Abstract

We propose a scheme for real-time observations of Bloch oscillations in semiconductors using time-resolved band gap emission spectroscopy. By solving the time-dependent Schrödinger equation, we find one remarkable band gap emission besides the normal high harmonics generated in the interaction of a mid-infrared laser pulse and a semiconductor. It is shown that the band gap emission yield is directly connected to the population in the conduction band (CB). By adopting a pump-probe scheme, the time-dependent population in the CB, that is the dynamical Bloch oscillation, can be probed by measuring the band gap emission signal versus pump-probe delay. We also present a model based on accelerated Bloch states to explain the time-resolved measurement of dynamical Bloch oscillation.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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  6. D. Golde, M. Kira, T. Meier, and S. W. Koch, “Microscopic theory of the extremely nonlinear terahertz response of semiconductors,” Phys. Status Solidi B 248, 863 (2011).
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  7. T. Higuchi, C. Heide, K. Ullmann, H. B. Weber, and P. Hommelhoff, “Light-field-driven currents in graphene,” Nature 550, 224 (2017).
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  8. S. Ghimire, A. D. DiChiara, E. Sistrunk, P. Agostini, L. F. DiMauro, and D. A. Reis, “Observation of high-order harmonic generation in a bulk crystal,” Nat. Phys. 7, 138 (2011).
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  9. A. Schiffrin, T. Paasch-Colberg, N. Karpowicz, V. Apalkov, D. Gerster, S. Mühlbrandt, M. Korbman, J. Reichert, M. Schultze, S. Holzner, J. V. Barth, R. Kienberger, R. Ernstorfer, V. S. Yakovlev, M. I. Stockman, and F. Krausz, “Optical-field-induced current in dielectrics,” Nature 493, 70 (2013).
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    [Crossref]
  20. C. Waschke, H. G. Roskos, R. Schwedler, K. Leo, and H. Kurz, “Coherent submillimeter-Wave emission from Bloch oscillations in a semiconductor superlattice,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 3319 (1993).
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    [Crossref]

2018 (8)

H. Xie, M. Li, S. Luo, Y. Li, J. Tan, Y. Zhou, W. Cao, and P. Lu, “Photoelectron holography and forward scattering in atomic ionization by ellipticity polarized laser pulses,” Opt. Lett. 43, 003220 (2018).
[Crossref]

B. Wang, L. He, F. Wang, H. Yuan, X. Zhu, P. Lan, and P. Lu, “Resonance-modulated wavelength scaling of high-order-harmonic generation from H2+,” Phys. Rev. A 97, 013417 (2018).
[Crossref]

C. Schmidt, J. Bühler, A. C. Heinrich, J. Allerbeck, R. Podzimski, D. Berghoff, T. Meier, W. G. Schmidt, C. Reichl, W. Wegscheider, D. Brida, and A. Leitenstorfer, “Signatures of transient Wannier-Stark location in bulk gallium arsenide,” Nat. Commun. 9, 2890 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. He, Y. Li, Y. Zhou, M. Li, W. Cao, and P. Lu, “Direct visualization of valence electron motion using strong-field photoelectron holography,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 120, 133204 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Zhai, X. Zhang, X. Zhu, L. He, Y. Zhang, B. Wang, Q. Zhang, P. Lan, and P. Lu, “Single-shot molecular orbital tomography with orthogonal two-color fields,” Opt. Express 26, 2775 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Li, P. Lan, L. He, X. Zhu, J. Chen, and P. Lu, “Scaling Law of High Harmonic Generation in the Framework of Photon Channels,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 120223203 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. He, Q. Zhang, P. Lan, W. Cao, X. Zhu, C. Zhai, F. Wang, W. Shi, M. Li, X. Bian, P. Lu, and A. D. Bandrauk, “Monitoring ultrafast vibrational dynamics of isotopic molecules with frequency modulation of high-order harmonics,” Nat. Commun. 9, 1108 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Y. Kruchinin, F. Krausz, and V. S. Yakovlev, “Colloquium: Strong-field phenomena in periodic systems,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 90, 021002 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (6)

T. Ikemachi, Y. Shinohara, T. Sato, J. Yumoto, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, and K. L. Ishikawa, “Trajectory analysis of high-order-harmonic generation from periodic crystal,” Phys. Rev. A 95, 043416 (2017).
[Crossref]

N. Tancogne-Dejean, O. D. Mücke, F. X. Kärtner, and A. Rubio, “Ellipticity dependence of high-harmonic generation in solids originating from coupled intraband and interband dynamics,” Nat. Commun. 8, 745 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. R. McDonald, G. Vampa, P. B. Corkum, and T. Brabec, “Intense-Laser solid state physics: unraveling the difference between semiconductors and dielectrics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 118, 173601 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Liu, X. Zhu, P. Lan, X. Zhang, D. Wang, Q. Zhang, and P. Lu, “Time-dependent population imaging for high-order-harmonic generation in solids,” Phys. Rev. A 95, 063419 (2017).
[Crossref]

T. Y. Du and X. B. Bian, “Quasi-classical analysis of the dynamics of the high-order harmonic generation from solids,” Opt. Express 25, 151 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Higuchi, C. Heide, K. Ullmann, H. B. Weber, and P. Hommelhoff, “Light-field-driven currents in graphene,” Nature 550, 224 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (2)

M. Wu, S. Ghimire, D. A. Reis, K. J. Schafer, and M. B. Gaarde, “High-harmonic generation from Bloch electrons in solids,” Phys. Rev. A 91, 043839 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. R. McDonald, G. Vampa, P. B. Corkum, and T. Brabec, “Interband Bloch oscillation mechanism for high-harmonic generation in semiconductor crystals,” Phys. Rev. A 92, 033845 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (3)

O. Schubert, M. Hohenleutner, F. Langer, B. Urbanek, C. Lange, U. Huttner, D. Golde, T. Meier, M. Kira, S. W. Koch, and R. Huber, “Sub-cycle control of terahertz high-harmonic generation by dynamical Bloch oscillations,” Nat. Photon. 8, 119 (2014).
[Crossref]

G. Vampa, C. R. McDonald, G. Orlando, D. D. Klug, P. B. Corkum, and T. Brabec, “Theoretical analysis of high harmonic generation in solids,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 073901 (2014).
[Crossref]

F. Krausz and M. I. Stockman, “Attosecond metrology: from electron capture to future signal processing,” Nat. Photon. 8, 205 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (3)

M. Schultze, E. M. Bothschafter, A. Sommer, S. Holzner, W. Schweinberger, M. Fiess, M. Hofstetter, R. Kienberger, V. Apalkov, V. S. Yakovlev, M. I. Stockman, and F. Krausz, “Controlling dielectrics with the electric field of light,” Nature 493, 75 (2013).
[Crossref]

P. Földi, M. G. Benedict, and V. S. Yakovlev, “The effect of dynamical Bloch oscillation on optical-field-induced current in a wide-gap dielectric,” New J. Phys. 15, 063019 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Schiffrin, T. Paasch-Colberg, N. Karpowicz, V. Apalkov, D. Gerster, S. Mühlbrandt, M. Korbman, J. Reichert, M. Schultze, S. Holzner, J. V. Barth, R. Kienberger, R. Ernstorfer, V. S. Yakovlev, M. I. Stockman, and F. Krausz, “Optical-field-induced current in dielectrics,” Nature 493, 70 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

S. Ghimire, A. D. DiChiara, E. Sistrunk, G. Ndabashimiye, U. B. Szafruga, A. Mohammad, P. Agostini, L. F. DiMauro, and D. A. Reis, “Generation and propagation of high-order harmonics in crystals,” Phys. Rev. A 85, 043836 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (4)

S. Ghimire, A. D. DiChiara, E. Sistrunk, U. B. Szafruga, P. Agostini, L. F. DiMauro, and D. A. Reis, “Redshift in the optical absorption of ZnO single crystals in the presence of an intense midinfrared laser field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 167407 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. D. Mücke, “Isolated high-order harmonics pulse from two-color-driven Bloch oscillations in bulk semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B 84, 081202(R) (2011).
[Crossref]

S. Ghimire, A. D. DiChiara, E. Sistrunk, P. Agostini, L. F. DiMauro, and D. A. Reis, “Observation of high-order harmonic generation in a bulk crystal,” Nat. Phys. 7, 138 (2011).
[Crossref]

D. Golde, M. Kira, T. Meier, and S. W. Koch, “Microscopic theory of the extremely nonlinear terahertz response of semiconductors,” Phys. Status Solidi B 248, 863 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

W. Kuehn, P. Gaal, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, T. Elsaesser, and R. Hey, “Coherent ballistic motion of electrons in a periodic potential,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 146602 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. C. Chirilǎ, I. Dreissigacker, E. V. van der Zwan, and M. Lein, “Emission times in high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 81, 033412 (2010).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

D. Golde, T. Meier, and S. W. Koch, “High harmonics generated in semiconductor nanostructures by the coupled dynamics of optical inter- and intraband excitations,” Phys. Rev. B 77, 075330 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

V. E. Gruzdev, “Photoionization rate in wide band-gap crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 75, 205106 (2007).
[Crossref]

2002 (2)

J. Itatani, F. Quéré, G. L. Yudin, M. Yu. Ivanov, F. Krausz, and P. B. Corkum, “Attosecond streak camera,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 173903 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Kitzler, N. Milosevic, A. Scrinzi, F. Krausz, and T. Brabec, “Quantum theory of attosecond XUV pulse measurement by laser dressed photoionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 173904 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

A. Leitenstorfer, S. Hunsche, J. Shah, M. C. Nuss, and W. H. Knox, “Femtosecond charge transport in polar semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 5140 (1999).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

V. G. Lyssenko, G. Valušis, F. Löser, T. Hasche, K. Leo, M. M. Dignam, and K. Köhler, “Direct measurement of the spatial displacement of Bloch-oscillating electrons in semiconductor superlattices,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 301 (1997).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

M. Lewenstein, P. Balcou, M. Y. Ivanov, A. L’Huillier, and P. B. Corkum, “Theory of high-harmonic generation by low-frequency laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 49, 2117 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1993 (1)

C. Waschke, H. G. Roskos, R. Schwedler, K. Leo, and H. Kurz, “Coherent submillimeter-Wave emission from Bloch oscillations in a semiconductor superlattice,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 3319 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1992 (1)

F. Feldmann, K. Leo, J. Shah, D. A. B. Miller, J. E. Cunningham, T. Meier, G. von Plessen, A. Schulze, P. Thomas, and S. Schmitt-Rink, “Optical investigation of Bloch oscillations in a semiconductor superlattice,” Phys. Rev. B 46, 7252 (1992).
[Crossref]

1982 (1)

M. D. Feit, J. A. Fleck, and A. Steiger, “Solution of the Schrödinger equation by a spectral method,” J. Comput. Phys. 47, 412 (1982).
[Crossref]

1952 (1)

J. C. Slater, “A soluble problem in energy bands,” Phys. Rev. 87, 807 (1952).
[Crossref]

1946 (1)

D. Gabor, “Theory of communication. Part 1: The analysis of information,” J. Inst. Electr. Eng. 93, 429 (1946).

1932 (1)

C. Zener, “Non-adiabatic crossing of energy levels,” Proc. R. Soc. A 137, 696 (1932).
[Crossref]

1929 (1)

F. Bloch, “Über die Quantenmechanik der Elektronen in Kristallgittern,” Z. Phys. 52, 555 (1929).
[Crossref]

Agostini, P.

S. Ghimire, A. D. DiChiara, E. Sistrunk, G. Ndabashimiye, U. B. Szafruga, A. Mohammad, P. Agostini, L. F. DiMauro, and D. A. Reis, “Generation and propagation of high-order harmonics in crystals,” Phys. Rev. A 85, 043836 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Ghimire, A. D. DiChiara, E. Sistrunk, U. B. Szafruga, P. Agostini, L. F. DiMauro, and D. A. Reis, “Redshift in the optical absorption of ZnO single crystals in the presence of an intense midinfrared laser field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 167407 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Ghimire, A. D. DiChiara, E. Sistrunk, P. Agostini, L. F. DiMauro, and D. A. Reis, “Observation of high-order harmonic generation in a bulk crystal,” Nat. Phys. 7, 138 (2011).
[Crossref]

Allerbeck, J.

C. Schmidt, J. Bühler, A. C. Heinrich, J. Allerbeck, R. Podzimski, D. Berghoff, T. Meier, W. G. Schmidt, C. Reichl, W. Wegscheider, D. Brida, and A. Leitenstorfer, “Signatures of transient Wannier-Stark location in bulk gallium arsenide,” Nat. Commun. 9, 2890 (2018).
[Crossref]

Apalkov, V.

A. Schiffrin, T. Paasch-Colberg, N. Karpowicz, V. Apalkov, D. Gerster, S. Mühlbrandt, M. Korbman, J. Reichert, M. Schultze, S. Holzner, J. V. Barth, R. Kienberger, R. Ernstorfer, V. S. Yakovlev, M. I. Stockman, and F. Krausz, “Optical-field-induced current in dielectrics,” Nature 493, 70 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Schultze, E. M. Bothschafter, A. Sommer, S. Holzner, W. Schweinberger, M. Fiess, M. Hofstetter, R. Kienberger, V. Apalkov, V. S. Yakovlev, M. I. Stockman, and F. Krausz, “Controlling dielectrics with the electric field of light,” Nature 493, 75 (2013).
[Crossref]

Balcou, P.

M. Lewenstein, P. Balcou, M. Y. Ivanov, A. L’Huillier, and P. B. Corkum, “Theory of high-harmonic generation by low-frequency laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 49, 2117 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bandrauk, A. D.

L. He, Q. Zhang, P. Lan, W. Cao, X. Zhu, C. Zhai, F. Wang, W. Shi, M. Li, X. Bian, P. Lu, and A. D. Bandrauk, “Monitoring ultrafast vibrational dynamics of isotopic molecules with frequency modulation of high-order harmonics,” Nat. Commun. 9, 1108 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Barth, J. V.

A. Schiffrin, T. Paasch-Colberg, N. Karpowicz, V. Apalkov, D. Gerster, S. Mühlbrandt, M. Korbman, J. Reichert, M. Schultze, S. Holzner, J. V. Barth, R. Kienberger, R. Ernstorfer, V. S. Yakovlev, M. I. Stockman, and F. Krausz, “Optical-field-induced current in dielectrics,” Nature 493, 70 (2013).
[Crossref]

Benedict, M. G.

P. Földi, M. G. Benedict, and V. S. Yakovlev, “The effect of dynamical Bloch oscillation on optical-field-induced current in a wide-gap dielectric,” New J. Phys. 15, 063019 (2013).
[Crossref]

Berghoff, D.

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C. Waschke, H. G. Roskos, R. Schwedler, K. Leo, and H. Kurz, “Coherent submillimeter-Wave emission from Bloch oscillations in a semiconductor superlattice,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 3319 (1993).
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T. Ikemachi, Y. Shinohara, T. Sato, J. Yumoto, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, and K. L. Ishikawa, “Trajectory analysis of high-order-harmonic generation from periodic crystal,” Phys. Rev. A 95, 043416 (2017).
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M. Lewenstein, P. Balcou, M. Y. Ivanov, A. L’Huillier, and P. B. Corkum, “Theory of high-harmonic generation by low-frequency laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 49, 2117 (1994).
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C. Zhai, X. Zhang, X. Zhu, L. He, Y. Zhang, B. Wang, Q. Zhang, P. Lan, and P. Lu, “Single-shot molecular orbital tomography with orthogonal two-color fields,” Opt. Express 26, 2775 (2018).
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L. Li, P. Lan, L. He, X. Zhu, J. Chen, and P. Lu, “Scaling Law of High Harmonic Generation in the Framework of Photon Channels,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 120223203 (2018).
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L. He, Q. Zhang, P. Lan, W. Cao, X. Zhu, C. Zhai, F. Wang, W. Shi, M. Li, X. Bian, P. Lu, and A. D. Bandrauk, “Monitoring ultrafast vibrational dynamics of isotopic molecules with frequency modulation of high-order harmonics,” Nat. Commun. 9, 1108 (2018).
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B. Wang, L. He, F. Wang, H. Yuan, X. Zhu, P. Lan, and P. Lu, “Resonance-modulated wavelength scaling of high-order-harmonic generation from H2+,” Phys. Rev. A 97, 013417 (2018).
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X. Liu, X. Zhu, P. Lan, X. Zhang, D. Wang, Q. Zhang, and P. Lu, “Time-dependent population imaging for high-order-harmonic generation in solids,” Phys. Rev. A 95, 063419 (2017).
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O. Schubert, M. Hohenleutner, F. Langer, B. Urbanek, C. Lange, U. Huttner, D. Golde, T. Meier, M. Kira, S. W. Koch, and R. Huber, “Sub-cycle control of terahertz high-harmonic generation by dynamical Bloch oscillations,” Nat. Photon. 8, 119 (2014).
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O. Schubert, M. Hohenleutner, F. Langer, B. Urbanek, C. Lange, U. Huttner, D. Golde, T. Meier, M. Kira, S. W. Koch, and R. Huber, “Sub-cycle control of terahertz high-harmonic generation by dynamical Bloch oscillations,” Nat. Photon. 8, 119 (2014).
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C. C. Chirilǎ, I. Dreissigacker, E. V. van der Zwan, and M. Lein, “Emission times in high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 81, 033412 (2010).
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C. Schmidt, J. Bühler, A. C. Heinrich, J. Allerbeck, R. Podzimski, D. Berghoff, T. Meier, W. G. Schmidt, C. Reichl, W. Wegscheider, D. Brida, and A. Leitenstorfer, “Signatures of transient Wannier-Stark location in bulk gallium arsenide,” Nat. Commun. 9, 2890 (2018).
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A. Leitenstorfer, S. Hunsche, J. Shah, M. C. Nuss, and W. H. Knox, “Femtosecond charge transport in polar semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 5140 (1999).
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Leo, K.

V. G. Lyssenko, G. Valušis, F. Löser, T. Hasche, K. Leo, M. M. Dignam, and K. Köhler, “Direct measurement of the spatial displacement of Bloch-oscillating electrons in semiconductor superlattices,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 301 (1997).
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C. Waschke, H. G. Roskos, R. Schwedler, K. Leo, and H. Kurz, “Coherent submillimeter-Wave emission from Bloch oscillations in a semiconductor superlattice,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 3319 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Feldmann, K. Leo, J. Shah, D. A. B. Miller, J. E. Cunningham, T. Meier, G. von Plessen, A. Schulze, P. Thomas, and S. Schmitt-Rink, “Optical investigation of Bloch oscillations in a semiconductor superlattice,” Phys. Rev. B 46, 7252 (1992).
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M. Lewenstein, P. Balcou, M. Y. Ivanov, A. L’Huillier, and P. B. Corkum, “Theory of high-harmonic generation by low-frequency laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 49, 2117 (1994).
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Li, L.

L. Li, P. Lan, L. He, X. Zhu, J. Chen, and P. Lu, “Scaling Law of High Harmonic Generation in the Framework of Photon Channels,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 120223203 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, M.

L. He, Q. Zhang, P. Lan, W. Cao, X. Zhu, C. Zhai, F. Wang, W. Shi, M. Li, X. Bian, P. Lu, and A. D. Bandrauk, “Monitoring ultrafast vibrational dynamics of isotopic molecules with frequency modulation of high-order harmonics,” Nat. Commun. 9, 1108 (2018).
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M. He, Y. Li, Y. Zhou, M. Li, W. Cao, and P. Lu, “Direct visualization of valence electron motion using strong-field photoelectron holography,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 120, 133204 (2018).
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H. Xie, M. Li, S. Luo, Y. Li, J. Tan, Y. Zhou, W. Cao, and P. Lu, “Photoelectron holography and forward scattering in atomic ionization by ellipticity polarized laser pulses,” Opt. Lett. 43, 003220 (2018).
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Li, Y.

H. Xie, M. Li, S. Luo, Y. Li, J. Tan, Y. Zhou, W. Cao, and P. Lu, “Photoelectron holography and forward scattering in atomic ionization by ellipticity polarized laser pulses,” Opt. Lett. 43, 003220 (2018).
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M. He, Y. Li, Y. Zhou, M. Li, W. Cao, and P. Lu, “Direct visualization of valence electron motion using strong-field photoelectron holography,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 120, 133204 (2018).
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Liu, X.

X. Liu, X. Zhu, P. Lan, X. Zhang, D. Wang, Q. Zhang, and P. Lu, “Time-dependent population imaging for high-order-harmonic generation in solids,” Phys. Rev. A 95, 063419 (2017).
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V. G. Lyssenko, G. Valušis, F. Löser, T. Hasche, K. Leo, M. M. Dignam, and K. Köhler, “Direct measurement of the spatial displacement of Bloch-oscillating electrons in semiconductor superlattices,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 301 (1997).
[Crossref]

Lu, P.

H. Xie, M. Li, S. Luo, Y. Li, J. Tan, Y. Zhou, W. Cao, and P. Lu, “Photoelectron holography and forward scattering in atomic ionization by ellipticity polarized laser pulses,” Opt. Lett. 43, 003220 (2018).
[Crossref]

B. Wang, L. He, F. Wang, H. Yuan, X. Zhu, P. Lan, and P. Lu, “Resonance-modulated wavelength scaling of high-order-harmonic generation from H2+,” Phys. Rev. A 97, 013417 (2018).
[Crossref]

L. Li, P. Lan, L. He, X. Zhu, J. Chen, and P. Lu, “Scaling Law of High Harmonic Generation in the Framework of Photon Channels,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 120223203 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. He, Q. Zhang, P. Lan, W. Cao, X. Zhu, C. Zhai, F. Wang, W. Shi, M. Li, X. Bian, P. Lu, and A. D. Bandrauk, “Monitoring ultrafast vibrational dynamics of isotopic molecules with frequency modulation of high-order harmonics,” Nat. Commun. 9, 1108 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Zhai, X. Zhang, X. Zhu, L. He, Y. Zhang, B. Wang, Q. Zhang, P. Lan, and P. Lu, “Single-shot molecular orbital tomography with orthogonal two-color fields,” Opt. Express 26, 2775 (2018).
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M. He, Y. Li, Y. Zhou, M. Li, W. Cao, and P. Lu, “Direct visualization of valence electron motion using strong-field photoelectron holography,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 120, 133204 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Liu, X. Zhu, P. Lan, X. Zhang, D. Wang, Q. Zhang, and P. Lu, “Time-dependent population imaging for high-order-harmonic generation in solids,” Phys. Rev. A 95, 063419 (2017).
[Crossref]

Luo, S.

H. Xie, M. Li, S. Luo, Y. Li, J. Tan, Y. Zhou, W. Cao, and P. Lu, “Photoelectron holography and forward scattering in atomic ionization by ellipticity polarized laser pulses,” Opt. Lett. 43, 003220 (2018).
[Crossref]

Lyssenko, V. G.

V. G. Lyssenko, G. Valušis, F. Löser, T. Hasche, K. Leo, M. M. Dignam, and K. Köhler, “Direct measurement of the spatial displacement of Bloch-oscillating electrons in semiconductor superlattices,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 301 (1997).
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C. R. McDonald, G. Vampa, P. B. Corkum, and T. Brabec, “Intense-Laser solid state physics: unraveling the difference between semiconductors and dielectrics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 118, 173601 (2017).
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C. Schmidt, J. Bühler, A. C. Heinrich, J. Allerbeck, R. Podzimski, D. Berghoff, T. Meier, W. G. Schmidt, C. Reichl, W. Wegscheider, D. Brida, and A. Leitenstorfer, “Signatures of transient Wannier-Stark location in bulk gallium arsenide,” Nat. Commun. 9, 2890 (2018).
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O. Schubert, M. Hohenleutner, F. Langer, B. Urbanek, C. Lange, U. Huttner, D. Golde, T. Meier, M. Kira, S. W. Koch, and R. Huber, “Sub-cycle control of terahertz high-harmonic generation by dynamical Bloch oscillations,” Nat. Photon. 8, 119 (2014).
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D. Golde, M. Kira, T. Meier, and S. W. Koch, “Microscopic theory of the extremely nonlinear terahertz response of semiconductors,” Phys. Status Solidi B 248, 863 (2011).
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D. Golde, T. Meier, and S. W. Koch, “High harmonics generated in semiconductor nanostructures by the coupled dynamics of optical inter- and intraband excitations,” Phys. Rev. B 77, 075330 (2008).
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F. Feldmann, K. Leo, J. Shah, D. A. B. Miller, J. E. Cunningham, T. Meier, G. von Plessen, A. Schulze, P. Thomas, and S. Schmitt-Rink, “Optical investigation of Bloch oscillations in a semiconductor superlattice,” Phys. Rev. B 46, 7252 (1992).
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F. Feldmann, K. Leo, J. Shah, D. A. B. Miller, J. E. Cunningham, T. Meier, G. von Plessen, A. Schulze, P. Thomas, and S. Schmitt-Rink, “Optical investigation of Bloch oscillations in a semiconductor superlattice,” Phys. Rev. B 46, 7252 (1992).
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M. Kitzler, N. Milosevic, A. Scrinzi, F. Krausz, and T. Brabec, “Quantum theory of attosecond XUV pulse measurement by laser dressed photoionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 173904 (2002).
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S. Ghimire, A. D. DiChiara, E. Sistrunk, G. Ndabashimiye, U. B. Szafruga, A. Mohammad, P. Agostini, L. F. DiMauro, and D. A. Reis, “Generation and propagation of high-order harmonics in crystals,” Phys. Rev. A 85, 043836 (2012).
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N. Tancogne-Dejean, O. D. Mücke, F. X. Kärtner, and A. Rubio, “Ellipticity dependence of high-harmonic generation in solids originating from coupled intraband and interband dynamics,” Nat. Commun. 8, 745 (2017).
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S. Ghimire, A. D. DiChiara, E. Sistrunk, G. Ndabashimiye, U. B. Szafruga, A. Mohammad, P. Agostini, L. F. DiMauro, and D. A. Reis, “Generation and propagation of high-order harmonics in crystals,” Phys. Rev. A 85, 043836 (2012).
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A. Leitenstorfer, S. Hunsche, J. Shah, M. C. Nuss, and W. H. Knox, “Femtosecond charge transport in polar semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 5140 (1999).
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G. Vampa, C. R. McDonald, G. Orlando, D. D. Klug, P. B. Corkum, and T. Brabec, “Theoretical analysis of high harmonic generation in solids,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 073901 (2014).
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A. Schiffrin, T. Paasch-Colberg, N. Karpowicz, V. Apalkov, D. Gerster, S. Mühlbrandt, M. Korbman, J. Reichert, M. Schultze, S. Holzner, J. V. Barth, R. Kienberger, R. Ernstorfer, V. S. Yakovlev, M. I. Stockman, and F. Krausz, “Optical-field-induced current in dielectrics,” Nature 493, 70 (2013).
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V. Yakovlev, S. Kruchinin, T. Paasch-Colberg, M. Stockman, and F. Krausz, Ultrafast Dynamics Driven by Intense Light Pulses, edited by M. Kitzler and S. Gräfe, eds. (Springer Series on Atomic, Optical, and Plasma Physics, 2016), p. 295–315.
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C. Schmidt, J. Bühler, A. C. Heinrich, J. Allerbeck, R. Podzimski, D. Berghoff, T. Meier, W. G. Schmidt, C. Reichl, W. Wegscheider, D. Brida, and A. Leitenstorfer, “Signatures of transient Wannier-Stark location in bulk gallium arsenide,” Nat. Commun. 9, 2890 (2018).
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A. Schiffrin, T. Paasch-Colberg, N. Karpowicz, V. Apalkov, D. Gerster, S. Mühlbrandt, M. Korbman, J. Reichert, M. Schultze, S. Holzner, J. V. Barth, R. Kienberger, R. Ernstorfer, V. S. Yakovlev, M. I. Stockman, and F. Krausz, “Optical-field-induced current in dielectrics,” Nature 493, 70 (2013).
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Reichl, C.

C. Schmidt, J. Bühler, A. C. Heinrich, J. Allerbeck, R. Podzimski, D. Berghoff, T. Meier, W. G. Schmidt, C. Reichl, W. Wegscheider, D. Brida, and A. Leitenstorfer, “Signatures of transient Wannier-Stark location in bulk gallium arsenide,” Nat. Commun. 9, 2890 (2018).
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W. Kuehn, P. Gaal, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, T. Elsaesser, and R. Hey, “Coherent ballistic motion of electrons in a periodic potential,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 146602 (2010).
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M. Wu, S. Ghimire, D. A. Reis, K. J. Schafer, and M. B. Gaarde, “High-harmonic generation from Bloch electrons in solids,” Phys. Rev. A 91, 043839 (2015).
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S. Ghimire, A. D. DiChiara, E. Sistrunk, G. Ndabashimiye, U. B. Szafruga, A. Mohammad, P. Agostini, L. F. DiMauro, and D. A. Reis, “Generation and propagation of high-order harmonics in crystals,” Phys. Rev. A 85, 043836 (2012).
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S. Ghimire, A. D. DiChiara, E. Sistrunk, U. B. Szafruga, P. Agostini, L. F. DiMauro, and D. A. Reis, “Redshift in the optical absorption of ZnO single crystals in the presence of an intense midinfrared laser field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 167407 (2011).
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S. Ghimire, A. D. DiChiara, E. Sistrunk, P. Agostini, L. F. DiMauro, and D. A. Reis, “Observation of high-order harmonic generation in a bulk crystal,” Nat. Phys. 7, 138 (2011).
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C. Waschke, H. G. Roskos, R. Schwedler, K. Leo, and H. Kurz, “Coherent submillimeter-Wave emission from Bloch oscillations in a semiconductor superlattice,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 3319 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rubio, A.

N. Tancogne-Dejean, O. D. Mücke, F. X. Kärtner, and A. Rubio, “Ellipticity dependence of high-harmonic generation in solids originating from coupled intraband and interband dynamics,” Nat. Commun. 8, 745 (2017).
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T. Ikemachi, Y. Shinohara, T. Sato, J. Yumoto, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, and K. L. Ishikawa, “Trajectory analysis of high-order-harmonic generation from periodic crystal,” Phys. Rev. A 95, 043416 (2017).
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M. Wu, S. Ghimire, D. A. Reis, K. J. Schafer, and M. B. Gaarde, “High-harmonic generation from Bloch electrons in solids,” Phys. Rev. A 91, 043839 (2015).
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A. Schiffrin, T. Paasch-Colberg, N. Karpowicz, V. Apalkov, D. Gerster, S. Mühlbrandt, M. Korbman, J. Reichert, M. Schultze, S. Holzner, J. V. Barth, R. Kienberger, R. Ernstorfer, V. S. Yakovlev, M. I. Stockman, and F. Krausz, “Optical-field-induced current in dielectrics,” Nature 493, 70 (2013).
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Schmidt, C.

C. Schmidt, J. Bühler, A. C. Heinrich, J. Allerbeck, R. Podzimski, D. Berghoff, T. Meier, W. G. Schmidt, C. Reichl, W. Wegscheider, D. Brida, and A. Leitenstorfer, “Signatures of transient Wannier-Stark location in bulk gallium arsenide,” Nat. Commun. 9, 2890 (2018).
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Schmidt, W. G.

C. Schmidt, J. Bühler, A. C. Heinrich, J. Allerbeck, R. Podzimski, D. Berghoff, T. Meier, W. G. Schmidt, C. Reichl, W. Wegscheider, D. Brida, and A. Leitenstorfer, “Signatures of transient Wannier-Stark location in bulk gallium arsenide,” Nat. Commun. 9, 2890 (2018).
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F. Feldmann, K. Leo, J. Shah, D. A. B. Miller, J. E. Cunningham, T. Meier, G. von Plessen, A. Schulze, P. Thomas, and S. Schmitt-Rink, “Optical investigation of Bloch oscillations in a semiconductor superlattice,” Phys. Rev. B 46, 7252 (1992).
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O. Schubert, M. Hohenleutner, F. Langer, B. Urbanek, C. Lange, U. Huttner, D. Golde, T. Meier, M. Kira, S. W. Koch, and R. Huber, “Sub-cycle control of terahertz high-harmonic generation by dynamical Bloch oscillations,” Nat. Photon. 8, 119 (2014).
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Schultze, M.

A. Schiffrin, T. Paasch-Colberg, N. Karpowicz, V. Apalkov, D. Gerster, S. Mühlbrandt, M. Korbman, J. Reichert, M. Schultze, S. Holzner, J. V. Barth, R. Kienberger, R. Ernstorfer, V. S. Yakovlev, M. I. Stockman, and F. Krausz, “Optical-field-induced current in dielectrics,” Nature 493, 70 (2013).
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M. Schultze, E. M. Bothschafter, A. Sommer, S. Holzner, W. Schweinberger, M. Fiess, M. Hofstetter, R. Kienberger, V. Apalkov, V. S. Yakovlev, M. I. Stockman, and F. Krausz, “Controlling dielectrics with the electric field of light,” Nature 493, 75 (2013).
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Schulze, A.

F. Feldmann, K. Leo, J. Shah, D. A. B. Miller, J. E. Cunningham, T. Meier, G. von Plessen, A. Schulze, P. Thomas, and S. Schmitt-Rink, “Optical investigation of Bloch oscillations in a semiconductor superlattice,” Phys. Rev. B 46, 7252 (1992).
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Schwedler, R.

C. Waschke, H. G. Roskos, R. Schwedler, K. Leo, and H. Kurz, “Coherent submillimeter-Wave emission from Bloch oscillations in a semiconductor superlattice,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 3319 (1993).
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Schweinberger, W.

M. Schultze, E. M. Bothschafter, A. Sommer, S. Holzner, W. Schweinberger, M. Fiess, M. Hofstetter, R. Kienberger, V. Apalkov, V. S. Yakovlev, M. I. Stockman, and F. Krausz, “Controlling dielectrics with the electric field of light,” Nature 493, 75 (2013).
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M. Kitzler, N. Milosevic, A. Scrinzi, F. Krausz, and T. Brabec, “Quantum theory of attosecond XUV pulse measurement by laser dressed photoionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 173904 (2002).
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Shah, J.

A. Leitenstorfer, S. Hunsche, J. Shah, M. C. Nuss, and W. H. Knox, “Femtosecond charge transport in polar semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 5140 (1999).
[Crossref]

F. Feldmann, K. Leo, J. Shah, D. A. B. Miller, J. E. Cunningham, T. Meier, G. von Plessen, A. Schulze, P. Thomas, and S. Schmitt-Rink, “Optical investigation of Bloch oscillations in a semiconductor superlattice,” Phys. Rev. B 46, 7252 (1992).
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Shi, W.

L. He, Q. Zhang, P. Lan, W. Cao, X. Zhu, C. Zhai, F. Wang, W. Shi, M. Li, X. Bian, P. Lu, and A. D. Bandrauk, “Monitoring ultrafast vibrational dynamics of isotopic molecules with frequency modulation of high-order harmonics,” Nat. Commun. 9, 1108 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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T. Ikemachi, Y. Shinohara, T. Sato, J. Yumoto, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, and K. L. Ishikawa, “Trajectory analysis of high-order-harmonic generation from periodic crystal,” Phys. Rev. A 95, 043416 (2017).
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Sistrunk, E.

S. Ghimire, A. D. DiChiara, E. Sistrunk, G. Ndabashimiye, U. B. Szafruga, A. Mohammad, P. Agostini, L. F. DiMauro, and D. A. Reis, “Generation and propagation of high-order harmonics in crystals,” Phys. Rev. A 85, 043836 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Ghimire, A. D. DiChiara, E. Sistrunk, U. B. Szafruga, P. Agostini, L. F. DiMauro, and D. A. Reis, “Redshift in the optical absorption of ZnO single crystals in the presence of an intense midinfrared laser field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 167407 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Ghimire, A. D. DiChiara, E. Sistrunk, P. Agostini, L. F. DiMauro, and D. A. Reis, “Observation of high-order harmonic generation in a bulk crystal,” Nat. Phys. 7, 138 (2011).
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M. Schultze, E. M. Bothschafter, A. Sommer, S. Holzner, W. Schweinberger, M. Fiess, M. Hofstetter, R. Kienberger, V. Apalkov, V. S. Yakovlev, M. I. Stockman, and F. Krausz, “Controlling dielectrics with the electric field of light,” Nature 493, 75 (2013).
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Stockman, M.

V. Yakovlev, S. Kruchinin, T. Paasch-Colberg, M. Stockman, and F. Krausz, Ultrafast Dynamics Driven by Intense Light Pulses, edited by M. Kitzler and S. Gräfe, eds. (Springer Series on Atomic, Optical, and Plasma Physics, 2016), p. 295–315.
[Crossref]

Stockman, M. I.

F. Krausz and M. I. Stockman, “Attosecond metrology: from electron capture to future signal processing,” Nat. Photon. 8, 205 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Schultze, E. M. Bothschafter, A. Sommer, S. Holzner, W. Schweinberger, M. Fiess, M. Hofstetter, R. Kienberger, V. Apalkov, V. S. Yakovlev, M. I. Stockman, and F. Krausz, “Controlling dielectrics with the electric field of light,” Nature 493, 75 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Schiffrin, T. Paasch-Colberg, N. Karpowicz, V. Apalkov, D. Gerster, S. Mühlbrandt, M. Korbman, J. Reichert, M. Schultze, S. Holzner, J. V. Barth, R. Kienberger, R. Ernstorfer, V. S. Yakovlev, M. I. Stockman, and F. Krausz, “Optical-field-induced current in dielectrics,” Nature 493, 70 (2013).
[Crossref]

Szafruga, U. B.

S. Ghimire, A. D. DiChiara, E. Sistrunk, G. Ndabashimiye, U. B. Szafruga, A. Mohammad, P. Agostini, L. F. DiMauro, and D. A. Reis, “Generation and propagation of high-order harmonics in crystals,” Phys. Rev. A 85, 043836 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Ghimire, A. D. DiChiara, E. Sistrunk, U. B. Szafruga, P. Agostini, L. F. DiMauro, and D. A. Reis, “Redshift in the optical absorption of ZnO single crystals in the presence of an intense midinfrared laser field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 167407 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tan, J.

H. Xie, M. Li, S. Luo, Y. Li, J. Tan, Y. Zhou, W. Cao, and P. Lu, “Photoelectron holography and forward scattering in atomic ionization by ellipticity polarized laser pulses,” Opt. Lett. 43, 003220 (2018).
[Crossref]

Tancogne-Dejean, N.

N. Tancogne-Dejean, O. D. Mücke, F. X. Kärtner, and A. Rubio, “Ellipticity dependence of high-harmonic generation in solids originating from coupled intraband and interband dynamics,” Nat. Commun. 8, 745 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Thomas, P.

F. Feldmann, K. Leo, J. Shah, D. A. B. Miller, J. E. Cunningham, T. Meier, G. von Plessen, A. Schulze, P. Thomas, and S. Schmitt-Rink, “Optical investigation of Bloch oscillations in a semiconductor superlattice,” Phys. Rev. B 46, 7252 (1992).
[Crossref]

Ullmann, K.

T. Higuchi, C. Heide, K. Ullmann, H. B. Weber, and P. Hommelhoff, “Light-field-driven currents in graphene,” Nature 550, 224 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Urbanek, B.

O. Schubert, M. Hohenleutner, F. Langer, B. Urbanek, C. Lange, U. Huttner, D. Golde, T. Meier, M. Kira, S. W. Koch, and R. Huber, “Sub-cycle control of terahertz high-harmonic generation by dynamical Bloch oscillations,” Nat. Photon. 8, 119 (2014).
[Crossref]

Valušis, G.

V. G. Lyssenko, G. Valušis, F. Löser, T. Hasche, K. Leo, M. M. Dignam, and K. Köhler, “Direct measurement of the spatial displacement of Bloch-oscillating electrons in semiconductor superlattices,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 301 (1997).
[Crossref]

Vampa, G.

C. R. McDonald, G. Vampa, P. B. Corkum, and T. Brabec, “Intense-Laser solid state physics: unraveling the difference between semiconductors and dielectrics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 118, 173601 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. R. McDonald, G. Vampa, P. B. Corkum, and T. Brabec, “Interband Bloch oscillation mechanism for high-harmonic generation in semiconductor crystals,” Phys. Rev. A 92, 033845 (2015).
[Crossref]

G. Vampa, C. R. McDonald, G. Orlando, D. D. Klug, P. B. Corkum, and T. Brabec, “Theoretical analysis of high harmonic generation in solids,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 073901 (2014).
[Crossref]

van der Zwan, E. V.

C. C. Chirilǎ, I. Dreissigacker, E. V. van der Zwan, and M. Lein, “Emission times in high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 81, 033412 (2010).
[Crossref]

von Plessen, G.

F. Feldmann, K. Leo, J. Shah, D. A. B. Miller, J. E. Cunningham, T. Meier, G. von Plessen, A. Schulze, P. Thomas, and S. Schmitt-Rink, “Optical investigation of Bloch oscillations in a semiconductor superlattice,” Phys. Rev. B 46, 7252 (1992).
[Crossref]

Wang, B.

B. Wang, L. He, F. Wang, H. Yuan, X. Zhu, P. Lan, and P. Lu, “Resonance-modulated wavelength scaling of high-order-harmonic generation from H2+,” Phys. Rev. A 97, 013417 (2018).
[Crossref]

C. Zhai, X. Zhang, X. Zhu, L. He, Y. Zhang, B. Wang, Q. Zhang, P. Lan, and P. Lu, “Single-shot molecular orbital tomography with orthogonal two-color fields,” Opt. Express 26, 2775 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, D.

X. Liu, X. Zhu, P. Lan, X. Zhang, D. Wang, Q. Zhang, and P. Lu, “Time-dependent population imaging for high-order-harmonic generation in solids,” Phys. Rev. A 95, 063419 (2017).
[Crossref]

Wang, F.

L. He, Q. Zhang, P. Lan, W. Cao, X. Zhu, C. Zhai, F. Wang, W. Shi, M. Li, X. Bian, P. Lu, and A. D. Bandrauk, “Monitoring ultrafast vibrational dynamics of isotopic molecules with frequency modulation of high-order harmonics,” Nat. Commun. 9, 1108 (2018).
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B. Wang, L. He, F. Wang, H. Yuan, X. Zhu, P. Lan, and P. Lu, “Resonance-modulated wavelength scaling of high-order-harmonic generation from H2+,” Phys. Rev. A 97, 013417 (2018).
[Crossref]

Waschke, C.

C. Waschke, H. G. Roskos, R. Schwedler, K. Leo, and H. Kurz, “Coherent submillimeter-Wave emission from Bloch oscillations in a semiconductor superlattice,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 3319 (1993).
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Weber, H. B.

T. Higuchi, C. Heide, K. Ullmann, H. B. Weber, and P. Hommelhoff, “Light-field-driven currents in graphene,” Nature 550, 224 (2017).
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Wegscheider, W.

C. Schmidt, J. Bühler, A. C. Heinrich, J. Allerbeck, R. Podzimski, D. Berghoff, T. Meier, W. G. Schmidt, C. Reichl, W. Wegscheider, D. Brida, and A. Leitenstorfer, “Signatures of transient Wannier-Stark location in bulk gallium arsenide,” Nat. Commun. 9, 2890 (2018).
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W. Kuehn, P. Gaal, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, T. Elsaesser, and R. Hey, “Coherent ballistic motion of electrons in a periodic potential,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 146602 (2010).
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M. Wu, S. Ghimire, D. A. Reis, K. J. Schafer, and M. B. Gaarde, “High-harmonic generation from Bloch electrons in solids,” Phys. Rev. A 91, 043839 (2015).
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Xie, H.

H. Xie, M. Li, S. Luo, Y. Li, J. Tan, Y. Zhou, W. Cao, and P. Lu, “Photoelectron holography and forward scattering in atomic ionization by ellipticity polarized laser pulses,” Opt. Lett. 43, 003220 (2018).
[Crossref]

Yakovlev, V.

V. Yakovlev, S. Kruchinin, T. Paasch-Colberg, M. Stockman, and F. Krausz, Ultrafast Dynamics Driven by Intense Light Pulses, edited by M. Kitzler and S. Gräfe, eds. (Springer Series on Atomic, Optical, and Plasma Physics, 2016), p. 295–315.
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S. Y. Kruchinin, F. Krausz, and V. S. Yakovlev, “Colloquium: Strong-field phenomena in periodic systems,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 90, 021002 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. Schultze, E. M. Bothschafter, A. Sommer, S. Holzner, W. Schweinberger, M. Fiess, M. Hofstetter, R. Kienberger, V. Apalkov, V. S. Yakovlev, M. I. Stockman, and F. Krausz, “Controlling dielectrics with the electric field of light,” Nature 493, 75 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Schiffrin, T. Paasch-Colberg, N. Karpowicz, V. Apalkov, D. Gerster, S. Mühlbrandt, M. Korbman, J. Reichert, M. Schultze, S. Holzner, J. V. Barth, R. Kienberger, R. Ernstorfer, V. S. Yakovlev, M. I. Stockman, and F. Krausz, “Optical-field-induced current in dielectrics,” Nature 493, 70 (2013).
[Crossref]

P. Földi, M. G. Benedict, and V. S. Yakovlev, “The effect of dynamical Bloch oscillation on optical-field-induced current in a wide-gap dielectric,” New J. Phys. 15, 063019 (2013).
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Yu. Ivanov, M.

J. Itatani, F. Quéré, G. L. Yudin, M. Yu. Ivanov, F. Krausz, and P. B. Corkum, “Attosecond streak camera,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 173903 (2002).
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Yuan, H.

B. Wang, L. He, F. Wang, H. Yuan, X. Zhu, P. Lan, and P. Lu, “Resonance-modulated wavelength scaling of high-order-harmonic generation from H2+,” Phys. Rev. A 97, 013417 (2018).
[Crossref]

Yudin, G. L.

J. Itatani, F. Quéré, G. L. Yudin, M. Yu. Ivanov, F. Krausz, and P. B. Corkum, “Attosecond streak camera,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 173903 (2002).
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Yumoto, J.

T. Ikemachi, Y. Shinohara, T. Sato, J. Yumoto, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, and K. L. Ishikawa, “Trajectory analysis of high-order-harmonic generation from periodic crystal,” Phys. Rev. A 95, 043416 (2017).
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C. Zener, “Non-adiabatic crossing of energy levels,” Proc. R. Soc. A 137, 696 (1932).
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C. Zhai, X. Zhang, X. Zhu, L. He, Y. Zhang, B. Wang, Q. Zhang, P. Lan, and P. Lu, “Single-shot molecular orbital tomography with orthogonal two-color fields,” Opt. Express 26, 2775 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. He, Q. Zhang, P. Lan, W. Cao, X. Zhu, C. Zhai, F. Wang, W. Shi, M. Li, X. Bian, P. Lu, and A. D. Bandrauk, “Monitoring ultrafast vibrational dynamics of isotopic molecules with frequency modulation of high-order harmonics,” Nat. Commun. 9, 1108 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, Q.

L. He, Q. Zhang, P. Lan, W. Cao, X. Zhu, C. Zhai, F. Wang, W. Shi, M. Li, X. Bian, P. Lu, and A. D. Bandrauk, “Monitoring ultrafast vibrational dynamics of isotopic molecules with frequency modulation of high-order harmonics,” Nat. Commun. 9, 1108 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Zhai, X. Zhang, X. Zhu, L. He, Y. Zhang, B. Wang, Q. Zhang, P. Lan, and P. Lu, “Single-shot molecular orbital tomography with orthogonal two-color fields,” Opt. Express 26, 2775 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Liu, X. Zhu, P. Lan, X. Zhang, D. Wang, Q. Zhang, and P. Lu, “Time-dependent population imaging for high-order-harmonic generation in solids,” Phys. Rev. A 95, 063419 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zhang, X.

C. Zhai, X. Zhang, X. Zhu, L. He, Y. Zhang, B. Wang, Q. Zhang, P. Lan, and P. Lu, “Single-shot molecular orbital tomography with orthogonal two-color fields,” Opt. Express 26, 2775 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Liu, X. Zhu, P. Lan, X. Zhang, D. Wang, Q. Zhang, and P. Lu, “Time-dependent population imaging for high-order-harmonic generation in solids,” Phys. Rev. A 95, 063419 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Y.

Zhou, Y.

M. He, Y. Li, Y. Zhou, M. Li, W. Cao, and P. Lu, “Direct visualization of valence electron motion using strong-field photoelectron holography,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 120, 133204 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Xie, M. Li, S. Luo, Y. Li, J. Tan, Y. Zhou, W. Cao, and P. Lu, “Photoelectron holography and forward scattering in atomic ionization by ellipticity polarized laser pulses,” Opt. Lett. 43, 003220 (2018).
[Crossref]

Zhu, X.

B. Wang, L. He, F. Wang, H. Yuan, X. Zhu, P. Lan, and P. Lu, “Resonance-modulated wavelength scaling of high-order-harmonic generation from H2+,” Phys. Rev. A 97, 013417 (2018).
[Crossref]

C. Zhai, X. Zhang, X. Zhu, L. He, Y. Zhang, B. Wang, Q. Zhang, P. Lan, and P. Lu, “Single-shot molecular orbital tomography with orthogonal two-color fields,” Opt. Express 26, 2775 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Li, P. Lan, L. He, X. Zhu, J. Chen, and P. Lu, “Scaling Law of High Harmonic Generation in the Framework of Photon Channels,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 120223203 (2018).
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L. He, Q. Zhang, P. Lan, W. Cao, X. Zhu, C. Zhai, F. Wang, W. Shi, M. Li, X. Bian, P. Lu, and A. D. Bandrauk, “Monitoring ultrafast vibrational dynamics of isotopic molecules with frequency modulation of high-order harmonics,” Nat. Commun. 9, 1108 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Liu, X. Zhu, P. Lan, X. Zhang, D. Wang, Q. Zhang, and P. Lu, “Time-dependent population imaging for high-order-harmonic generation in solids,” Phys. Rev. A 95, 063419 (2017).
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L. He, Q. Zhang, P. Lan, W. Cao, X. Zhu, C. Zhai, F. Wang, W. Shi, M. Li, X. Bian, P. Lu, and A. D. Bandrauk, “Monitoring ultrafast vibrational dynamics of isotopic molecules with frequency modulation of high-order harmonics,” Nat. Commun. 9, 1108 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Tancogne-Dejean, O. D. Mücke, F. X. Kärtner, and A. Rubio, “Ellipticity dependence of high-harmonic generation in solids originating from coupled intraband and interband dynamics,” Nat. Commun. 8, 745 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Schmidt, J. Bühler, A. C. Heinrich, J. Allerbeck, R. Podzimski, D. Berghoff, T. Meier, W. G. Schmidt, C. Reichl, W. Wegscheider, D. Brida, and A. Leitenstorfer, “Signatures of transient Wannier-Stark location in bulk gallium arsenide,” Nat. Commun. 9, 2890 (2018).
[Crossref]

Nat. Photon. (2)

O. Schubert, M. Hohenleutner, F. Langer, B. Urbanek, C. Lange, U. Huttner, D. Golde, T. Meier, M. Kira, S. W. Koch, and R. Huber, “Sub-cycle control of terahertz high-harmonic generation by dynamical Bloch oscillations,” Nat. Photon. 8, 119 (2014).
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F. Krausz and M. I. Stockman, “Attosecond metrology: from electron capture to future signal processing,” Nat. Photon. 8, 205 (2014).
[Crossref]

Nat. Phys. (1)

S. Ghimire, A. D. DiChiara, E. Sistrunk, P. Agostini, L. F. DiMauro, and D. A. Reis, “Observation of high-order harmonic generation in a bulk crystal,” Nat. Phys. 7, 138 (2011).
[Crossref]

Nature (3)

A. Schiffrin, T. Paasch-Colberg, N. Karpowicz, V. Apalkov, D. Gerster, S. Mühlbrandt, M. Korbman, J. Reichert, M. Schultze, S. Holzner, J. V. Barth, R. Kienberger, R. Ernstorfer, V. S. Yakovlev, M. I. Stockman, and F. Krausz, “Optical-field-induced current in dielectrics,” Nature 493, 70 (2013).
[Crossref]

T. Higuchi, C. Heide, K. Ullmann, H. B. Weber, and P. Hommelhoff, “Light-field-driven currents in graphene,” Nature 550, 224 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Schultze, E. M. Bothschafter, A. Sommer, S. Holzner, W. Schweinberger, M. Fiess, M. Hofstetter, R. Kienberger, V. Apalkov, V. S. Yakovlev, M. I. Stockman, and F. Krausz, “Controlling dielectrics with the electric field of light,” Nature 493, 75 (2013).
[Crossref]

New J. Phys. (1)

P. Földi, M. G. Benedict, and V. S. Yakovlev, “The effect of dynamical Bloch oscillation on optical-field-induced current in a wide-gap dielectric,” New J. Phys. 15, 063019 (2013).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (1)

H. Xie, M. Li, S. Luo, Y. Li, J. Tan, Y. Zhou, W. Cao, and P. Lu, “Photoelectron holography and forward scattering in atomic ionization by ellipticity polarized laser pulses,” Opt. Lett. 43, 003220 (2018).
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Phys. Rev. A (8)

M. Wu, S. Ghimire, D. A. Reis, K. J. Schafer, and M. B. Gaarde, “High-harmonic generation from Bloch electrons in solids,” Phys. Rev. A 91, 043839 (2015).
[Crossref]

X. Liu, X. Zhu, P. Lan, X. Zhang, D. Wang, Q. Zhang, and P. Lu, “Time-dependent population imaging for high-order-harmonic generation in solids,” Phys. Rev. A 95, 063419 (2017).
[Crossref]

B. Wang, L. He, F. Wang, H. Yuan, X. Zhu, P. Lan, and P. Lu, “Resonance-modulated wavelength scaling of high-order-harmonic generation from H2+,” Phys. Rev. A 97, 013417 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. Ghimire, A. D. DiChiara, E. Sistrunk, G. Ndabashimiye, U. B. Szafruga, A. Mohammad, P. Agostini, L. F. DiMauro, and D. A. Reis, “Generation and propagation of high-order harmonics in crystals,” Phys. Rev. A 85, 043836 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. R. McDonald, G. Vampa, P. B. Corkum, and T. Brabec, “Interband Bloch oscillation mechanism for high-harmonic generation in semiconductor crystals,” Phys. Rev. A 92, 033845 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. C. Chirilǎ, I. Dreissigacker, E. V. van der Zwan, and M. Lein, “Emission times in high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 81, 033412 (2010).
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Phys. Rev. B (4)

F. Feldmann, K. Leo, J. Shah, D. A. B. Miller, J. E. Cunningham, T. Meier, G. von Plessen, A. Schulze, P. Thomas, and S. Schmitt-Rink, “Optical investigation of Bloch oscillations in a semiconductor superlattice,” Phys. Rev. B 46, 7252 (1992).
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O. D. Mücke, “Isolated high-order harmonics pulse from two-color-driven Bloch oscillations in bulk semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B 84, 081202(R) (2011).
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D. Golde, T. Meier, and S. W. Koch, “High harmonics generated in semiconductor nanostructures by the coupled dynamics of optical inter- and intraband excitations,” Phys. Rev. B 77, 075330 (2008).
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Phys. Rev. Lett. (11)

C. R. McDonald, G. Vampa, P. B. Corkum, and T. Brabec, “Intense-Laser solid state physics: unraveling the difference between semiconductors and dielectrics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 118, 173601 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Vampa, C. R. McDonald, G. Orlando, D. D. Klug, P. B. Corkum, and T. Brabec, “Theoretical analysis of high harmonic generation in solids,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 073901 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. Li, P. Lan, L. He, X. Zhu, J. Chen, and P. Lu, “Scaling Law of High Harmonic Generation in the Framework of Photon Channels,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 120223203 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Itatani, F. Quéré, G. L. Yudin, M. Yu. Ivanov, F. Krausz, and P. B. Corkum, “Attosecond streak camera,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 173903 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Kitzler, N. Milosevic, A. Scrinzi, F. Krausz, and T. Brabec, “Quantum theory of attosecond XUV pulse measurement by laser dressed photoionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 173904 (2002).
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M. He, Y. Li, Y. Zhou, M. Li, W. Cao, and P. Lu, “Direct visualization of valence electron motion using strong-field photoelectron holography,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 120, 133204 (2018).
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W. Kuehn, P. Gaal, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, T. Elsaesser, and R. Hey, “Coherent ballistic motion of electrons in a periodic potential,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 146602 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Waschke, H. G. Roskos, R. Schwedler, K. Leo, and H. Kurz, “Coherent submillimeter-Wave emission from Bloch oscillations in a semiconductor superlattice,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 3319 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. G. Lyssenko, G. Valušis, F. Löser, T. Hasche, K. Leo, M. M. Dignam, and K. Köhler, “Direct measurement of the spatial displacement of Bloch-oscillating electrons in semiconductor superlattices,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 301 (1997).
[Crossref]

S. Ghimire, A. D. DiChiara, E. Sistrunk, U. B. Szafruga, P. Agostini, L. F. DiMauro, and D. A. Reis, “Redshift in the optical absorption of ZnO single crystals in the presence of an intense midinfrared laser field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 167407 (2011).
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D. Golde, M. Kira, T. Meier, and S. W. Koch, “Microscopic theory of the extremely nonlinear terahertz response of semiconductors,” Phys. Status Solidi B 248, 863 (2011).
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C. Zener, “Non-adiabatic crossing of energy levels,” Proc. R. Soc. A 137, 696 (1932).
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S. Y. Kruchinin, F. Krausz, and V. S. Yakovlev, “Colloquium: Strong-field phenomena in periodic systems,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 90, 021002 (2018).
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Other (2)

“...it became obvious that the huge fields required for Bloch oscillations in a bulk semiconductor could never be reached,” seen in https://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/physics/laureates/2000/kroemer-bio.html .

V. Yakovlev, S. Kruchinin, T. Paasch-Colberg, M. Stockman, and F. Krausz, Ultrafast Dynamics Driven by Intense Light Pulses, edited by M. Kitzler and S. Gräfe, eds. (Springer Series on Atomic, Optical, and Plasma Physics, 2016), p. 295–315.
[Crossref]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) and (b) are the band structures calculated by the diagonalization scheme in coordinate space and by the Bloch-state expansion in reciprocal space, respectively. (c) The harmonic spectrum for laser wavelength λ = 3μm and intensity I = 8 × 1011 W/cm2. The arrow indicates the band gap Eg.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Harmonic spectra for laser wavelengths from λ = 2μm to 4μm and intensity I = 8 × 1011W/cm2. The dashed line indicates the band gap Eg.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) The time-dependent population imaging picture of the conduction band CB. The insert shows a zoom in of the result at peak of the laser pulse. The colorbar marks the population on a logarithmic scale. (b)The time-frequency harmonic spectrum obtained for a laser wavelength λ = 3μm. The colorbar marks the harmonic yield on a logarithmic scale. The green dashed lines mark the absolute value of the vector potential |A(t)|.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 The time-dependent population imaging picture (a) and the delay-dependent band gap signal (b) for λ = 3 μm. The solid line is obtained by TDSE with single-active electron. The circles is obtained by TDSE with fully occupied VB.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 The time-dependent population imaging picture (a) and the delay-dependent band gap signal (b) for λ = 40 μm. The solid line is obtained by TDSE with single-active electron.

Equations (11)

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H ^ ( t ) = H ^ 0 + x F ( t )
H ^ 0 ϕ n ( x ) = E n ϕ n ( x ) .
S ( ω ) = | a ( t ) e i ω t d t | 2
a ( t ) = Ψ ( x , t ) | x V | Ψ ( x , t ) .
ψ k 0 ( r , t ) = m α m , k 0 ( t ) e i t 0 t d τ E m ( k ( τ ) ) φ m , k 0 ( r , t )
H ^ ( t ) = { [ p ^ + A P p ] 2 2 + V ( r ) t = ( , Δ t δ t 2 ) [ p ^ + A P p + A P b ] 2 2 + V ( r ) t = [ Δ t δ t 2 , Δ t + δ t 2 ] [ p ^ + A P p ] 2 2 + V ( r ) t = ( Δ t + δ t 2 , )
ψ ( r , t ) = { α VB ( t ) e i t d τ E VB ( k ( τ ) ) φ VB ( r , t ) t = ( , Δ t δ t 2 ) m = VB , CB α m ( Δ t ) e i Δ t d τ E m ( k ( τ ) ) φ m ( r , Δ t ) t = [ Δ t δ t 2 , Δ t + δ t 2 ] m = VB , CB α m e i t d τ E m ( k ( τ ) ) φ m ( r , t ) t = ( Δ t + δ t 2 , )
S ( ω ) | ψ | r | ψ e i ω t d t | 2 = | d t e i ω t m = VB , CB n = VB , CB α m * ( t ) α n ( t ) e i T t d τ E n m ( k ( τ ) ) d n m ( k ( t ) ) | 2 .
S ( ω = E g ) d t | α VB * ( t ) α CB ( t ) d v c ( k ( t ) ) δ ( k ( t ) - 0 | 2 .
S ( ω = E g ) d t N CB , 0 ( t ) | d v c ( 0 ) | 2
S ( ω = E g , Δ t ) N CB , 0 ( t ) | d v c ( k ( Δ t ) ) | 2 .

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