Abstract

Quantum key distribution (QKD) together with one time pad encoding can provide information-theoretical security for communication. Currently, though QKD has been widely deployed in many metropolitan fiber networks, its implementation in a large scale remains experimentally challenging. This letter provides a brief review on the experimental efforts towards the goal of global QKD, including the security of practical QKD with imperfect devices, QKD metropolitan and backbone networks over optical fiber and satellite-based QKD over free space.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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Corrections

5 September 2018: A typographical correction was made to the body text.


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2018 (3)

M. Lucamarini, Z. L. Yuan, J. F. Dynes, and A. J. Shields, “Overcoming the rate-distance limit of quantum key distribution without quantum repeaters,” Nature 557(7705), 400–403 (2018).
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S.-K. Liao, W.-Q. Cai, J. Handsteiner, B. Liu, J. Yin, L. Zhang, D. Rauch, M. Fink, J.-G. Ren, W.-Y. Liu, Y. Li, Q. Shen, Y. Cao, F.-Z. Li, J.-F. Wang, Y.-M. Huang, L. Deng, T. Xi, L. Ma, T. Hu, L. Li, N.-L. Liu, F. Koidl, P. Wang, Y.-A. Chen, X.-B. Wang, M. Steindorfer, G. Kirchner, C.-Y. Lu, R. Shu, R. Ursin, T. Scheidl, C.-Z. Peng, J.-Y. Wang, A. Zeilinger, and J.-W. Pan, “Satellite-relayed intercontinental quantum network,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 120(3), 030501 (2018).
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Y. Mao, B.-X. Wang, C. Zhao, G. Wang, R. Wang, H. Wang, F. Zhou, J. Nie, Q. Chen, Y. Zhao, Q. Zhang, J. Zhang, T.-Y. Chen, and J.-W. Pan, “Integrating quantum key distribution with classical communications in backbone fiber network,” Opt. Express 26(5), 6010–6020 (2018).
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2017 (7)

S.-K. Liao, H.-L. Yong, C. Liu, G.-L. Shentu, D.-D. Li, J. Lin, H. Dai, S.-Q. Zhao, B. Li, J.-Y. Guan, W. Chen, Y.-H. Gong, Y. Li, Z.-H. Lin, G.-S. Pan, J. S. Pelc, M. M. Fejer, W.-Z. Zhang, W.-Y. Liu, J. Yin, J.-G. Ren, X.-B. Wang, Q. Zhang, C.-Z. Peng, and J.-W. Pan, “Long-distance free-space quantum key distribution in daylight towards inter-satellite communication,” Nat. Photonics 11(8), 509–513 (2017).
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J. Yin, Y. Cao, Y.-H. Li, J.-G. Ren, S.-K. Liao, L. Zhang, W.-Q. Cai, W.-Y. Liu, B. Li, H. Dai, M. Li, Y.-M. Huang, L. Deng, L. Li, Q. Zhang, N.-L. Liu, Y.-A. Chen, C.-Y. Lu, R. Shu, C.-Z. Peng, J.-Y. Wang, and J.-W. Pan, “Satellite-to-ground entanglement-based quantum key distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 119(20), 200501 (2017).
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G. L. Roberts, M. Lucamarini, Z. L. Yuan, J. F. Dynes, L. C. Comandar, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, M. Curty, I. V. Puthoor, and E. Andersson, “Experimental measurement-device-independent quantum digital signatures,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 1098 (2017).
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S.-K. Liao, W.-Q. Cai, W.-Y. Liu, L. Zhang, Y. Li, J.-G. Ren, J. Yin, Q. Shen, Y. Cao, Z.-P. Li, F.-Z. Li, X.-W. Chen, L.-H. Sun, J.-J. Jia, J.-C. Wu, X.-J. Jiang, J.-F. Wang, Y.-M. Huang, Q. Wang, Y.-L. Zhou, L. Deng, T. Xi, L. Ma, T. Hu, Q. Zhang, Y.-A. Chen, N.-L. Liu, X.-B. Wang, Z.-C. Zhu, C.-Y. Lu, R. Shu, C.-Z. Peng, J.-Y. Wang, and J.-W. Pan, “Satellite-to-ground quantum key distribution,” Nature 549(7670), 43–47 (2017).
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J.-G. Ren, P. Xu, H.-L. Yong, L. Zhang, S.-K. Liao, J. Yin, W.-Y. Liu, W.-Q. Cai, M. Yang, L. Li, K.-X. Yang, X. Han, Y.-Q. Yao, J. Li, H.-Y. Wu, S. Wan, L. Liu, D.-Q. Liu, Y.-W. Kuang, Z.-P. He, P. Shang, C. Guo, R.-H. Zheng, K. Tian, Z.-C. Zhu, N.-L. Liu, C.-Y. Lu, R. Shu, Y.-A. Chen, C.-Z. Peng, J.-Y. Wang, and J.-W. Pan, “Ground-to-satellite quantum teleportation,” Nature 549(7670), 70–73 (2017).
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J. Yin, Y. Cao, Y.-H. Li, S.-K. Liao, L. Zhang, J.-G. Ren, W.-Q. Cai, W.-Y. Liu, B. Li, H. Dai, G.-B. Li, Q.-M. Lu, Y.-H. Gong, Y. Xu, S.-L. Li, F.-Z. Li, Y.-Y. Yin, Z.-Q. Jiang, M. Li, J.-J. Jia, G. Ren, D. He, Y.-L. Zhou, X.-X. Zhang, N. Wang, X. Chang, Z.-C. Zhu, N.-L. Liu, Y.-A. Chen, C.-Y. Lu, R. Shu, C.-Z. Peng, J.-Y. Wang, and J.-W. Pan, “Satellite-based entanglement distribution over 1200 kilometers,” Science 356(6343), 1140–1144 (2017).
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A. Leverrier, “Security of continuous-variable quantum key distribution via a Gaussian de Finetti reduction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 118(20), 200501 (2017).
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2016 (6)

S. Muralidharan, L. Li, J. Kim, N. Lütkenhaus, M. D. Lukin, and L. Jiang, “Optimal architectures for long distance quantum communication,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 20463 (2016).
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Y.-L. Tang, H.-L. Yin, Q. Zhao, H. Liu, X.-X. Sun, M.-Q. Huang, W.-J. Zhang, S.-J. Chen, L. Zhang, L.-X. You, Z. Wang, Y. Liu, C.-Y. Lu, X. Jiang, X. Ma, Q. Zhang, T.-Y. Chen, and J.-W. Pan, “Measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution over untrustful metropolitan network,” Phys. Rev. X 6(1), 011024 (2016).
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Z. Tang, K. Wei, O. Bedroya, L. Qian, and H.-K. Lo, “Experimental measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution with imperfect sources,” Phys. Rev. A 93(4), 042308 (2016).
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L. C. Comandar, M. Lucamarini, B. Fröhlich, J. F. Dynes, A. W. Sharpe, S. W.-B. Tam, Z. L. Yuan, R. V. Penty, and A. J. Shields, “Quantum key distribution without detector vulnerabilities using optically seeded lasers,” Nat. Photonics 10(5), 312–315 (2016).
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S.-J. Yang, X.-J. Wang, X.-H. Bao, and J.-W. Pan, “An efficient quantum light-matter interface with sub-second lifetime,” Nat. Photonics 10(6), 381–384 (2016).
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H.-L. Yin, T.-Y. Chen, Z.-W. Yu, H. Liu, L.-X. You, Y.-H. Zhou, S.-J. Chen, Y. Mao, M.-Q. Huang, W.-J. Zhang, H. Chen, M. J. Li, D. Nolan, F. Zhou, X. Jiang, Z. Wang, Q. Zhang, X.-B. Wang, and J.-W. Pan, “Measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution over a 404 km optical fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 117(19), 190501 (2016).
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2015 (13)

R. Valivarthi, I. Lucio-Martinez, P. Chan, A. Rubenok, C. John, D. Korchinski, C. Duffin, F. Marsili, V. Verma, M. D. Shaw, J. A. Stern, S. W. Nam, D. Oblak, Q. Zhou, J. A. Slater, and W. Tittel, “Measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution: from idea towards application,” J. Mod. Opt. 62(14), 1141–1150 (2015).
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C. Wang, X. T. Song, Z. Q. Yin, S. Wang, W. Chen, C. M. Zhang, G. C. Guo, and Z. F. Han, “Phase-reference-free experiment of measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115(16), 160502 (2015).
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B. Qi, P. Lougovski, R. Pooser, W. Grice, and M. Bobrek, “Generating the local oscillator ‘locally’ in continuous-variable quantum key distribution based on coherent detection,” Phys. Rev. X 5(4), 041009 (2015).
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D. B. S. Soh, C. Brif, P. J. Coles, N. Lütkenhaus, R. M. Camacho, J. Urayama, and M. Sarovar, “Self-referenced continuous-variable quantum key distribution protocol,” Phys. Rev. X 5(4), 041010 (2015).
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S. Pirandola, C. Ottaviani, G. Spedalieri, C. Weedbrook, S. L. Braunstein, S. Lloyd, T. Gehring, C. S. Jacobsen, and U. L. Andersen, “High-rate measurement-device-independent quantum cryptography,” Nat. Photonics 9(6), 397–402 (2015).
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T. Gehring, V. Händchen, J. Duhme, F. Furrer, T. Franz, C. Pacher, R. F. Werner, and R. Schnabel, “Implementation of continuous-variable quantum key distribution with composable and one-sided-device-independent security against coherent attacks,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 8795 (2015).
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A. Leverrier, “Composable security proof for continuous-variable quantum key distribution with coherent States,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 114(7), 070501 (2015).
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L.-J. Wang, L.-K. Chen, L. Ju, M.-L. Xu, Y. Zhao, K. Chen, Z.-B. Chen, T.-Y. Chen, and J.-W. Pan, “Experimental multiplexing of quantum key distribution with classical optical communication,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(8), 081108 (2015).
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R. Kumar, H. Qin, and R. Alléaume, “Coexistence of continuous variable QKD with intense DWDM classical channels,” New J. Phys. 17(4), 043027 (2015).
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G. Vallone, D. Bacco, D. Dequal, S. Gaiarin, V. Luceri, G. Bianco, and P. Villoresi, “Experimental satellite quantum communications,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115(4), 040502 (2015).
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D. Huang, D. Lin, C. Wang, W. Liu, S. Fang, J. Peng, P. Huang, and G. Zeng, “Continuous-variable quantum key distribution with 1 Mbps secure key rate,” Opt. Express 23(13), 17511–17519 (2015).
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D. Huang, D. Lin, C. Wang, W. Liu, S. Fang, J. Peng, P. Huang, and G. Zeng, “Continuous-variable quantum key distribution with 1 Mbps secure key rate,” Opt. Express 23(13), 17511–17519 (2015).
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D. Huang, P. Huang, D. Lin, C. Wang, and G. Zeng, “High-speed continuous-variable quantum key distribution without sending a local oscillator,” Opt. Lett. 40(16), 3695–3698 (2015).
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2014 (5)

S. Wang, W. Chen, Z.-Q. Yin, H.-W. Li, D.-Y. He, Y.-H. Li, Z. Zhou, X.-T. Song, F.-Y. Li, D. Wang, H. Chen, Y.-G. Han, J.-Z. Huang, J.-F. Guo, P.-L. Hao, M. Li, C.-M. Zhang, D. Liu, W.-Y. Liang, C.-H. Miao, P. Wu, G.-C. Guo, and Z.-F. Han, “Field and long-term demonstration of a wide area quantum key distribution network,” Opt. Express 22(18), 21739–21756 (2014).
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Z. Tang, Z. Liao, F. Xu, B. Qi, L. Qian, and H.-K. Lo, “Experimental demonstration of polarization encoding measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112(19), 190503 (2014).
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Y.-L. Tang, H.-L. Yin, S.-J. Chen, Y. Liu, W.-J. Zhang, X. Jiang, L. Zhang, J. Wang, L. X. You, J. Y. Guan, D. X. Yang, Z. Wang, H. Liang, Z. Zhang, N. Zhou, X. Ma, T. Y. Chen, Q. Zhang, and J. W. Pan, “Measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution over 200 km,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113(19), 190501 (2014).
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J. Qiu, “Quantum communications leap out of the lab,” Nature 508(7497), 441–442 (2014).
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H.-K. Lo, M. Curty, and K. Tamaki, “Secure quantum key distribution,” Nat. Photonics 8(8), 595–604 (2014).
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2013 (9)

Y.-L. Tang, H.-L. Yin, X. Ma, C.-H. F. Fung, Y. Liu, H.-L. Yong, T.-Y. Chen, C.-Z. Peng, Z.-B. Chen, and J.-W. Pan, “Source attack of decoy-state quantum key distribution using phase information,” Phys. Rev. A 88(2), 022308 (2013).
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P. Jouguet, S. Kunz-Jacques, A. Leverrier, P. Grangier, and E. Diamanti, “Experimental demonstration of long-distance continuous-variable quantum key distribution,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 378–381 (2013).
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Y. Liu, T.-Y. Chen, L.-J. Wang, H. Liang, G.-L. Shentu, J. Wang, K. Cui, H.-L. Yin, N.-L. Liu, L. Li, X. Ma, J. S. Pelc, M. M. Fejer, C.-Z. Peng, Q. Zhang, and J.-W. Pan, “Experimental measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(13), 130502 (2013).
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A. Rubenok, J. A. Slater, P. Chan, I. Lucio-Martinez, and W. Tittel, “Real-world two-photon interference and proof-of-principle quantum key distribution immune to detector attacks,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(13), 130501 (2013).
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T. F. da Silva, D. Vitoreti, G. B. Xavier, G. C. do Amaral, G. P. Temporão, and J. P. von der Weid, “Proof-of-principle demonstration of measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution using polarization qubits,” Phys. Rev. A 88(5), 052303 (2013).
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B. Fröhlich, J. F. Dynes, M. Lucamarini, A. W. Sharpe, Z. Yuan, and A. J. Shields, “A quantum access network,” Nature 501(7465), 69–72 (2013).
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J. Yin, Y. Cao, S.-B. Liu, G.-S. Pan, J.-H. Wang, T. Yang, Z. P. Zhang, F. M. Yang, Y. A. Chen, C. Z. Peng, and J. W. Pan, “Experimental quasi-single-photon transmission from satellite to earth,” Opt. Express 21(17), 20032–20040 (2013).
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J.-Y. Wang, B. Yang, S.-K. Liao, L. Zhang, Q. Shen, X.-F. Hu, J.-C. Wu, S.-J. Yang, H. Jiang, Y.-L. Tang, B. Zhong, H. Liang, W.-Y. Liu, Y.-H. Hu, Y.-M. Huang, B. Qi, J.-G. Ren, G.-S. Pan, J. Yin, J.-J. Jia, Y.-A. Chen, K. Chen, C.-Z. Peng, and J.-W. Pan, “Direct and full-scale experimental verifications towards ground-satellite quantum key distribution,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 387–393 (2013).
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S. Nauerth, F. Moll, M. Rau, C. Fuchs, J. Horwath, S. Frick, and H. Weinfurter, “Air-to-ground quantum communication,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 382–386 (2013).
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2012 (6)

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2008 (3)

A. R. Dixon, Z. L. Yuan, J. F. Dynes, A. W. Sharpe, and A. J. Shields, “Gigahertz decoy quantum key distribution with 1 Mbit/s secure key rate,” Opt. Express 16(23), 18790–18797 (2008).
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2006 (1)

Y. Zhao, B. Qi, X. Ma, H.-K. Lo, and L. Qian, “Experimental quantum key distribution with decoy states,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(7), 070502 (2006).
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2005 (4)

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2004 (2)

V. Scarani, A. Acín, G. Ribordy, and N. Gisin, “Quantum cryptography protocols robust against photon number splitting attacks for weak laser pulse implementations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(5), 057901 (2004).
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2001 (2)

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2000 (3)

W. T. Buttler, R. J. Hughes, S. K. Lamoreaux, G. L. Morgan, J. E. Nordholt, and C. G. Peterson, “Daylight quantum key distribution over 1.6 km,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(24), 5652–5655 (2000).
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1998 (2)

H.-J. Briegel, W. Dür, J. I. Cirac, and P. Zoller, “Quantum repeaters: the role of imperfect local operations in quantum communication,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81(26), 5932–5935 (1998).
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1994 (1)

P. D. Townsend, S. J. D. Phoenix, K. J. Blow, and S. M. Barnett, “Design of quantum cryptography systems for passive optical networks,” Electron. Lett. 30(22), 1875–1877 (1994).
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1992 (2)

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J. Yin, Y. Cao, Y.-H. Li, J.-G. Ren, S.-K. Liao, L. Zhang, W.-Q. Cai, W.-Y. Liu, B. Li, H. Dai, M. Li, Y.-M. Huang, L. Deng, L. Li, Q. Zhang, N.-L. Liu, Y.-A. Chen, C.-Y. Lu, R. Shu, C.-Z. Peng, J.-Y. Wang, and J.-W. Pan, “Satellite-to-ground entanglement-based quantum key distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 119(20), 200501 (2017).
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S.-K. Liao, H.-L. Yong, C. Liu, G.-L. Shentu, D.-D. Li, J. Lin, H. Dai, S.-Q. Zhao, B. Li, J.-Y. Guan, W. Chen, Y.-H. Gong, Y. Li, Z.-H. Lin, G.-S. Pan, J. S. Pelc, M. M. Fejer, W.-Z. Zhang, W.-Y. Liu, J. Yin, J.-G. Ren, X.-B. Wang, Q. Zhang, C.-Z. Peng, and J.-W. Pan, “Long-distance free-space quantum key distribution in daylight towards inter-satellite communication,” Nat. Photonics 11(8), 509–513 (2017).
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Li, D.-D.

S.-K. Liao, H.-L. Yong, C. Liu, G.-L. Shentu, D.-D. Li, J. Lin, H. Dai, S.-Q. Zhao, B. Li, J.-Y. Guan, W. Chen, Y.-H. Gong, Y. Li, Z.-H. Lin, G.-S. Pan, J. S. Pelc, M. M. Fejer, W.-Z. Zhang, W.-Y. Liu, J. Yin, J.-G. Ren, X.-B. Wang, Q. Zhang, C.-Z. Peng, and J.-W. Pan, “Long-distance free-space quantum key distribution in daylight towards inter-satellite communication,” Nat. Photonics 11(8), 509–513 (2017).
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Li, F.-Y.

Li, F.-Z.

S.-K. Liao, W.-Q. Cai, J. Handsteiner, B. Liu, J. Yin, L. Zhang, D. Rauch, M. Fink, J.-G. Ren, W.-Y. Liu, Y. Li, Q. Shen, Y. Cao, F.-Z. Li, J.-F. Wang, Y.-M. Huang, L. Deng, T. Xi, L. Ma, T. Hu, L. Li, N.-L. Liu, F. Koidl, P. Wang, Y.-A. Chen, X.-B. Wang, M. Steindorfer, G. Kirchner, C.-Y. Lu, R. Shu, R. Ursin, T. Scheidl, C.-Z. Peng, J.-Y. Wang, A. Zeilinger, and J.-W. Pan, “Satellite-relayed intercontinental quantum network,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 120(3), 030501 (2018).
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J. Yin, Y. Cao, Y.-H. Li, S.-K. Liao, L. Zhang, J.-G. Ren, W.-Q. Cai, W.-Y. Liu, B. Li, H. Dai, G.-B. Li, Q.-M. Lu, Y.-H. Gong, Y. Xu, S.-L. Li, F.-Z. Li, Y.-Y. Yin, Z.-Q. Jiang, M. Li, J.-J. Jia, G. Ren, D. He, Y.-L. Zhou, X.-X. Zhang, N. Wang, X. Chang, Z.-C. Zhu, N.-L. Liu, Y.-A. Chen, C.-Y. Lu, R. Shu, C.-Z. Peng, J.-Y. Wang, and J.-W. Pan, “Satellite-based entanglement distribution over 1200 kilometers,” Science 356(6343), 1140–1144 (2017).
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S.-K. Liao, W.-Q. Cai, W.-Y. Liu, L. Zhang, Y. Li, J.-G. Ren, J. Yin, Q. Shen, Y. Cao, Z.-P. Li, F.-Z. Li, X.-W. Chen, L.-H. Sun, J.-J. Jia, J.-C. Wu, X.-J. Jiang, J.-F. Wang, Y.-M. Huang, Q. Wang, Y.-L. Zhou, L. Deng, T. Xi, L. Ma, T. Hu, Q. Zhang, Y.-A. Chen, N.-L. Liu, X.-B. Wang, Z.-C. Zhu, C.-Y. Lu, R. Shu, C.-Z. Peng, J.-Y. Wang, and J.-W. Pan, “Satellite-to-ground quantum key distribution,” Nature 549(7670), 43–47 (2017).
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Li, G.-B.

J. Yin, Y. Cao, Y.-H. Li, S.-K. Liao, L. Zhang, J.-G. Ren, W.-Q. Cai, W.-Y. Liu, B. Li, H. Dai, G.-B. Li, Q.-M. Lu, Y.-H. Gong, Y. Xu, S.-L. Li, F.-Z. Li, Y.-Y. Yin, Z.-Q. Jiang, M. Li, J.-J. Jia, G. Ren, D. He, Y.-L. Zhou, X.-X. Zhang, N. Wang, X. Chang, Z.-C. Zhu, N.-L. Liu, Y.-A. Chen, C.-Y. Lu, R. Shu, C.-Z. Peng, J.-Y. Wang, and J.-W. Pan, “Satellite-based entanglement distribution over 1200 kilometers,” Science 356(6343), 1140–1144 (2017).
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Li, H.-W.

Li, J.

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Li, L.

S.-K. Liao, W.-Q. Cai, J. Handsteiner, B. Liu, J. Yin, L. Zhang, D. Rauch, M. Fink, J.-G. Ren, W.-Y. Liu, Y. Li, Q. Shen, Y. Cao, F.-Z. Li, J.-F. Wang, Y.-M. Huang, L. Deng, T. Xi, L. Ma, T. Hu, L. Li, N.-L. Liu, F. Koidl, P. Wang, Y.-A. Chen, X.-B. Wang, M. Steindorfer, G. Kirchner, C.-Y. Lu, R. Shu, R. Ursin, T. Scheidl, C.-Z. Peng, J.-Y. Wang, A. Zeilinger, and J.-W. Pan, “Satellite-relayed intercontinental quantum network,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 120(3), 030501 (2018).
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J. Yin, Y. Cao, Y.-H. Li, J.-G. Ren, S.-K. Liao, L. Zhang, W.-Q. Cai, W.-Y. Liu, B. Li, H. Dai, M. Li, Y.-M. Huang, L. Deng, L. Li, Q. Zhang, N.-L. Liu, Y.-A. Chen, C.-Y. Lu, R. Shu, C.-Z. Peng, J.-Y. Wang, and J.-W. Pan, “Satellite-to-ground entanglement-based quantum key distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 119(20), 200501 (2017).
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S. Muralidharan, L. Li, J. Kim, N. Lütkenhaus, M. D. Lukin, and L. Jiang, “Optimal architectures for long distance quantum communication,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 20463 (2016).
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Y. Liu, T.-Y. Chen, L.-J. Wang, H. Liang, G.-L. Shentu, J. Wang, K. Cui, H.-L. Yin, N.-L. Liu, L. Li, X. Ma, J. S. Pelc, M. M. Fejer, C.-Z. Peng, Q. Zhang, and J.-W. Pan, “Experimental measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(13), 130502 (2013).
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Li, M.

J. Yin, Y. Cao, Y.-H. Li, S.-K. Liao, L. Zhang, J.-G. Ren, W.-Q. Cai, W.-Y. Liu, B. Li, H. Dai, G.-B. Li, Q.-M. Lu, Y.-H. Gong, Y. Xu, S.-L. Li, F.-Z. Li, Y.-Y. Yin, Z.-Q. Jiang, M. Li, J.-J. Jia, G. Ren, D. He, Y.-L. Zhou, X.-X. Zhang, N. Wang, X. Chang, Z.-C. Zhu, N.-L. Liu, Y.-A. Chen, C.-Y. Lu, R. Shu, C.-Z. Peng, J.-Y. Wang, and J.-W. Pan, “Satellite-based entanglement distribution over 1200 kilometers,” Science 356(6343), 1140–1144 (2017).
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J. Yin, Y. Cao, Y.-H. Li, J.-G. Ren, S.-K. Liao, L. Zhang, W.-Q. Cai, W.-Y. Liu, B. Li, H. Dai, M. Li, Y.-M. Huang, L. Deng, L. Li, Q. Zhang, N.-L. Liu, Y.-A. Chen, C.-Y. Lu, R. Shu, C.-Z. Peng, J.-Y. Wang, and J.-W. Pan, “Satellite-to-ground entanglement-based quantum key distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 119(20), 200501 (2017).
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S. Wang, W. Chen, Z.-Q. Yin, H.-W. Li, D.-Y. He, Y.-H. Li, Z. Zhou, X.-T. Song, F.-Y. Li, D. Wang, H. Chen, Y.-G. Han, J.-Z. Huang, J.-F. Guo, P.-L. Hao, M. Li, C.-M. Zhang, D. Liu, W.-Y. Liang, C.-H. Miao, P. Wu, G.-C. Guo, and Z.-F. Han, “Field and long-term demonstration of a wide area quantum key distribution network,” Opt. Express 22(18), 21739–21756 (2014).
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Li, M. J.

H.-L. Yin, T.-Y. Chen, Z.-W. Yu, H. Liu, L.-X. You, Y.-H. Zhou, S.-J. Chen, Y. Mao, M.-Q. Huang, W.-J. Zhang, H. Chen, M. J. Li, D. Nolan, F. Zhou, X. Jiang, Z. Wang, Q. Zhang, X.-B. Wang, and J.-W. Pan, “Measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution over a 404 km optical fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 117(19), 190501 (2016).
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Li, N.

C.-Z. Peng, T. Yang, X.-H. Bao, J. Zhang, X.-M. Jin, F.-Y. Feng, B. Yang, J. Yang, J. Yin, Q. Zhang, N. Li, B.-L. Tian, and J.-W. Pan, “Experimental free-space distribution of entangled photon pairs over 13 km: towards satellite-based global quantum communication,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(15), 150501 (2005).
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Li, S.-L.

J. Yin, Y. Cao, Y.-H. Li, S.-K. Liao, L. Zhang, J.-G. Ren, W.-Q. Cai, W.-Y. Liu, B. Li, H. Dai, G.-B. Li, Q.-M. Lu, Y.-H. Gong, Y. Xu, S.-L. Li, F.-Z. Li, Y.-Y. Yin, Z.-Q. Jiang, M. Li, J.-J. Jia, G. Ren, D. He, Y.-L. Zhou, X.-X. Zhang, N. Wang, X. Chang, Z.-C. Zhu, N.-L. Liu, Y.-A. Chen, C.-Y. Lu, R. Shu, C.-Z. Peng, J.-Y. Wang, and J.-W. Pan, “Satellite-based entanglement distribution over 1200 kilometers,” Science 356(6343), 1140–1144 (2017).
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Li, Y.

S.-K. Liao, W.-Q. Cai, J. Handsteiner, B. Liu, J. Yin, L. Zhang, D. Rauch, M. Fink, J.-G. Ren, W.-Y. Liu, Y. Li, Q. Shen, Y. Cao, F.-Z. Li, J.-F. Wang, Y.-M. Huang, L. Deng, T. Xi, L. Ma, T. Hu, L. Li, N.-L. Liu, F. Koidl, P. Wang, Y.-A. Chen, X.-B. Wang, M. Steindorfer, G. Kirchner, C.-Y. Lu, R. Shu, R. Ursin, T. Scheidl, C.-Z. Peng, J.-Y. Wang, A. Zeilinger, and J.-W. Pan, “Satellite-relayed intercontinental quantum network,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 120(3), 030501 (2018).
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S.-K. Liao, H.-L. Yong, C. Liu, G.-L. Shentu, D.-D. Li, J. Lin, H. Dai, S.-Q. Zhao, B. Li, J.-Y. Guan, W. Chen, Y.-H. Gong, Y. Li, Z.-H. Lin, G.-S. Pan, J. S. Pelc, M. M. Fejer, W.-Z. Zhang, W.-Y. Liu, J. Yin, J.-G. Ren, X.-B. Wang, Q. Zhang, C.-Z. Peng, and J.-W. Pan, “Long-distance free-space quantum key distribution in daylight towards inter-satellite communication,” Nat. Photonics 11(8), 509–513 (2017).
[Crossref]

S.-K. Liao, W.-Q. Cai, W.-Y. Liu, L. Zhang, Y. Li, J.-G. Ren, J. Yin, Q. Shen, Y. Cao, Z.-P. Li, F.-Z. Li, X.-W. Chen, L.-H. Sun, J.-J. Jia, J.-C. Wu, X.-J. Jiang, J.-F. Wang, Y.-M. Huang, Q. Wang, Y.-L. Zhou, L. Deng, T. Xi, L. Ma, T. Hu, Q. Zhang, Y.-A. Chen, N.-L. Liu, X.-B. Wang, Z.-C. Zhu, C.-Y. Lu, R. Shu, C.-Z. Peng, J.-Y. Wang, and J.-W. Pan, “Satellite-to-ground quantum key distribution,” Nature 549(7670), 43–47 (2017).
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Li, Y.-H.

J. Yin, Y. Cao, Y.-H. Li, S.-K. Liao, L. Zhang, J.-G. Ren, W.-Q. Cai, W.-Y. Liu, B. Li, H. Dai, G.-B. Li, Q.-M. Lu, Y.-H. Gong, Y. Xu, S.-L. Li, F.-Z. Li, Y.-Y. Yin, Z.-Q. Jiang, M. Li, J.-J. Jia, G. Ren, D. He, Y.-L. Zhou, X.-X. Zhang, N. Wang, X. Chang, Z.-C. Zhu, N.-L. Liu, Y.-A. Chen, C.-Y. Lu, R. Shu, C.-Z. Peng, J.-Y. Wang, and J.-W. Pan, “Satellite-based entanglement distribution over 1200 kilometers,” Science 356(6343), 1140–1144 (2017).
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J. Yin, Y. Cao, Y.-H. Li, J.-G. Ren, S.-K. Liao, L. Zhang, W.-Q. Cai, W.-Y. Liu, B. Li, H. Dai, M. Li, Y.-M. Huang, L. Deng, L. Li, Q. Zhang, N.-L. Liu, Y.-A. Chen, C.-Y. Lu, R. Shu, C.-Z. Peng, J.-Y. Wang, and J.-W. Pan, “Satellite-to-ground entanglement-based quantum key distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 119(20), 200501 (2017).
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S. Wang, W. Chen, Z.-Q. Yin, H.-W. Li, D.-Y. He, Y.-H. Li, Z. Zhou, X.-T. Song, F.-Y. Li, D. Wang, H. Chen, Y.-G. Han, J.-Z. Huang, J.-F. Guo, P.-L. Hao, M. Li, C.-M. Zhang, D. Liu, W.-Y. Liang, C.-H. Miao, P. Wu, G.-C. Guo, and Z.-F. Han, “Field and long-term demonstration of a wide area quantum key distribution network,” Opt. Express 22(18), 21739–21756 (2014).
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Li, Z.-P.

S.-K. Liao, W.-Q. Cai, W.-Y. Liu, L. Zhang, Y. Li, J.-G. Ren, J. Yin, Q. Shen, Y. Cao, Z.-P. Li, F.-Z. Li, X.-W. Chen, L.-H. Sun, J.-J. Jia, J.-C. Wu, X.-J. Jiang, J.-F. Wang, Y.-M. Huang, Q. Wang, Y.-L. Zhou, L. Deng, T. Xi, L. Ma, T. Hu, Q. Zhang, Y.-A. Chen, N.-L. Liu, X.-B. Wang, Z.-C. Zhu, C.-Y. Lu, R. Shu, C.-Z. Peng, J.-Y. Wang, and J.-W. Pan, “Satellite-to-ground quantum key distribution,” Nature 549(7670), 43–47 (2017).
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Liang, H.

Y.-L. Tang, H.-L. Yin, S.-J. Chen, Y. Liu, W.-J. Zhang, X. Jiang, L. Zhang, J. Wang, L. X. You, J. Y. Guan, D. X. Yang, Z. Wang, H. Liang, Z. Zhang, N. Zhou, X. Ma, T. Y. Chen, Q. Zhang, and J. W. Pan, “Measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution over 200 km,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113(19), 190501 (2014).
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Y. Liu, T.-Y. Chen, L.-J. Wang, H. Liang, G.-L. Shentu, J. Wang, K. Cui, H.-L. Yin, N.-L. Liu, L. Li, X. Ma, J. S. Pelc, M. M. Fejer, C.-Z. Peng, Q. Zhang, and J.-W. Pan, “Experimental measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(13), 130502 (2013).
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J.-Y. Wang, B. Yang, S.-K. Liao, L. Zhang, Q. Shen, X.-F. Hu, J.-C. Wu, S.-J. Yang, H. Jiang, Y.-L. Tang, B. Zhong, H. Liang, W.-Y. Liu, Y.-H. Hu, Y.-M. Huang, B. Qi, J.-G. Ren, G.-S. Pan, J. Yin, J.-J. Jia, Y.-A. Chen, K. Chen, C.-Z. Peng, and J.-W. Pan, “Direct and full-scale experimental verifications towards ground-satellite quantum key distribution,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 387–393 (2013).
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T.-Y. Chen, J. Wang, H. Liang, W.-Y. Liu, Y. Liu, X. Jiang, Y. Wang, X. Wan, W.-Q. Cai, L. Ju, L.-K. Chen, L.-J. Wang, Y. Gao, K. Chen, C.-Z. Peng, Z.-B. Chen, and J.-W. Pan, “Metropolitan all-pass and inter-city quantum communication network,” Opt. Express 18(26), 27217–27225 (2010).
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Liao, S.-K.

S.-K. Liao, W.-Q. Cai, J. Handsteiner, B. Liu, J. Yin, L. Zhang, D. Rauch, M. Fink, J.-G. Ren, W.-Y. Liu, Y. Li, Q. Shen, Y. Cao, F.-Z. Li, J.-F. Wang, Y.-M. Huang, L. Deng, T. Xi, L. Ma, T. Hu, L. Li, N.-L. Liu, F. Koidl, P. Wang, Y.-A. Chen, X.-B. Wang, M. Steindorfer, G. Kirchner, C.-Y. Lu, R. Shu, R. Ursin, T. Scheidl, C.-Z. Peng, J.-Y. Wang, A. Zeilinger, and J.-W. Pan, “Satellite-relayed intercontinental quantum network,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 120(3), 030501 (2018).
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J. Yin, Y. Cao, Y.-H. Li, J.-G. Ren, S.-K. Liao, L. Zhang, W.-Q. Cai, W.-Y. Liu, B. Li, H. Dai, M. Li, Y.-M. Huang, L. Deng, L. Li, Q. Zhang, N.-L. Liu, Y.-A. Chen, C.-Y. Lu, R. Shu, C.-Z. Peng, J.-Y. Wang, and J.-W. Pan, “Satellite-to-ground entanglement-based quantum key distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 119(20), 200501 (2017).
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S.-K. Liao, H.-L. Yong, C. Liu, G.-L. Shentu, D.-D. Li, J. Lin, H. Dai, S.-Q. Zhao, B. Li, J.-Y. Guan, W. Chen, Y.-H. Gong, Y. Li, Z.-H. Lin, G.-S. Pan, J. S. Pelc, M. M. Fejer, W.-Z. Zhang, W.-Y. Liu, J. Yin, J.-G. Ren, X.-B. Wang, Q. Zhang, C.-Z. Peng, and J.-W. Pan, “Long-distance free-space quantum key distribution in daylight towards inter-satellite communication,” Nat. Photonics 11(8), 509–513 (2017).
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J. Yin, Y. Cao, Y.-H. Li, S.-K. Liao, L. Zhang, J.-G. Ren, W.-Q. Cai, W.-Y. Liu, B. Li, H. Dai, G.-B. Li, Q.-M. Lu, Y.-H. Gong, Y. Xu, S.-L. Li, F.-Z. Li, Y.-Y. Yin, Z.-Q. Jiang, M. Li, J.-J. Jia, G. Ren, D. He, Y.-L. Zhou, X.-X. Zhang, N. Wang, X. Chang, Z.-C. Zhu, N.-L. Liu, Y.-A. Chen, C.-Y. Lu, R. Shu, C.-Z. Peng, J.-Y. Wang, and J.-W. Pan, “Satellite-based entanglement distribution over 1200 kilometers,” Science 356(6343), 1140–1144 (2017).
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S.-K. Liao, W.-Q. Cai, W.-Y. Liu, L. Zhang, Y. Li, J.-G. Ren, J. Yin, Q. Shen, Y. Cao, Z.-P. Li, F.-Z. Li, X.-W. Chen, L.-H. Sun, J.-J. Jia, J.-C. Wu, X.-J. Jiang, J.-F. Wang, Y.-M. Huang, Q. Wang, Y.-L. Zhou, L. Deng, T. Xi, L. Ma, T. Hu, Q. Zhang, Y.-A. Chen, N.-L. Liu, X.-B. Wang, Z.-C. Zhu, C.-Y. Lu, R. Shu, C.-Z. Peng, J.-Y. Wang, and J.-W. Pan, “Satellite-to-ground quantum key distribution,” Nature 549(7670), 43–47 (2017).
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J. Yin, Y. Cao, S.-B. Liu, G.-S. Pan, J.-H. Wang, T. Yang, Z. P. Zhang, F. M. Yang, Y. A. Chen, C. Z. Peng, and J. W. Pan, “Experimental quasi-single-photon transmission from satellite to earth,” Opt. Express 21(17), 20032–20040 (2013).
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J. Yin, J.-G. Ren, H. Lu, Y. Cao, H.-L. Yong, Y.-P. Wu, C. Liu, S.-K. Liao, F. Zhou, Y. Jiang, X.-D. Cai, P. Xu, G.-S. Pan, J. J. Jia, Y.-M. Huang, H. Yin, J.-Y. Wang, Y.-A. Chen, C.-Z. Peng, and J.-W. Pan, “Quantum teleportation and entanglement distribution over 100-kilometre free-space channels,” Nature 488(7410), 185–188 (2012).
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Y.-L. Tang, H.-L. Yin, S.-J. Chen, Y. Liu, W.-J. Zhang, X. Jiang, L. Zhang, J. Wang, L. X. You, J. Y. Guan, D. X. Yang, Z. Wang, H. Liang, Z. Zhang, N. Zhou, X. Ma, T. Y. Chen, Q. Zhang, and J. W. Pan, “Measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution over 200 km,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113(19), 190501 (2014).
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S.-K. Liao, W.-Q. Cai, J. Handsteiner, B. Liu, J. Yin, L. Zhang, D. Rauch, M. Fink, J.-G. Ren, W.-Y. Liu, Y. Li, Q. Shen, Y. Cao, F.-Z. Li, J.-F. Wang, Y.-M. Huang, L. Deng, T. Xi, L. Ma, T. Hu, L. Li, N.-L. Liu, F. Koidl, P. Wang, Y.-A. Chen, X.-B. Wang, M. Steindorfer, G. Kirchner, C.-Y. Lu, R. Shu, R. Ursin, T. Scheidl, C.-Z. Peng, J.-Y. Wang, A. Zeilinger, and J.-W. Pan, “Satellite-relayed intercontinental quantum network,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 120(3), 030501 (2018).
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S.-K. Liao, H.-L. Yong, C. Liu, G.-L. Shentu, D.-D. Li, J. Lin, H. Dai, S.-Q. Zhao, B. Li, J.-Y. Guan, W. Chen, Y.-H. Gong, Y. Li, Z.-H. Lin, G.-S. Pan, J. S. Pelc, M. M. Fejer, W.-Z. Zhang, W.-Y. Liu, J. Yin, J.-G. Ren, X.-B. Wang, Q. Zhang, C.-Z. Peng, and J.-W. Pan, “Long-distance free-space quantum key distribution in daylight towards inter-satellite communication,” Nat. Photonics 11(8), 509–513 (2017).
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J. Yin, Y. Cao, Y.-H. Li, S.-K. Liao, L. Zhang, J.-G. Ren, W.-Q. Cai, W.-Y. Liu, B. Li, H. Dai, G.-B. Li, Q.-M. Lu, Y.-H. Gong, Y. Xu, S.-L. Li, F.-Z. Li, Y.-Y. Yin, Z.-Q. Jiang, M. Li, J.-J. Jia, G. Ren, D. He, Y.-L. Zhou, X.-X. Zhang, N. Wang, X. Chang, Z.-C. Zhu, N.-L. Liu, Y.-A. Chen, C.-Y. Lu, R. Shu, C.-Z. Peng, J.-Y. Wang, and J.-W. Pan, “Satellite-based entanglement distribution over 1200 kilometers,” Science 356(6343), 1140–1144 (2017).
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S.-K. Liao, W.-Q. Cai, W.-Y. Liu, L. Zhang, Y. Li, J.-G. Ren, J. Yin, Q. Shen, Y. Cao, Z.-P. Li, F.-Z. Li, X.-W. Chen, L.-H. Sun, J.-J. Jia, J.-C. Wu, X.-J. Jiang, J.-F. Wang, Y.-M. Huang, Q. Wang, Y.-L. Zhou, L. Deng, T. Xi, L. Ma, T. Hu, Q. Zhang, Y.-A. Chen, N.-L. Liu, X.-B. Wang, Z.-C. Zhu, C.-Y. Lu, R. Shu, C.-Z. Peng, J.-Y. Wang, and J.-W. Pan, “Satellite-to-ground quantum key distribution,” Nature 549(7670), 43–47 (2017).
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J.-G. Ren, P. Xu, H.-L. Yong, L. Zhang, S.-K. Liao, J. Yin, W.-Y. Liu, W.-Q. Cai, M. Yang, L. Li, K.-X. Yang, X. Han, Y.-Q. Yao, J. Li, H.-Y. Wu, S. Wan, L. Liu, D.-Q. Liu, Y.-W. Kuang, Z.-P. He, P. Shang, C. Guo, R.-H. Zheng, K. Tian, Z.-C. Zhu, N.-L. Liu, C.-Y. Lu, R. Shu, Y.-A. Chen, C.-Z. Peng, J.-Y. Wang, and J.-W. Pan, “Ground-to-satellite quantum teleportation,” Nature 549(7670), 70–73 (2017).
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H.-L. Yin, T.-Y. Chen, Z.-W. Yu, H. Liu, L.-X. You, Y.-H. Zhou, S.-J. Chen, Y. Mao, M.-Q. Huang, W.-J. Zhang, H. Chen, M. J. Li, D. Nolan, F. Zhou, X. Jiang, Z. Wang, Q. Zhang, X.-B. Wang, and J.-W. Pan, “Measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution over a 404 km optical fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 117(19), 190501 (2016).
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S.-J. Yang, X.-J. Wang, X.-H. Bao, and J.-W. Pan, “An efficient quantum light-matter interface with sub-second lifetime,” Nat. Photonics 10(6), 381–384 (2016).
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Y.-L. Tang, H.-L. Yin, Q. Zhao, H. Liu, X.-X. Sun, M.-Q. Huang, W.-J. Zhang, S.-J. Chen, L. Zhang, L.-X. You, Z. Wang, Y. Liu, C.-Y. Lu, X. Jiang, X. Ma, Q. Zhang, T.-Y. Chen, and J.-W. Pan, “Measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution over untrustful metropolitan network,” Phys. Rev. X 6(1), 011024 (2016).
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L.-J. Wang, L.-K. Chen, L. Ju, M.-L. Xu, Y. Zhao, K. Chen, Z.-B. Chen, T.-Y. Chen, and J.-W. Pan, “Experimental multiplexing of quantum key distribution with classical optical communication,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(8), 081108 (2015).
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J.-Y. Wang, B. Yang, S.-K. Liao, L. Zhang, Q. Shen, X.-F. Hu, J.-C. Wu, S.-J. Yang, H. Jiang, Y.-L. Tang, B. Zhong, H. Liang, W.-Y. Liu, Y.-H. Hu, Y.-M. Huang, B. Qi, J.-G. Ren, G.-S. Pan, J. Yin, J.-J. Jia, Y.-A. Chen, K. Chen, C.-Z. Peng, and J.-W. Pan, “Direct and full-scale experimental verifications towards ground-satellite quantum key distribution,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 387–393 (2013).
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Y. Liu, T.-Y. Chen, L.-J. Wang, H. Liang, G.-L. Shentu, J. Wang, K. Cui, H.-L. Yin, N.-L. Liu, L. Li, X. Ma, J. S. Pelc, M. M. Fejer, C.-Z. Peng, Q. Zhang, and J.-W. Pan, “Experimental measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(13), 130502 (2013).
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Y.-L. Tang, H.-L. Yin, X. Ma, C.-H. F. Fung, Y. Liu, H.-L. Yong, T.-Y. Chen, C.-Z. Peng, Z.-B. Chen, and J.-W. Pan, “Source attack of decoy-state quantum key distribution using phase information,” Phys. Rev. A 88(2), 022308 (2013).
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J. Yin, J.-G. Ren, H. Lu, Y. Cao, H.-L. Yong, Y.-P. Wu, C. Liu, S.-K. Liao, F. Zhou, Y. Jiang, X.-D. Cai, P. Xu, G.-S. Pan, J. J. Jia, Y.-M. Huang, H. Yin, J.-Y. Wang, Y.-A. Chen, C.-Z. Peng, and J.-W. Pan, “Quantum teleportation and entanglement distribution over 100-kilometre free-space channels,” Nature 488(7410), 185–188 (2012).
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T.-Y. Chen, J. Wang, H. Liang, W.-Y. Liu, Y. Liu, X. Jiang, Y. Wang, X. Wan, W.-Q. Cai, L. Ju, L.-K. Chen, L.-J. Wang, Y. Gao, K. Chen, C.-Z. Peng, Z.-B. Chen, and J.-W. Pan, “Metropolitan all-pass and inter-city quantum communication network,” Opt. Express 18(26), 27217–27225 (2010).
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