Abstract

Whispering-gallery mode (WGM) microresonators have recently been employed as platforms for label-free single-molecule and single-particle detection, imaging, and spectroscopy. However, innovations in device geometry and integration are needed to make WGM microresonators more versatile for biological and chemical applications. Particularly, thick device substrates, originating from wafer-scale fabrication processing, prevent convenient optical interrogation. In this work, we fabricate all-glass toroidal microresonators on a coverslip thickness (~170 μm) substrate, enabling excitation delivery through the sample, simplifying optical integration. Further, we demonstrate the application of this new geometry for single-particle photothermal imaging. Finally, we discover and develop simulations to explain a non-trivial astigmatism in the point spread function (PSF) arising from the curvature of the resonator.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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2018 (1)

E. H. Horak, M. T. Rea, K. D. Heylman, D. Gelbwaser-Klimovsky, S. K. Saikin, B. J. Thompson, D. D. Kohler, K. A. Knapper, W. Wei, F. Pan, P. Gopalan, J. C. Wright, A. Aspuru-Guzik, and R. H. Goldsmith, “Exploring electronic structure and order in polymers via single-particle microresonator spectroscopy,” Nano Lett. 18(3), 1600–1607 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2017 (4)

L. Hou, S. Adhikari, Y. Tian, I. G. Scheblykin, and M. Orrit, “Absorption and quantum yield of single conjugated polymer poly 2-methoxy-5-(2-ethylhexyloxy)-1,4-phenylenevinylene (MEH-PPV) molecules,” Nano Lett. 17(3), 1575–1581 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. D. Heylman, K. A. Knapper, E. H. Horak, M. T. Rea, S. K. Vanga, and R. H. Goldsmith, “Optical microresonators for sensing and transduction: a materials perspective,” Adv. Mater. 29(30), 1700037 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Yilmaz, A. Pena-Francesch, R. Shreiner, H. H. Jung, Z. Belay, M. C. Demirel, S. K. Ozdemir, and L. Yang, “Structural protein-based whispering gallery mode resonators,” ACS Photonics 4(9), 2179–2186 (2017).
[Crossref]

N. Thakkar, M. T. Rea, K. C. Smith, K. D. Heylman, S. C. Quillin, K. A. Knapper, E. H. Horak, D. J. Masiello, and R. H. Goldsmith, “Sculpting Fano resonances to control photonic-plasmonic hybridization,” Nano Lett. 17(11), 6927–6934 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (8)

M. N. Hasan, M.-U. Haque, and Y. C. Lee, “Deastigmatism, circularization, and focusing of a laser diode beam using a single biconvex microlens,” Opt. Eng. 55(9), 095107 (2016).
[Crossref]

L. Xu, X. Jiang, G. Zhao, D. Ma, H. Tao, Z. Liu, F. G. Omenetto, and L. Yang, “High-Q silk fibroin whispering gallery microresonator,” Opt. Express 24(18), 20825–20830 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. H. Wade and R. C. Bailey, “Applications of optical microcavity resonators in analytical chemistry,” Annu. Rev. Anal. Chem. (Palo Alto, Calif.) 9(1), 1–25 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. X. Ding, L. Hou, H. Meer, A. P. Alivisatos, and M. Orrit, “Hundreds-fold Sensitivity Enhancement of Photothermal Microscopy in Near-Critical Xenon,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 7(13), 2524–2529 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. A. Knapper, K. D. Heylman, E. H. Horak, and R. H. Goldsmith, “Chip-scale fabrication of high-Q all-glass toroidal microresonators for single-particle label-free imaging,” Adv. Mater. 28(15), 2945–2950 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Yu, W. C. Jiang, Q. Lin, and T. Lu, “Cavity optomechanical spring sensing of single molecules,” Nat. Commun. 7, 12311 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. D. Baaske and F. Vollmer, “Optical observation of single atomic ions interacting with plasmonic nanorods in aqueous solution,” Nat. Photonics 10(11), 733–739 (2016).
[Crossref]

K. D. Heylman, N. Thakkar, E. H. Horak, S. C. Quillin, C. Cherqui, K. A. Knapper, D. J. Masiello, and R. H. Goldsmith, “Optical microresonators as single-particle absorption spectrometers,” Nat. Photonics 10(12), 788–795 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (3)

W. L. Weng, J. D. Anstie, and A. N. Luiten, “Refractometry with ultralow detection limit using anisotropic whispering-gallery-mode resonators,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 3(4), 044015 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. R. Foreman, J. D. Swaim, and F. Vollmer, “Whispering gallery mode sensors,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7(2), 168–240 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Yorulmaz, S. Nizzero, A. Hoggard, L. Y. Wang, Y. Y. Cai, M. N. Su, W. S. Chang, and S. Link, “Single-particle absorption spectroscopy by photothermal contrast,” Nano Lett. 15(5), 3041–3047 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (7)

M. Piliarik and V. Sandoghdar, “Direct optical sensing of single unlabelled proteins and super-resolution imaging of their binding sites,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 4495 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. K. Özdemir, J. Zhu, X. Yang, B. Peng, H. Yilmaz, L. He, F. Monifi, S. H. Huang, G. L. Long, and L. Yang, “Highly sensitive detection of nanoparticles with a self-referenced and self-heterodyned whispering-gallery Raman microlaser,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 111(37), E3836–E3844 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. B. Li, W. R. Clements, X. C. Yu, K. Shi, Q. Gong, and Y. F. Xiao, “Single nanoparticle detection using split-mode microcavity Raman lasers,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 111(41), 14657–14662 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. D. Heylman, K. A. Knapper, and R. H. Goldsmith, “Photothermal microscopy of nonluminescent single particles enabled by optical microresonators,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 5(11), 1917–1923 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. D. Baaske, M. R. Foreman, and F. Vollmer, “Single-molecule nucleic acid interactions monitored on a label-free microcavity biosensor platform,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(11), 933–939 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. A. Barnes, G. Gagliardi, and H. P. Loock, “Absolute absorption cross-section measurement of a submonolayer film on a silica microresonator,” Optica 1(2), 75–83 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Chen, H. Lin, J. Hu, and M. Li, “Heterogeneously integrated silicon photonics for the mid-infrared and spectroscopic sensing,” ACS Nano 8(7), 6955–6961 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (6)

M. S. Devadas, Z. Li, T. A. Major, S. S. Lo, N. Havard, K. Yu, P. Johns, and G. V. Hartland, “Detection of single gold nanoparticles using spatial modulation spectroscopy implemented with a galvo-scanning mirror system,” Appl. Opt. 52(32), 7806–7811 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. C. Blancon, M. Paillet, H. N. Tran, X. T. Than, S. A. Guebrou, A. Ayari, A. San Miguel, N. M. Phan, A. A. Zahab, J. L. Sauvajol, N. Del Fatti, and F. Vallée, “Direct measurement of the absolute absorption spectrum of individual semiconducting single-wall carbon nanotubes,” Nat. Commun. 4(1), 2542 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. R. Dantham, S. Holler, C. Barbre, D. Keng, V. Kolchenko, and S. Arnold, “Label-free detection of single protein using a nanoplasmonic-photonic hybrid microcavity,” Nano Lett. 13(7), 3347–3351 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. D. Heylman and R. H. Goldsmith, “Photothermal mapping and free-space laser tuning of toroidal optical microcavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(21), 211116 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. D. Swaim, J. Knittel, and W. P. Bowen, “Detection of nanoparticles with a frequency locked whispering gallery mode microresonator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(18), 183016 (2013).
[Crossref]

L. Shao, X. F. Jiang, X. C. Yu, B. B. Li, W. R. Clements, F. Vollmer, W. Wang, Y. F. Xiao, and Q. Gong, “Detection of single nanoparticles and lentiviruses using microcavity resonance broadening,” Adv. Mater. 25(39), 5616–5620 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (2)

A. N. G. Parra-Vasquez, L. Oudjedi, L. Cognet, and B. Lounis, “Nanoscale thermotropic phase transitions enhancing photothermal microscopy signals,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 3(10), 1400–1403 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. S. Chang and S. Link, “Enhancing the sensitivity of single-particle photothermal imaging with thermotropic liquid crystals,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 3(10), 1393–1399 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (3)

L. He, S. K. Ozdemir, J. Zhu, W. Kim, and L. Yang, “Detecting single viruses and nanoparticles using whispering gallery microlasers,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(7), 428–432 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Lu, H. Lee, T. Chen, S. Herchak, J. H. Kim, S. E. Fraser, R. C. Flagan, and K. Vahala, “High sensitivity nanoparticle detection using optical microcavities,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(15), 5976–5979 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Celebrano, P. Kukura, A. Renn, and V. Sandoghdar, “Single-molecule imaging by optical absorption,” Nat. Photonics 5(2), 95–98 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

S. S. Chong, W. Min, and X. S. Xie, “Ground-state depletion microscopy: detection sensitivity of single-molecule optical absorption at room temperature,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 1(23), 3316–3322 (2010).
[Crossref]

A. Gaiduk, M. Yorulmaz, P. V. Ruijgrok, and M. Orrit, “Room-temperature detection of a single molecule’s absorption by photothermal contrast,” Science 330(6002), 353–356 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (2)

L. Cognet, S. Berciaud, D. Lasne, and B. Lounis, “Photothermal methods for single nonluminescent nano-objects,” Anal. Chem. 80(7), 2288–2294 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Vollmer, S. Arnold, and D. Keng, “Single virus detection from the reactive shift of a whispering-gallery mode,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105(52), 20701–20704 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

A. M. Armani, A. Srinivasan, and K. J. Vahala, “Soft lithographic fabrication of high Q polymer microcavity arrays,” Nano Lett. 7(6), 1823–1826 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Hossein-Zadeh and K. J. Vahala, “Free ultra-high-Q microtoroid: a tool for designing photonic devices,” Opt. Express 15(1), 166–175 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

2003 (2)

W. E. Moerner and D. P. Fromm, “Methods of single-molecule fluorescence spectroscopy and microscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74(8), 3597–3619 (2003).
[Crossref]

D. K. Armani, T. J. Kippenberg, S. M. Spillane, and K. J. Vahala, “Ultra-high-Q toroid microcavity on a chip,” Nature 421(6926), 925–928 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

E. D. Black, “An introduction to Pound-Drever-Hall laser frequency stabilization,” Am. J. Phys. 69(1), 79–87 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

1998 (1)

R. M. Dickson, D. J. Norris, and W. E. Moerner, “Simultaneous imaging of individual molecules aligned both parallel and perpendicular to the optic axis,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81(24), 5322–5325 (1998).
[Crossref]

1993 (1)

E. Betzig and R. J. Chichester, “Single molecules observed by near-field scanning optical microscopy,” Science 262(5138), 1422–1425 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1986 (1)

1979 (1)

1969 (2)

Adhikari, S.

L. Hou, S. Adhikari, Y. Tian, I. G. Scheblykin, and M. Orrit, “Absorption and quantum yield of single conjugated polymer poly 2-methoxy-5-(2-ethylhexyloxy)-1,4-phenylenevinylene (MEH-PPV) molecules,” Nano Lett. 17(3), 1575–1581 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Alivisatos, A. P.

T. X. Ding, L. Hou, H. Meer, A. P. Alivisatos, and M. Orrit, “Hundreds-fold Sensitivity Enhancement of Photothermal Microscopy in Near-Critical Xenon,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 7(13), 2524–2529 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ann, B. N.

Anstie, J. D.

W. L. Weng, J. D. Anstie, and A. N. Luiten, “Refractometry with ultralow detection limit using anisotropic whispering-gallery-mode resonators,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 3(4), 044015 (2015).
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Armani, A. M.

A. M. Armani, A. Srinivasan, and K. J. Vahala, “Soft lithographic fabrication of high Q polymer microcavity arrays,” Nano Lett. 7(6), 1823–1826 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Armani, D. K.

D. K. Armani, T. J. Kippenberg, S. M. Spillane, and K. J. Vahala, “Ultra-high-Q toroid microcavity on a chip,” Nature 421(6926), 925–928 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Arnaud, J. A.

Arnold, S.

V. R. Dantham, S. Holler, C. Barbre, D. Keng, V. Kolchenko, and S. Arnold, “Label-free detection of single protein using a nanoplasmonic-photonic hybrid microcavity,” Nano Lett. 13(7), 3347–3351 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Vollmer, S. Arnold, and D. Keng, “Single virus detection from the reactive shift of a whispering-gallery mode,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105(52), 20701–20704 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aspuru-Guzik, A.

E. H. Horak, M. T. Rea, K. D. Heylman, D. Gelbwaser-Klimovsky, S. K. Saikin, B. J. Thompson, D. D. Kohler, K. A. Knapper, W. Wei, F. Pan, P. Gopalan, J. C. Wright, A. Aspuru-Guzik, and R. H. Goldsmith, “Exploring electronic structure and order in polymers via single-particle microresonator spectroscopy,” Nano Lett. 18(3), 1600–1607 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ayari, A.

J. C. Blancon, M. Paillet, H. N. Tran, X. T. Than, S. A. Guebrou, A. Ayari, A. San Miguel, N. M. Phan, A. A. Zahab, J. L. Sauvajol, N. Del Fatti, and F. Vallée, “Direct measurement of the absolute absorption spectrum of individual semiconducting single-wall carbon nanotubes,” Nat. Commun. 4(1), 2542 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baaske, M. D.

M. D. Baaske and F. Vollmer, “Optical observation of single atomic ions interacting with plasmonic nanorods in aqueous solution,” Nat. Photonics 10(11), 733–739 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. D. Baaske, M. R. Foreman, and F. Vollmer, “Single-molecule nucleic acid interactions monitored on a label-free microcavity biosensor platform,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(11), 933–939 (2014).
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Bailey, R. C.

J. H. Wade and R. C. Bailey, “Applications of optical microcavity resonators in analytical chemistry,” Annu. Rev. Anal. Chem. (Palo Alto, Calif.) 9(1), 1–25 (2016).
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Barbre, C.

V. R. Dantham, S. Holler, C. Barbre, D. Keng, V. Kolchenko, and S. Arnold, “Label-free detection of single protein using a nanoplasmonic-photonic hybrid microcavity,” Nano Lett. 13(7), 3347–3351 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Barnes, J. A.

Belay, Z.

H. Yilmaz, A. Pena-Francesch, R. Shreiner, H. H. Jung, Z. Belay, M. C. Demirel, S. K. Ozdemir, and L. Yang, “Structural protein-based whispering gallery mode resonators,” ACS Photonics 4(9), 2179–2186 (2017).
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Berciaud, S.

L. Cognet, S. Berciaud, D. Lasne, and B. Lounis, “Photothermal methods for single nonluminescent nano-objects,” Anal. Chem. 80(7), 2288–2294 (2008).
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E. Betzig and R. J. Chichester, “Single molecules observed by near-field scanning optical microscopy,” Science 262(5138), 1422–1425 (1993).
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E. D. Black, “An introduction to Pound-Drever-Hall laser frequency stabilization,” Am. J. Phys. 69(1), 79–87 (2001).
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Blancon, J. C.

J. C. Blancon, M. Paillet, H. N. Tran, X. T. Than, S. A. Guebrou, A. Ayari, A. San Miguel, N. M. Phan, A. A. Zahab, J. L. Sauvajol, N. Del Fatti, and F. Vallée, “Direct measurement of the absolute absorption spectrum of individual semiconducting single-wall carbon nanotubes,” Nat. Commun. 4(1), 2542 (2013).
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Bowen, W. P.

J. D. Swaim, J. Knittel, and W. P. Bowen, “Detection of nanoparticles with a frequency locked whispering gallery mode microresonator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(18), 183016 (2013).
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Cai, Y. Y.

M. Yorulmaz, S. Nizzero, A. Hoggard, L. Y. Wang, Y. Y. Cai, M. N. Su, W. S. Chang, and S. Link, “Single-particle absorption spectroscopy by photothermal contrast,” Nano Lett. 15(5), 3041–3047 (2015).
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Carmon, T.

Celebrano, M.

M. Celebrano, P. Kukura, A. Renn, and V. Sandoghdar, “Single-molecule imaging by optical absorption,” Nat. Photonics 5(2), 95–98 (2011).
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Chang, W. S.

M. Yorulmaz, S. Nizzero, A. Hoggard, L. Y. Wang, Y. Y. Cai, M. N. Su, W. S. Chang, and S. Link, “Single-particle absorption spectroscopy by photothermal contrast,” Nano Lett. 15(5), 3041–3047 (2015).
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W. S. Chang and S. Link, “Enhancing the sensitivity of single-particle photothermal imaging with thermotropic liquid crystals,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 3(10), 1393–1399 (2012).
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Chen, T.

T. Lu, H. Lee, T. Chen, S. Herchak, J. H. Kim, S. E. Fraser, R. C. Flagan, and K. Vahala, “High sensitivity nanoparticle detection using optical microcavities,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(15), 5976–5979 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, Y.

Y. Chen, H. Lin, J. Hu, and M. Li, “Heterogeneously integrated silicon photonics for the mid-infrared and spectroscopic sensing,” ACS Nano 8(7), 6955–6961 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cherqui, C.

K. D. Heylman, N. Thakkar, E. H. Horak, S. C. Quillin, C. Cherqui, K. A. Knapper, D. J. Masiello, and R. H. Goldsmith, “Optical microresonators as single-particle absorption spectrometers,” Nat. Photonics 10(12), 788–795 (2016).
[Crossref]

Chichester, R. J.

E. Betzig and R. J. Chichester, “Single molecules observed by near-field scanning optical microscopy,” Science 262(5138), 1422–1425 (1993).
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Chong, S. S.

S. S. Chong, W. Min, and X. S. Xie, “Ground-state depletion microscopy: detection sensitivity of single-molecule optical absorption at room temperature,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 1(23), 3316–3322 (2010).
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Clements, W. R.

B. B. Li, W. R. Clements, X. C. Yu, K. Shi, Q. Gong, and Y. F. Xiao, “Single nanoparticle detection using split-mode microcavity Raman lasers,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 111(41), 14657–14662 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Shao, X. F. Jiang, X. C. Yu, B. B. Li, W. R. Clements, F. Vollmer, W. Wang, Y. F. Xiao, and Q. Gong, “Detection of single nanoparticles and lentiviruses using microcavity resonance broadening,” Adv. Mater. 25(39), 5616–5620 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cognet, L.

A. N. G. Parra-Vasquez, L. Oudjedi, L. Cognet, and B. Lounis, “Nanoscale thermotropic phase transitions enhancing photothermal microscopy signals,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 3(10), 1400–1403 (2012).
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L. Cognet, S. Berciaud, D. Lasne, and B. Lounis, “Photothermal methods for single nonluminescent nano-objects,” Anal. Chem. 80(7), 2288–2294 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Daly, J. C.

Dantham, V. R.

V. R. Dantham, S. Holler, C. Barbre, D. Keng, V. Kolchenko, and S. Arnold, “Label-free detection of single protein using a nanoplasmonic-photonic hybrid microcavity,” Nano Lett. 13(7), 3347–3351 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Del Fatti, N.

J. C. Blancon, M. Paillet, H. N. Tran, X. T. Than, S. A. Guebrou, A. Ayari, A. San Miguel, N. M. Phan, A. A. Zahab, J. L. Sauvajol, N. Del Fatti, and F. Vallée, “Direct measurement of the absolute absorption spectrum of individual semiconducting single-wall carbon nanotubes,” Nat. Commun. 4(1), 2542 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Demirel, M. C.

H. Yilmaz, A. Pena-Francesch, R. Shreiner, H. H. Jung, Z. Belay, M. C. Demirel, S. K. Ozdemir, and L. Yang, “Structural protein-based whispering gallery mode resonators,” ACS Photonics 4(9), 2179–2186 (2017).
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Devadas, M. S.

Dickson, R. M.

R. M. Dickson, D. J. Norris, and W. E. Moerner, “Simultaneous imaging of individual molecules aligned both parallel and perpendicular to the optic axis,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81(24), 5322–5325 (1998).
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Ding, T. X.

T. X. Ding, L. Hou, H. Meer, A. P. Alivisatos, and M. Orrit, “Hundreds-fold Sensitivity Enhancement of Photothermal Microscopy in Near-Critical Xenon,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 7(13), 2524–2529 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Flagan, R. C.

T. Lu, H. Lee, T. Chen, S. Herchak, J. H. Kim, S. E. Fraser, R. C. Flagan, and K. Vahala, “High sensitivity nanoparticle detection using optical microcavities,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(15), 5976–5979 (2011).
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Foreman, M. R.

M. R. Foreman, J. D. Swaim, and F. Vollmer, “Whispering gallery mode sensors,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7(2), 168–240 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. D. Baaske, M. R. Foreman, and F. Vollmer, “Single-molecule nucleic acid interactions monitored on a label-free microcavity biosensor platform,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(11), 933–939 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fraser, S. E.

T. Lu, H. Lee, T. Chen, S. Herchak, J. H. Kim, S. E. Fraser, R. C. Flagan, and K. Vahala, “High sensitivity nanoparticle detection using optical microcavities,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(15), 5976–5979 (2011).
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Fromm, D. P.

W. E. Moerner and D. P. Fromm, “Methods of single-molecule fluorescence spectroscopy and microscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74(8), 3597–3619 (2003).
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Gagliardi, G.

Gaiduk, A.

A. Gaiduk, M. Yorulmaz, P. V. Ruijgrok, and M. Orrit, “Room-temperature detection of a single molecule’s absorption by photothermal contrast,” Science 330(6002), 353–356 (2010).
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Gelbwaser-Klimovsky, D.

E. H. Horak, M. T. Rea, K. D. Heylman, D. Gelbwaser-Klimovsky, S. K. Saikin, B. J. Thompson, D. D. Kohler, K. A. Knapper, W. Wei, F. Pan, P. Gopalan, J. C. Wright, A. Aspuru-Guzik, and R. H. Goldsmith, “Exploring electronic structure and order in polymers via single-particle microresonator spectroscopy,” Nano Lett. 18(3), 1600–1607 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Goldsmith, R. H.

E. H. Horak, M. T. Rea, K. D. Heylman, D. Gelbwaser-Klimovsky, S. K. Saikin, B. J. Thompson, D. D. Kohler, K. A. Knapper, W. Wei, F. Pan, P. Gopalan, J. C. Wright, A. Aspuru-Guzik, and R. H. Goldsmith, “Exploring electronic structure and order in polymers via single-particle microresonator spectroscopy,” Nano Lett. 18(3), 1600–1607 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Thakkar, M. T. Rea, K. C. Smith, K. D. Heylman, S. C. Quillin, K. A. Knapper, E. H. Horak, D. J. Masiello, and R. H. Goldsmith, “Sculpting Fano resonances to control photonic-plasmonic hybridization,” Nano Lett. 17(11), 6927–6934 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. D. Heylman, K. A. Knapper, E. H. Horak, M. T. Rea, S. K. Vanga, and R. H. Goldsmith, “Optical microresonators for sensing and transduction: a materials perspective,” Adv. Mater. 29(30), 1700037 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. D. Heylman, N. Thakkar, E. H. Horak, S. C. Quillin, C. Cherqui, K. A. Knapper, D. J. Masiello, and R. H. Goldsmith, “Optical microresonators as single-particle absorption spectrometers,” Nat. Photonics 10(12), 788–795 (2016).
[Crossref]

K. A. Knapper, K. D. Heylman, E. H. Horak, and R. H. Goldsmith, “Chip-scale fabrication of high-Q all-glass toroidal microresonators for single-particle label-free imaging,” Adv. Mater. 28(15), 2945–2950 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. D. Heylman, K. A. Knapper, and R. H. Goldsmith, “Photothermal microscopy of nonluminescent single particles enabled by optical microresonators,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 5(11), 1917–1923 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. D. Heylman and R. H. Goldsmith, “Photothermal mapping and free-space laser tuning of toroidal optical microcavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(21), 211116 (2013).
[Crossref]

Gong, Q.

B. B. Li, W. R. Clements, X. C. Yu, K. Shi, Q. Gong, and Y. F. Xiao, “Single nanoparticle detection using split-mode microcavity Raman lasers,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 111(41), 14657–14662 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Shao, X. F. Jiang, X. C. Yu, B. B. Li, W. R. Clements, F. Vollmer, W. Wang, Y. F. Xiao, and Q. Gong, “Detection of single nanoparticles and lentiviruses using microcavity resonance broadening,” Adv. Mater. 25(39), 5616–5620 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gopalan, P.

E. H. Horak, M. T. Rea, K. D. Heylman, D. Gelbwaser-Klimovsky, S. K. Saikin, B. J. Thompson, D. D. Kohler, K. A. Knapper, W. Wei, F. Pan, P. Gopalan, J. C. Wright, A. Aspuru-Guzik, and R. H. Goldsmith, “Exploring electronic structure and order in polymers via single-particle microresonator spectroscopy,” Nano Lett. 18(3), 1600–1607 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Guebrou, S. A.

J. C. Blancon, M. Paillet, H. N. Tran, X. T. Than, S. A. Guebrou, A. Ayari, A. San Miguel, N. M. Phan, A. A. Zahab, J. L. Sauvajol, N. Del Fatti, and F. Vallée, “Direct measurement of the absolute absorption spectrum of individual semiconducting single-wall carbon nanotubes,” Nat. Commun. 4(1), 2542 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Haque, M.-U.

M. N. Hasan, M.-U. Haque, and Y. C. Lee, “Deastigmatism, circularization, and focusing of a laser diode beam using a single biconvex microlens,” Opt. Eng. 55(9), 095107 (2016).
[Crossref]

Hartland, G. V.

Hasan, M. N.

M. N. Hasan, M.-U. Haque, and Y. C. Lee, “Deastigmatism, circularization, and focusing of a laser diode beam using a single biconvex microlens,” Opt. Eng. 55(9), 095107 (2016).
[Crossref]

Havard, N.

He, L.

S. K. Özdemir, J. Zhu, X. Yang, B. Peng, H. Yilmaz, L. He, F. Monifi, S. H. Huang, G. L. Long, and L. Yang, “Highly sensitive detection of nanoparticles with a self-referenced and self-heterodyned whispering-gallery Raman microlaser,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 111(37), E3836–E3844 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. He, S. K. Ozdemir, J. Zhu, W. Kim, and L. Yang, “Detecting single viruses and nanoparticles using whispering gallery microlasers,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(7), 428–432 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Herchak, S.

T. Lu, H. Lee, T. Chen, S. Herchak, J. H. Kim, S. E. Fraser, R. C. Flagan, and K. Vahala, “High sensitivity nanoparticle detection using optical microcavities,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(15), 5976–5979 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Heylman, K. D.

E. H. Horak, M. T. Rea, K. D. Heylman, D. Gelbwaser-Klimovsky, S. K. Saikin, B. J. Thompson, D. D. Kohler, K. A. Knapper, W. Wei, F. Pan, P. Gopalan, J. C. Wright, A. Aspuru-Guzik, and R. H. Goldsmith, “Exploring electronic structure and order in polymers via single-particle microresonator spectroscopy,” Nano Lett. 18(3), 1600–1607 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Thakkar, M. T. Rea, K. C. Smith, K. D. Heylman, S. C. Quillin, K. A. Knapper, E. H. Horak, D. J. Masiello, and R. H. Goldsmith, “Sculpting Fano resonances to control photonic-plasmonic hybridization,” Nano Lett. 17(11), 6927–6934 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. D. Heylman, K. A. Knapper, E. H. Horak, M. T. Rea, S. K. Vanga, and R. H. Goldsmith, “Optical microresonators for sensing and transduction: a materials perspective,” Adv. Mater. 29(30), 1700037 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. D. Heylman, N. Thakkar, E. H. Horak, S. C. Quillin, C. Cherqui, K. A. Knapper, D. J. Masiello, and R. H. Goldsmith, “Optical microresonators as single-particle absorption spectrometers,” Nat. Photonics 10(12), 788–795 (2016).
[Crossref]

K. A. Knapper, K. D. Heylman, E. H. Horak, and R. H. Goldsmith, “Chip-scale fabrication of high-Q all-glass toroidal microresonators for single-particle label-free imaging,” Adv. Mater. 28(15), 2945–2950 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. D. Heylman, K. A. Knapper, and R. H. Goldsmith, “Photothermal microscopy of nonluminescent single particles enabled by optical microresonators,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 5(11), 1917–1923 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. D. Heylman and R. H. Goldsmith, “Photothermal mapping and free-space laser tuning of toroidal optical microcavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(21), 211116 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hoggard, A.

M. Yorulmaz, S. Nizzero, A. Hoggard, L. Y. Wang, Y. Y. Cai, M. N. Su, W. S. Chang, and S. Link, “Single-particle absorption spectroscopy by photothermal contrast,” Nano Lett. 15(5), 3041–3047 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Holler, S.

V. R. Dantham, S. Holler, C. Barbre, D. Keng, V. Kolchenko, and S. Arnold, “Label-free detection of single protein using a nanoplasmonic-photonic hybrid microcavity,” Nano Lett. 13(7), 3347–3351 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Horak, E. H.

E. H. Horak, M. T. Rea, K. D. Heylman, D. Gelbwaser-Klimovsky, S. K. Saikin, B. J. Thompson, D. D. Kohler, K. A. Knapper, W. Wei, F. Pan, P. Gopalan, J. C. Wright, A. Aspuru-Guzik, and R. H. Goldsmith, “Exploring electronic structure and order in polymers via single-particle microresonator spectroscopy,” Nano Lett. 18(3), 1600–1607 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Thakkar, M. T. Rea, K. C. Smith, K. D. Heylman, S. C. Quillin, K. A. Knapper, E. H. Horak, D. J. Masiello, and R. H. Goldsmith, “Sculpting Fano resonances to control photonic-plasmonic hybridization,” Nano Lett. 17(11), 6927–6934 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. D. Heylman, K. A. Knapper, E. H. Horak, M. T. Rea, S. K. Vanga, and R. H. Goldsmith, “Optical microresonators for sensing and transduction: a materials perspective,” Adv. Mater. 29(30), 1700037 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. D. Heylman, N. Thakkar, E. H. Horak, S. C. Quillin, C. Cherqui, K. A. Knapper, D. J. Masiello, and R. H. Goldsmith, “Optical microresonators as single-particle absorption spectrometers,” Nat. Photonics 10(12), 788–795 (2016).
[Crossref]

K. A. Knapper, K. D. Heylman, E. H. Horak, and R. H. Goldsmith, “Chip-scale fabrication of high-Q all-glass toroidal microresonators for single-particle label-free imaging,” Adv. Mater. 28(15), 2945–2950 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hossein-Zadeh, M.

Hou, L.

L. Hou, S. Adhikari, Y. Tian, I. G. Scheblykin, and M. Orrit, “Absorption and quantum yield of single conjugated polymer poly 2-methoxy-5-(2-ethylhexyloxy)-1,4-phenylenevinylene (MEH-PPV) molecules,” Nano Lett. 17(3), 1575–1581 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. X. Ding, L. Hou, H. Meer, A. P. Alivisatos, and M. Orrit, “Hundreds-fold Sensitivity Enhancement of Photothermal Microscopy in Near-Critical Xenon,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 7(13), 2524–2529 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hu, J.

Y. Chen, H. Lin, J. Hu, and M. Li, “Heterogeneously integrated silicon photonics for the mid-infrared and spectroscopic sensing,” ACS Nano 8(7), 6955–6961 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huang, S. H.

S. K. Özdemir, J. Zhu, X. Yang, B. Peng, H. Yilmaz, L. He, F. Monifi, S. H. Huang, G. L. Long, and L. Yang, “Highly sensitive detection of nanoparticles with a self-referenced and self-heterodyned whispering-gallery Raman microlaser,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 111(37), E3836–E3844 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jiang, W. C.

W. Yu, W. C. Jiang, Q. Lin, and T. Lu, “Cavity optomechanical spring sensing of single molecules,” Nat. Commun. 7, 12311 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jiang, X.

Jiang, X. F.

L. Shao, X. F. Jiang, X. C. Yu, B. B. Li, W. R. Clements, F. Vollmer, W. Wang, Y. F. Xiao, and Q. Gong, “Detection of single nanoparticles and lentiviruses using microcavity resonance broadening,” Adv. Mater. 25(39), 5616–5620 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Johns, P.

Jung, H. H.

H. Yilmaz, A. Pena-Francesch, R. Shreiner, H. H. Jung, Z. Belay, M. C. Demirel, S. K. Ozdemir, and L. Yang, “Structural protein-based whispering gallery mode resonators,” ACS Photonics 4(9), 2179–2186 (2017).
[Crossref]

Keng, D.

V. R. Dantham, S. Holler, C. Barbre, D. Keng, V. Kolchenko, and S. Arnold, “Label-free detection of single protein using a nanoplasmonic-photonic hybrid microcavity,” Nano Lett. 13(7), 3347–3351 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Vollmer, S. Arnold, and D. Keng, “Single virus detection from the reactive shift of a whispering-gallery mode,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105(52), 20701–20704 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, J. H.

T. Lu, H. Lee, T. Chen, S. Herchak, J. H. Kim, S. E. Fraser, R. C. Flagan, and K. Vahala, “High sensitivity nanoparticle detection using optical microcavities,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(15), 5976–5979 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, W.

L. He, S. K. Ozdemir, J. Zhu, W. Kim, and L. Yang, “Detecting single viruses and nanoparticles using whispering gallery microlasers,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(7), 428–432 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kippenberg, T.

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D. K. Armani, T. J. Kippenberg, S. M. Spillane, and K. J. Vahala, “Ultra-high-Q toroid microcavity on a chip,” Nature 421(6926), 925–928 (2003).
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Vallée, F.

J. C. Blancon, M. Paillet, H. N. Tran, X. T. Than, S. A. Guebrou, A. Ayari, A. San Miguel, N. M. Phan, A. A. Zahab, J. L. Sauvajol, N. Del Fatti, and F. Vallée, “Direct measurement of the absolute absorption spectrum of individual semiconducting single-wall carbon nanotubes,” Nat. Commun. 4(1), 2542 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vanga, S. K.

K. D. Heylman, K. A. Knapper, E. H. Horak, M. T. Rea, S. K. Vanga, and R. H. Goldsmith, “Optical microresonators for sensing and transduction: a materials perspective,” Adv. Mater. 29(30), 1700037 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vollmer, F.

M. D. Baaske and F. Vollmer, “Optical observation of single atomic ions interacting with plasmonic nanorods in aqueous solution,” Nat. Photonics 10(11), 733–739 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. R. Foreman, J. D. Swaim, and F. Vollmer, “Whispering gallery mode sensors,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7(2), 168–240 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. D. Baaske, M. R. Foreman, and F. Vollmer, “Single-molecule nucleic acid interactions monitored on a label-free microcavity biosensor platform,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(11), 933–939 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Shao, X. F. Jiang, X. C. Yu, B. B. Li, W. R. Clements, F. Vollmer, W. Wang, Y. F. Xiao, and Q. Gong, “Detection of single nanoparticles and lentiviruses using microcavity resonance broadening,” Adv. Mater. 25(39), 5616–5620 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Vollmer, S. Arnold, and D. Keng, “Single virus detection from the reactive shift of a whispering-gallery mode,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105(52), 20701–20704 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wade, J. H.

J. H. Wade and R. C. Bailey, “Applications of optical microcavity resonators in analytical chemistry,” Annu. Rev. Anal. Chem. (Palo Alto, Calif.) 9(1), 1–25 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, L. Y.

M. Yorulmaz, S. Nizzero, A. Hoggard, L. Y. Wang, Y. Y. Cai, M. N. Su, W. S. Chang, and S. Link, “Single-particle absorption spectroscopy by photothermal contrast,” Nano Lett. 15(5), 3041–3047 (2015).
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Wang, W.

L. Shao, X. F. Jiang, X. C. Yu, B. B. Li, W. R. Clements, F. Vollmer, W. Wang, Y. F. Xiao, and Q. Gong, “Detection of single nanoparticles and lentiviruses using microcavity resonance broadening,” Adv. Mater. 25(39), 5616–5620 (2013).
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E. H. Horak, M. T. Rea, K. D. Heylman, D. Gelbwaser-Klimovsky, S. K. Saikin, B. J. Thompson, D. D. Kohler, K. A. Knapper, W. Wei, F. Pan, P. Gopalan, J. C. Wright, A. Aspuru-Guzik, and R. H. Goldsmith, “Exploring electronic structure and order in polymers via single-particle microresonator spectroscopy,” Nano Lett. 18(3), 1600–1607 (2018).
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W. L. Weng, J. D. Anstie, and A. N. Luiten, “Refractometry with ultralow detection limit using anisotropic whispering-gallery-mode resonators,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 3(4), 044015 (2015).
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E. H. Horak, M. T. Rea, K. D. Heylman, D. Gelbwaser-Klimovsky, S. K. Saikin, B. J. Thompson, D. D. Kohler, K. A. Knapper, W. Wei, F. Pan, P. Gopalan, J. C. Wright, A. Aspuru-Guzik, and R. H. Goldsmith, “Exploring electronic structure and order in polymers via single-particle microresonator spectroscopy,” Nano Lett. 18(3), 1600–1607 (2018).
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B. B. Li, W. R. Clements, X. C. Yu, K. Shi, Q. Gong, and Y. F. Xiao, “Single nanoparticle detection using split-mode microcavity Raman lasers,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 111(41), 14657–14662 (2014).
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L. Shao, X. F. Jiang, X. C. Yu, B. B. Li, W. R. Clements, F. Vollmer, W. Wang, Y. F. Xiao, and Q. Gong, “Detection of single nanoparticles and lentiviruses using microcavity resonance broadening,” Adv. Mater. 25(39), 5616–5620 (2013).
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S. S. Chong, W. Min, and X. S. Xie, “Ground-state depletion microscopy: detection sensitivity of single-molecule optical absorption at room temperature,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 1(23), 3316–3322 (2010).
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Yang, L.

H. Yilmaz, A. Pena-Francesch, R. Shreiner, H. H. Jung, Z. Belay, M. C. Demirel, S. K. Ozdemir, and L. Yang, “Structural protein-based whispering gallery mode resonators,” ACS Photonics 4(9), 2179–2186 (2017).
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L. He, S. K. Ozdemir, J. Zhu, W. Kim, and L. Yang, “Detecting single viruses and nanoparticles using whispering gallery microlasers,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(7), 428–432 (2011).
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Yilmaz, H.

H. Yilmaz, A. Pena-Francesch, R. Shreiner, H. H. Jung, Z. Belay, M. C. Demirel, S. K. Ozdemir, and L. Yang, “Structural protein-based whispering gallery mode resonators,” ACS Photonics 4(9), 2179–2186 (2017).
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S. K. Özdemir, J. Zhu, X. Yang, B. Peng, H. Yilmaz, L. He, F. Monifi, S. H. Huang, G. L. Long, and L. Yang, “Highly sensitive detection of nanoparticles with a self-referenced and self-heterodyned whispering-gallery Raman microlaser,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 111(37), E3836–E3844 (2014).
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M. Yorulmaz, S. Nizzero, A. Hoggard, L. Y. Wang, Y. Y. Cai, M. N. Su, W. S. Chang, and S. Link, “Single-particle absorption spectroscopy by photothermal contrast,” Nano Lett. 15(5), 3041–3047 (2015).
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A. Gaiduk, M. Yorulmaz, P. V. Ruijgrok, and M. Orrit, “Room-temperature detection of a single molecule’s absorption by photothermal contrast,” Science 330(6002), 353–356 (2010).
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Yu, W.

W. Yu, W. C. Jiang, Q. Lin, and T. Lu, “Cavity optomechanical spring sensing of single molecules,” Nat. Commun. 7, 12311 (2016).
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B. B. Li, W. R. Clements, X. C. Yu, K. Shi, Q. Gong, and Y. F. Xiao, “Single nanoparticle detection using split-mode microcavity Raman lasers,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 111(41), 14657–14662 (2014).
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L. Shao, X. F. Jiang, X. C. Yu, B. B. Li, W. R. Clements, F. Vollmer, W. Wang, Y. F. Xiao, and Q. Gong, “Detection of single nanoparticles and lentiviruses using microcavity resonance broadening,” Adv. Mater. 25(39), 5616–5620 (2013).
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J. C. Blancon, M. Paillet, H. N. Tran, X. T. Than, S. A. Guebrou, A. Ayari, A. San Miguel, N. M. Phan, A. A. Zahab, J. L. Sauvajol, N. Del Fatti, and F. Vallée, “Direct measurement of the absolute absorption spectrum of individual semiconducting single-wall carbon nanotubes,” Nat. Commun. 4(1), 2542 (2013).
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Zhao, G.

Zhou, X. Q.

Zhu, J.

S. K. Özdemir, J. Zhu, X. Yang, B. Peng, H. Yilmaz, L. He, F. Monifi, S. H. Huang, G. L. Long, and L. Yang, “Highly sensitive detection of nanoparticles with a self-referenced and self-heterodyned whispering-gallery Raman microlaser,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 111(37), E3836–E3844 (2014).
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L. He, S. K. Ozdemir, J. Zhu, W. Kim, and L. Yang, “Detecting single viruses and nanoparticles using whispering gallery microlasers,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(7), 428–432 (2011).
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Y. Chen, H. Lin, J. Hu, and M. Li, “Heterogeneously integrated silicon photonics for the mid-infrared and spectroscopic sensing,” ACS Nano 8(7), 6955–6961 (2014).
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H. Yilmaz, A. Pena-Francesch, R. Shreiner, H. H. Jung, Z. Belay, M. C. Demirel, S. K. Ozdemir, and L. Yang, “Structural protein-based whispering gallery mode resonators,” ACS Photonics 4(9), 2179–2186 (2017).
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K. D. Heylman, K. A. Knapper, E. H. Horak, M. T. Rea, S. K. Vanga, and R. H. Goldsmith, “Optical microresonators for sensing and transduction: a materials perspective,” Adv. Mater. 29(30), 1700037 (2017).
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L. Shao, X. F. Jiang, X. C. Yu, B. B. Li, W. R. Clements, F. Vollmer, W. Wang, Y. F. Xiao, and Q. Gong, “Detection of single nanoparticles and lentiviruses using microcavity resonance broadening,” Adv. Mater. 25(39), 5616–5620 (2013).
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Adv. Opt. Photonics (1)

M. R. Foreman, J. D. Swaim, and F. Vollmer, “Whispering gallery mode sensors,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7(2), 168–240 (2015).
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Annu. Rev. Anal. Chem. (Palo Alto, Calif.) (1)

J. H. Wade and R. C. Bailey, “Applications of optical microcavity resonators in analytical chemistry,” Annu. Rev. Anal. Chem. (Palo Alto, Calif.) 9(1), 1–25 (2016).
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Appl. Opt. (6)

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K. D. Heylman and R. H. Goldsmith, “Photothermal mapping and free-space laser tuning of toroidal optical microcavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(21), 211116 (2013).
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K. D. Heylman, K. A. Knapper, and R. H. Goldsmith, “Photothermal microscopy of nonluminescent single particles enabled by optical microresonators,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 5(11), 1917–1923 (2014).
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Nano Lett. (6)

L. Hou, S. Adhikari, Y. Tian, I. G. Scheblykin, and M. Orrit, “Absorption and quantum yield of single conjugated polymer poly 2-methoxy-5-(2-ethylhexyloxy)-1,4-phenylenevinylene (MEH-PPV) molecules,” Nano Lett. 17(3), 1575–1581 (2017).
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M. Yorulmaz, S. Nizzero, A. Hoggard, L. Y. Wang, Y. Y. Cai, M. N. Su, W. S. Chang, and S. Link, “Single-particle absorption spectroscopy by photothermal contrast,” Nano Lett. 15(5), 3041–3047 (2015).
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N. Thakkar, M. T. Rea, K. C. Smith, K. D. Heylman, S. C. Quillin, K. A. Knapper, E. H. Horak, D. J. Masiello, and R. H. Goldsmith, “Sculpting Fano resonances to control photonic-plasmonic hybridization,” Nano Lett. 17(11), 6927–6934 (2017).
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Nat. Commun. (3)

W. Yu, W. C. Jiang, Q. Lin, and T. Lu, “Cavity optomechanical spring sensing of single molecules,” Nat. Commun. 7, 12311 (2016).
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J. C. Blancon, M. Paillet, H. N. Tran, X. T. Than, S. A. Guebrou, A. Ayari, A. San Miguel, N. M. Phan, A. A. Zahab, J. L. Sauvajol, N. Del Fatti, and F. Vallée, “Direct measurement of the absolute absorption spectrum of individual semiconducting single-wall carbon nanotubes,” Nat. Commun. 4(1), 2542 (2013).
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M. D. Baaske, M. R. Foreman, and F. Vollmer, “Single-molecule nucleic acid interactions monitored on a label-free microcavity biosensor platform,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(11), 933–939 (2014).
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Nat. Photonics (3)

M. D. Baaske and F. Vollmer, “Optical observation of single atomic ions interacting with plasmonic nanorods in aqueous solution,” Nat. Photonics 10(11), 733–739 (2016).
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K. D. Heylman, N. Thakkar, E. H. Horak, S. C. Quillin, C. Cherqui, K. A. Knapper, D. J. Masiello, and R. H. Goldsmith, “Optical microresonators as single-particle absorption spectrometers,” Nat. Photonics 10(12), 788–795 (2016).
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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Imaging via inverted excitation with thin-substrate toroidal microresonators. a) SEM image of an all-glass toroid. b) Schematic of optical polishing. Device chips are secured from the front side and material is removed from the back via polishing until the substrate thickness is ~170 μm. c) Comparison of toroid Q factors before and after polishing. A total of 87 resonances were measured: 33 resonances before polishing and 54 after polishing. d) Integration of thin substrate toroids into photothermal imaging setup. Pump beam is delivered through the substrate and focused onto the toroid. Pump wavelength is 638 nm. e) Schematic indicating the orientation differences between topside and inverted imaging.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Comparison of photothermal imaging via topside and inverted excitation. Whole toroid maps were taken using topside (left) and inverted (right) excitation. Images reveal that nanorods maintain the same position on the toroid between the two excitation geometries, though variations in PSF size can manifest as minor shifts in the apparent position. The polarization dependence of the nanorods is also maintained. Modulation depths are given for the same objects for different excitation geometries, and are also largely unchanged. Image size: 50 μm x 50 μm. Topside image was rotated 5° to account for differences in chip placement between experiments.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Focus progression of PSFs in whole toroid images. Whole toroid maps were taken on the same toroid at different objective positions. Increasing number indicates that the objective focus is moving toward the resonator with steps in units of μm. Image size: 50 μm x 50 μm.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Experimental and simulated PSF evolution of single nanorods. A sequence of fine resolution images was taken at different objective positions along the optical axis. Two objects, with different positions relative to the toroid center, are displayed. The images are normalized with respect to their own maximum intensity for clarity and comparison. The M values of objects 1, 2 and 3 are 0.97, 0.95 and 0.97, respectively. The image sizes for object 1 and 3 are 5 μm x 5 μm, and for object 2, 12.5 μm x 12.5 μm. At right, whole toroid scans are shown to indicate object position. Note: PSF position changes in Object 3 (indicated by dashed white box) are due to taper drift over the course of the experiment.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 PSF evolution as a function of toroid component. Ray tracing simulations were performed for an object on the rim for a) complete toroid model, b) disc-only model, and c) pillar-only model. The focal position interval (columns) is 2 μm. The image size is 5 μm x 5 μm.

Equations (1)

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I= I max [ 1M sin 2 ( θ θ max ) ]

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