Abstract

Implementing preprocessing in a delay-division multiplexing (DDM) orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) passive optical network (PON) requires a priori knowledge of channel responses, which need to be estimated under the constraint of sub-Nyquist analog-to-digital sampling. The localized approach allocates subcarriers in different frequency zones to training symbols in different time slots for channel estimation without spectral overlap. Unfortunately, the localized scheme is susceptible to inaccurate estimation when using an avalanche photodiode (APD), due to variations in APD saturation associated with different training symbols. Instead of localizing all subcarriers of a training symbol in a single frequency zone, we propose distributing training subcarriers through various frequency zones. This distributed scheme would prevent spectral overlap and also reduce the degree of variation in APD saturation, thereby improving the accuracy of channel estimation. Alternatively, we propose an orthogonal scheme in which each training symbol uses all of the subcarriers simultaneously. The orthogonality specified among consecutive training symbols should make it possible to estimate the channel response with low computational complexity. We conducted experiments to compare various schemes used for channel estimation in a 25-Gbps APD-based OFDM-PON. Our results revealed that the orthogonal scheme achieved the best results, and the localized scheme provided the worst channel estimates. We demonstrate the application of the orthogonal scheme in a penalty-free DDM system at 1/32 of the Nyquist rate, which provided a loss budget of 28 dB after fiber transmission over a distance of 25 km.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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2018 (3)

2016 (1)

C.-C. Wei, H.-C. Liu, C.-T. Lin, and S. Chi, “Analog-to-Digital Conversion Using Sub-Nyquist Sampling Rate in Flexible Delay-Division Multiplexing OFDMA PONs,” J. Lightwave Tech. 34(10), 2381–2390 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (2)

2014 (1)

2013 (1)

W. Sun, Y. Fu, Z. Lu, and J. Campbell, “Study of bandwidth enhancement and non-linear behavior in avalanche photodiodes under high power condition”, J. Appl. Phys. 113, 044509 (2013).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

N. Cvijetic, D. Qian, and J. Hu, “100 Gb/s optical access based on optical orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 48, 70–77 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

Armstrong, J.

Asaka, K.

Campbell, J.

W. Sun, Y. Fu, Z. Lu, and J. Campbell, “Study of bandwidth enhancement and non-linear behavior in avalanche photodiodes under high power condition”, J. Appl. Phys. 113, 044509 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chand, N.

L. Zhou, N. Chand, X. Liu, G. Peng, H. Lin, Z. Li, Z. Wang, X. Zhang, S. Wang, and F. Effenberger, “Demonstration of software-defined flexible-PON with adaptive data rates between 13.8 Gb/s and 5.2 Gb/s supporting link loss budgets between 15 dB and 35 dB,” in European Conference on Optical Communications (ECOC 2014), paper P.7.24.

Chang, G.-K.

Chen, M.

R. Deng, J. He, M. Chen, and Y. Zhou, “Experimental Demonstration of a Real-Time gigabit OFDM-VLC system with a cost-efficient precoding scheme,” Opt. Commun. 423, 69–73 (2018).
[Crossref]

Chi, S.

C.-C. Wei, H.-C. Liu, C.-T. Lin, and S. Chi, “Analog-to-Digital Conversion Using Sub-Nyquist Sampling Rate in Flexible Delay-Division Multiplexing OFDMA PONs,” J. Lightwave Tech. 34(10), 2381–2390 (2016).
[Crossref]

Cunningham, D. G.

Cvijetic, N.

N. Cvijetic, D. Qian, and J. Hu, “100 Gb/s optical access based on optical orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 48, 70–77 (2010).
[Crossref]

Deng, R.

Effenberger, F.

L. Zhou, N. Chand, X. Liu, G. Peng, H. Lin, Z. Li, Z. Wang, X. Zhang, S. Wang, and F. Effenberger, “Demonstration of software-defined flexible-PON with adaptive data rates between 13.8 Gb/s and 5.2 Gb/s supporting link loss budgets between 15 dB and 35 dB,” in European Conference on Optical Communications (ECOC 2014), paper P.7.24.

Fu, Y.

W. Sun, Y. Fu, Z. Lu, and J. Campbell, “Study of bandwidth enhancement and non-linear behavior in avalanche photodiodes under high power condition”, J. Appl. Phys. 113, 044509 (2013).
[Crossref]

Guo, X.

Hashimoto, T.

He, J.

Hoshi, T.

Hu, J.

N. Cvijetic, D. Qian, and J. Hu, “100 Gb/s optical access based on optical orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 48, 70–77 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kimura, H.

Kimura, S.

Li, Z.

L. Zhou, N. Chand, X. Liu, G. Peng, H. Lin, Z. Li, Z. Wang, X. Zhang, S. Wang, and F. Effenberger, “Demonstration of software-defined flexible-PON with adaptive data rates between 13.8 Gb/s and 5.2 Gb/s supporting link loss budgets between 15 dB and 35 dB,” in European Conference on Optical Communications (ECOC 2014), paper P.7.24.

Lin, C.-T.

C.-C. Wei, H.-C. Liu, C.-T. Lin, and S. Chi, “Analog-to-Digital Conversion Using Sub-Nyquist Sampling Rate in Flexible Delay-Division Multiplexing OFDMA PONs,” J. Lightwave Tech. 34(10), 2381–2390 (2016).
[Crossref]

C.-C. Wei, H.-C. Liu, and C.-T. Lin, “Novel Delay-Division-Multiplexing OFDMA Passive Optical Networks Enabling Low-Sampling-Rate ADC,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition (OFC 2015), paper M3J.1.

Lin, H.

L. Zhou, N. Chand, X. Liu, G. Peng, H. Lin, Z. Li, Z. Wang, X. Zhang, S. Wang, and F. Effenberger, “Demonstration of software-defined flexible-PON with adaptive data rates between 13.8 Gb/s and 5.2 Gb/s supporting link loss budgets between 15 dB and 35 dB,” in European Conference on Optical Communications (ECOC 2014), paper P.7.24.

Liu, H.-C.

C.-C. Wei, H.-C. Liu, C.-T. Lin, and S. Chi, “Analog-to-Digital Conversion Using Sub-Nyquist Sampling Rate in Flexible Delay-Division Multiplexing OFDMA PONs,” J. Lightwave Tech. 34(10), 2381–2390 (2016).
[Crossref]

C.-C. Wei, H.-C. Liu, and C.-T. Lin, “Novel Delay-Division-Multiplexing OFDMA Passive Optical Networks Enabling Low-Sampling-Rate ADC,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition (OFC 2015), paper M3J.1.

Liu, X.

L. Zhou, N. Chand, X. Liu, G. Peng, H. Lin, Z. Li, Z. Wang, X. Zhang, S. Wang, and F. Effenberger, “Demonstration of software-defined flexible-PON with adaptive data rates between 13.8 Gb/s and 5.2 Gb/s supporting link loss budgets between 15 dB and 35 dB,” in European Conference on Optical Communications (ECOC 2014), paper P.7.24.

Lu, Z.

W. Sun, Y. Fu, Z. Lu, and J. Campbell, “Study of bandwidth enhancement and non-linear behavior in avalanche photodiodes under high power condition”, J. Appl. Phys. 113, 044509 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lv, K.

Lyu, K.

Matsuzaki, H.

Nada, M.

Nakamura, H.

Peng, G.

L. Zhou, N. Chand, X. Liu, G. Peng, H. Lin, Z. Li, Z. Wang, X. Zhang, S. Wang, and F. Effenberger, “Demonstration of software-defined flexible-PON with adaptive data rates between 13.8 Gb/s and 5.2 Gb/s supporting link loss budgets between 15 dB and 35 dB,” in European Conference on Optical Communications (ECOC 2014), paper P.7.24.

Qian, C.

Qian, D.

N. Cvijetic, D. Qian, and J. Hu, “100 Gb/s optical access based on optical orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 48, 70–77 (2010).
[Crossref]

Sun, W.

W. Sun, Y. Fu, Z. Lu, and J. Campbell, “Study of bandwidth enhancement and non-linear behavior in avalanche photodiodes under high power condition”, J. Appl. Phys. 113, 044509 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wang, Q.

Wang, S.

L. Zhou, N. Chand, X. Liu, G. Peng, H. Lin, Z. Li, Z. Wang, X. Zhang, S. Wang, and F. Effenberger, “Demonstration of software-defined flexible-PON with adaptive data rates between 13.8 Gb/s and 5.2 Gb/s supporting link loss budgets between 15 dB and 35 dB,” in European Conference on Optical Communications (ECOC 2014), paper P.7.24.

Wang, Z.

Q. Wang, C. Qian, X. Guo, Z. Wang, D. G. Cunningham, and I. H. White, “Layered ACO-OFDM for intensity-modulated direct-detection optical wireless transmission,” Opt. Express 23, 12382–12393 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Zhou, N. Chand, X. Liu, G. Peng, H. Lin, Z. Li, Z. Wang, X. Zhang, S. Wang, and F. Effenberger, “Demonstration of software-defined flexible-PON with adaptive data rates between 13.8 Gb/s and 5.2 Gb/s supporting link loss budgets between 15 dB and 35 dB,” in European Conference on Optical Communications (ECOC 2014), paper P.7.24.

Wei, C.-C.

C.-C. Wei, H.-C. Liu, C.-T. Lin, and S. Chi, “Analog-to-Digital Conversion Using Sub-Nyquist Sampling Rate in Flexible Delay-Division Multiplexing OFDMA PONs,” J. Lightwave Tech. 34(10), 2381–2390 (2016).
[Crossref]

C.-C. Wei, H.-C. Liu, and C.-T. Lin, “Novel Delay-Division-Multiplexing OFDMA Passive Optical Networks Enabling Low-Sampling-Rate ADC,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition (OFC 2015), paper M3J.1.

Wei, Y.

White, I. H.

Xiao, X.

Xin, X.

Yamazaki, H.

Yoshimoto, N.

Yu, J.

Zhang, X.

L. Zhou, N. Chand, X. Liu, G. Peng, H. Lin, Z. Li, Z. Wang, X. Zhang, S. Wang, and F. Effenberger, “Demonstration of software-defined flexible-PON with adaptive data rates between 13.8 Gb/s and 5.2 Gb/s supporting link loss budgets between 15 dB and 35 dB,” in European Conference on Optical Communications (ECOC 2014), paper P.7.24.

Zhou, L.

L. Zhou, N. Chand, X. Liu, G. Peng, H. Lin, Z. Li, Z. Wang, X. Zhang, S. Wang, and F. Effenberger, “Demonstration of software-defined flexible-PON with adaptive data rates between 13.8 Gb/s and 5.2 Gb/s supporting link loss budgets between 15 dB and 35 dB,” in European Conference on Optical Communications (ECOC 2014), paper P.7.24.

Zhou, Y.

R. Deng, J. He, M. Chen, and Y. Zhou, “Experimental Demonstration of a Real-Time gigabit OFDM-VLC system with a cost-efficient precoding scheme,” Opt. Commun. 423, 69–73 (2018).
[Crossref]

IEEE Commun. Mag. (1)

N. Cvijetic, D. Qian, and J. Hu, “100 Gb/s optical access based on optical orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 48, 70–77 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

W. Sun, Y. Fu, Z. Lu, and J. Campbell, “Study of bandwidth enhancement and non-linear behavior in avalanche photodiodes under high power condition”, J. Appl. Phys. 113, 044509 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Tech. (1)

C.-C. Wei, H.-C. Liu, C.-T. Lin, and S. Chi, “Analog-to-Digital Conversion Using Sub-Nyquist Sampling Rate in Flexible Delay-Division Multiplexing OFDMA PONs,” J. Lightwave Tech. 34(10), 2381–2390 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

Opt. Commun. (1)

R. Deng, J. He, M. Chen, and Y. Zhou, “Experimental Demonstration of a Real-Time gigabit OFDM-VLC system with a cost-efficient precoding scheme,” Opt. Commun. 423, 69–73 (2018).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Other (2)

C.-C. Wei, H.-C. Liu, and C.-T. Lin, “Novel Delay-Division-Multiplexing OFDMA Passive Optical Networks Enabling Low-Sampling-Rate ADC,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition (OFC 2015), paper M3J.1.

L. Zhou, N. Chand, X. Liu, G. Peng, H. Lin, Z. Li, Z. Wang, X. Zhang, S. Wang, and F. Effenberger, “Demonstration of software-defined flexible-PON with adaptive data rates between 13.8 Gb/s and 5.2 Gb/s supporting link loss budgets between 15 dB and 35 dB,” in European Conference on Optical Communications (ECOC 2014), paper P.7.24.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Frequency-domain concepts with 1/4 of the Nyquist sampling rate: (a) spectral superposition due to aliasing, (b) localized training symbols, (c) distributed training symbols, and (d) orthogonal training symbols. Waveforms exemplify time-domain characteristics of (i) localized training symbols and (ii) distributed training symbols.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Experiment setup of APD-based DDM-OFDM-PON. The received spectra (i) before and (ii) after sub-Nyquist sampling.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Measured responses using traditional training symbols and Nyquist sampling rate, and corresponding (b) degree of saturation
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Measured responses with sub-Nyquist sampling using various schemes: (a) localized, (b) distributed, and (c) orthogonal
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Dissimilarities in channel responses as functions of driving power and received power with Nyquist sampling using (a) traditional scheme, and with sub-Nyquist sampling using (b) localized, (c) distributed and (d) orthogonal schemes
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Measured BER curves based on channel responses estimated using E/O powers of (a) −1/−18, (b) −1/−21 and (c) −9/−21 dBm (M = 1 indicates normal OFDM without DDM scheme)
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Sensitivity versus dissimilarity in estimated channel responses

Equations (3)

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[ r 1 , i r 2 , i r 3 , i r 4 , i ] = [ 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 ] [ e j θ 1 0 0 0 0 e j θ 2 0 0 0 0 e j θ 3 0 0 0 0 e j θ 4 ] [ h 1 , i h 2 , i h 3 , i h 4 , i ] t i ,
Δ P d , dB = Δ P e , dB + 2 × Δ P o , dB .
σ D 2 = 1 N n ( γ n γ ¯ 1 ) 2 ,

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