Abstract

Metasurface optical elements, optical phased arrays constructed from a dense arrangement of nanoscale antennas, are promising candidates for the next generation of flat optical components. Metasurfaces that rely on the Pancharatnam-Berry phase facilitate complete and efficient wavefront control. However, their operation typically requires control over the polarization state of the incident light to achieve a desired optical function. Here, we circumvent this inherent sensitivity to the incident polarization by multiplexing two metasurfaces that were designed to achieve the same optical function with incident light of opposite helicity. We analyze the optical performance of different multiplexing approaches, and demonstrate a subwavelength random interleaved polarization-independent metasurface lens operating in the visible spectrum, providing a diffraction-limited spot size for the shared-aperture.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2018 (1)

2017 (2)

P. Lalanne and P. Chavel, “Metalenses at visible Wavelengths Past, Present, Perspectives,” Laser Photonics Rev. 11(3), 1600295 (2017).

E. Maguid, I. Yulevich, M. Yannai, V. Kleiner, M. L. Brongersma, and E. Hasman, “Multifunctional Interleaved Geometric-Phase Dielectric Metasurfaces,” Light Sci. Appl. 6(8), e17027 (2017).

2016 (9)

M. Khorasaninejad, A. Y. Zhu, C. Roques-Carmes, W. T. Chen, J. Oh, I. Mishra, R. C. Devlin, and F. Capasso, “Polarization-Insensitive Metalenses at Visible Wavelengths,” Nano Lett. 16(11), 7229–7234 (2016).

D. Lin, A. L. Holsteen, E. Maguid, G. Wetzstein, P. G. Kik, E. Hasman, and M. L. Brongersma, “Photonic Multitasking Interleaved Si Nanoantenna Phased Array,” Nano Lett. 16(12), 7671–7676 (2016).

E. Maguid, I. Yulevich, D. Veksler, V. Kleiner, M. L. Brongersma, and E. Hasman, “Photonic spin-controlled multifunctional shared-aperture antenna array,” Science 352(6290), 1202–1206 (2016).

M. Khorasaninejad, W. T. Chen, R. C. Devlin, J. Oh, A. Y. Zhu, and F. Capasso, “Metalenses at visible wavelengths: Diffraction-limited focusing and subwavelength resolution imaging,” Science 352(6290), 1190–1194 (2016).

M. Khorasaninejad, W. T. Chen, A. Y. Zhu, J. Oh, R. C. Devlin, D. Rousso, and F. Capasso, “Multispectral Chiral Imaging with a Metalens,” Nano Lett. 16(7), 4595–4600 (2016).

A. I. Kuznetsov, A. E. Miroshnichenko, M. L. Brongersma, Y. S. Kivshar, and B. Luk’yanchuk, “Optically Resonant Dielectric Nanostructures,” Science 354(6314), 6314 (2016).

J. P. Balthasar Mueller, K. Leosson, and F. Capasso, “Ultracompact metasurface in-line polarimeter,” Optica 3(1), 42 (2016).

E. Arbabi, A. Arbabi, S. M. Kamali, Y. Horie, and A. Faraon, “Multiwavelength Polarization-Insensitive Lenses Based on Dielectric Metasurfaces with Meta-Molecules,” Optica 3(6), 628–633 (2016).

Q.-T. Li, F. Dong, B. Wang, F. Gan, J. Chen, Z. Song, L. Xu, W. Chu, Y. F. Xiao, Q. Gong, and Y. Li, “Polarization-Independent and High-Efficiency Dielectric Metasurfaces for Visible Light,” Opt. Express 24(15), 16309–16319 (2016).

2015 (4)

A. Pors, M. G. Nielsen, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Plasmonic metagratings for simultaneous determination of Stokes parameters,” Optica 2(8), 716 (2015).

M. I. Shalaev, J. Sun, A. Tsukernik, A. Pandey, K. Nikolskiy, and N. M. Litchinitser, “High-Efficiency All-Dielectric Metasurfaces for Ultracompact Beam Manipulation in Transmission Mode,” Nano Lett. 15(9), 6261–6266 (2015).

A. Arbabi, Y. Horie, A. J. Ball, M. Bagheri, and A. Faraon, “Subwavelength-Thick Lenses with High Numerical Apertures and Large Efficiency Based on High-Contrast Transmitarrays,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 7069 (2015).

Y. F. Yu, A. Y. Zhu, R. Paniagua-Domínguez, Y. H. Fu, B. Luk’yanchuk, and A. I. Kuznetsov, “High-Transmission Dielectric Metasurface with 2π Phase Control at Visible Wavelengths,” Laser Photonics Rev. 9(4), 412–418 (2015).

2014 (2)

S. Vo, D. Fattal, W. V. Sorin, Z. Peng, T. Tran, M. Fiorentino, and R. G. Beausoleil, “Sub-wavelength grating lenses with a twist,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(13), 1375–1378 (2014).

D. Lin, P. Fan, E. Hasman, and M. L. Brongersma, “Dielectric gradient metasurface optical elements,” Science 345(6194), 298–302 (2014).

2013 (5)

X. Ni, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Metasurface Holograms for Visible Light,” Nat. Commun. 4(1), 2807 (2013).

A. V. Kildishev, A. Boltasseva, and V. M. Shalaev, “Planar Photonics with Metasurfaces,” Science 339(6125), 1232009 (2013).

A. Pors, O. Albrektsen, I. P. Radko, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Gap plasmon-based metasurfaces for total control of reflected light,” Sci. Rep. 3(1), 2155 (2013).

X. Yin, Z. Ye, J. Rho, Y. Wang, and X. Zhang, “Photonic Spin Hall Effect at Metasurfaces,” Science 339(6126), 1405–1407 (2013).

N. Shitrit, I. Yulevich, E. Maguid, D. Ozeri, D. Veksler, V. Kleiner, and E. Hasman, “Spin-Optical Metamaterial Route to Spin-Controlled Photonics,” Science 340(6133), 724–726 (2013).

2012 (2)

A. I. Kuznetsov, A. E. Miroshnichenko, Y. H. Fu, J. Zhang, and B. Luk’yanchuk, “Magnetic Light,” Sci. Rep. 2(1), 492 (2012).

X. Chen, L. Huang, H. Mühlenbernd, G. Li, B. Bai, Q. Tan, G. Jin, C. W. Qiu, S. Zhang, and T. Zentgraf, “Dual-Polarity Plasmonic Metalens for Visible Light,” Nat. Commun. 3(1), 1198 (2012).

2011 (3)

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J. P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light Propagation with Phase Discontinuities: Generalized Laws of Reflection and Refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).

N. Shitrit, I. Bretner, Y. Gorodetski, V. Kleiner, and E. Hasman, “Optical Spin Hall Effects in Plasmonic Chains,” Nano Lett. 11(5), 2038–2042 (2011).

A. García-Etxarri, R. Gómez-Medina, L. S. Froufe-Pérez, C. López, L. Chantada, F. Scheffold, J. Aizpurua, M. Nieto-Vesperinas, and J. J. Sáenz, “Strong Magnetic Response of Submicron Silicon Particles in the Infrared,” Opt. Express 19(6), 4815–4826 (2011).

2010 (4)

A. B. Evlyukhin, C. Reinhardt, A. Seidel, B. S. Luk’yanchuk, and B. N. Chichkov, “Optical Response Features of Si-Nanoparticle Arrays,” Phys. Rev. 82(4), 45404B (2010).

L. Cao, P. Fan, E. S. Barnard, A. M. Brown, and M. L. Brongersma, “Tuning the Color of Silicon Nanostructures,” Nano Lett. 10(7), 2649–2654 (2010).

N. Dahan, Y. Gorodetski, K. Frischwasser, V. Kleiner, and E. Hasman, “Geometric Doppler Effect: Spin-Split Dispersion of Thermal Radiation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(13), 136402 (2010).

D. Fattal, J. J. Li, Z. Peng, M. Fiorentino, and R. G. Beausoleil, “Flat Dielectric Grating Reflectors with Focusing Abilities,” Nat. Photonics 4(7), 466–470 (2010).

2009 (1)

L. Cao, J. S. White, J. S. Park, J. A. Schuller, B. M. Clemens, and M. L. Brongersma, “Engineering light absorption in semiconductor nanowire devices,” Nat. Mater. 8(8), 643–647 (2009).

2007 (1)

A. M. Sayeed and V. Raghavan, “Maximizing MIMO capacity in sparse multipath with reconfigurable antenna arrays,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Signal Process. 1(1), 156–166 (2007).

2005 (2)

2003 (1)

E. Hasman, V. Kleiner, G. Biener, and A. Niv, “Polarization Dependent Focusing Lens by Use of Quantized Pancharatnam-Berry Phase Diffractive Optics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(3), 328–330 (2003).

2002 (1)

2001 (3)

Z. Bomzon, V. Kleiner, and E. Hasman, “Pancharatnam--Berry phase in space-variant polarization-state manipulations with subwavelength gratings,” Opt. Lett. 26(18), 1424–1426 (2001).

M. LeCompte, S. Y. Shi, and D. W. Prather, ““Interleaved diffractive optical element design,” Wave-Optical,” Syst. Eng. 4436, 115–122 (2001).

D. M. Pozar and S. D. Targonski, “A shared-aperture dual-band dual-polarized microstrip array,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 49(2), 150–157 (2001).

1999 (1)

1998 (1)

1991 (1)

1956 (1)

B. Y. S. Pancharatnam, “Generalized Theory of Interference and Its Applications-I,” Proc. Indiana Acad. Sci. 44(4), 247–262 (1956).

Aieta, F.

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J. P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light Propagation with Phase Discontinuities: Generalized Laws of Reflection and Refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).

Aizpurua, J.

Albrektsen, O.

A. Pors, O. Albrektsen, I. P. Radko, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Gap plasmon-based metasurfaces for total control of reflected light,” Sci. Rep. 3(1), 2155 (2013).

Arbabi, A.

E. Arbabi, A. Arbabi, S. M. Kamali, Y. Horie, and A. Faraon, “Multiwavelength Polarization-Insensitive Lenses Based on Dielectric Metasurfaces with Meta-Molecules,” Optica 3(6), 628–633 (2016).

A. Arbabi, Y. Horie, A. J. Ball, M. Bagheri, and A. Faraon, “Subwavelength-Thick Lenses with High Numerical Apertures and Large Efficiency Based on High-Contrast Transmitarrays,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 7069 (2015).

Arbabi, E.

Astilean, S.

Bagheri, M.

A. Arbabi, Y. Horie, A. J. Ball, M. Bagheri, and A. Faraon, “Subwavelength-Thick Lenses with High Numerical Apertures and Large Efficiency Based on High-Contrast Transmitarrays,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 7069 (2015).

Bai, B.

X. Chen, L. Huang, H. Mühlenbernd, G. Li, B. Bai, Q. Tan, G. Jin, C. W. Qiu, S. Zhang, and T. Zentgraf, “Dual-Polarity Plasmonic Metalens for Visible Light,” Nat. Commun. 3(1), 1198 (2012).

Ball, A. J.

A. Arbabi, Y. Horie, A. J. Ball, M. Bagheri, and A. Faraon, “Subwavelength-Thick Lenses with High Numerical Apertures and Large Efficiency Based on High-Contrast Transmitarrays,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 7069 (2015).

Balthasar Mueller, J. P.

Barnard, E. S.

L. Cao, P. Fan, E. S. Barnard, A. M. Brown, and M. L. Brongersma, “Tuning the Color of Silicon Nanostructures,” Nano Lett. 10(7), 2649–2654 (2010).

Beausoleil, R. G.

S. Vo, D. Fattal, W. V. Sorin, Z. Peng, T. Tran, M. Fiorentino, and R. G. Beausoleil, “Sub-wavelength grating lenses with a twist,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(13), 1375–1378 (2014).

D. Fattal, J. J. Li, Z. Peng, M. Fiorentino, and R. G. Beausoleil, “Flat Dielectric Grating Reflectors with Focusing Abilities,” Nat. Photonics 4(7), 466–470 (2010).

Biener, G.

Boltasseva, A.

A. V. Kildishev, A. Boltasseva, and V. M. Shalaev, “Planar Photonics with Metasurfaces,” Science 339(6125), 1232009 (2013).

Bomzon, Z.

Bozhevolnyi, S. I.

A. Pors, M. G. Nielsen, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Plasmonic metagratings for simultaneous determination of Stokes parameters,” Optica 2(8), 716 (2015).

A. Pors, O. Albrektsen, I. P. Radko, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Gap plasmon-based metasurfaces for total control of reflected light,” Sci. Rep. 3(1), 2155 (2013).

Bretner, I.

N. Shitrit, I. Bretner, Y. Gorodetski, V. Kleiner, and E. Hasman, “Optical Spin Hall Effects in Plasmonic Chains,” Nano Lett. 11(5), 2038–2042 (2011).

Brongersma, M. L.

E. Maguid, I. Yulevich, M. Yannai, V. Kleiner, M. L. Brongersma, and E. Hasman, “Multifunctional Interleaved Geometric-Phase Dielectric Metasurfaces,” Light Sci. Appl. 6(8), e17027 (2017).

D. Lin, A. L. Holsteen, E. Maguid, G. Wetzstein, P. G. Kik, E. Hasman, and M. L. Brongersma, “Photonic Multitasking Interleaved Si Nanoantenna Phased Array,” Nano Lett. 16(12), 7671–7676 (2016).

E. Maguid, I. Yulevich, D. Veksler, V. Kleiner, M. L. Brongersma, and E. Hasman, “Photonic spin-controlled multifunctional shared-aperture antenna array,” Science 352(6290), 1202–1206 (2016).

A. I. Kuznetsov, A. E. Miroshnichenko, M. L. Brongersma, Y. S. Kivshar, and B. Luk’yanchuk, “Optically Resonant Dielectric Nanostructures,” Science 354(6314), 6314 (2016).

D. Lin, P. Fan, E. Hasman, and M. L. Brongersma, “Dielectric gradient metasurface optical elements,” Science 345(6194), 298–302 (2014).

L. Cao, P. Fan, E. S. Barnard, A. M. Brown, and M. L. Brongersma, “Tuning the Color of Silicon Nanostructures,” Nano Lett. 10(7), 2649–2654 (2010).

L. Cao, J. S. White, J. S. Park, J. A. Schuller, B. M. Clemens, and M. L. Brongersma, “Engineering light absorption in semiconductor nanowire devices,” Nat. Mater. 8(8), 643–647 (2009).

Brown, A. M.

L. Cao, P. Fan, E. S. Barnard, A. M. Brown, and M. L. Brongersma, “Tuning the Color of Silicon Nanostructures,” Nano Lett. 10(7), 2649–2654 (2010).

Burokur, S. N.

Cambril, E.

Cao, L.

L. Cao, P. Fan, E. S. Barnard, A. M. Brown, and M. L. Brongersma, “Tuning the Color of Silicon Nanostructures,” Nano Lett. 10(7), 2649–2654 (2010).

L. Cao, J. S. White, J. S. Park, J. A. Schuller, B. M. Clemens, and M. L. Brongersma, “Engineering light absorption in semiconductor nanowire devices,” Nat. Mater. 8(8), 643–647 (2009).

Capasso, F.

M. Khorasaninejad, A. Y. Zhu, C. Roques-Carmes, W. T. Chen, J. Oh, I. Mishra, R. C. Devlin, and F. Capasso, “Polarization-Insensitive Metalenses at Visible Wavelengths,” Nano Lett. 16(11), 7229–7234 (2016).

M. Khorasaninejad, W. T. Chen, R. C. Devlin, J. Oh, A. Y. Zhu, and F. Capasso, “Metalenses at visible wavelengths: Diffraction-limited focusing and subwavelength resolution imaging,” Science 352(6290), 1190–1194 (2016).

M. Khorasaninejad, W. T. Chen, A. Y. Zhu, J. Oh, R. C. Devlin, D. Rousso, and F. Capasso, “Multispectral Chiral Imaging with a Metalens,” Nano Lett. 16(7), 4595–4600 (2016).

J. P. Balthasar Mueller, K. Leosson, and F. Capasso, “Ultracompact metasurface in-line polarimeter,” Optica 3(1), 42 (2016).

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J. P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light Propagation with Phase Discontinuities: Generalized Laws of Reflection and Refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).

Chantada, L.

Chavel, P.

Chen, J.

Chen, W. T.

M. Khorasaninejad, W. T. Chen, A. Y. Zhu, J. Oh, R. C. Devlin, D. Rousso, and F. Capasso, “Multispectral Chiral Imaging with a Metalens,” Nano Lett. 16(7), 4595–4600 (2016).

M. Khorasaninejad, W. T. Chen, R. C. Devlin, J. Oh, A. Y. Zhu, and F. Capasso, “Metalenses at visible wavelengths: Diffraction-limited focusing and subwavelength resolution imaging,” Science 352(6290), 1190–1194 (2016).

M. Khorasaninejad, A. Y. Zhu, C. Roques-Carmes, W. T. Chen, J. Oh, I. Mishra, R. C. Devlin, and F. Capasso, “Polarization-Insensitive Metalenses at Visible Wavelengths,” Nano Lett. 16(11), 7229–7234 (2016).

Chen, X.

X. Chen, L. Huang, H. Mühlenbernd, G. Li, B. Bai, Q. Tan, G. Jin, C. W. Qiu, S. Zhang, and T. Zentgraf, “Dual-Polarity Plasmonic Metalens for Visible Light,” Nat. Commun. 3(1), 1198 (2012).

Chichkov, B. N.

A. B. Evlyukhin, C. Reinhardt, A. Seidel, B. S. Luk’yanchuk, and B. N. Chichkov, “Optical Response Features of Si-Nanoparticle Arrays,” Phys. Rev. 82(4), 45404B (2010).

Chu, W.

Clemens, B. M.

L. Cao, J. S. White, J. S. Park, J. A. Schuller, B. M. Clemens, and M. L. Brongersma, “Engineering light absorption in semiconductor nanowire devices,” Nat. Mater. 8(8), 643–647 (2009).

Dahan, N.

N. Dahan, Y. Gorodetski, K. Frischwasser, V. Kleiner, and E. Hasman, “Geometric Doppler Effect: Spin-Split Dispersion of Thermal Radiation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(13), 136402 (2010).

Davidson, N.

Devlin, R. C.

M. Khorasaninejad, A. Y. Zhu, C. Roques-Carmes, W. T. Chen, J. Oh, I. Mishra, R. C. Devlin, and F. Capasso, “Polarization-Insensitive Metalenses at Visible Wavelengths,” Nano Lett. 16(11), 7229–7234 (2016).

M. Khorasaninejad, W. T. Chen, R. C. Devlin, J. Oh, A. Y. Zhu, and F. Capasso, “Metalenses at visible wavelengths: Diffraction-limited focusing and subwavelength resolution imaging,” Science 352(6290), 1190–1194 (2016).

M. Khorasaninejad, W. T. Chen, A. Y. Zhu, J. Oh, R. C. Devlin, D. Rousso, and F. Capasso, “Multispectral Chiral Imaging with a Metalens,” Nano Lett. 16(7), 4595–4600 (2016).

Ding, X.

Dong, F.

Evlyukhin, A. B.

A. B. Evlyukhin, C. Reinhardt, A. Seidel, B. S. Luk’yanchuk, and B. N. Chichkov, “Optical Response Features of Si-Nanoparticle Arrays,” Phys. Rev. 82(4), 45404B (2010).

Fan, P.

D. Lin, P. Fan, E. Hasman, and M. L. Brongersma, “Dielectric gradient metasurface optical elements,” Science 345(6194), 298–302 (2014).

L. Cao, P. Fan, E. S. Barnard, A. M. Brown, and M. L. Brongersma, “Tuning the Color of Silicon Nanostructures,” Nano Lett. 10(7), 2649–2654 (2010).

Faraon, A.

E. Arbabi, A. Arbabi, S. M. Kamali, Y. Horie, and A. Faraon, “Multiwavelength Polarization-Insensitive Lenses Based on Dielectric Metasurfaces with Meta-Molecules,” Optica 3(6), 628–633 (2016).

A. Arbabi, Y. Horie, A. J. Ball, M. Bagheri, and A. Faraon, “Subwavelength-Thick Lenses with High Numerical Apertures and Large Efficiency Based on High-Contrast Transmitarrays,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 7069 (2015).

Fattal, D.

S. Vo, D. Fattal, W. V. Sorin, Z. Peng, T. Tran, M. Fiorentino, and R. G. Beausoleil, “Sub-wavelength grating lenses with a twist,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(13), 1375–1378 (2014).

D. Fattal, J. J. Li, Z. Peng, M. Fiorentino, and R. G. Beausoleil, “Flat Dielectric Grating Reflectors with Focusing Abilities,” Nat. Photonics 4(7), 466–470 (2010).

Fiorentino, M.

S. Vo, D. Fattal, W. V. Sorin, Z. Peng, T. Tran, M. Fiorentino, and R. G. Beausoleil, “Sub-wavelength grating lenses with a twist,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(13), 1375–1378 (2014).

D. Fattal, J. J. Li, Z. Peng, M. Fiorentino, and R. G. Beausoleil, “Flat Dielectric Grating Reflectors with Focusing Abilities,” Nat. Photonics 4(7), 466–470 (2010).

Friesem, A. A.

Frischwasser, K.

N. Dahan, Y. Gorodetski, K. Frischwasser, V. Kleiner, and E. Hasman, “Geometric Doppler Effect: Spin-Split Dispersion of Thermal Radiation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(13), 136402 (2010).

Froufe-Pérez, L. S.

Fu, Y. H.

Y. F. Yu, A. Y. Zhu, R. Paniagua-Domínguez, Y. H. Fu, B. Luk’yanchuk, and A. I. Kuznetsov, “High-Transmission Dielectric Metasurface with 2π Phase Control at Visible Wavelengths,” Laser Photonics Rev. 9(4), 412–418 (2015).

A. I. Kuznetsov, A. E. Miroshnichenko, Y. H. Fu, J. Zhang, and B. Luk’yanchuk, “Magnetic Light,” Sci. Rep. 2(1), 492 (2012).

Gaburro, Z.

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J. P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light Propagation with Phase Discontinuities: Generalized Laws of Reflection and Refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).

Gan, F.

García-Etxarri, A.

Genevet, P.

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J. P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light Propagation with Phase Discontinuities: Generalized Laws of Reflection and Refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).

Gómez-Medina, R.

Gong, Q.

Gorodetski, Y.

N. Shitrit, I. Bretner, Y. Gorodetski, V. Kleiner, and E. Hasman, “Optical Spin Hall Effects in Plasmonic Chains,” Nano Lett. 11(5), 2038–2042 (2011).

N. Dahan, Y. Gorodetski, K. Frischwasser, V. Kleiner, and E. Hasman, “Geometric Doppler Effect: Spin-Split Dispersion of Thermal Radiation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(13), 136402 (2010).

Y. Gorodetski, G. Biener, A. Niv, V. Kleiner, and E. Hasman, “Space-variant polarization manipulation for far-field polarimetry by use of subwavelength dielectric gratings,” Opt. Lett. 30(17), 2245–2247 (2005).

Hasman, E.

E. Maguid, I. Yulevich, M. Yannai, V. Kleiner, M. L. Brongersma, and E. Hasman, “Multifunctional Interleaved Geometric-Phase Dielectric Metasurfaces,” Light Sci. Appl. 6(8), e17027 (2017).

E. Maguid, I. Yulevich, D. Veksler, V. Kleiner, M. L. Brongersma, and E. Hasman, “Photonic spin-controlled multifunctional shared-aperture antenna array,” Science 352(6290), 1202–1206 (2016).

D. Lin, A. L. Holsteen, E. Maguid, G. Wetzstein, P. G. Kik, E. Hasman, and M. L. Brongersma, “Photonic Multitasking Interleaved Si Nanoantenna Phased Array,” Nano Lett. 16(12), 7671–7676 (2016).

D. Lin, P. Fan, E. Hasman, and M. L. Brongersma, “Dielectric gradient metasurface optical elements,” Science 345(6194), 298–302 (2014).

N. Shitrit, I. Yulevich, E. Maguid, D. Ozeri, D. Veksler, V. Kleiner, and E. Hasman, “Spin-Optical Metamaterial Route to Spin-Controlled Photonics,” Science 340(6133), 724–726 (2013).

N. Shitrit, I. Bretner, Y. Gorodetski, V. Kleiner, and E. Hasman, “Optical Spin Hall Effects in Plasmonic Chains,” Nano Lett. 11(5), 2038–2042 (2011).

N. Dahan, Y. Gorodetski, K. Frischwasser, V. Kleiner, and E. Hasman, “Geometric Doppler Effect: Spin-Split Dispersion of Thermal Radiation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(13), 136402 (2010).

Y. Gorodetski, G. Biener, A. Niv, V. Kleiner, and E. Hasman, “Space-variant polarization manipulation for far-field polarimetry by use of subwavelength dielectric gratings,” Opt. Lett. 30(17), 2245–2247 (2005).

E. Hasman, V. Kleiner, G. Biener, and A. Niv, “Polarization Dependent Focusing Lens by Use of Quantized Pancharatnam-Berry Phase Diffractive Optics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(3), 328–330 (2003).

Z. Bomzon, G. Biener, V. Kleiner, and E. Hasman, “Space-variant Pancharatnam-Berry phase optical elements with computer-generated subwavelength gratings,” Opt. Lett. 27(13), 1141–1143 (2002).

Z. Bomzon, V. Kleiner, and E. Hasman, “Pancharatnam--Berry phase in space-variant polarization-state manipulations with subwavelength gratings,” Opt. Lett. 26(18), 1424–1426 (2001).

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D. Lin, A. L. Holsteen, E. Maguid, G. Wetzstein, P. G. Kik, E. Hasman, and M. L. Brongersma, “Photonic Multitasking Interleaved Si Nanoantenna Phased Array,” Nano Lett. 16(12), 7671–7676 (2016).

Horie, Y.

E. Arbabi, A. Arbabi, S. M. Kamali, Y. Horie, and A. Faraon, “Multiwavelength Polarization-Insensitive Lenses Based on Dielectric Metasurfaces with Meta-Molecules,” Optica 3(6), 628–633 (2016).

A. Arbabi, Y. Horie, A. J. Ball, M. Bagheri, and A. Faraon, “Subwavelength-Thick Lenses with High Numerical Apertures and Large Efficiency Based on High-Contrast Transmitarrays,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 7069 (2015).

Huang, L.

X. Chen, L. Huang, H. Mühlenbernd, G. Li, B. Bai, Q. Tan, G. Jin, C. W. Qiu, S. Zhang, and T. Zentgraf, “Dual-Polarity Plasmonic Metalens for Visible Light,” Nat. Commun. 3(1), 1198 (2012).

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X. Chen, L. Huang, H. Mühlenbernd, G. Li, B. Bai, Q. Tan, G. Jin, C. W. Qiu, S. Zhang, and T. Zentgraf, “Dual-Polarity Plasmonic Metalens for Visible Light,” Nat. Commun. 3(1), 1198 (2012).

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Kats, M. A.

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J. P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light Propagation with Phase Discontinuities: Generalized Laws of Reflection and Refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).

Khorasaninejad, M.

M. Khorasaninejad, W. T. Chen, A. Y. Zhu, J. Oh, R. C. Devlin, D. Rousso, and F. Capasso, “Multispectral Chiral Imaging with a Metalens,” Nano Lett. 16(7), 4595–4600 (2016).

M. Khorasaninejad, A. Y. Zhu, C. Roques-Carmes, W. T. Chen, J. Oh, I. Mishra, R. C. Devlin, and F. Capasso, “Polarization-Insensitive Metalenses at Visible Wavelengths,” Nano Lett. 16(11), 7229–7234 (2016).

M. Khorasaninejad, W. T. Chen, R. C. Devlin, J. Oh, A. Y. Zhu, and F. Capasso, “Metalenses at visible wavelengths: Diffraction-limited focusing and subwavelength resolution imaging,” Science 352(6290), 1190–1194 (2016).

Kik, P. G.

D. Lin, A. L. Holsteen, E. Maguid, G. Wetzstein, P. G. Kik, E. Hasman, and M. L. Brongersma, “Photonic Multitasking Interleaved Si Nanoantenna Phased Array,” Nano Lett. 16(12), 7671–7676 (2016).

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X. Ni, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Metasurface Holograms for Visible Light,” Nat. Commun. 4(1), 2807 (2013).

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A. I. Kuznetsov, A. E. Miroshnichenko, M. L. Brongersma, Y. S. Kivshar, and B. Luk’yanchuk, “Optically Resonant Dielectric Nanostructures,” Science 354(6314), 6314 (2016).

Kleiner, V.

E. Maguid, I. Yulevich, M. Yannai, V. Kleiner, M. L. Brongersma, and E. Hasman, “Multifunctional Interleaved Geometric-Phase Dielectric Metasurfaces,” Light Sci. Appl. 6(8), e17027 (2017).

E. Maguid, I. Yulevich, D. Veksler, V. Kleiner, M. L. Brongersma, and E. Hasman, “Photonic spin-controlled multifunctional shared-aperture antenna array,” Science 352(6290), 1202–1206 (2016).

N. Shitrit, I. Yulevich, E. Maguid, D. Ozeri, D. Veksler, V. Kleiner, and E. Hasman, “Spin-Optical Metamaterial Route to Spin-Controlled Photonics,” Science 340(6133), 724–726 (2013).

N. Shitrit, I. Bretner, Y. Gorodetski, V. Kleiner, and E. Hasman, “Optical Spin Hall Effects in Plasmonic Chains,” Nano Lett. 11(5), 2038–2042 (2011).

N. Dahan, Y. Gorodetski, K. Frischwasser, V. Kleiner, and E. Hasman, “Geometric Doppler Effect: Spin-Split Dispersion of Thermal Radiation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(13), 136402 (2010).

Y. Gorodetski, G. Biener, A. Niv, V. Kleiner, and E. Hasman, “Space-variant polarization manipulation for far-field polarimetry by use of subwavelength dielectric gratings,” Opt. Lett. 30(17), 2245–2247 (2005).

E. Hasman, V. Kleiner, G. Biener, and A. Niv, “Polarization Dependent Focusing Lens by Use of Quantized Pancharatnam-Berry Phase Diffractive Optics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(3), 328–330 (2003).

Z. Bomzon, G. Biener, V. Kleiner, and E. Hasman, “Space-variant Pancharatnam-Berry phase optical elements with computer-generated subwavelength gratings,” Opt. Lett. 27(13), 1141–1143 (2002).

Z. Bomzon, V. Kleiner, and E. Hasman, “Pancharatnam--Berry phase in space-variant polarization-state manipulations with subwavelength gratings,” Opt. Lett. 26(18), 1424–1426 (2001).

Kuznetsov, A. I.

A. I. Kuznetsov, A. E. Miroshnichenko, M. L. Brongersma, Y. S. Kivshar, and B. Luk’yanchuk, “Optically Resonant Dielectric Nanostructures,” Science 354(6314), 6314 (2016).

Y. F. Yu, A. Y. Zhu, R. Paniagua-Domínguez, Y. H. Fu, B. Luk’yanchuk, and A. I. Kuznetsov, “High-Transmission Dielectric Metasurface with 2π Phase Control at Visible Wavelengths,” Laser Photonics Rev. 9(4), 412–418 (2015).

A. I. Kuznetsov, A. E. Miroshnichenko, Y. H. Fu, J. Zhang, and B. Luk’yanchuk, “Magnetic Light,” Sci. Rep. 2(1), 492 (2012).

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Launois, H.

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X. Chen, L. Huang, H. Mühlenbernd, G. Li, B. Bai, Q. Tan, G. Jin, C. W. Qiu, S. Zhang, and T. Zentgraf, “Dual-Polarity Plasmonic Metalens for Visible Light,” Nat. Commun. 3(1), 1198 (2012).

Li, J. J.

D. Fattal, J. J. Li, Z. Peng, M. Fiorentino, and R. G. Beausoleil, “Flat Dielectric Grating Reflectors with Focusing Abilities,” Nat. Photonics 4(7), 466–470 (2010).

Li, Q.-T.

Li, Y.

Lin, D.

D. Lin, A. L. Holsteen, E. Maguid, G. Wetzstein, P. G. Kik, E. Hasman, and M. L. Brongersma, “Photonic Multitasking Interleaved Si Nanoantenna Phased Array,” Nano Lett. 16(12), 7671–7676 (2016).

D. Lin, P. Fan, E. Hasman, and M. L. Brongersma, “Dielectric gradient metasurface optical elements,” Science 345(6194), 298–302 (2014).

Litchinitser, N. M.

M. I. Shalaev, J. Sun, A. Tsukernik, A. Pandey, K. Nikolskiy, and N. M. Litchinitser, “High-Efficiency All-Dielectric Metasurfaces for Ultracompact Beam Manipulation in Transmission Mode,” Nano Lett. 15(9), 6261–6266 (2015).

López, C.

Lu, M.

Luk’yanchuk, B.

A. I. Kuznetsov, A. E. Miroshnichenko, M. L. Brongersma, Y. S. Kivshar, and B. Luk’yanchuk, “Optically Resonant Dielectric Nanostructures,” Science 354(6314), 6314 (2016).

Y. F. Yu, A. Y. Zhu, R. Paniagua-Domínguez, Y. H. Fu, B. Luk’yanchuk, and A. I. Kuznetsov, “High-Transmission Dielectric Metasurface with 2π Phase Control at Visible Wavelengths,” Laser Photonics Rev. 9(4), 412–418 (2015).

A. I. Kuznetsov, A. E. Miroshnichenko, Y. H. Fu, J. Zhang, and B. Luk’yanchuk, “Magnetic Light,” Sci. Rep. 2(1), 492 (2012).

Luk’yanchuk, B. S.

A. B. Evlyukhin, C. Reinhardt, A. Seidel, B. S. Luk’yanchuk, and B. N. Chichkov, “Optical Response Features of Si-Nanoparticle Arrays,” Phys. Rev. 82(4), 45404B (2010).

Maguid, E.

E. Maguid, I. Yulevich, M. Yannai, V. Kleiner, M. L. Brongersma, and E. Hasman, “Multifunctional Interleaved Geometric-Phase Dielectric Metasurfaces,” Light Sci. Appl. 6(8), e17027 (2017).

E. Maguid, I. Yulevich, D. Veksler, V. Kleiner, M. L. Brongersma, and E. Hasman, “Photonic spin-controlled multifunctional shared-aperture antenna array,” Science 352(6290), 1202–1206 (2016).

D. Lin, A. L. Holsteen, E. Maguid, G. Wetzstein, P. G. Kik, E. Hasman, and M. L. Brongersma, “Photonic Multitasking Interleaved Si Nanoantenna Phased Array,” Nano Lett. 16(12), 7671–7676 (2016).

N. Shitrit, I. Yulevich, E. Maguid, D. Ozeri, D. Veksler, V. Kleiner, and E. Hasman, “Spin-Optical Metamaterial Route to Spin-Controlled Photonics,” Science 340(6133), 724–726 (2013).

Miroshnichenko, A. E.

A. I. Kuznetsov, A. E. Miroshnichenko, M. L. Brongersma, Y. S. Kivshar, and B. Luk’yanchuk, “Optically Resonant Dielectric Nanostructures,” Science 354(6314), 6314 (2016).

A. I. Kuznetsov, A. E. Miroshnichenko, Y. H. Fu, J. Zhang, and B. Luk’yanchuk, “Magnetic Light,” Sci. Rep. 2(1), 492 (2012).

Mishra, I.

M. Khorasaninejad, A. Y. Zhu, C. Roques-Carmes, W. T. Chen, J. Oh, I. Mishra, R. C. Devlin, and F. Capasso, “Polarization-Insensitive Metalenses at Visible Wavelengths,” Nano Lett. 16(11), 7229–7234 (2016).

Mühlenbernd, H.

X. Chen, L. Huang, H. Mühlenbernd, G. Li, B. Bai, Q. Tan, G. Jin, C. W. Qiu, S. Zhang, and T. Zentgraf, “Dual-Polarity Plasmonic Metalens for Visible Light,” Nat. Commun. 3(1), 1198 (2012).

Ni, X.

X. Ni, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Metasurface Holograms for Visible Light,” Nat. Commun. 4(1), 2807 (2013).

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Nieto-Vesperinas, M.

Nikolskiy, K.

M. I. Shalaev, J. Sun, A. Tsukernik, A. Pandey, K. Nikolskiy, and N. M. Litchinitser, “High-Efficiency All-Dielectric Metasurfaces for Ultracompact Beam Manipulation in Transmission Mode,” Nano Lett. 15(9), 6261–6266 (2015).

Niv, A.

Y. Gorodetski, G. Biener, A. Niv, V. Kleiner, and E. Hasman, “Space-variant polarization manipulation for far-field polarimetry by use of subwavelength dielectric gratings,” Opt. Lett. 30(17), 2245–2247 (2005).

E. Hasman, V. Kleiner, G. Biener, and A. Niv, “Polarization Dependent Focusing Lens by Use of Quantized Pancharatnam-Berry Phase Diffractive Optics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(3), 328–330 (2003).

Oh, J.

M. Khorasaninejad, A. Y. Zhu, C. Roques-Carmes, W. T. Chen, J. Oh, I. Mishra, R. C. Devlin, and F. Capasso, “Polarization-Insensitive Metalenses at Visible Wavelengths,” Nano Lett. 16(11), 7229–7234 (2016).

M. Khorasaninejad, W. T. Chen, R. C. Devlin, J. Oh, A. Y. Zhu, and F. Capasso, “Metalenses at visible wavelengths: Diffraction-limited focusing and subwavelength resolution imaging,” Science 352(6290), 1190–1194 (2016).

M. Khorasaninejad, W. T. Chen, A. Y. Zhu, J. Oh, R. C. Devlin, D. Rousso, and F. Capasso, “Multispectral Chiral Imaging with a Metalens,” Nano Lett. 16(7), 4595–4600 (2016).

Ozeri, D.

N. Shitrit, I. Yulevich, E. Maguid, D. Ozeri, D. Veksler, V. Kleiner, and E. Hasman, “Spin-Optical Metamaterial Route to Spin-Controlled Photonics,” Science 340(6133), 724–726 (2013).

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M. I. Shalaev, J. Sun, A. Tsukernik, A. Pandey, K. Nikolskiy, and N. M. Litchinitser, “High-Efficiency All-Dielectric Metasurfaces for Ultracompact Beam Manipulation in Transmission Mode,” Nano Lett. 15(9), 6261–6266 (2015).

Paniagua-Domínguez, R.

Y. F. Yu, A. Y. Zhu, R. Paniagua-Domínguez, Y. H. Fu, B. Luk’yanchuk, and A. I. Kuznetsov, “High-Transmission Dielectric Metasurface with 2π Phase Control at Visible Wavelengths,” Laser Photonics Rev. 9(4), 412–418 (2015).

Park, J. S.

L. Cao, J. S. White, J. S. Park, J. A. Schuller, B. M. Clemens, and M. L. Brongersma, “Engineering light absorption in semiconductor nanowire devices,” Nat. Mater. 8(8), 643–647 (2009).

Peng, Z.

S. Vo, D. Fattal, W. V. Sorin, Z. Peng, T. Tran, M. Fiorentino, and R. G. Beausoleil, “Sub-wavelength grating lenses with a twist,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(13), 1375–1378 (2014).

D. Fattal, J. J. Li, Z. Peng, M. Fiorentino, and R. G. Beausoleil, “Flat Dielectric Grating Reflectors with Focusing Abilities,” Nat. Photonics 4(7), 466–470 (2010).

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A. Pors, M. G. Nielsen, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Plasmonic metagratings for simultaneous determination of Stokes parameters,” Optica 2(8), 716 (2015).

A. Pors, O. Albrektsen, I. P. Radko, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Gap plasmon-based metasurfaces for total control of reflected light,” Sci. Rep. 3(1), 2155 (2013).

Pozar, D. M.

D. M. Pozar and S. D. Targonski, “A shared-aperture dual-band dual-polarized microstrip array,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 49(2), 150–157 (2001).

Prather, D. W.

M. LeCompte, S. Y. Shi, and D. W. Prather, ““Interleaved diffractive optical element design,” Wave-Optical,” Syst. Eng. 4436, 115–122 (2001).

Qiu, C. W.

X. Chen, L. Huang, H. Mühlenbernd, G. Li, B. Bai, Q. Tan, G. Jin, C. W. Qiu, S. Zhang, and T. Zentgraf, “Dual-Polarity Plasmonic Metalens for Visible Light,” Nat. Commun. 3(1), 1198 (2012).

Radko, I. P.

A. Pors, O. Albrektsen, I. P. Radko, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Gap plasmon-based metasurfaces for total control of reflected light,” Sci. Rep. 3(1), 2155 (2013).

Raghavan, V.

A. M. Sayeed and V. Raghavan, “Maximizing MIMO capacity in sparse multipath with reconfigurable antenna arrays,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Signal Process. 1(1), 156–166 (2007).

Ratni, B.

Reinhardt, C.

A. B. Evlyukhin, C. Reinhardt, A. Seidel, B. S. Luk’yanchuk, and B. N. Chichkov, “Optical Response Features of Si-Nanoparticle Arrays,” Phys. Rev. 82(4), 45404B (2010).

Rho, J.

X. Yin, Z. Ye, J. Rho, Y. Wang, and X. Zhang, “Photonic Spin Hall Effect at Metasurfaces,” Science 339(6126), 1405–1407 (2013).

Roques-Carmes, C.

M. Khorasaninejad, A. Y. Zhu, C. Roques-Carmes, W. T. Chen, J. Oh, I. Mishra, R. C. Devlin, and F. Capasso, “Polarization-Insensitive Metalenses at Visible Wavelengths,” Nano Lett. 16(11), 7229–7234 (2016).

Rousso, D.

M. Khorasaninejad, W. T. Chen, A. Y. Zhu, J. Oh, R. C. Devlin, D. Rousso, and F. Capasso, “Multispectral Chiral Imaging with a Metalens,” Nano Lett. 16(7), 4595–4600 (2016).

Sáenz, J. J.

Sayeed, A. M.

A. M. Sayeed and V. Raghavan, “Maximizing MIMO capacity in sparse multipath with reconfigurable antenna arrays,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Signal Process. 1(1), 156–166 (2007).

Scheffold, F.

Schuller, J. A.

L. Cao, J. S. White, J. S. Park, J. A. Schuller, B. M. Clemens, and M. L. Brongersma, “Engineering light absorption in semiconductor nanowire devices,” Nat. Mater. 8(8), 643–647 (2009).

Seidel, A.

A. B. Evlyukhin, C. Reinhardt, A. Seidel, B. S. Luk’yanchuk, and B. N. Chichkov, “Optical Response Features of Si-Nanoparticle Arrays,” Phys. Rev. 82(4), 45404B (2010).

Shalaev, M. I.

M. I. Shalaev, J. Sun, A. Tsukernik, A. Pandey, K. Nikolskiy, and N. M. Litchinitser, “High-Efficiency All-Dielectric Metasurfaces for Ultracompact Beam Manipulation in Transmission Mode,” Nano Lett. 15(9), 6261–6266 (2015).

Shalaev, V. M.

A. V. Kildishev, A. Boltasseva, and V. M. Shalaev, “Planar Photonics with Metasurfaces,” Science 339(6125), 1232009 (2013).

X. Ni, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Metasurface Holograms for Visible Light,” Nat. Commun. 4(1), 2807 (2013).

Shi, S. Y.

M. LeCompte, S. Y. Shi, and D. W. Prather, ““Interleaved diffractive optical element design,” Wave-Optical,” Syst. Eng. 4436, 115–122 (2001).

Shitrit, N.

N. Shitrit, I. Yulevich, E. Maguid, D. Ozeri, D. Veksler, V. Kleiner, and E. Hasman, “Spin-Optical Metamaterial Route to Spin-Controlled Photonics,” Science 340(6133), 724–726 (2013).

N. Shitrit, I. Bretner, Y. Gorodetski, V. Kleiner, and E. Hasman, “Optical Spin Hall Effects in Plasmonic Chains,” Nano Lett. 11(5), 2038–2042 (2011).

Song, Z.

Sorin, W. V.

S. Vo, D. Fattal, W. V. Sorin, Z. Peng, T. Tran, M. Fiorentino, and R. G. Beausoleil, “Sub-wavelength grating lenses with a twist,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(13), 1375–1378 (2014).

Sun, J.

M. I. Shalaev, J. Sun, A. Tsukernik, A. Pandey, K. Nikolskiy, and N. M. Litchinitser, “High-Efficiency All-Dielectric Metasurfaces for Ultracompact Beam Manipulation in Transmission Mode,” Nano Lett. 15(9), 6261–6266 (2015).

Tan, Q.

X. Chen, L. Huang, H. Mühlenbernd, G. Li, B. Bai, Q. Tan, G. Jin, C. W. Qiu, S. Zhang, and T. Zentgraf, “Dual-Polarity Plasmonic Metalens for Visible Light,” Nat. Commun. 3(1), 1198 (2012).

Tang, K.

Targonski, S. D.

D. M. Pozar and S. D. Targonski, “A shared-aperture dual-band dual-polarized microstrip array,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 49(2), 150–157 (2001).

Tetienne, J. P.

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J. P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light Propagation with Phase Discontinuities: Generalized Laws of Reflection and Refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).

Tran, T.

S. Vo, D. Fattal, W. V. Sorin, Z. Peng, T. Tran, M. Fiorentino, and R. G. Beausoleil, “Sub-wavelength grating lenses with a twist,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(13), 1375–1378 (2014).

Tsukernik, A.

M. I. Shalaev, J. Sun, A. Tsukernik, A. Pandey, K. Nikolskiy, and N. M. Litchinitser, “High-Efficiency All-Dielectric Metasurfaces for Ultracompact Beam Manipulation in Transmission Mode,” Nano Lett. 15(9), 6261–6266 (2015).

Veksler, D.

E. Maguid, I. Yulevich, D. Veksler, V. Kleiner, M. L. Brongersma, and E. Hasman, “Photonic spin-controlled multifunctional shared-aperture antenna array,” Science 352(6290), 1202–1206 (2016).

N. Shitrit, I. Yulevich, E. Maguid, D. Ozeri, D. Veksler, V. Kleiner, and E. Hasman, “Spin-Optical Metamaterial Route to Spin-Controlled Photonics,” Science 340(6133), 724–726 (2013).

Vo, S.

S. Vo, D. Fattal, W. V. Sorin, Z. Peng, T. Tran, M. Fiorentino, and R. G. Beausoleil, “Sub-wavelength grating lenses with a twist,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(13), 1375–1378 (2014).

Wang, B.

Wang, Y.

X. Yin, Z. Ye, J. Rho, Y. Wang, and X. Zhang, “Photonic Spin Hall Effect at Metasurfaces,” Science 339(6126), 1405–1407 (2013).

Wetzstein, G.

D. Lin, A. L. Holsteen, E. Maguid, G. Wetzstein, P. G. Kik, E. Hasman, and M. L. Brongersma, “Photonic Multitasking Interleaved Si Nanoantenna Phased Array,” Nano Lett. 16(12), 7671–7676 (2016).

White, J. S.

L. Cao, J. S. White, J. S. Park, J. A. Schuller, B. M. Clemens, and M. L. Brongersma, “Engineering light absorption in semiconductor nanowire devices,” Nat. Mater. 8(8), 643–647 (2009).

Wu, Q.

Xiao, Y. F.

Xu, L.

Yannai, M.

E. Maguid, I. Yulevich, M. Yannai, V. Kleiner, M. L. Brongersma, and E. Hasman, “Multifunctional Interleaved Geometric-Phase Dielectric Metasurfaces,” Light Sci. Appl. 6(8), e17027 (2017).

Ye, Z.

X. Yin, Z. Ye, J. Rho, Y. Wang, and X. Zhang, “Photonic Spin Hall Effect at Metasurfaces,” Science 339(6126), 1405–1407 (2013).

Yin, X.

X. Yin, Z. Ye, J. Rho, Y. Wang, and X. Zhang, “Photonic Spin Hall Effect at Metasurfaces,” Science 339(6126), 1405–1407 (2013).

Yu, N.

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J. P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light Propagation with Phase Discontinuities: Generalized Laws of Reflection and Refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).

Yu, Y. F.

Y. F. Yu, A. Y. Zhu, R. Paniagua-Domínguez, Y. H. Fu, B. Luk’yanchuk, and A. I. Kuznetsov, “High-Transmission Dielectric Metasurface with 2π Phase Control at Visible Wavelengths,” Laser Photonics Rev. 9(4), 412–418 (2015).

Yuan, Y.

Yulevich, I.

E. Maguid, I. Yulevich, M. Yannai, V. Kleiner, M. L. Brongersma, and E. Hasman, “Multifunctional Interleaved Geometric-Phase Dielectric Metasurfaces,” Light Sci. Appl. 6(8), e17027 (2017).

E. Maguid, I. Yulevich, D. Veksler, V. Kleiner, M. L. Brongersma, and E. Hasman, “Photonic spin-controlled multifunctional shared-aperture antenna array,” Science 352(6290), 1202–1206 (2016).

N. Shitrit, I. Yulevich, E. Maguid, D. Ozeri, D. Veksler, V. Kleiner, and E. Hasman, “Spin-Optical Metamaterial Route to Spin-Controlled Photonics,” Science 340(6133), 724–726 (2013).

Zentgraf, T.

X. Chen, L. Huang, H. Mühlenbernd, G. Li, B. Bai, Q. Tan, G. Jin, C. W. Qiu, S. Zhang, and T. Zentgraf, “Dual-Polarity Plasmonic Metalens for Visible Light,” Nat. Commun. 3(1), 1198 (2012).

Zhang, D.

Zhang, J.

A. I. Kuznetsov, A. E. Miroshnichenko, Y. H. Fu, J. Zhang, and B. Luk’yanchuk, “Magnetic Light,” Sci. Rep. 2(1), 492 (2012).

Zhang, K.

Zhang, S.

X. Chen, L. Huang, H. Mühlenbernd, G. Li, B. Bai, Q. Tan, G. Jin, C. W. Qiu, S. Zhang, and T. Zentgraf, “Dual-Polarity Plasmonic Metalens for Visible Light,” Nat. Commun. 3(1), 1198 (2012).

Zhang, X.

X. Yin, Z. Ye, J. Rho, Y. Wang, and X. Zhang, “Photonic Spin Hall Effect at Metasurfaces,” Science 339(6126), 1405–1407 (2013).

Zhu, A. Y.

M. Khorasaninejad, A. Y. Zhu, C. Roques-Carmes, W. T. Chen, J. Oh, I. Mishra, R. C. Devlin, and F. Capasso, “Polarization-Insensitive Metalenses at Visible Wavelengths,” Nano Lett. 16(11), 7229–7234 (2016).

M. Khorasaninejad, W. T. Chen, R. C. Devlin, J. Oh, A. Y. Zhu, and F. Capasso, “Metalenses at visible wavelengths: Diffraction-limited focusing and subwavelength resolution imaging,” Science 352(6290), 1190–1194 (2016).

M. Khorasaninejad, W. T. Chen, A. Y. Zhu, J. Oh, R. C. Devlin, D. Rousso, and F. Capasso, “Multispectral Chiral Imaging with a Metalens,” Nano Lett. 16(7), 4595–4600 (2016).

Y. F. Yu, A. Y. Zhu, R. Paniagua-Domínguez, Y. H. Fu, B. Luk’yanchuk, and A. I. Kuznetsov, “High-Transmission Dielectric Metasurface with 2π Phase Control at Visible Wavelengths,” Laser Photonics Rev. 9(4), 412–418 (2015).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

E. Hasman, V. Kleiner, G. Biener, and A. Niv, “Polarization Dependent Focusing Lens by Use of Quantized Pancharatnam-Berry Phase Diffractive Optics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(3), 328–330 (2003).

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Signal Process. (1)

A. M. Sayeed and V. Raghavan, “Maximizing MIMO capacity in sparse multipath with reconfigurable antenna arrays,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Signal Process. 1(1), 156–166 (2007).

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (1)

S. Vo, D. Fattal, W. V. Sorin, Z. Peng, T. Tran, M. Fiorentino, and R. G. Beausoleil, “Sub-wavelength grating lenses with a twist,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(13), 1375–1378 (2014).

IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. (2)

D. M. Pozar and S. D. Targonski, “A shared-aperture dual-band dual-polarized microstrip array,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 49(2), 150–157 (2001).

R. L. Haupt, “Interleaved thinned linear arrays,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 53(9), 2858–2864 (2005).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Laser Photonics Rev. (2)

Y. F. Yu, A. Y. Zhu, R. Paniagua-Domínguez, Y. H. Fu, B. Luk’yanchuk, and A. I. Kuznetsov, “High-Transmission Dielectric Metasurface with 2π Phase Control at Visible Wavelengths,” Laser Photonics Rev. 9(4), 412–418 (2015).

P. Lalanne and P. Chavel, “Metalenses at visible Wavelengths Past, Present, Perspectives,” Laser Photonics Rev. 11(3), 1600295 (2017).

Light Sci. Appl. (1)

E. Maguid, I. Yulevich, M. Yannai, V. Kleiner, M. L. Brongersma, and E. Hasman, “Multifunctional Interleaved Geometric-Phase Dielectric Metasurfaces,” Light Sci. Appl. 6(8), e17027 (2017).

Nano Lett. (6)

M. Khorasaninejad, W. T. Chen, A. Y. Zhu, J. Oh, R. C. Devlin, D. Rousso, and F. Capasso, “Multispectral Chiral Imaging with a Metalens,” Nano Lett. 16(7), 4595–4600 (2016).

D. Lin, A. L. Holsteen, E. Maguid, G. Wetzstein, P. G. Kik, E. Hasman, and M. L. Brongersma, “Photonic Multitasking Interleaved Si Nanoantenna Phased Array,” Nano Lett. 16(12), 7671–7676 (2016).

M. Khorasaninejad, A. Y. Zhu, C. Roques-Carmes, W. T. Chen, J. Oh, I. Mishra, R. C. Devlin, and F. Capasso, “Polarization-Insensitive Metalenses at Visible Wavelengths,” Nano Lett. 16(11), 7229–7234 (2016).

N. Shitrit, I. Bretner, Y. Gorodetski, V. Kleiner, and E. Hasman, “Optical Spin Hall Effects in Plasmonic Chains,” Nano Lett. 11(5), 2038–2042 (2011).

M. I. Shalaev, J. Sun, A. Tsukernik, A. Pandey, K. Nikolskiy, and N. M. Litchinitser, “High-Efficiency All-Dielectric Metasurfaces for Ultracompact Beam Manipulation in Transmission Mode,” Nano Lett. 15(9), 6261–6266 (2015).

L. Cao, P. Fan, E. S. Barnard, A. M. Brown, and M. L. Brongersma, “Tuning the Color of Silicon Nanostructures,” Nano Lett. 10(7), 2649–2654 (2010).

Nat. Commun. (3)

A. Arbabi, Y. Horie, A. J. Ball, M. Bagheri, and A. Faraon, “Subwavelength-Thick Lenses with High Numerical Apertures and Large Efficiency Based on High-Contrast Transmitarrays,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 7069 (2015).

X. Ni, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Metasurface Holograms for Visible Light,” Nat. Commun. 4(1), 2807 (2013).

X. Chen, L. Huang, H. Mühlenbernd, G. Li, B. Bai, Q. Tan, G. Jin, C. W. Qiu, S. Zhang, and T. Zentgraf, “Dual-Polarity Plasmonic Metalens for Visible Light,” Nat. Commun. 3(1), 1198 (2012).

Nat. Mater. (1)

L. Cao, J. S. White, J. S. Park, J. A. Schuller, B. M. Clemens, and M. L. Brongersma, “Engineering light absorption in semiconductor nanowire devices,” Nat. Mater. 8(8), 643–647 (2009).

Nat. Photonics (1)

D. Fattal, J. J. Li, Z. Peng, M. Fiorentino, and R. G. Beausoleil, “Flat Dielectric Grating Reflectors with Focusing Abilities,” Nat. Photonics 4(7), 466–470 (2010).

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (5)

Optica (3)

Phys. Rev. (1)

A. B. Evlyukhin, C. Reinhardt, A. Seidel, B. S. Luk’yanchuk, and B. N. Chichkov, “Optical Response Features of Si-Nanoparticle Arrays,” Phys. Rev. 82(4), 45404B (2010).

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

N. Dahan, Y. Gorodetski, K. Frischwasser, V. Kleiner, and E. Hasman, “Geometric Doppler Effect: Spin-Split Dispersion of Thermal Radiation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(13), 136402 (2010).

Proc. Indiana Acad. Sci. (1)

B. Y. S. Pancharatnam, “Generalized Theory of Interference and Its Applications-I,” Proc. Indiana Acad. Sci. 44(4), 247–262 (1956).

Sci. Rep. (2)

A. Pors, O. Albrektsen, I. P. Radko, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Gap plasmon-based metasurfaces for total control of reflected light,” Sci. Rep. 3(1), 2155 (2013).

A. I. Kuznetsov, A. E. Miroshnichenko, Y. H. Fu, J. Zhang, and B. Luk’yanchuk, “Magnetic Light,” Sci. Rep. 2(1), 492 (2012).

Science (8)

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J. P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light Propagation with Phase Discontinuities: Generalized Laws of Reflection and Refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).

D. Lin, P. Fan, E. Hasman, and M. L. Brongersma, “Dielectric gradient metasurface optical elements,” Science 345(6194), 298–302 (2014).

A. V. Kildishev, A. Boltasseva, and V. M. Shalaev, “Planar Photonics with Metasurfaces,” Science 339(6125), 1232009 (2013).

A. I. Kuznetsov, A. E. Miroshnichenko, M. L. Brongersma, Y. S. Kivshar, and B. Luk’yanchuk, “Optically Resonant Dielectric Nanostructures,” Science 354(6314), 6314 (2016).

N. Shitrit, I. Yulevich, E. Maguid, D. Ozeri, D. Veksler, V. Kleiner, and E. Hasman, “Spin-Optical Metamaterial Route to Spin-Controlled Photonics,” Science 340(6133), 724–726 (2013).

M. Khorasaninejad, W. T. Chen, R. C. Devlin, J. Oh, A. Y. Zhu, and F. Capasso, “Metalenses at visible wavelengths: Diffraction-limited focusing and subwavelength resolution imaging,” Science 352(6290), 1190–1194 (2016).

X. Yin, Z. Ye, J. Rho, Y. Wang, and X. Zhang, “Photonic Spin Hall Effect at Metasurfaces,” Science 339(6126), 1405–1407 (2013).

E. Maguid, I. Yulevich, D. Veksler, V. Kleiner, M. L. Brongersma, and E. Hasman, “Photonic spin-controlled multifunctional shared-aperture antenna array,” Science 352(6290), 1202–1206 (2016).

Syst. Eng. (1)

M. LeCompte, S. Y. Shi, and D. W. Prather, ““Interleaved diffractive optical element design,” Wave-Optical,” Syst. Eng. 4436, 115–122 (2001).

Other (1)

M. V. Berry, “Quantal Phase Factors Accompanying Adiabatic Changes,” in Proceedings of the Royal Society of London A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences (1984), pp. 45–57.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Calculated phase profiles and diffraction patterns for single and spatially multiplexed flat optical lenses. The phase profiles are shown for σ- for (a) a single, 90-μm-diameter lens, (b) a multiplexed lens composed of 2-segments/half-lenses which feature reversed phase profiles to allow focusing of both σ- and σ+, (c) a multiplexed lens composed of 8 segments, (d) a randomly interleaved lens. (e-h) The corresponding amplitude distributions for the calculated diffraction pattern at the focal plane under plane wave illumination with 550 nm circularly polarized light. The intensity distribution through the focus is shown in the inset. The amplitude is normalized to the maximum intensity for each focal spot. The length of the scale bar is 10 μm.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Scanning electron microscope image of a metasurface lens composed of 2 segments. (b and c) Measured intensity profile of the focal spot in the focal plane at z = 100 μm upon illumination with left circularly (b) and linear (c) polarization. The inset shows the intensity distribution through the focus along the x-axis. (d and e) Measured intensity profile of the transmitted light behind the polarization-independent metasurface lens along x-z plane and y-z plane upon illumination with circularly (d) and linearly (e) polarized light. The scale bars in the panels are 2 μm.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Random subwavelength interleaved approach. (a-d) Nanopattern design for a single metasurface lens showing how incident σ- (a,b) and σ+ (c,d) is focused by the metasurface lens. (e) Design of a polarization-independent interleaved metasurface lens. Concentric rings in the lens were divided up in segments and randomly assigned the phase-profile of either the σ+ or σ-
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) Scanning electron microscope image of the fabricated polarization-independent random interleaved metasurface lens. The scale bar is 2 μm. (b-d) Optical microscope images of the focal spot measured at a focal plane of z = 100 μm upon illumination with σ-, σ+ and linear polarization, respectively. (e-g) Measured intensity profile in the x-z plane upon illumination with σ-, σ+ and linear polarized light, respectively. The inset along the x-axis shows the cross-sectional intensity profile at the focal plane, z = 100 μm.

Equations (1)

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2 θ 1 (x,y)= 2π λ (f x 2 + y 2 + f 2 ),2 θ 2 (x,y)= 2π λ (f x 2 + y 2 + f 2 ).

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