Abstract

We demonstrate the stabilization of an all-in-fiber polarization maintaining semi-conductor saturable absorber mirror (SESAM) mode locked frequency comb oscillator with an intra-cavity waveguide electro-optic phase modulator (EOM) to a narrow linewidth HeNe laser over 46 hours. The high feedback bandwidth of the EOM allows a coherent optical lock with an in-loop integrated phase noise of 1.12 rad (integrated from 10 Hz to 3 MHz) from the carrier signal. No piezo fiber stretcher was required to guarantee long-term stabilization, preventing mechanical degradation of the optical fibers and enabling a long lifetime of the oscillator. As an application a hybrid stabilization scheme is presented, where a comb tooth is phase locked to a longitudinal mode of the large ring laser “G” located at the Geodatic Observatory Wettzell. The hybrid stabilization scheme describes the optical lock of the frequency comb to the G laser and the simultaneous compensation of the ring laser frequency drift by comparing the comb repetition rate against an active H-maser reference. In this context the ring laser reached a fractional Allan deviation of 5 · 10−16 at an integration time of 16384 s.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2017 (1)

2016 (2)

2015 (2)

Y. Feng, X. Xu, X. Hu, Y. Liu, Y. Wang, W. Zhang, Z. Yang, L. Duan, W. Zhao, and Z. Cheng, “Environmental-adaptability analysis of an all polarization-maintaining fiber-based optical frequency comb,” Opt. Express 23, 17549–17559 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. C. Sinclair, J.-D. Deschenes, L. Sonderhouse, W. C. Swann, I. H. Khader, E. Baumann, N. R. Newbury, and I. Coddington, “Invited Article: A compact optically coherent fiber frequency comb,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 86, 081301 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (4)

B. J. Bloom, T. L. Nicholson, J. R. Williams, S. L. Campbell, M. Bishof, X. Zhang, W. Zhang, S. L. Bromley, and J. Ye, “An Optical Lattice Clock with Accuracy and Stability at the 10−18 Level,” Nature 506, 71–75 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Lee, K. Lee, Y.-S. Jang, H. Jang, S. Han, S.-H. Lee, K.-I. Kang, C.-W. Lim, Y.-J. Kim, and S.-W. Kim, “Testing of a femtosecond pulse laser in outer space,” Sci. Rep. 4, 5134 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Sinclair, I. Coddington, W. Swann, G. Rieker, A. Hati, K. Iwakuni, and N. Newbury, “Operation of an optically coherent frequency comb outside the metrology lab,” Opt. Express 22, 6996–7006 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Jang, J. Lee, S. Kim, K. Lee, S. Han, Y. Kim, and S. Kim, “Space radiation test of saturable absorber for femtosecond laser,” Opt. Lett. 39, 2831–2834 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (3)

K. Schreiber, A. Gebauer, and J. Wells, “Closed-loop locking of an optical frequency comb to a large ring laser,” Opt. Lett. 38, 3574–3577 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. U. Schreiber and J.-P. R. Wells, “Invited Review Article: Large ring lasers for rotation sensing,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 84, 89 (2013).
[Crossref]

F. R. Giorgetta, W. C. Swann, L. C. Sinclair, E. Baumann, I. Coddington, and N. R. Newbury, “Optical two-way time and frequency transfer over free space,” Nat. Photonics 7, 434 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (3)

2011 (3)

L. Nugent-Glandorf, T. Johnson, Y. Kobayashi, and S. Diddams, “Impact of dispersion on amplitude and frequency noise in a Yb-fiber laser comb,” Opt. Lett. 36, 1578–1580 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. U. Schreiber, T. Klügel, J.-P. R. Wells, R. B. Hurst, and A. Gebauer, “How to Detect the Chandler and the Annual Wobble of the Earth with a Large Ring Laser Gyroscope,” Phys. Rev. Lett.,  107 (17), 173904 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. N. Ivanov, F.-X. Esnault, and E. A. Donley, “Offset phase locking of noisy diode lasers aided by frequency division,” Review of Scientific Instruments 82, 083110 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (5)

S. Grop, P.-Y. Bourgeois, N. Bazin, Y. Kersalé, E. Rubiola, C. Langham, M. Oxborrow, D. Clapton, S. Walker, J. D. Vicente, and V. Giordano, “A crycooled 10 GHz oscillator with 10−15 frequency stability,” Rev. of Sci. Instrum. 81, 025102 (2010).
[Crossref]

Jack A. Stone and Patrick Egan, “An Optical Frequency Comb Tied to GPS for Laser Frequency/Wavelength Calibration,” J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 115, 413–431 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Bernhardt, A. Ozawa, P. Jacquet, M. Jacquey, Y. Kobayashi, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, G. Guelachvili, T. W. Hänsch, and N. Picqué, “Cavity-enhanced dual-comb spectroscopy,” Nat. Photonics 4, 55–57 (2010).
[Crossref]

Y. Nakajima, H. Inaba, K. Hosaka, K. Minoshima, A. Onae, M. Yasuda, T. Kohno, S. Kawato, T. Kobayashi, T. Katsuyama, and F. Hong, “A multi-branch, fiber-based frequency comb with millihertz-level relative linewidths using an intra-cavity electro-optic modulator,” Opt. Express 18, 1667–1676 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Paschotta, “Timing jitter and phase noise of mode-locked fiber lasers,” Opt. Express 18, 5041–5054 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

E. Baumann, F. Giorgetta, J. Nicholson, W. Swann, I. Coddington, and N. Newbury, “High-performance, vibration-immune, fiber-laser frequency comb,” Opt. Lett. 34, 638–640 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Millo, M. Abgrall, M. Lours, E. M. L. English, H. Jiang, J. Guéna, A. Clairon, M. E. Tobar, S. Bize, Y. Le Coq, and G. Santarelli, “Ultralow noise microwave generation with fiber-based optical frequency comb and application to atomic fountain clock,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 141105 (2009).
[Crossref]

2005 (2)

2004 (1)

2002 (1)

H. R. Telle, B. Lipphardt, and J. Stenger, “Kerr-lens, mode-locked lasers as transfer oscillators for optical frequency measurements,” Appl. Phys. B 74, 1–6 (2002).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-Envelope Phase Control of Femtosecond Mode-Locked Lasers and Direct Optical Frequency Synthesis,” Science 288, 635–639 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1990 (1)

1986 (1)

Abgrall, M.

J. Millo, M. Abgrall, M. Lours, E. M. L. English, H. Jiang, J. Guéna, A. Clairon, M. E. Tobar, S. Bize, Y. Le Coq, and G. Santarelli, “Ultralow noise microwave generation with fiber-based optical frequency comb and application to atomic fountain clock,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 141105 (2009).
[Crossref]

Baumann, E.

L. C. Sinclair, J.-D. Deschenes, L. Sonderhouse, W. C. Swann, I. H. Khader, E. Baumann, N. R. Newbury, and I. Coddington, “Invited Article: A compact optically coherent fiber frequency comb,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 86, 081301 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. R. Giorgetta, W. C. Swann, L. C. Sinclair, E. Baumann, I. Coddington, and N. R. Newbury, “Optical two-way time and frequency transfer over free space,” Nat. Photonics 7, 434 (2013).
[Crossref]

E. Baumann, F. Giorgetta, J. Nicholson, W. Swann, I. Coddington, and N. Newbury, “High-performance, vibration-immune, fiber-laser frequency comb,” Opt. Lett. 34, 638–640 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bazin, N.

S. Grop, P.-Y. Bourgeois, N. Bazin, Y. Kersalé, E. Rubiola, C. Langham, M. Oxborrow, D. Clapton, S. Walker, J. D. Vicente, and V. Giordano, “A crycooled 10 GHz oscillator with 10−15 frequency stability,” Rev. of Sci. Instrum. 81, 025102 (2010).
[Crossref]

Benko, C.

Bernhardt, B.

B. Bernhardt, A. Ozawa, P. Jacquet, M. Jacquey, Y. Kobayashi, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, G. Guelachvili, T. W. Hänsch, and N. Picqué, “Cavity-enhanced dual-comb spectroscopy,” Nat. Photonics 4, 55–57 (2010).
[Crossref]

Bishof, M.

B. J. Bloom, T. L. Nicholson, J. R. Williams, S. L. Campbell, M. Bishof, X. Zhang, W. Zhang, S. L. Bromley, and J. Ye, “An Optical Lattice Clock with Accuracy and Stability at the 10−18 Level,” Nature 506, 71–75 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bize, S.

J. Millo, M. Abgrall, M. Lours, E. M. L. English, H. Jiang, J. Guéna, A. Clairon, M. E. Tobar, S. Bize, Y. Le Coq, and G. Santarelli, “Ultralow noise microwave generation with fiber-based optical frequency comb and application to atomic fountain clock,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 141105 (2009).
[Crossref]

Bloom, B. J.

B. J. Bloom, T. L. Nicholson, J. R. Williams, S. L. Campbell, M. Bishof, X. Zhang, W. Zhang, S. L. Bromley, and J. Ye, “An Optical Lattice Clock with Accuracy and Stability at the 10−18 Level,” Nature 506, 71–75 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bourgeois, P.-Y.

S. Grop, P.-Y. Bourgeois, N. Bazin, Y. Kersalé, E. Rubiola, C. Langham, M. Oxborrow, D. Clapton, S. Walker, J. D. Vicente, and V. Giordano, “A crycooled 10 GHz oscillator with 10−15 frequency stability,” Rev. of Sci. Instrum. 81, 025102 (2010).
[Crossref]

Bromley, S. L.

B. J. Bloom, T. L. Nicholson, J. R. Williams, S. L. Campbell, M. Bishof, X. Zhang, W. Zhang, S. L. Bromley, and J. Ye, “An Optical Lattice Clock with Accuracy and Stability at the 10−18 Level,” Nature 506, 71–75 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Campbell, S. L.

B. J. Bloom, T. L. Nicholson, J. R. Williams, S. L. Campbell, M. Bishof, X. Zhang, W. Zhang, S. L. Bromley, and J. Ye, “An Optical Lattice Clock with Accuracy and Stability at the 10−18 Level,” Nature 506, 71–75 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Carruthers, T.

Cheng, Z.

Clairon, A.

J. Millo, M. Abgrall, M. Lours, E. M. L. English, H. Jiang, J. Guéna, A. Clairon, M. E. Tobar, S. Bize, Y. Le Coq, and G. Santarelli, “Ultralow noise microwave generation with fiber-based optical frequency comb and application to atomic fountain clock,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 141105 (2009).
[Crossref]

Clapton, D.

S. Grop, P.-Y. Bourgeois, N. Bazin, Y. Kersalé, E. Rubiola, C. Langham, M. Oxborrow, D. Clapton, S. Walker, J. D. Vicente, and V. Giordano, “A crycooled 10 GHz oscillator with 10−15 frequency stability,” Rev. of Sci. Instrum. 81, 025102 (2010).
[Crossref]

Coddington, I.

Coluccelli, N.

Cundiff, S.

Cundiff, S. T.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-Envelope Phase Control of Femtosecond Mode-Locked Lasers and Direct Optical Frequency Synthesis,” Science 288, 635–639 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Deschenes, J.-D.

L. C. Sinclair, J.-D. Deschenes, L. Sonderhouse, W. C. Swann, I. H. Khader, E. Baumann, N. R. Newbury, and I. Coddington, “Invited Article: A compact optically coherent fiber frequency comb,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 86, 081301 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Deutsch, C.

Diddams, S.

Diddams, S. A.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-Envelope Phase Control of Femtosecond Mode-Locked Lasers and Direct Optical Frequency Synthesis,” Science 288, 635–639 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dinkelaker, A.

Donley, E. A.

E. N. Ivanov, F.-X. Esnault, and E. A. Donley, “Offset phase locking of noisy diode lasers aided by frequency division,” Review of Scientific Instruments 82, 083110 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Droste, S.

Duan, L.

Duncker, H.

Eder, B.

S. Schweyer, R. Kienberger, B. Eder, P. Putzer, A. Kölnberger, and N. Lemke, “Characterization of a SESAM mode-locked erbium fiber laser frequency comb with an integrated electro-optic modulator,” Proc. EFTF Conf.189–192 (2014).

Egan, Patrick

Jack A. Stone and Patrick Egan, “An Optical Frequency Comb Tied to GPS for Laser Frequency/Wavelength Calibration,” J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 115, 413–431 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Eikema, K.

English, E. M. L.

J. Millo, M. Abgrall, M. Lours, E. M. L. English, H. Jiang, J. Guéna, A. Clairon, M. E. Tobar, S. Bize, Y. Le Coq, and G. Santarelli, “Ultralow noise microwave generation with fiber-based optical frequency comb and application to atomic fountain clock,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 141105 (2009).
[Crossref]

Esnault, F.-X.

E. N. Ivanov, F.-X. Esnault, and E. A. Donley, “Offset phase locking of noisy diode lasers aided by frequency division,” Review of Scientific Instruments 82, 083110 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Feng, Y.

Fermann, M.

Galzerano, G.

Gambetta, A.

Gatti, D.

Gebauer, A.

K. Schreiber, A. Gebauer, and J. Wells, “Closed-loop locking of an optical frequency comb to a large ring laser,” Opt. Lett. 38, 3574–3577 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. U. Schreiber, T. Klügel, J.-P. R. Wells, R. B. Hurst, and A. Gebauer, “How to Detect the Chandler and the Annual Wobble of the Earth with a Large Ring Laser Gyroscope,” Phys. Rev. Lett.,  107 (17), 173904 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Giordano, V.

S. Grop, P.-Y. Bourgeois, N. Bazin, Y. Kersalé, E. Rubiola, C. Langham, M. Oxborrow, D. Clapton, S. Walker, J. D. Vicente, and V. Giordano, “A crycooled 10 GHz oscillator with 10−15 frequency stability,” Rev. of Sci. Instrum. 81, 025102 (2010).
[Crossref]

Giorgetta, F.

Giorgetta, F. R.

F. R. Giorgetta, W. C. Swann, L. C. Sinclair, E. Baumann, I. Coddington, and N. R. Newbury, “Optical two-way time and frequency transfer over free space,” Nat. Photonics 7, 434 (2013).
[Crossref]

Giunta, M.

Gordon, J.

Grop, S.

S. Grop, P.-Y. Bourgeois, N. Bazin, Y. Kersalé, E. Rubiola, C. Langham, M. Oxborrow, D. Clapton, S. Walker, J. D. Vicente, and V. Giordano, “A crycooled 10 GHz oscillator with 10−15 frequency stability,” Rev. of Sci. Instrum. 81, 025102 (2010).
[Crossref]

Guelachvili, G.

B. Bernhardt, A. Ozawa, P. Jacquet, M. Jacquey, Y. Kobayashi, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, G. Guelachvili, T. W. Hänsch, and N. Picqué, “Cavity-enhanced dual-comb spectroscopy,” Nat. Photonics 4, 55–57 (2010).
[Crossref]

Guéna, J.

J. Millo, M. Abgrall, M. Lours, E. M. L. English, H. Jiang, J. Guéna, A. Clairon, M. E. Tobar, S. Bize, Y. Le Coq, and G. Santarelli, “Ultralow noise microwave generation with fiber-based optical frequency comb and application to atomic fountain clock,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 141105 (2009).
[Crossref]

Haberl, F.

Hall, J. L.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-Envelope Phase Control of Femtosecond Mode-Locked Lasers and Direct Optical Frequency Synthesis,” Science 288, 635–639 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Han, S.

J. Lee, K. Lee, Y.-S. Jang, H. Jang, S. Han, S.-H. Lee, K.-I. Kang, C.-W. Lim, Y.-J. Kim, and S.-W. Kim, “Testing of a femtosecond pulse laser in outer space,” Sci. Rep. 4, 5134 (2014).
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Y. Jang, J. Lee, S. Kim, K. Lee, S. Han, Y. Kim, and S. Kim, “Space radiation test of saturable absorber for femtosecond laser,” Opt. Lett. 39, 2831–2834 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hänsch, T. W.

Hartl, I.

Hati, A.

Haus, H.

Hellmig, O.

Hochreiter, H.

Hofer, M.

Holman, K.

Holzwarth, R.

Hong, F.

Hosaka, K.

Hu, X.

Hudson, D.

Hülsing, T.

Hurst, R. B.

K. U. Schreiber, T. Klügel, J.-P. R. Wells, R. B. Hurst, and A. Gebauer, “How to Detect the Chandler and the Annual Wobble of the Earth with a Large Ring Laser Gyroscope,” Phys. Rev. Lett.,  107 (17), 173904 (2011).
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Inaba, H.

Ivanov, E. N.

E. N. Ivanov, F.-X. Esnault, and E. A. Donley, “Offset phase locking of noisy diode lasers aided by frequency division,” Review of Scientific Instruments 82, 083110 (2011).
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Iwakuni, K.

Jacquet, P.

B. Bernhardt, A. Ozawa, P. Jacquet, M. Jacquey, Y. Kobayashi, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, G. Guelachvili, T. W. Hänsch, and N. Picqué, “Cavity-enhanced dual-comb spectroscopy,” Nat. Photonics 4, 55–57 (2010).
[Crossref]

Jacquey, M.

B. Bernhardt, A. Ozawa, P. Jacquet, M. Jacquey, Y. Kobayashi, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, G. Guelachvili, T. W. Hänsch, and N. Picqué, “Cavity-enhanced dual-comb spectroscopy,” Nat. Photonics 4, 55–57 (2010).
[Crossref]

Jang, H.

J. Lee, K. Lee, Y.-S. Jang, H. Jang, S. Han, S.-H. Lee, K.-I. Kang, C.-W. Lim, Y.-J. Kim, and S.-W. Kim, “Testing of a femtosecond pulse laser in outer space,” Sci. Rep. 4, 5134 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jang, Y.

Jang, Y.-S.

J. Lee, K. Lee, Y.-S. Jang, H. Jang, S. Han, S.-H. Lee, K.-I. Kang, C.-W. Lim, Y.-J. Kim, and S.-W. Kim, “Testing of a femtosecond pulse laser in outer space,” Sci. Rep. 4, 5134 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jiang, H.

J. Millo, M. Abgrall, M. Lours, E. M. L. English, H. Jiang, J. Guéna, A. Clairon, M. E. Tobar, S. Bize, Y. Le Coq, and G. Santarelli, “Ultralow noise microwave generation with fiber-based optical frequency comb and application to atomic fountain clock,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 141105 (2009).
[Crossref]

Jiang, J.

Johnson, T.

Jones, D.

Jones, D. J.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-Envelope Phase Control of Femtosecond Mode-Locked Lasers and Direct Optical Frequency Synthesis,” Science 288, 635–639 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jones, R.

Kang, K.-I.

J. Lee, K. Lee, Y.-S. Jang, H. Jang, S. Han, S.-H. Lee, K.-I. Kang, C.-W. Lim, Y.-J. Kim, and S.-W. Kim, “Testing of a femtosecond pulse laser in outer space,” Sci. Rep. 4, 5134 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Katsuyama, T.

Kawato, S.

Kersalé, Y.

S. Grop, P.-Y. Bourgeois, N. Bazin, Y. Kersalé, E. Rubiola, C. Langham, M. Oxborrow, D. Clapton, S. Walker, J. D. Vicente, and V. Giordano, “A crycooled 10 GHz oscillator with 10−15 frequency stability,” Rev. of Sci. Instrum. 81, 025102 (2010).
[Crossref]

Khader, I. H.

L. C. Sinclair, J.-D. Deschenes, L. Sonderhouse, W. C. Swann, I. H. Khader, E. Baumann, N. R. Newbury, and I. Coddington, “Invited Article: A compact optically coherent fiber frequency comb,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 86, 081301 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kienberger, R.

S. Schweyer, R. Kienberger, B. Eder, P. Putzer, A. Kölnberger, and N. Lemke, “Characterization of a SESAM mode-locked erbium fiber laser frequency comb with an integrated electro-optic modulator,” Proc. EFTF Conf.189–192 (2014).

Kim, S.

Kim, S.-W.

J. Lee, K. Lee, Y.-S. Jang, H. Jang, S. Han, S.-H. Lee, K.-I. Kang, C.-W. Lim, Y.-J. Kim, and S.-W. Kim, “Testing of a femtosecond pulse laser in outer space,” Sci. Rep. 4, 5134 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, Y.

Kim, Y.-J.

J. Lee, K. Lee, Y.-S. Jang, H. Jang, S. Han, S.-H. Lee, K.-I. Kang, C.-W. Lim, Y.-J. Kim, and S.-W. Kim, “Testing of a femtosecond pulse laser in outer space,” Sci. Rep. 4, 5134 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Klügel, T.

K. U. Schreiber, T. Klügel, J.-P. R. Wells, R. B. Hurst, and A. Gebauer, “How to Detect the Chandler and the Annual Wobble of the Earth with a Large Ring Laser Gyroscope,” Phys. Rev. Lett.,  107 (17), 173904 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kobayashi, T.

Kobayashi, Y.

L. Nugent-Glandorf, T. Johnson, Y. Kobayashi, and S. Diddams, “Impact of dispersion on amplitude and frequency noise in a Yb-fiber laser comb,” Opt. Lett. 36, 1578–1580 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Bernhardt, A. Ozawa, P. Jacquet, M. Jacquey, Y. Kobayashi, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, G. Guelachvili, T. W. Hänsch, and N. Picqué, “Cavity-enhanced dual-comb spectroscopy,” Nat. Photonics 4, 55–57 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kohfeldt, A.

Kohno, T.

Kölnberger, A.

S. Schweyer, R. Kienberger, B. Eder, P. Putzer, A. Kölnberger, and N. Lemke, “Characterization of a SESAM mode-locked erbium fiber laser frequency comb with an integrated electro-optic modulator,” Proc. EFTF Conf.189–192 (2014).

Krutzik, M.

Kuse, N.

Lampmann, K.

Langham, C.

S. Grop, P.-Y. Bourgeois, N. Bazin, Y. Kersalé, E. Rubiola, C. Langham, M. Oxborrow, D. Clapton, S. Walker, J. D. Vicente, and V. Giordano, “A crycooled 10 GHz oscillator with 10−15 frequency stability,” Rev. of Sci. Instrum. 81, 025102 (2010).
[Crossref]

Laporta, P.

Le Coq, Y.

J. Millo, M. Abgrall, M. Lours, E. M. L. English, H. Jiang, J. Guéna, A. Clairon, M. E. Tobar, S. Bize, Y. Le Coq, and G. Santarelli, “Ultralow noise microwave generation with fiber-based optical frequency comb and application to atomic fountain clock,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 141105 (2009).
[Crossref]

Lee, C.

Lee, J.

Y. Jang, J. Lee, S. Kim, K. Lee, S. Han, Y. Kim, and S. Kim, “Space radiation test of saturable absorber for femtosecond laser,” Opt. Lett. 39, 2831–2834 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Lee, K. Lee, Y.-S. Jang, H. Jang, S. Han, S.-H. Lee, K.-I. Kang, C.-W. Lim, Y.-J. Kim, and S.-W. Kim, “Testing of a femtosecond pulse laser in outer space,” Sci. Rep. 4, 5134 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, K.

J. Lee, K. Lee, Y.-S. Jang, H. Jang, S. Han, S.-H. Lee, K.-I. Kang, C.-W. Lim, Y.-J. Kim, and S.-W. Kim, “Testing of a femtosecond pulse laser in outer space,” Sci. Rep. 4, 5134 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Jang, J. Lee, S. Kim, K. Lee, S. Han, Y. Kim, and S. Kim, “Space radiation test of saturable absorber for femtosecond laser,” Opt. Lett. 39, 2831–2834 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, S.-H.

J. Lee, K. Lee, Y.-S. Jang, H. Jang, S. Han, S.-H. Lee, K.-I. Kang, C.-W. Lim, Y.-J. Kim, and S.-W. Kim, “Testing of a femtosecond pulse laser in outer space,” Sci. Rep. 4, 5134 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lemke, N.

S. Schweyer, R. Kienberger, B. Eder, P. Putzer, A. Kölnberger, and N. Lemke, “Characterization of a SESAM mode-locked erbium fiber laser frequency comb with an integrated electro-optic modulator,” Proc. EFTF Conf.189–192 (2014).

Lezius, M.

Lim, C.-W.

J. Lee, K. Lee, Y.-S. Jang, H. Jang, S. Han, S.-H. Lee, K.-I. Kang, C.-W. Lim, Y.-J. Kim, and S.-W. Kim, “Testing of a femtosecond pulse laser in outer space,” Sci. Rep. 4, 5134 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lipphardt, B.

H. R. Telle, B. Lipphardt, and J. Stenger, “Kerr-lens, mode-locked lasers as transfer oscillators for optical frequency measurements,” Appl. Phys. B 74, 1–6 (2002).
[Crossref]

Liu, Y.

Lours, M.

J. Millo, M. Abgrall, M. Lours, E. M. L. English, H. Jiang, J. Guéna, A. Clairon, M. E. Tobar, S. Bize, Y. Le Coq, and G. Santarelli, “Ultralow noise microwave generation with fiber-based optical frequency comb and application to atomic fountain clock,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 141105 (2009).
[Crossref]

Mandel, O.

Marangoni, M.

Martin, M.

Menyuk, C.

Millo, J.

J. Millo, M. Abgrall, M. Lours, E. M. L. English, H. Jiang, J. Guéna, A. Clairon, M. E. Tobar, S. Bize, Y. Le Coq, and G. Santarelli, “Ultralow noise microwave generation with fiber-based optical frequency comb and application to atomic fountain clock,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 141105 (2009).
[Crossref]

Minoshima, K.

Nakajima, Y.

Newbury, N.

Newbury, N. R.

L. C. Sinclair, J.-D. Deschenes, L. Sonderhouse, W. C. Swann, I. H. Khader, E. Baumann, N. R. Newbury, and I. Coddington, “Invited Article: A compact optically coherent fiber frequency comb,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 86, 081301 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. R. Giorgetta, W. C. Swann, L. C. Sinclair, E. Baumann, I. Coddington, and N. R. Newbury, “Optical two-way time and frequency transfer over free space,” Nat. Photonics 7, 434 (2013).
[Crossref]

Nicholson, J.

Nicholson, T. L.

B. J. Bloom, T. L. Nicholson, J. R. Williams, S. L. Campbell, M. Bishof, X. Zhang, W. Zhang, S. L. Bromley, and J. Ye, “An Optical Lattice Clock with Accuracy and Stability at the 10−18 Level,” Nature 506, 71–75 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nugent-Glandorf, L.

Onae, A.

Oxborrow, M.

S. Grop, P.-Y. Bourgeois, N. Bazin, Y. Kersalé, E. Rubiola, C. Langham, M. Oxborrow, D. Clapton, S. Walker, J. D. Vicente, and V. Giordano, “A crycooled 10 GHz oscillator with 10−15 frequency stability,” Rev. of Sci. Instrum. 81, 025102 (2010).
[Crossref]

Ozawa, A.

B. Bernhardt, A. Ozawa, P. Jacquet, M. Jacquey, Y. Kobayashi, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, G. Guelachvili, T. W. Hänsch, and N. Picqué, “Cavity-enhanced dual-comb spectroscopy,” Nat. Photonics 4, 55–57 (2010).
[Crossref]

Paschotta, R.

Peters, A.

Picqué, N.

B. Bernhardt, A. Ozawa, P. Jacquet, M. Jacquey, Y. Kobayashi, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, G. Guelachvili, T. W. Hänsch, and N. Picqué, “Cavity-enhanced dual-comb spectroscopy,” Nat. Photonics 4, 55–57 (2010).
[Crossref]

Putzer, P.

S. Schweyer, R. Kienberger, B. Eder, P. Putzer, A. Kölnberger, and N. Lemke, “Characterization of a SESAM mode-locked erbium fiber laser frequency comb with an integrated electro-optic modulator,” Proc. EFTF Conf.189–192 (2014).

Ranka, J. K.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-Envelope Phase Control of Femtosecond Mode-Locked Lasers and Direct Optical Frequency Synthesis,” Science 288, 635–639 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rieker, G.

Rubiola, E.

S. Grop, P.-Y. Bourgeois, N. Bazin, Y. Kersalé, E. Rubiola, C. Langham, M. Oxborrow, D. Clapton, S. Walker, J. D. Vicente, and V. Giordano, “A crycooled 10 GHz oscillator with 10−15 frequency stability,” Rev. of Sci. Instrum. 81, 025102 (2010).
[Crossref]

Ruehl, A.

Sala, T.

Santarelli, G.

J. Millo, M. Abgrall, M. Lours, E. M. L. English, H. Jiang, J. Guéna, A. Clairon, M. E. Tobar, S. Bize, Y. Le Coq, and G. Santarelli, “Ultralow noise microwave generation with fiber-based optical frequency comb and application to atomic fountain clock,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 141105 (2009).
[Crossref]

Schibli, T.

Schiemangk, M.

Schkolnik, V.

Schreiber, K.

Schreiber, K. U.

K. U. Schreiber and J.-P. R. Wells, “Invited Review Article: Large ring lasers for rotation sensing,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 84, 89 (2013).
[Crossref]

K. U. Schreiber, T. Klügel, J.-P. R. Wells, R. B. Hurst, and A. Gebauer, “How to Detect the Chandler and the Annual Wobble of the Earth with a Large Ring Laser Gyroscope,” Phys. Rev. Lett.,  107 (17), 173904 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schweyer, S.

S. Schweyer, R. Kienberger, B. Eder, P. Putzer, A. Kölnberger, and N. Lemke, “Characterization of a SESAM mode-locked erbium fiber laser frequency comb with an integrated electro-optic modulator,” Proc. EFTF Conf.189–192 (2014).

Sengstock, K.

Sinclair, L.

Sinclair, L. C.

L. C. Sinclair, J.-D. Deschenes, L. Sonderhouse, W. C. Swann, I. H. Khader, E. Baumann, N. R. Newbury, and I. Coddington, “Invited Article: A compact optically coherent fiber frequency comb,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 86, 081301 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. R. Giorgetta, W. C. Swann, L. C. Sinclair, E. Baumann, I. Coddington, and N. R. Newbury, “Optical two-way time and frequency transfer over free space,” Nat. Photonics 7, 434 (2013).
[Crossref]

Sonderhouse, L.

L. C. Sinclair, J.-D. Deschenes, L. Sonderhouse, W. C. Swann, I. H. Khader, E. Baumann, N. R. Newbury, and I. Coddington, “Invited Article: A compact optically coherent fiber frequency comb,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 86, 081301 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stenger, J.

H. R. Telle, B. Lipphardt, and J. Stenger, “Kerr-lens, mode-locked lasers as transfer oscillators for optical frequency measurements,” Appl. Phys. B 74, 1–6 (2002).
[Crossref]

Stentz, A.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-Envelope Phase Control of Femtosecond Mode-Locked Lasers and Direct Optical Frequency Synthesis,” Science 288, 635–639 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stone, Jack A.

Jack A. Stone and Patrick Egan, “An Optical Frequency Comb Tied to GPS for Laser Frequency/Wavelength Calibration,” J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 115, 413–431 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Swann, W.

Swann, W. C.

L. C. Sinclair, J.-D. Deschenes, L. Sonderhouse, W. C. Swann, I. H. Khader, E. Baumann, N. R. Newbury, and I. Coddington, “Invited Article: A compact optically coherent fiber frequency comb,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 86, 081301 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. R. Giorgetta, W. C. Swann, L. C. Sinclair, E. Baumann, I. Coddington, and N. R. Newbury, “Optical two-way time and frequency transfer over free space,” Nat. Photonics 7, 434 (2013).
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Telle, H. R.

H. R. Telle, B. Lipphardt, and J. Stenger, “Kerr-lens, mode-locked lasers as transfer oscillators for optical frequency measurements,” Appl. Phys. B 74, 1–6 (2002).
[Crossref]

Thaller, A.

Tobar, M. E.

J. Millo, M. Abgrall, M. Lours, E. M. L. English, H. Jiang, J. Guéna, A. Clairon, M. E. Tobar, S. Bize, Y. Le Coq, and G. Santarelli, “Ultralow noise microwave generation with fiber-based optical frequency comb and application to atomic fountain clock,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 141105 (2009).
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Udem, T.

B. Bernhardt, A. Ozawa, P. Jacquet, M. Jacquey, Y. Kobayashi, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, G. Guelachvili, T. W. Hänsch, and N. Picqué, “Cavity-enhanced dual-comb spectroscopy,” Nat. Photonics 4, 55–57 (2010).
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Vicente, J. D.

S. Grop, P.-Y. Bourgeois, N. Bazin, Y. Kersalé, E. Rubiola, C. Langham, M. Oxborrow, D. Clapton, S. Walker, J. D. Vicente, and V. Giordano, “A crycooled 10 GHz oscillator with 10−15 frequency stability,” Rev. of Sci. Instrum. 81, 025102 (2010).
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Walker, S.

S. Grop, P.-Y. Bourgeois, N. Bazin, Y. Kersalé, E. Rubiola, C. Langham, M. Oxborrow, D. Clapton, S. Walker, J. D. Vicente, and V. Giordano, “A crycooled 10 GHz oscillator with 10−15 frequency stability,” Rev. of Sci. Instrum. 81, 025102 (2010).
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Wang, S.

Wang, Y.

Washburn, B.

Wells, J.

Wells, J.-P. R.

K. U. Schreiber and J.-P. R. Wells, “Invited Review Article: Large ring lasers for rotation sensing,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 84, 89 (2013).
[Crossref]

K. U. Schreiber, T. Klügel, J.-P. R. Wells, R. B. Hurst, and A. Gebauer, “How to Detect the Chandler and the Annual Wobble of the Earth with a Large Ring Laser Gyroscope,” Phys. Rev. Lett.,  107 (17), 173904 (2011).
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Wicht, A.

Wilken, T.

Williams, J. R.

B. J. Bloom, T. L. Nicholson, J. R. Williams, S. L. Campbell, M. Bishof, X. Zhang, W. Zhang, S. L. Bromley, and J. Ye, “An Optical Lattice Clock with Accuracy and Stability at the 10−18 Level,” Nature 506, 71–75 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Windeler, R. S.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-Envelope Phase Control of Femtosecond Mode-Locked Lasers and Direct Optical Frequency Synthesis,” Science 288, 635–639 (2000).
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Windpassinger, P.

Xu, X.

Yang, Z.

Yasuda, M.

Ye, J.

Zhang, W.

Y. Feng, X. Xu, X. Hu, Y. Liu, Y. Wang, W. Zhang, Z. Yang, L. Duan, W. Zhao, and Z. Cheng, “Environmental-adaptability analysis of an all polarization-maintaining fiber-based optical frequency comb,” Opt. Express 23, 17549–17559 (2015).
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B. J. Bloom, T. L. Nicholson, J. R. Williams, S. L. Campbell, M. Bishof, X. Zhang, W. Zhang, S. L. Bromley, and J. Ye, “An Optical Lattice Clock with Accuracy and Stability at the 10−18 Level,” Nature 506, 71–75 (2014).
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Zhang, X.

B. J. Bloom, T. L. Nicholson, J. R. Williams, S. L. Campbell, M. Bishof, X. Zhang, W. Zhang, S. L. Bromley, and J. Ye, “An Optical Lattice Clock with Accuracy and Stability at the 10−18 Level,” Nature 506, 71–75 (2014).
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Zhao, W.

Appl. Phys. B (1)

H. R. Telle, B. Lipphardt, and J. Stenger, “Kerr-lens, mode-locked lasers as transfer oscillators for optical frequency measurements,” Appl. Phys. B 74, 1–6 (2002).
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Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

J. Millo, M. Abgrall, M. Lours, E. M. L. English, H. Jiang, J. Guéna, A. Clairon, M. E. Tobar, S. Bize, Y. Le Coq, and G. Santarelli, “Ultralow noise microwave generation with fiber-based optical frequency comb and application to atomic fountain clock,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 141105 (2009).
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J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. (1)

Jack A. Stone and Patrick Egan, “An Optical Frequency Comb Tied to GPS for Laser Frequency/Wavelength Calibration,” J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 115, 413–431 (2010).
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Nat. Photonics (2)

B. Bernhardt, A. Ozawa, P. Jacquet, M. Jacquey, Y. Kobayashi, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, G. Guelachvili, T. W. Hänsch, and N. Picqué, “Cavity-enhanced dual-comb spectroscopy,” Nat. Photonics 4, 55–57 (2010).
[Crossref]

F. R. Giorgetta, W. C. Swann, L. C. Sinclair, E. Baumann, I. Coddington, and N. R. Newbury, “Optical two-way time and frequency transfer over free space,” Nat. Photonics 7, 434 (2013).
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Nature (1)

B. J. Bloom, T. L. Nicholson, J. R. Williams, S. L. Campbell, M. Bishof, X. Zhang, W. Zhang, S. L. Bromley, and J. Ye, “An Optical Lattice Clock with Accuracy and Stability at the 10−18 Level,” Nature 506, 71–75 (2014).
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Opt. Express (7)

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Y. Feng, X. Xu, X. Hu, Y. Liu, Y. Wang, W. Zhang, Z. Yang, L. Duan, W. Zhao, and Z. Cheng, “Environmental-adaptability analysis of an all polarization-maintaining fiber-based optical frequency comb,” Opt. Express 23, 17549–17559 (2015).
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T. Sala, D. Gatti, A. Gambetta, N. Coluccelli, G. Galzerano, P. Laporta, and M. Marangoni, “Wide-bandwidth phase lock between a CW laser and a frequency comb based on a feed-forward configuration,” Opt. Lett. 37, 2592–2594 (2012).
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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Optical setup of the SESAM EOM comb including an f–2f interferometer for CEO beat detection and a 633 nm interface for optical beating with a HeNe laser. WDM, wavelength division multiplexing coupler; IWDM, WDM with integrated isolator; EDF, Erbium doped fiber; SESAM, semiconductor saturable absorber mirror; EOM, electro-optic phase modulator, O. C., optical coupler; O. I., optical isolator; C., optical circulator; BP, optical band pass filter; HNF, highly nonlinear fiber; PPLN, periodically-poled lithium niobate; H. G., holographic grating; AvPD, avalanche photo diode; PD, PiN photo-diode; AOM, acousto-optic modulator. Black solid lines indicate polarization maintaining single mode fiber.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Phase locked loops for stabilization of fCEO and the optical beat note fbeat.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Spectrum (a) and phase noise spectrum (b) of the stabilized fCEO beat note.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Spectrum (a) and phase noise spectrum (b) of the stabilized optical fbeat beat note.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) Frequency deviation of fCEO and fbeat measured in a gate time of 1 s and (b) the corresponding fractional Allan deviation with respect to the HeNe laser frequency.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 (a) Allan deviation for the free-running and stabilized ring laser and for the H-maser as well as (b) Out-of-loop relative frequency stability of the hybrid stabilized “G” ring laser.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Hybrid stabilization scheme for the SESAM comb laser. The SESAM comb is optically locked to the “G” ring laser, while an error signal is generated using the drift of the repetition rate of the frequency comb to stabilize the ring laser to an H-maser. The ring laser frequency is determined by a commercial frequency comb, which is fully referenced to an H-maser.

Equations (1)

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v fix ( PPM , EOM ) = ( Δ f CEO ( PPM , EOM ) / Δ f rep ( PPM , EOM ) ) f rep + f CEO

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