Abstract

An electricity-mediated plasmonic engineering was applied on a single Ag nanowire to engineer its tip for surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). Under this constant photoelectric field treatment, a significant sharpening of the tip and reduction of the surface fluctuation was observed for the Ag nanowire tip via in situ atomic force microscopy. A significant SERS signal enhancement was thus obtained after the tip engineering. The relevant dynamic mechanisms of the tip engineering, including the light-induced plasmonic phase transition and electrostatic force driven flow on the Ag nanowire tip are discussed in detail. It is expected that this type of tip engineering will greatly enhance the signal of single metal nanowire SERS probes and provide new insights into fabrication technologies for metal nanostructures.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2017 (2)

H. Li, H. Dai, Y. Zhang, W. Tong, H. Gao, and Q. An, “Surface-Enhanced Raman spectra promoted by a finger press in an all-solid-state flexible energy conversion and storage film,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 56(10), 2649–2654 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Lin, Y. Shang, X. Li, J. Yu, X. Wang, and L. Guo, “Ultrasensitive SERS detection by defect engineering on single Cu2O superstructure particle,” Adv. Mater. 29(5), 1604797 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (3)

J. Liu, D. Yin, S. Wang, H. Y. Chen, and Z. Liu, “Probing low-copy-number proteins in a single living cell,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 55(42), 13215–13218 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Albrecht, T. S. Deng, B. Goris, M. A. van Huis, S. Bals, and A. van Blaaderen, “Single particle deformation and analysis of silica-coated gold nanorods before and after femtosecond laser pulse excitation,” Nano Lett. 16(3), 1818–1825 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Liu, Y. Pang, B. Zhang, P. De Luna, O. Voznyy, J. Xu, X. Zheng, C. T. Dinh, F. Fan, C. Cao, F. P. de Arquer, T. S. Safaei, A. Mepham, A. Klinkova, E. Kumacheva, T. Filleter, D. Sinton, S. O. Kelley, and E. H. Sargent, “Enhanced electrocatalytic CO2 reduction via field-induced reagent concentration,” Nature 537(7620), 382–386 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (1)

Q. Liu, R. Zou, J. Wu, K. Xu, A. Lu, Y. Bando, D. Golberg, and J. Hu, “Molten Au/Ge alloy migration in Ge nanowires,” Nano Lett. 15(5), 2809–2816 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (2)

H. Dai, R. Ding, M. Li, J. Huang, Y. Li, and M. Trevor, “Ordering Ag nanowire arrays by spontaneous spreading of volatile droplet on solid surface,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 6742 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Lu, H. De Keersmaecker, L. Su, B. Kenens, S. Rocha, E. Fron, C. Chen, P. Van Dorpe, H. Mizuno, J. Hofkens, J. A. Hutchison, and H. Uji-i, “Live-Cell SERS endoscopy using plasmonic nanowire waveguides,” Adv. Mater. 26(30), 5124–5128 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (1)

L. Liu, P. Peng, A. Hu, G. Zou, W. W. Duley, and Y. N. Zhou, “Highly localized heat generation by femtosecond laser induced plasmon excitation in Ag nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(7), 073107 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

E. C. Garnett, W. Cai, J. J. Cha, F. Mahmood, S. T. Connor, M. Greyson Christoforo, Y. Cui, M. D. McGehee, and M. L. Brongersma, “Self-limited plasmonic welding of silver nanowire junctions,” Nat. Mater. 11(3), 241–249 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (1)

A. Ohlinger, S. Nedev, A. A. Lutich, and J. Feldmann, “Optothermal escape of plasmonically coupled silver nanoparticles from a three-dimensional optical trap,” Nano Lett. 11(4), 1770–1774 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (2)

Y. Lu, J. Y. Huang, C. Wang, S. Sun, and J. Lou, “Cold welding of ultrathin gold nanowires,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(3), 218–224 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Zhao and J. Zhu, “Self-flow via upwind electromigration of nanoliquid bridge,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(8), 084308 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

V. C. Holmberg, M. G. Panthani, and B. A. Korgel, “Phase transitions, melting dynamics, and solid-state diffusion in a nano test tube,” Science 326(5951), 405–407 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Yoon, T. Kang, W. Choi, J. Kim, Y. Yoo, S. W. Joo, Q. H. Park, H. Ihee, and B. Kim, “Single nanowire on a film as an efficient SERS-active platform,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131(2), 758–762 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

K. R. Catchpole and A. Polman, “Design principles for particle plasmon enhanced solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(19), 191113 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

L. Gou, A. Mircea Chipara, and J. M. Zaleski, “Convenient, rapid synthesis of Ag nanowires,” Chem. Mater. 19(7), 1755–1760 (2007).
[Crossref]

A. Plech, R. Cerna, V. Kotaidis, F. Hudert, A. Bartels, and T. Dekorsy, “A surface phase transition of supported gold nanoparticles,” Nano Lett. 7(4), 1026–1031 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

B. Wu, A. Heidelberg, J. J. Boland, J. E. Sader, X. Sun, and Y. Li, “Microstructure-hardened silver nanowires,” Nano Lett. 6(3), 468–472 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

S. H. Tan, R. Inai, M. Kotaki, and S. Ramakrishna, “Systematic parameter study for ultra-fine fiber fabrication via electrospinning process,” Polymer (Guildf.) 46(16), 6128–6134 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (2)

Y. Q. Wan, Q. Guo, and N. Pan, “Thermo-electro-hydrodynamic model for electrospinning process,” Int. J. Nonlin. Sci. Num. 5(1), 5–8 (2004).
[Crossref]

A. Plech, V. Kotaidis, S. Grésillon, C. Dahmen, and G. Von Plessen, “Laser-induced heating and melting of gold nanoparticles studied by time-resolved x-ray scattering,” Phys. Rev. B 70(19), 195423 (2004).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

J. Doshi and D. H. Reneker, “Electrospinning process and applications of electrospun fibers,” J. Electrost. 35(2–3), 151–160 (1995).
[Crossref]

1969 (1)

W. A. Tiller, “Migration of a liquid zone through a solid,” J. Cryst. Growth 6(1), 77–85 (1969).
[Crossref]

Albrecht, W.

W. Albrecht, T. S. Deng, B. Goris, M. A. van Huis, S. Bals, and A. van Blaaderen, “Single particle deformation and analysis of silica-coated gold nanorods before and after femtosecond laser pulse excitation,” Nano Lett. 16(3), 1818–1825 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

An, Q.

H. Li, H. Dai, Y. Zhang, W. Tong, H. Gao, and Q. An, “Surface-Enhanced Raman spectra promoted by a finger press in an all-solid-state flexible energy conversion and storage film,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 56(10), 2649–2654 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bals, S.

W. Albrecht, T. S. Deng, B. Goris, M. A. van Huis, S. Bals, and A. van Blaaderen, “Single particle deformation and analysis of silica-coated gold nanorods before and after femtosecond laser pulse excitation,” Nano Lett. 16(3), 1818–1825 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bando, Y.

Q. Liu, R. Zou, J. Wu, K. Xu, A. Lu, Y. Bando, D. Golberg, and J. Hu, “Molten Au/Ge alloy migration in Ge nanowires,” Nano Lett. 15(5), 2809–2816 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bartels, A.

A. Plech, R. Cerna, V. Kotaidis, F. Hudert, A. Bartels, and T. Dekorsy, “A surface phase transition of supported gold nanoparticles,” Nano Lett. 7(4), 1026–1031 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Boland, J. J.

B. Wu, A. Heidelberg, J. J. Boland, J. E. Sader, X. Sun, and Y. Li, “Microstructure-hardened silver nanowires,” Nano Lett. 6(3), 468–472 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brongersma, M. L.

E. C. Garnett, W. Cai, J. J. Cha, F. Mahmood, S. T. Connor, M. Greyson Christoforo, Y. Cui, M. D. McGehee, and M. L. Brongersma, “Self-limited plasmonic welding of silver nanowire junctions,” Nat. Mater. 11(3), 241–249 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cai, W.

E. C. Garnett, W. Cai, J. J. Cha, F. Mahmood, S. T. Connor, M. Greyson Christoforo, Y. Cui, M. D. McGehee, and M. L. Brongersma, “Self-limited plasmonic welding of silver nanowire junctions,” Nat. Mater. 11(3), 241–249 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cao, C.

M. Liu, Y. Pang, B. Zhang, P. De Luna, O. Voznyy, J. Xu, X. Zheng, C. T. Dinh, F. Fan, C. Cao, F. P. de Arquer, T. S. Safaei, A. Mepham, A. Klinkova, E. Kumacheva, T. Filleter, D. Sinton, S. O. Kelley, and E. H. Sargent, “Enhanced electrocatalytic CO2 reduction via field-induced reagent concentration,” Nature 537(7620), 382–386 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Catchpole, K. R.

K. R. Catchpole and A. Polman, “Design principles for particle plasmon enhanced solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(19), 191113 (2008).
[Crossref]

Cerna, R.

A. Plech, R. Cerna, V. Kotaidis, F. Hudert, A. Bartels, and T. Dekorsy, “A surface phase transition of supported gold nanoparticles,” Nano Lett. 7(4), 1026–1031 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cha, J. J.

E. C. Garnett, W. Cai, J. J. Cha, F. Mahmood, S. T. Connor, M. Greyson Christoforo, Y. Cui, M. D. McGehee, and M. L. Brongersma, “Self-limited plasmonic welding of silver nanowire junctions,” Nat. Mater. 11(3), 241–249 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, C.

G. Lu, H. De Keersmaecker, L. Su, B. Kenens, S. Rocha, E. Fron, C. Chen, P. Van Dorpe, H. Mizuno, J. Hofkens, J. A. Hutchison, and H. Uji-i, “Live-Cell SERS endoscopy using plasmonic nanowire waveguides,” Adv. Mater. 26(30), 5124–5128 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, H. Y.

J. Liu, D. Yin, S. Wang, H. Y. Chen, and Z. Liu, “Probing low-copy-number proteins in a single living cell,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 55(42), 13215–13218 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Choi, W.

I. Yoon, T. Kang, W. Choi, J. Kim, Y. Yoo, S. W. Joo, Q. H. Park, H. Ihee, and B. Kim, “Single nanowire on a film as an efficient SERS-active platform,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131(2), 758–762 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Connor, S. T.

E. C. Garnett, W. Cai, J. J. Cha, F. Mahmood, S. T. Connor, M. Greyson Christoforo, Y. Cui, M. D. McGehee, and M. L. Brongersma, “Self-limited plasmonic welding of silver nanowire junctions,” Nat. Mater. 11(3), 241–249 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cui, Y.

E. C. Garnett, W. Cai, J. J. Cha, F. Mahmood, S. T. Connor, M. Greyson Christoforo, Y. Cui, M. D. McGehee, and M. L. Brongersma, “Self-limited plasmonic welding of silver nanowire junctions,” Nat. Mater. 11(3), 241–249 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dahmen, C.

A. Plech, V. Kotaidis, S. Grésillon, C. Dahmen, and G. Von Plessen, “Laser-induced heating and melting of gold nanoparticles studied by time-resolved x-ray scattering,” Phys. Rev. B 70(19), 195423 (2004).
[Crossref]

Dai, H.

H. Li, H. Dai, Y. Zhang, W. Tong, H. Gao, and Q. An, “Surface-Enhanced Raman spectra promoted by a finger press in an all-solid-state flexible energy conversion and storage film,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 56(10), 2649–2654 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Dai, R. Ding, M. Li, J. Huang, Y. Li, and M. Trevor, “Ordering Ag nanowire arrays by spontaneous spreading of volatile droplet on solid surface,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 6742 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

de Arquer, F. P.

M. Liu, Y. Pang, B. Zhang, P. De Luna, O. Voznyy, J. Xu, X. Zheng, C. T. Dinh, F. Fan, C. Cao, F. P. de Arquer, T. S. Safaei, A. Mepham, A. Klinkova, E. Kumacheva, T. Filleter, D. Sinton, S. O. Kelley, and E. H. Sargent, “Enhanced electrocatalytic CO2 reduction via field-induced reagent concentration,” Nature 537(7620), 382–386 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

De Keersmaecker, H.

G. Lu, H. De Keersmaecker, L. Su, B. Kenens, S. Rocha, E. Fron, C. Chen, P. Van Dorpe, H. Mizuno, J. Hofkens, J. A. Hutchison, and H. Uji-i, “Live-Cell SERS endoscopy using plasmonic nanowire waveguides,” Adv. Mater. 26(30), 5124–5128 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

De Luna, P.

M. Liu, Y. Pang, B. Zhang, P. De Luna, O. Voznyy, J. Xu, X. Zheng, C. T. Dinh, F. Fan, C. Cao, F. P. de Arquer, T. S. Safaei, A. Mepham, A. Klinkova, E. Kumacheva, T. Filleter, D. Sinton, S. O. Kelley, and E. H. Sargent, “Enhanced electrocatalytic CO2 reduction via field-induced reagent concentration,” Nature 537(7620), 382–386 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dekorsy, T.

A. Plech, R. Cerna, V. Kotaidis, F. Hudert, A. Bartels, and T. Dekorsy, “A surface phase transition of supported gold nanoparticles,” Nano Lett. 7(4), 1026–1031 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Deng, T. S.

W. Albrecht, T. S. Deng, B. Goris, M. A. van Huis, S. Bals, and A. van Blaaderen, “Single particle deformation and analysis of silica-coated gold nanorods before and after femtosecond laser pulse excitation,” Nano Lett. 16(3), 1818–1825 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ding, R.

H. Dai, R. Ding, M. Li, J. Huang, Y. Li, and M. Trevor, “Ordering Ag nanowire arrays by spontaneous spreading of volatile droplet on solid surface,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 6742 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dinh, C. T.

M. Liu, Y. Pang, B. Zhang, P. De Luna, O. Voznyy, J. Xu, X. Zheng, C. T. Dinh, F. Fan, C. Cao, F. P. de Arquer, T. S. Safaei, A. Mepham, A. Klinkova, E. Kumacheva, T. Filleter, D. Sinton, S. O. Kelley, and E. H. Sargent, “Enhanced electrocatalytic CO2 reduction via field-induced reagent concentration,” Nature 537(7620), 382–386 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Doshi, J.

J. Doshi and D. H. Reneker, “Electrospinning process and applications of electrospun fibers,” J. Electrost. 35(2–3), 151–160 (1995).
[Crossref]

Duley, W. W.

L. Liu, P. Peng, A. Hu, G. Zou, W. W. Duley, and Y. N. Zhou, “Highly localized heat generation by femtosecond laser induced plasmon excitation in Ag nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(7), 073107 (2013).
[Crossref]

Fan, F.

M. Liu, Y. Pang, B. Zhang, P. De Luna, O. Voznyy, J. Xu, X. Zheng, C. T. Dinh, F. Fan, C. Cao, F. P. de Arquer, T. S. Safaei, A. Mepham, A. Klinkova, E. Kumacheva, T. Filleter, D. Sinton, S. O. Kelley, and E. H. Sargent, “Enhanced electrocatalytic CO2 reduction via field-induced reagent concentration,” Nature 537(7620), 382–386 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Feldmann, J.

A. Ohlinger, S. Nedev, A. A. Lutich, and J. Feldmann, “Optothermal escape of plasmonically coupled silver nanoparticles from a three-dimensional optical trap,” Nano Lett. 11(4), 1770–1774 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Filleter, T.

M. Liu, Y. Pang, B. Zhang, P. De Luna, O. Voznyy, J. Xu, X. Zheng, C. T. Dinh, F. Fan, C. Cao, F. P. de Arquer, T. S. Safaei, A. Mepham, A. Klinkova, E. Kumacheva, T. Filleter, D. Sinton, S. O. Kelley, and E. H. Sargent, “Enhanced electrocatalytic CO2 reduction via field-induced reagent concentration,” Nature 537(7620), 382–386 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fron, E.

G. Lu, H. De Keersmaecker, L. Su, B. Kenens, S. Rocha, E. Fron, C. Chen, P. Van Dorpe, H. Mizuno, J. Hofkens, J. A. Hutchison, and H. Uji-i, “Live-Cell SERS endoscopy using plasmonic nanowire waveguides,” Adv. Mater. 26(30), 5124–5128 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gao, H.

H. Li, H. Dai, Y. Zhang, W. Tong, H. Gao, and Q. An, “Surface-Enhanced Raman spectra promoted by a finger press in an all-solid-state flexible energy conversion and storage film,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 56(10), 2649–2654 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Garnett, E. C.

E. C. Garnett, W. Cai, J. J. Cha, F. Mahmood, S. T. Connor, M. Greyson Christoforo, Y. Cui, M. D. McGehee, and M. L. Brongersma, “Self-limited plasmonic welding of silver nanowire junctions,” Nat. Mater. 11(3), 241–249 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Golberg, D.

Q. Liu, R. Zou, J. Wu, K. Xu, A. Lu, Y. Bando, D. Golberg, and J. Hu, “Molten Au/Ge alloy migration in Ge nanowires,” Nano Lett. 15(5), 2809–2816 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Goris, B.

W. Albrecht, T. S. Deng, B. Goris, M. A. van Huis, S. Bals, and A. van Blaaderen, “Single particle deformation and analysis of silica-coated gold nanorods before and after femtosecond laser pulse excitation,” Nano Lett. 16(3), 1818–1825 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gou, L.

L. Gou, A. Mircea Chipara, and J. M. Zaleski, “Convenient, rapid synthesis of Ag nanowires,” Chem. Mater. 19(7), 1755–1760 (2007).
[Crossref]

Grésillon, S.

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J. Lin, Y. Shang, X. Li, J. Yu, X. Wang, and L. Guo, “Ultrasensitive SERS detection by defect engineering on single Cu2O superstructure particle,” Adv. Mater. 29(5), 1604797 (2017).
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Y. Q. Wan, Q. Guo, and N. Pan, “Thermo-electro-hydrodynamic model for electrospinning process,” Int. J. Nonlin. Sci. Num. 5(1), 5–8 (2004).
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B. Wu, A. Heidelberg, J. J. Boland, J. E. Sader, X. Sun, and Y. Li, “Microstructure-hardened silver nanowires,” Nano Lett. 6(3), 468–472 (2006).
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G. Lu, H. De Keersmaecker, L. Su, B. Kenens, S. Rocha, E. Fron, C. Chen, P. Van Dorpe, H. Mizuno, J. Hofkens, J. A. Hutchison, and H. Uji-i, “Live-Cell SERS endoscopy using plasmonic nanowire waveguides,” Adv. Mater. 26(30), 5124–5128 (2014).
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V. C. Holmberg, M. G. Panthani, and B. A. Korgel, “Phase transitions, melting dynamics, and solid-state diffusion in a nano test tube,” Science 326(5951), 405–407 (2009).
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Hu, A.

L. Liu, P. Peng, A. Hu, G. Zou, W. W. Duley, and Y. N. Zhou, “Highly localized heat generation by femtosecond laser induced plasmon excitation in Ag nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(7), 073107 (2013).
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Hu, J.

Q. Liu, R. Zou, J. Wu, K. Xu, A. Lu, Y. Bando, D. Golberg, and J. Hu, “Molten Au/Ge alloy migration in Ge nanowires,” Nano Lett. 15(5), 2809–2816 (2015).
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Huang, J.

H. Dai, R. Ding, M. Li, J. Huang, Y. Li, and M. Trevor, “Ordering Ag nanowire arrays by spontaneous spreading of volatile droplet on solid surface,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 6742 (2014).
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Y. Lu, J. Y. Huang, C. Wang, S. Sun, and J. Lou, “Cold welding of ultrathin gold nanowires,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(3), 218–224 (2010).
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A. Plech, R. Cerna, V. Kotaidis, F. Hudert, A. Bartels, and T. Dekorsy, “A surface phase transition of supported gold nanoparticles,” Nano Lett. 7(4), 1026–1031 (2007).
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Hutchison, J. A.

G. Lu, H. De Keersmaecker, L. Su, B. Kenens, S. Rocha, E. Fron, C. Chen, P. Van Dorpe, H. Mizuno, J. Hofkens, J. A. Hutchison, and H. Uji-i, “Live-Cell SERS endoscopy using plasmonic nanowire waveguides,” Adv. Mater. 26(30), 5124–5128 (2014).
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I. Yoon, T. Kang, W. Choi, J. Kim, Y. Yoo, S. W. Joo, Q. H. Park, H. Ihee, and B. Kim, “Single nanowire on a film as an efficient SERS-active platform,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131(2), 758–762 (2009).
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S. H. Tan, R. Inai, M. Kotaki, and S. Ramakrishna, “Systematic parameter study for ultra-fine fiber fabrication via electrospinning process,” Polymer (Guildf.) 46(16), 6128–6134 (2005).
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M. Liu, Y. Pang, B. Zhang, P. De Luna, O. Voznyy, J. Xu, X. Zheng, C. T. Dinh, F. Fan, C. Cao, F. P. de Arquer, T. S. Safaei, A. Mepham, A. Klinkova, E. Kumacheva, T. Filleter, D. Sinton, S. O. Kelley, and E. H. Sargent, “Enhanced electrocatalytic CO2 reduction via field-induced reagent concentration,” Nature 537(7620), 382–386 (2016).
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G. Lu, H. De Keersmaecker, L. Su, B. Kenens, S. Rocha, E. Fron, C. Chen, P. Van Dorpe, H. Mizuno, J. Hofkens, J. A. Hutchison, and H. Uji-i, “Live-Cell SERS endoscopy using plasmonic nanowire waveguides,” Adv. Mater. 26(30), 5124–5128 (2014).
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I. Yoon, T. Kang, W. Choi, J. Kim, Y. Yoo, S. W. Joo, Q. H. Park, H. Ihee, and B. Kim, “Single nanowire on a film as an efficient SERS-active platform,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131(2), 758–762 (2009).
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I. Yoon, T. Kang, W. Choi, J. Kim, Y. Yoo, S. W. Joo, Q. H. Park, H. Ihee, and B. Kim, “Single nanowire on a film as an efficient SERS-active platform,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131(2), 758–762 (2009).
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Klinkova, A.

M. Liu, Y. Pang, B. Zhang, P. De Luna, O. Voznyy, J. Xu, X. Zheng, C. T. Dinh, F. Fan, C. Cao, F. P. de Arquer, T. S. Safaei, A. Mepham, A. Klinkova, E. Kumacheva, T. Filleter, D. Sinton, S. O. Kelley, and E. H. Sargent, “Enhanced electrocatalytic CO2 reduction via field-induced reagent concentration,” Nature 537(7620), 382–386 (2016).
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Korgel, B. A.

V. C. Holmberg, M. G. Panthani, and B. A. Korgel, “Phase transitions, melting dynamics, and solid-state diffusion in a nano test tube,” Science 326(5951), 405–407 (2009).
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Kotaidis, V.

A. Plech, R. Cerna, V. Kotaidis, F. Hudert, A. Bartels, and T. Dekorsy, “A surface phase transition of supported gold nanoparticles,” Nano Lett. 7(4), 1026–1031 (2007).
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A. Plech, V. Kotaidis, S. Grésillon, C. Dahmen, and G. Von Plessen, “Laser-induced heating and melting of gold nanoparticles studied by time-resolved x-ray scattering,” Phys. Rev. B 70(19), 195423 (2004).
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Kotaki, M.

S. H. Tan, R. Inai, M. Kotaki, and S. Ramakrishna, “Systematic parameter study for ultra-fine fiber fabrication via electrospinning process,” Polymer (Guildf.) 46(16), 6128–6134 (2005).
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M. Liu, Y. Pang, B. Zhang, P. De Luna, O. Voznyy, J. Xu, X. Zheng, C. T. Dinh, F. Fan, C. Cao, F. P. de Arquer, T. S. Safaei, A. Mepham, A. Klinkova, E. Kumacheva, T. Filleter, D. Sinton, S. O. Kelley, and E. H. Sargent, “Enhanced electrocatalytic CO2 reduction via field-induced reagent concentration,” Nature 537(7620), 382–386 (2016).
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H. Li, H. Dai, Y. Zhang, W. Tong, H. Gao, and Q. An, “Surface-Enhanced Raman spectra promoted by a finger press in an all-solid-state flexible energy conversion and storage film,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 56(10), 2649–2654 (2017).
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Li, M.

H. Dai, R. Ding, M. Li, J. Huang, Y. Li, and M. Trevor, “Ordering Ag nanowire arrays by spontaneous spreading of volatile droplet on solid surface,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 6742 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, X.

J. Lin, Y. Shang, X. Li, J. Yu, X. Wang, and L. Guo, “Ultrasensitive SERS detection by defect engineering on single Cu2O superstructure particle,” Adv. Mater. 29(5), 1604797 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, Y.

H. Dai, R. Ding, M. Li, J. Huang, Y. Li, and M. Trevor, “Ordering Ag nanowire arrays by spontaneous spreading of volatile droplet on solid surface,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 6742 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Wu, A. Heidelberg, J. J. Boland, J. E. Sader, X. Sun, and Y. Li, “Microstructure-hardened silver nanowires,” Nano Lett. 6(3), 468–472 (2006).
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Lin, J.

J. Lin, Y. Shang, X. Li, J. Yu, X. Wang, and L. Guo, “Ultrasensitive SERS detection by defect engineering on single Cu2O superstructure particle,” Adv. Mater. 29(5), 1604797 (2017).
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Liu, J.

J. Liu, D. Yin, S. Wang, H. Y. Chen, and Z. Liu, “Probing low-copy-number proteins in a single living cell,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 55(42), 13215–13218 (2016).
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L. Liu, P. Peng, A. Hu, G. Zou, W. W. Duley, and Y. N. Zhou, “Highly localized heat generation by femtosecond laser induced plasmon excitation in Ag nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(7), 073107 (2013).
[Crossref]

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M. Liu, Y. Pang, B. Zhang, P. De Luna, O. Voznyy, J. Xu, X. Zheng, C. T. Dinh, F. Fan, C. Cao, F. P. de Arquer, T. S. Safaei, A. Mepham, A. Klinkova, E. Kumacheva, T. Filleter, D. Sinton, S. O. Kelley, and E. H. Sargent, “Enhanced electrocatalytic CO2 reduction via field-induced reagent concentration,” Nature 537(7620), 382–386 (2016).
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Q. Liu, R. Zou, J. Wu, K. Xu, A. Lu, Y. Bando, D. Golberg, and J. Hu, “Molten Au/Ge alloy migration in Ge nanowires,” Nano Lett. 15(5), 2809–2816 (2015).
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Liu, Z.

J. Liu, D. Yin, S. Wang, H. Y. Chen, and Z. Liu, “Probing low-copy-number proteins in a single living cell,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 55(42), 13215–13218 (2016).
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Y. Lu, J. Y. Huang, C. Wang, S. Sun, and J. Lou, “Cold welding of ultrathin gold nanowires,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(3), 218–224 (2010).
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Lu, A.

Q. Liu, R. Zou, J. Wu, K. Xu, A. Lu, Y. Bando, D. Golberg, and J. Hu, “Molten Au/Ge alloy migration in Ge nanowires,” Nano Lett. 15(5), 2809–2816 (2015).
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Lu, G.

G. Lu, H. De Keersmaecker, L. Su, B. Kenens, S. Rocha, E. Fron, C. Chen, P. Van Dorpe, H. Mizuno, J. Hofkens, J. A. Hutchison, and H. Uji-i, “Live-Cell SERS endoscopy using plasmonic nanowire waveguides,” Adv. Mater. 26(30), 5124–5128 (2014).
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Lu, Y.

Y. Lu, J. Y. Huang, C. Wang, S. Sun, and J. Lou, “Cold welding of ultrathin gold nanowires,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(3), 218–224 (2010).
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A. Ohlinger, S. Nedev, A. A. Lutich, and J. Feldmann, “Optothermal escape of plasmonically coupled silver nanoparticles from a three-dimensional optical trap,” Nano Lett. 11(4), 1770–1774 (2011).
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E. C. Garnett, W. Cai, J. J. Cha, F. Mahmood, S. T. Connor, M. Greyson Christoforo, Y. Cui, M. D. McGehee, and M. L. Brongersma, “Self-limited plasmonic welding of silver nanowire junctions,” Nat. Mater. 11(3), 241–249 (2012).
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McGehee, M. D.

E. C. Garnett, W. Cai, J. J. Cha, F. Mahmood, S. T. Connor, M. Greyson Christoforo, Y. Cui, M. D. McGehee, and M. L. Brongersma, “Self-limited plasmonic welding of silver nanowire junctions,” Nat. Mater. 11(3), 241–249 (2012).
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Mepham, A.

M. Liu, Y. Pang, B. Zhang, P. De Luna, O. Voznyy, J. Xu, X. Zheng, C. T. Dinh, F. Fan, C. Cao, F. P. de Arquer, T. S. Safaei, A. Mepham, A. Klinkova, E. Kumacheva, T. Filleter, D. Sinton, S. O. Kelley, and E. H. Sargent, “Enhanced electrocatalytic CO2 reduction via field-induced reagent concentration,” Nature 537(7620), 382–386 (2016).
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L. Gou, A. Mircea Chipara, and J. M. Zaleski, “Convenient, rapid synthesis of Ag nanowires,” Chem. Mater. 19(7), 1755–1760 (2007).
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G. Lu, H. De Keersmaecker, L. Su, B. Kenens, S. Rocha, E. Fron, C. Chen, P. Van Dorpe, H. Mizuno, J. Hofkens, J. A. Hutchison, and H. Uji-i, “Live-Cell SERS endoscopy using plasmonic nanowire waveguides,” Adv. Mater. 26(30), 5124–5128 (2014).
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Nedev, S.

A. Ohlinger, S. Nedev, A. A. Lutich, and J. Feldmann, “Optothermal escape of plasmonically coupled silver nanoparticles from a three-dimensional optical trap,” Nano Lett. 11(4), 1770–1774 (2011).
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A. Ohlinger, S. Nedev, A. A. Lutich, and J. Feldmann, “Optothermal escape of plasmonically coupled silver nanoparticles from a three-dimensional optical trap,” Nano Lett. 11(4), 1770–1774 (2011).
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Pan, N.

Y. Q. Wan, Q. Guo, and N. Pan, “Thermo-electro-hydrodynamic model for electrospinning process,” Int. J. Nonlin. Sci. Num. 5(1), 5–8 (2004).
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Pang, Y.

M. Liu, Y. Pang, B. Zhang, P. De Luna, O. Voznyy, J. Xu, X. Zheng, C. T. Dinh, F. Fan, C. Cao, F. P. de Arquer, T. S. Safaei, A. Mepham, A. Klinkova, E. Kumacheva, T. Filleter, D. Sinton, S. O. Kelley, and E. H. Sargent, “Enhanced electrocatalytic CO2 reduction via field-induced reagent concentration,” Nature 537(7620), 382–386 (2016).
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Panthani, M. G.

V. C. Holmberg, M. G. Panthani, and B. A. Korgel, “Phase transitions, melting dynamics, and solid-state diffusion in a nano test tube,” Science 326(5951), 405–407 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Park, Q. H.

I. Yoon, T. Kang, W. Choi, J. Kim, Y. Yoo, S. W. Joo, Q. H. Park, H. Ihee, and B. Kim, “Single nanowire on a film as an efficient SERS-active platform,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131(2), 758–762 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Peng, P.

L. Liu, P. Peng, A. Hu, G. Zou, W. W. Duley, and Y. N. Zhou, “Highly localized heat generation by femtosecond laser induced plasmon excitation in Ag nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(7), 073107 (2013).
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Plech, A.

A. Plech, R. Cerna, V. Kotaidis, F. Hudert, A. Bartels, and T. Dekorsy, “A surface phase transition of supported gold nanoparticles,” Nano Lett. 7(4), 1026–1031 (2007).
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A. Plech, V. Kotaidis, S. Grésillon, C. Dahmen, and G. Von Plessen, “Laser-induced heating and melting of gold nanoparticles studied by time-resolved x-ray scattering,” Phys. Rev. B 70(19), 195423 (2004).
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S. H. Tan, R. Inai, M. Kotaki, and S. Ramakrishna, “Systematic parameter study for ultra-fine fiber fabrication via electrospinning process,” Polymer (Guildf.) 46(16), 6128–6134 (2005).
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G. Lu, H. De Keersmaecker, L. Su, B. Kenens, S. Rocha, E. Fron, C. Chen, P. Van Dorpe, H. Mizuno, J. Hofkens, J. A. Hutchison, and H. Uji-i, “Live-Cell SERS endoscopy using plasmonic nanowire waveguides,” Adv. Mater. 26(30), 5124–5128 (2014).
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Sader, J. E.

B. Wu, A. Heidelberg, J. J. Boland, J. E. Sader, X. Sun, and Y. Li, “Microstructure-hardened silver nanowires,” Nano Lett. 6(3), 468–472 (2006).
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Safaei, T. S.

M. Liu, Y. Pang, B. Zhang, P. De Luna, O. Voznyy, J. Xu, X. Zheng, C. T. Dinh, F. Fan, C. Cao, F. P. de Arquer, T. S. Safaei, A. Mepham, A. Klinkova, E. Kumacheva, T. Filleter, D. Sinton, S. O. Kelley, and E. H. Sargent, “Enhanced electrocatalytic CO2 reduction via field-induced reagent concentration,” Nature 537(7620), 382–386 (2016).
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Sargent, E. H.

M. Liu, Y. Pang, B. Zhang, P. De Luna, O. Voznyy, J. Xu, X. Zheng, C. T. Dinh, F. Fan, C. Cao, F. P. de Arquer, T. S. Safaei, A. Mepham, A. Klinkova, E. Kumacheva, T. Filleter, D. Sinton, S. O. Kelley, and E. H. Sargent, “Enhanced electrocatalytic CO2 reduction via field-induced reagent concentration,” Nature 537(7620), 382–386 (2016).
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Shang, Y.

J. Lin, Y. Shang, X. Li, J. Yu, X. Wang, and L. Guo, “Ultrasensitive SERS detection by defect engineering on single Cu2O superstructure particle,” Adv. Mater. 29(5), 1604797 (2017).
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Sinton, D.

M. Liu, Y. Pang, B. Zhang, P. De Luna, O. Voznyy, J. Xu, X. Zheng, C. T. Dinh, F. Fan, C. Cao, F. P. de Arquer, T. S. Safaei, A. Mepham, A. Klinkova, E. Kumacheva, T. Filleter, D. Sinton, S. O. Kelley, and E. H. Sargent, “Enhanced electrocatalytic CO2 reduction via field-induced reagent concentration,” Nature 537(7620), 382–386 (2016).
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Su, L.

G. Lu, H. De Keersmaecker, L. Su, B. Kenens, S. Rocha, E. Fron, C. Chen, P. Van Dorpe, H. Mizuno, J. Hofkens, J. A. Hutchison, and H. Uji-i, “Live-Cell SERS endoscopy using plasmonic nanowire waveguides,” Adv. Mater. 26(30), 5124–5128 (2014).
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Sun, S.

Y. Lu, J. Y. Huang, C. Wang, S. Sun, and J. Lou, “Cold welding of ultrathin gold nanowires,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(3), 218–224 (2010).
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Sun, X.

B. Wu, A. Heidelberg, J. J. Boland, J. E. Sader, X. Sun, and Y. Li, “Microstructure-hardened silver nanowires,” Nano Lett. 6(3), 468–472 (2006).
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Tan, S. H.

S. H. Tan, R. Inai, M. Kotaki, and S. Ramakrishna, “Systematic parameter study for ultra-fine fiber fabrication via electrospinning process,” Polymer (Guildf.) 46(16), 6128–6134 (2005).
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W. A. Tiller, “Migration of a liquid zone through a solid,” J. Cryst. Growth 6(1), 77–85 (1969).
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H. Li, H. Dai, Y. Zhang, W. Tong, H. Gao, and Q. An, “Surface-Enhanced Raman spectra promoted by a finger press in an all-solid-state flexible energy conversion and storage film,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 56(10), 2649–2654 (2017).
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Trevor, M.

H. Dai, R. Ding, M. Li, J. Huang, Y. Li, and M. Trevor, “Ordering Ag nanowire arrays by spontaneous spreading of volatile droplet on solid surface,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 6742 (2014).
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Uji-i, H.

G. Lu, H. De Keersmaecker, L. Su, B. Kenens, S. Rocha, E. Fron, C. Chen, P. Van Dorpe, H. Mizuno, J. Hofkens, J. A. Hutchison, and H. Uji-i, “Live-Cell SERS endoscopy using plasmonic nanowire waveguides,” Adv. Mater. 26(30), 5124–5128 (2014).
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W. Albrecht, T. S. Deng, B. Goris, M. A. van Huis, S. Bals, and A. van Blaaderen, “Single particle deformation and analysis of silica-coated gold nanorods before and after femtosecond laser pulse excitation,” Nano Lett. 16(3), 1818–1825 (2016).
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G. Lu, H. De Keersmaecker, L. Su, B. Kenens, S. Rocha, E. Fron, C. Chen, P. Van Dorpe, H. Mizuno, J. Hofkens, J. A. Hutchison, and H. Uji-i, “Live-Cell SERS endoscopy using plasmonic nanowire waveguides,” Adv. Mater. 26(30), 5124–5128 (2014).
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W. Albrecht, T. S. Deng, B. Goris, M. A. van Huis, S. Bals, and A. van Blaaderen, “Single particle deformation and analysis of silica-coated gold nanorods before and after femtosecond laser pulse excitation,” Nano Lett. 16(3), 1818–1825 (2016).
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A. Plech, V. Kotaidis, S. Grésillon, C. Dahmen, and G. Von Plessen, “Laser-induced heating and melting of gold nanoparticles studied by time-resolved x-ray scattering,” Phys. Rev. B 70(19), 195423 (2004).
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Voznyy, O.

M. Liu, Y. Pang, B. Zhang, P. De Luna, O. Voznyy, J. Xu, X. Zheng, C. T. Dinh, F. Fan, C. Cao, F. P. de Arquer, T. S. Safaei, A. Mepham, A. Klinkova, E. Kumacheva, T. Filleter, D. Sinton, S. O. Kelley, and E. H. Sargent, “Enhanced electrocatalytic CO2 reduction via field-induced reagent concentration,” Nature 537(7620), 382–386 (2016).
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Wan, Y. Q.

Y. Q. Wan, Q. Guo, and N. Pan, “Thermo-electro-hydrodynamic model for electrospinning process,” Int. J. Nonlin. Sci. Num. 5(1), 5–8 (2004).
[Crossref]

Wang, C.

Y. Lu, J. Y. Huang, C. Wang, S. Sun, and J. Lou, “Cold welding of ultrathin gold nanowires,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(3), 218–224 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, S.

J. Liu, D. Yin, S. Wang, H. Y. Chen, and Z. Liu, “Probing low-copy-number proteins in a single living cell,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 55(42), 13215–13218 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, X.

J. Lin, Y. Shang, X. Li, J. Yu, X. Wang, and L. Guo, “Ultrasensitive SERS detection by defect engineering on single Cu2O superstructure particle,” Adv. Mater. 29(5), 1604797 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wu, B.

B. Wu, A. Heidelberg, J. J. Boland, J. E. Sader, X. Sun, and Y. Li, “Microstructure-hardened silver nanowires,” Nano Lett. 6(3), 468–472 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wu, J.

Q. Liu, R. Zou, J. Wu, K. Xu, A. Lu, Y. Bando, D. Golberg, and J. Hu, “Molten Au/Ge alloy migration in Ge nanowires,” Nano Lett. 15(5), 2809–2816 (2015).
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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic diagram of photoelectricity-mediated tip engineering on a single Ag nanowire. The panel in the upper right-hand corner of the image shows an SEM image of the Ag nanowires and a photograph of them suspended in ethanol (as used by us). The scale bar is 2 μm. The lower right-hand panels show a photograph of a single Ag nanowire arranged between the nano-electrodes.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 AFM images and surface height profiles of the Ag nanowires. (a) Original morphology and (c) morphology after 40 min of applied electric field. Panels (e) and (g) show the morphology after 10 and 40 min applications of the optoelectronic field, respectively. Panels (b), (d), (f), and (h) show the surface height profiles corresponding to panels (a), (c), (e), and (g). The surface height profile positions are marked in all panels with black, red, and blue lines.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Plasmon excitation for the Ag nanowire with the sharpened tip. (a) Schematic diagram of the Ag nanowire with the sharp tip. Panels (b) and (c) show an axial cross-sectional view of the light enhancement of the Ag nanowires with the original and the sharped tip, while (d) to (f) show radial cross-sectional views for the positions labeled i, ii, and iii in panel (c), respectively, of the light enhancement of the tip as it gradually decreases in size.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Panels (a) to (d) show the evolution of the light enhancements in the surface features of the Ag nanowire tip over time. Symmetric square holes were set on the Ag nanowire's top surface (100-nm-long wires), and the diameter gradually changed from a width and depth of about 20 and 30 nm, to 15 and 20 nm, and finally to 10 and 10 nm, respectively.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 SERS spectra of air-dried sodium tartrate (about 0.01 µL, 1 × 10−3 M) on a Ag nanowire; red line shows the spectra for the Ag nanowire with the original tip while the black line shows that for the Ag nanowire tip after the photoelectric field treatment. Dot lines are used to measure the heights of vibration peaks around 2950 cm−1.

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