatterned sapphire substrate,” Appl. Phys. Express 10(9), 092101 (2017).
[Crossref]

Sun, Y.

Tabares, G.

G. Tabares, S. Mhedhbi, M. Lesecq, B. Damilano, J. Brault, S. Chenot, A. Ebongue, P. Altuntas, N. Defrance, V. Hoel, and Y. Cordier, “Impact of the Bending on the Electroluminescence of Flexible InGaN/GaN Light-Emitting Diodes,” IEEE Photonics J. 28(15), 1661–1664 (2016).

Takahashi, T.

Z. Fan, H. Razavi, J.-W. Do, A. Moriwaki, O. Ergen, Y.-L. Chueh, P. W. Leu, J. C. Ho, T. Takahashi, L. A. Reichertz, S. Neale, K. Yu, M. Wu, J. W. Ager, and A. Javey, “Three-dimensional nanopillar-array photovoltaics on low-cost and flexible substrates,” Nat. Mater. 8(8), 648–653 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tchoe, Y.

K. Chung, H. Yoo, J. K. Hyun, H. Oh, Y. Tchoe, K. Lee, H. Baek, M. Kim, and G.-C. Yi, “Flexible GaN Light-Emitting Diodes Using GaN Microdisks Epitaxial Laterally Overgrown on Graphene Dots,” Adv. Mater. 28(35), 7688–7694 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Chung, H. Beak, Y. Tchoe, H. Oh, H. Yoo, M. Kim, and G.-C. Yi, “Growth and characterizations of GaN micro-rods on graphene films for flexible light emitting diodes,” APL Mater. 2(9), 092512 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Tchoe, J. Jo, M. Kim, J. Heo, G. Yoo, C. Sone, G. C. Yi, Y. J. Park, and G.-C. Yi, “Variable-Color Light-Emitting Diodes Using GaN Microdonut arrays,” Adv. Mater. 26(19), 3019–3023 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tian, P.

Tian, Z.

Z. Tian, Y. Li, X. Su, L. Feng, S. Wang, M. Zhang, W. Ding, Q. Li, Y. Zhang, M. Guo, F. Yun, and S. W. R. Lee, “Growth, characterization, and application of well-defined separated GaN-based pyramid array on micropatterned sapphire substrate,” Appl. Phys. Express 10(9), 092101 (2017).
[Crossref]

Tien, C. H.

Ueda, M.

M. Funato, K. Hayashi, M. Ueda, Y. Kawakami, Y. Narukawa, and T. Mukai, “Monolithic polychromatic light-emitting diodes based on InGaN microfacet quantum wells toward tailor-made solid-state lighting,” Appl. Phys. Express 1(1), 011106 (2008).
[Crossref]

Wang, G.

J. Kang, Z. Li, H. Li, Z. Liu, X. Li, X. Yi, P. Ma, H. Zhu, and G. Wang, “Pyramid Array InGaN/GaN Core–Shell Light Emitting Diodes with Homogeneous Multilayer Graphene Electrodes,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(7), 072102 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wang, H.

Z. Lin, H. Yang, S. Zhou, H. Wang, X. Hong, and G. Li, “Pattern design of and epitaxial growth on patterned sapphire substrates for highly efficient GaN-based LEDs,” Cryst. Growth Des. 12(6), 2836–2841 (2012).
[Crossref]

Wang, J.

B. Fu, Y. Cheng, Z. Si, T. Wei, X. Zeng, G. Yuan, Z. Liu, H. Lu, X. Yi, J. Li, and J. Wang, “Phosphor-free InGaN micro-pyramid white light emitting diodes with multilayer graphene electrode,” RSC Advances 5(122), 100646 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wang, S.

Z. Tian, Y. Li, X. Su, L. Feng, S. Wang, M. Zhang, W. Ding, Q. Li, Y. Zhang, M. Guo, F. Yun, and S. W. R. Lee, “Growth, characterization, and application of well-defined separated GaN-based pyramid array on micropatterned sapphire substrate,” Appl. Phys. Express 10(9), 092101 (2017).
[Crossref]

Wang, W. K.

D. S. Wuu, W. K. Wang, W. C. Shih, R. H. Horng, C. E. Lee, W. Y. Lin, and J. S. Fang, “Enhanced output power of near-ultraviolet InGaN-GaN LEDs grown on patterned sapphire substrates,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17(2), 288–290 (2005).
[Crossref]

Wei, T.

B. Fu, Y. Cheng, Z. Si, T. Wei, X. Zeng, G. Yuan, Z. Liu, H. Lu, X. Yi, J. Li, and J. Wang, “Phosphor-free InGaN micro-pyramid white light emitting diodes with multilayer graphene electrode,” RSC Advances 5(122), 100646 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wu, J.

S. I. Park, Y. Xiong, R. H. Kim, P. Elvikis, M. Meitl, D. H. Kim, J. Wu, J. Yoon, C.-J. Yu, Z. Liu, Y. Huang, K.-C. Hwang, P. Ferreira, X. Li, K. Choquette, and J. A. Rogers, “Printed assemblies of inorganic light-emitting diodes for deformable and semitransparent displays,” Science 325(5943), 977–981 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wu, M.

Z. Fan, H. Razavi, J.-W. Do, A. Moriwaki, O. Ergen, Y.-L. Chueh, P. W. Leu, J. C. Ho, T. Takahashi, L. A. Reichertz, S. Neale, K. Yu, M. Wu, J. W. Ager, and A. Javey, “Three-dimensional nanopillar-array photovoltaics on low-cost and flexible substrates,” Nat. Mater. 8(8), 648–653 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wuu, D. S.

R. H. Horng, C. H. Tien, S. H. Chuang, K. C. Liu, and D. S. Wuu, “External stress effects on the optical and electrical properties of flexible InGaN-based green light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Express 23(24), 31334–31341 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. S. Wuu, W. K. Wang, W. C. Shih, R. H. Horng, C. E. Lee, W. Y. Lin, and J. S. Fang, “Enhanced output power of near-ultraviolet InGaN-GaN LEDs grown on patterned sapphire substrates,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17(2), 288–290 (2005).
[Crossref]

Xiong, Y.

S. I. Park, Y. Xiong, R. H. Kim, P. Elvikis, M. Meitl, D. H. Kim, J. Wu, J. Yoon, C.-J. Yu, Z. Liu, Y. Huang, K.-C. Hwang, P. Ferreira, X. Li, K. Choquette, and J. A. Rogers, “Printed assemblies of inorganic light-emitting diodes for deformable and semitransparent displays,” Science 325(5943), 977–981 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xu, G.

H. Aziz, Z. D. Popovic, N. X. Hu, A. M. Hor, and G. Xu, “Degradation mechanism of small molecule-based organic light-emitting devices,” Science 283(5409), 1900–1902 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, G.

Yang, H.

Z. Lin, H. Yang, S. Zhou, H. Wang, X. Hong, and G. Li, “Pattern design of and epitaxial growth on patterned sapphire substrates for highly efficient GaN-based LEDs,” Cryst. Growth Des. 12(6), 2836–2841 (2012).
[Crossref]

Yi, G. C.

Y. Tchoe, J. Jo, M. Kim, J. Heo, G. Yoo, C. Sone, G. C. Yi, Y. J. Park, and G.-C. Yi, “Variable-Color Light-Emitting Diodes Using GaN Microdonut arrays,” Adv. Mater. 26(19), 3019–3023 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yi, G.-C.

K. Chung, H. Yoo, J. K. Hyun, H. Oh, Y. Tchoe, K. Lee, H. Baek, M. Kim, and G.-C. Yi, “Flexible GaN Light-Emitting Diodes Using GaN Microdisks Epitaxial Laterally Overgrown on Graphene Dots,” Adv. Mater. 28(35), 7688–7694 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Chung, H. Beak, Y. Tchoe, H. Oh, H. Yoo, M. Kim, and G.-C. Yi, “Growth and characterizations of GaN micro-rods on graphene films for flexible light emitting diodes,” APL Mater. 2(9), 092512 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Tchoe, J. Jo, M. Kim, J. Heo, G. Yoo, C. Sone, G. C. Yi, Y. J. Park, and G.-C. Yi, “Variable-Color Light-Emitting Diodes Using GaN Microdonut arrays,” Adv. Mater. 26(19), 3019–3023 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yi, X.

B. Fu, Y. Cheng, Z. Si, T. Wei, X. Zeng, G. Yuan, Z. Liu, H. Lu, X. Yi, J. Li, and J. Wang, “Phosphor-free InGaN micro-pyramid white light emitting diodes with multilayer graphene electrode,” RSC Advances 5(122), 100646 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Kang, Z. Li, H. Li, Z. Liu, X. Li, X. Yi, P. Ma, H. Zhu, and G. Wang, “Pyramid Array InGaN/GaN Core–Shell Light Emitting Diodes with Homogeneous Multilayer Graphene Electrodes,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(7), 072102 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yoo, G.

Y. Tchoe, J. Jo, M. Kim, J. Heo, G. Yoo, C. Sone, G. C. Yi, Y. J. Park, and G.-C. Yi, “Variable-Color Light-Emitting Diodes Using GaN Microdonut arrays,” Adv. Mater. 26(19), 3019–3023 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yoo, H.

K. Chung, H. Yoo, J. K. Hyun, H. Oh, Y. Tchoe, K. Lee, H. Baek, M. Kim, and G.-C. Yi, “Flexible GaN Light-Emitting Diodes Using GaN Microdisks Epitaxial Laterally Overgrown on Graphene Dots,” Adv. Mater. 28(35), 7688–7694 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Chung, H. Beak, Y. Tchoe, H. Oh, H. Yoo, M. Kim, and G.-C. Yi, “Growth and characterizations of GaN micro-rods on graphene films for flexible light emitting diodes,” APL Mater. 2(9), 092512 (2014).
[Crossref]

Yoon, J.

J. H. Choi, E. H. Cho, Y. S. Lee, M.-B. Shim, H. Y. Ahn, C.-W. Baik, E. H. Lee, K. Kim, T.-H. Kim, S. Kim, K.-S. Cho, J. Yoon, M. Kim, and S. Hwang, “Fully Flexible GaN Light-Emitting Diodes through Nanovoid-Mediated Transfer,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 2(3), 267–274 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. I. Park, Y. Xiong, R. H. Kim, P. Elvikis, M. Meitl, D. H. Kim, J. Wu, J. Yoon, C.-J. Yu, Z. Liu, Y. Huang, K.-C. Hwang, P. Ferreira, X. Li, K. Choquette, and J. A. Rogers, “Printed assemblies of inorganic light-emitting diodes for deformable and semitransparent displays,” Science 325(5943), 977–981 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yu, C.-J.

S. I. Park, Y. Xiong, R. H. Kim, P. Elvikis, M. Meitl, D. H. Kim, J. Wu, J. Yoon, C.-J. Yu, Z. Liu, Y. Huang, K.-C. Hwang, P. Ferreira, X. Li, K. Choquette, and J. A. Rogers, “Printed assemblies of inorganic light-emitting diodes for deformable and semitransparent displays,” Science 325(5943), 977–981 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yu, K.

Z. Fan, H. Razavi, J.-W. Do, A. Moriwaki, O. Ergen, Y.-L. Chueh, P. W. Leu, J. C. Ho, T. Takahashi, L. A. Reichertz, S. Neale, K. Yu, M. Wu, J. W. Ager, and A. Javey, “Three-dimensional nanopillar-array photovoltaics on low-cost and flexible substrates,” Nat. Mater. 8(8), 648–653 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yuan, G.

B. Fu, Y. Cheng, Z. Si, T. Wei, X. Zeng, G. Yuan, Z. Liu, H. Lu, X. Yi, J. Li, and J. Wang, “Phosphor-free InGaN micro-pyramid white light emitting diodes with multilayer graphene electrode,” RSC Advances 5(122), 100646 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yun, F.

Z. Tian, Y. Li, X. Su, L. Feng, S. Wang, M. Zhang, W. Ding, Q. Li, Y. Zhang, M. Guo, F. Yun, and S. W. R. Lee, “Growth, characterization, and application of well-defined separated GaN-based pyramid array on micropatterned sapphire substrate,” Appl. Phys. Express 10(9), 092101 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zeng, X.

B. Fu, Y. Cheng, Z. Si, T. Wei, X. Zeng, G. Yuan, Z. Liu, H. Lu, X. Yi, J. Li, and J. Wang, “Phosphor-free InGaN micro-pyramid white light emitting diodes with multilayer graphene electrode,” RSC Advances 5(122), 100646 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhang, G.

Zhang, M.

Z. Tian, Y. Li, X. Su, L. Feng, S. Wang, M. Zhang, W. Ding, Q. Li, Y. Zhang, M. Guo, F. Yun, and S. W. R. Lee, “Growth, characterization, and application of well-defined separated GaN-based pyramid array on micropatterned sapphire substrate,” Appl. Phys. Express 10(9), 092101 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Y.

Z. Tian, Y. Li, X. Su, L. Feng, S. Wang, M. Zhang, W. Ding, Q. Li, Y. Zhang, M. Guo, F. Yun, and S. W. R. Lee, “Growth, characterization, and application of well-defined separated GaN-based pyramid array on micropatterned sapphire substrate,” Appl. Phys. Express 10(9), 092101 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zhou, S.

Z. Lin, H. Yang, S. Zhou, H. Wang, X. Hong, and G. Li, “Pattern design of and epitaxial growth on patterned sapphire substrates for highly efficient GaN-based LEDs,” Cryst. Growth Des. 12(6), 2836–2841 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zhu, H.

J. Kang, Z. Li, H. Li, Z. Liu, X. Li, X. Yi, P. Ma, H. Zhu, and G. Wang, “Pyramid Array InGaN/GaN Core–Shell Light Emitting Diodes with Homogeneous Multilayer Graphene Electrodes,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(7), 072102 (2013).
[Crossref]

Adv. Mater. (2)

K. Chung, H. Yoo, J. K. Hyun, H. Oh, Y. Tchoe, K. Lee, H. Baek, M. Kim, and G.-C. Yi, “Flexible GaN Light-Emitting Diodes Using GaN Microdisks Epitaxial Laterally Overgrown on Graphene Dots,” Adv. Mater. 28(35), 7688–7694 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Tchoe, J. Jo, M. Kim, J. Heo, G. Yoo, C. Sone, G. C. Yi, Y. J. Park, and G.-C. Yi, “Variable-Color Light-Emitting Diodes Using GaN Microdonut arrays,” Adv. Mater. 26(19), 3019–3023 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Adv. Opt. Mater. (1)

J. H. Choi, E. H. Cho, Y. S. Lee, M.-B. Shim, H. Y. Ahn, C.-W. Baik, E. H. Lee, K. Kim, T.-H. Kim, S. Kim, K.-S. Cho, J. Yoon, M. Kim, and S. Hwang, “Fully Flexible GaN Light-Emitting Diodes through Nanovoid-Mediated Transfer,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 2(3), 267–274 (2014).
[Crossref]

APL Mater. (1)

K. Chung, H. Beak, Y. Tchoe, H. Oh, H. Yoo, M. Kim, and G.-C. Yi, “Growth and characterizations of GaN micro-rods on graphene films for flexible light emitting diodes,” APL Mater. 2(9), 092512 (2014).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Express (3)

Z. Tian, Y. Li, X. Su, L. Feng, S. Wang, M. Zhang, W. Ding, Q. Li, Y. Zhang, M. Guo, F. Yun, and S. W. R. Lee, “Growth, characterization, and application of well-defined separated GaN-based pyramid array on micropatterned sapphire substrate,” Appl. Phys. Express 10(9), 092101 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Kang, Z. Li, H. Li, Z. Liu, X. Li, X. Yi, P. Ma, H. Zhu, and G. Wang, “Pyramid Array InGaN/GaN Core–Shell Light Emitting Diodes with Homogeneous Multilayer Graphene Electrodes,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(7), 072102 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Funato, K. Hayashi, M. Ueda, Y. Kawakami, Y. Narukawa, and T. Mukai, “Monolithic polychromatic light-emitting diodes based on InGaN microfacet quantum wells toward tailor-made solid-state lighting,” Appl. Phys. Express 1(1), 011106 (2008).
[Crossref]

Cryst. Growth Des. (1)

Z. Lin, H. Yang, S. Zhou, H. Wang, X. Hong, and G. Li, “Pattern design of and epitaxial growth on patterned sapphire substrates for highly efficient GaN-based LEDs,” Cryst. Growth Des. 12(6), 2836–2841 (2012).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics J. (2)

G. Tabares, S. Mhedhbi, M. Lesecq, B. Damilano, J. Brault, S. Chenot, A. Ebongue, P. Altuntas, N. Defrance, V. Hoel, and Y. Cordier, “Impact of the Bending on the Electroluminescence of Flexible InGaN/GaN Light-Emitting Diodes,” IEEE Photonics J. 28(15), 1661–1664 (2016).

J. H. Seo, J. Li, J. Lee, S. Gong, J. Lin, H. Jiang, and Z. Ma, “A simplified method of making flexible blue LEDs on a plastic substrate,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(2), 1–7 (2015).

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (2)

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a-d) Dual transfer processes: (a) bond the pyramid arrays with temporary holder, (b) remove the sapphire substrate by LLO, (c) paste the pyramid arrays onto a flexible substrate and (d) release the temporary holder. (e) Structure of flexible device in disassembly.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 SEM images of (a) backside of pyramid arrays after LLO, (b) topside of pyramid arrays without PDMS filler after transferring it onto flexible substrate, (c) topside of the device after the deposition of the Ag grid and (d) annealed Ag nanowire network spin coated on the pyramid arrays.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Optical image of the green flexi-ILEDs at radius of curvature of (a) 1mm, (b) 0.5mm and (c) shaping a 7 × 5 mm2 blue flexi-ILED with a pair of scissors. The inset of (b) is the SEM image of the device with a radius of curvature of 0.5mm and the inset of (c) is the lighting image of the T shape blue LED.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) Room temperature EL spectra at various applied currents and (b) Room temperature EL spectra under various bending conditions accompanied by PL spectra of the pyramid arrays.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 I-V curves of the pyramid LEDs under various bending conditions.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Simulation results of (a) stress distribution of pyramid array, (b) strain distribution of pyramid array, (c) stress distribution of reference thin film, (d) stress distribution of Ag grid above PDMS filler and (e) SEM image of the device after bending.

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