Abstract

This work demonstrates conservation of average orbital angular momentum for high harmonic generation of fractional vortex beams. High harmonics are generated in reflected light beams in a three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulation. The average orbital angular momentum of the beam is calculated when a relativistic linearly polarized fractional vortex beam impinges on a solid foil. The harmonic generation progress can be well explained by using the vortex oscillating mirror model. Both simulation and theoretical analysis show that the average orbital momentum of the nth harmonic is n times that of the fundamental frequency beam. This provides evidence that the average orbital angular momentum obeys momentum conservation during the harmonic generation of fractional vortex beams.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
  30. A. Fleischer, O. Kfir, T. Diskin, P. Sidorenko, and O. Cohen, “Spin angular momentum and tunable polarization in high-harmonic generation,” Nat. Photonics 8(7), 543–549 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  31. S. Tao, X. C. Yuan, J. Lin, X. Peng, and H. Niu, “Fractional optical vortex beam induced rotation of particles,” Opt. Express 13(20), 7726–7731 (2005).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  32. C. S. Guo, Y. N. Yu, and Z. Hong, “Optical sorting using an array of optical vortices with fractional topological charge,” Opt. Commun. 283(9), 1889–1893 (2010).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  35. S. S. R. Oemrawsingh, J. A. de Jong, X. Ma, A. Aiello, E. R. Eliel, G. W. ’t Hooft, and J. P. Woerdman, “High-dimensional mode analyzers for spatial quantum entanglement,” Phys. Rev. A 73(3), 032339 (2006).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  37. T. D. Arber, K. Bennett, C. S. Brady, A. Lawrencedouglas, M. G. Ramsay, N. J. Sircombe, P. Gillies, R. G. Evans, H. Schmitz, A. R. Bell, and C. P. Ridgers, “Contemporary particle-in-cell approach to laser-plasma modelling,” Plasma Phys. Contr. Fusion 57(11), 113001 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  38. U. Teubner and P. Gibbon, “High-order harmonics from laser-irradiated plasma surfaces,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 81(2), 445–479 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  39. R. Lichters, J. Meyer-ter-Vehn, and A. Pukhov, “Short pulse laser harmonics from oscillating plasma surfaces driven at relativistic intensity,” Phys. Plasmas 3(9), 3425–3437 (1996).
    [Crossref]
  40. S. V. Bulanov, N. M. Naumova, and F. Pegoraro, “Interaction of an ultrashort, relativistically strong laser pulse with an overdense plasma,” Phys. Plasmas 1(3), 745–757 (1994).
    [Crossref]
  41. G. D. Tsakiris, K. Eidmann, J. Meyer-ter-Vehn, and F. Krausz, “Route to intense single attosecond pulses,” New J. Phys. 8, 19 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  42. U. Teubner, G. Pretzler, T. Schlegel, K. Eidmann, E. Förster, and K. Witte, “Anomalies in high-order harmonic generation at relativistic intensities,” Phys. Rev. A 67(1), 013816 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  43. N. M. Naumova, J. A. Nees, and G. A. Mourou, “Relativistic attosecond physics,” Phys. Plasmas 12(5), 056707 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  44. D. von der Linde and K. Rzàzewski, “High-order optical harmonic generation from solid surfaces,” Appl. Phys. B 63(5), 499–506 (1996).
    [Crossref]
  45. B. Dromey, M. Zepf, A. Gopal, K. Lancaster, M. S. Wei, K. Krushelnick, M. Tatarakis, N. Vakakis, S. Moustaizis, R. Kodama, M. Tampo, C. Stoeckl, R. Clarke, H. Habara, D. Neely, S. Karsch, and P. Norreys, “High harmonic generation in the relativistic limit,” Nat. Phys. 2(7), 456–459 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  46. G. C. Berkhout, M. P. Lavery, J. Courtial, M. W. Beijersbergen, and M. J. Padgett, “Efficient sorting of orbital angular momentum states of light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(15), 153601 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  47. S. Gordienko, A. Pukhov, O. Shorokhov, and T. Baeva, “Relativistic Doppler effect: universal spectra and zeptosecond pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(11), 115002 (2004).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  48. T. Baeva, S. Gordienko, and A. Pukhov, “Relativistic plasma control for single attosecond x-ray burst generation,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 74(6), 065401 (2006).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2017 (4)

A. Denoeud, L. Chopineau, A. Leblanc, and F. Quéré, “Interaction of ultraintense laser vortices with plasma mirrors,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 118(3), 033902 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Gauthier, P. R. Ribič, G. Adhikary, A. Camper, C. Chappuis, R. Cucini, L. F. DiMauro, G. Dovillaire, F. Frassetto, R. Géneaux, P. Miotti, L. Poletto, B. Ressel, C. Spezzani, M. Stupar, T. Ruchon, and G. De Ninno, “Tunable orbital angular momentum in high-harmonic generation,” Nat. Commun. 8, 14971 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Kong, C. Zhang, F. Bouchard, Z. Li, G. G. Brown, D. H. Ko, T. J. Hammond, L. Arissian, R. W. Boyd, E. Karimi, and P. B. Corkum, “Controlling the orbital angular momentum of high harmonic vortices,” Nat. Commun. 8, 14970 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Turpin, L. Rego, A. Picón, J. San Román, and C. Hernández-García, “Extreme ultraviolet fractional orbital angular momentum beams from high harmonic generation,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 43888 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (5)

J. Wang, “Advances in communications using optical vortices,” Photon. Res. 4(5), B14–B28 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Zhu, P. Zhang, D. Fu, D. Chen, R. Liu, Y. Zhou, H. Gao, and F. Li, “Probing the fractional topological charge of a vortex light beam by using dynamic angular double slits,” Photon. Res. 4(5), 187–190 (2016).
[Crossref]

R. Géneaux, A. Camper, T. Auguste, O. Gobert, J. Caillat, R. Taïeb, and T. Ruchon, “Synthesis and characterization of attosecond light vortices in the extreme ultraviolet,” Nat. Commun. 7, 12583 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Zhang, B. Shen, Y. Shi, L. Zhang, L. Ji, X. Wang, Z. Xu, and T. Tajima, “Intense harmonics generation with customized photon frequency and optical vortex,” New J. Phys. 18(8), 083046 (2016).
[Crossref]

L. Rego, J. S. Román, A. Picón, L. Plaja, and C. Hernández-García, “Nonperturbative twist in the generation of extreme-ultraviolet vortex beams,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 117(16), 163202 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (2)

X. Zhang, B. Shen, Y. Shi, X. Wang, L. Zhang, W. Wang, J. Xu, L. Yi, and Z. Xu, “Generation of intense high-order vortex harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 114(17), 173901 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. D. Arber, K. Bennett, C. S. Brady, A. Lawrencedouglas, M. G. Ramsay, N. J. Sircombe, P. Gillies, R. G. Evans, H. Schmitz, A. R. Bell, and C. P. Ridgers, “Contemporary particle-in-cell approach to laser-plasma modelling,” Plasma Phys. Contr. Fusion 57(11), 113001 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (4)

G. Gariepy, J. Leach, K. T. Kim, T. J. Hammond, E. Frumker, R. W. Boyd, and P. B. Corkum, “Creating high-harmonic beams with controlled orbital angular momentum,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113(15), 153901 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Pisanty, S. Sukiasyan, and M. Ivanov, “Spin conservation in high-order-harmonic generation using bicircular fields,” Phys. Rev. A 90(4), 043829 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Fleischer, O. Kfir, T. Diskin, P. Sidorenko, and O. Cohen, “Spin angular momentum and tunable polarization in high-harmonic generation,” Nat. Photonics 8(7), 543–549 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Padgett, “Light’s twist,” Proc. Math. Phys. Eng. Sci. 470(2172), 20140633 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (1)

C. Hernández-García, A. Picón, J. San Román, and L. Plaja, “Attosecond extreme ultraviolet vortices from high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(8), 083602 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (3)

M. Zürch, C. Kern, P. Hansinger, A. Dreischuh, and C. Spielmann, “Strong-field physics with singular light beams,” Nat. Phys. 8(10), 743–746 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Wang, J. Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. M. Nugrowati, W. G. Stam, and J. P. Woerdman, “Position measurement of non-integer OAM beams with structurally invariant propagation,” Opt. Express 20(25), 27429–27441 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (1)

F. Tamburini, T. Bo, G. Molinaterriza, and G. Anzolin, “Twisting of light around rotating black holes,” Nat. Phys. 7(3), 195–197 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

C. S. Guo, Y. N. Yu, and Z. Hong, “Optical sorting using an array of optical vortices with fractional topological charge,” Opt. Commun. 283(9), 1889–1893 (2010).
[Crossref]

G. C. Berkhout, M. P. Lavery, J. Courtial, M. W. Beijersbergen, and M. J. Padgett, “Efficient sorting of orbital angular momentum states of light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(15), 153601 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

U. Teubner and P. Gibbon, “High-order harmonics from laser-irradiated plasma surfaces,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 81(2), 445–479 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

2007 (2)

G. F. Calvo, A. Picón, and A. Bramon, “Measuring two-photon orbital angular momentum entanglement,” Phys. Rev. A 75(1), 012319 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. B. Götte, S. Franke-Arnold, R. Zambrini, and S. M. Barnett, “Quantum formulation of fractional orbital angular momentum,” J. Mod. Opt. 54(12), 1723–1738 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (4)

S. S. R. Oemrawsingh, J. A. de Jong, X. Ma, A. Aiello, E. R. Eliel, G. W. ’t Hooft, and J. P. Woerdman, “High-dimensional mode analyzers for spatial quantum entanglement,” Phys. Rev. A 73(3), 032339 (2006).
[Crossref]

B. Dromey, M. Zepf, A. Gopal, K. Lancaster, M. S. Wei, K. Krushelnick, M. Tatarakis, N. Vakakis, S. Moustaizis, R. Kodama, M. Tampo, C. Stoeckl, R. Clarke, H. Habara, D. Neely, S. Karsch, and P. Norreys, “High harmonic generation in the relativistic limit,” Nat. Phys. 2(7), 456–459 (2006).
[Crossref]

T. Baeva, S. Gordienko, and A. Pukhov, “Relativistic plasma control for single attosecond x-ray burst generation,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 74(6), 065401 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. D. Tsakiris, K. Eidmann, J. Meyer-ter-Vehn, and F. Krausz, “Route to intense single attosecond pulses,” New J. Phys. 8, 19 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (3)

N. M. Naumova, J. A. Nees, and G. A. Mourou, “Relativistic attosecond physics,” Phys. Plasmas 12(5), 056707 (2005).
[Crossref]

S. S. R. Oemrawsingh, X. Ma, D. Voigt, A. Aiello, E. R. Eliel, G. W. ’t Hooft, and J. P. Woerdman, “Experimental demonstration of fractional orbital angular momentum entanglement of two photons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(24), 240501 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Tao, X. C. Yuan, J. Lin, X. Peng, and H. Niu, “Fractional optical vortex beam induced rotation of particles,” Opt. Express 13(20), 7726–7731 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (5)

K. Ladavac and D. Grier, “Microoptomechanical pumps assembled and driven by holographic optical vortex arrays,” Opt. Express 12(6), 1144–1149 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. V. Berry, “Optical vortices evolving from helicoidal integer and fractional phase steps,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 6(2), 259–268 (2004).
[Crossref]

S. S. R. Oemrawsingh, A. Aiello, E. R. Eliel, G. Nienhuis, and J. P. Woerdman, “How to observe high-dimensional two-photon entanglement with only two detectors,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(21), 217901 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Leach, E. Yao, and M. J. Padgett, “Observation of the vortex structure of a non-integer vortex beam,” New J. Phys. 6, 71 (2004).
[Crossref]

S. Gordienko, A. Pukhov, O. Shorokhov, and T. Baeva, “Relativistic Doppler effect: universal spectra and zeptosecond pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(11), 115002 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (2)

U. Teubner, G. Pretzler, T. Schlegel, K. Eidmann, E. Förster, and K. Witte, “Anomalies in high-order harmonic generation at relativistic intensities,” Phys. Rev. A 67(1), 013816 (2003).
[Crossref]

D. G. Grier, “A revolution in optical manipulation,” Nature 424(6950), 810–816 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

A. Mair, A. Vaziri, G. Weihs, and A. Zeilinger, “Entanglement of the orbital angular momentum states of photons,” Nature 412(6844), 313–316 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1997 (1)

T. Kuga, Y. Torii, N. Shiokawa, T. Hirano, Y. Shimizu, and H. Sasada, “Novel optical trap of atoms with a doughnut beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78(25), 4713–4716 (1997).
[Crossref]

1996 (3)

D. von der Linde and K. Rzàzewski, “High-order optical harmonic generation from solid surfaces,” Appl. Phys. B 63(5), 499–506 (1996).
[Crossref]

R. Lichters, J. Meyer-ter-Vehn, and A. Pukhov, “Short pulse laser harmonics from oscillating plasma surfaces driven at relativistic intensity,” Phys. Plasmas 3(9), 3425–3437 (1996).
[Crossref]

K. Dholakia, N. B. Simpson, M. J. Padgett, and L. Allen, “Second-harmonic generation and the orbital angular momentum of light,” Phys. Rev. A 54(5), R3742–R3745 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1995 (1)

M. J. Padgett and L. Allen, “The Poynting vector in Laguerre-Gaussian laser modes,” Opt. Commun. 121(1-3), 36–40 (1995).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

S. V. Bulanov, N. M. Naumova, and F. Pegoraro, “Interaction of an ultrashort, relativistically strong laser pulse with an overdense plasma,” Phys. Plasmas 1(3), 745–757 (1994).
[Crossref]

1992 (1)

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, “Orbital angular momentum of light and the transformation of Laguerre-Gaussian laser modes,” Phys. Rev. A 45(11), 8185–8189 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

’t Hooft, G. W.

S. S. R. Oemrawsingh, J. A. de Jong, X. Ma, A. Aiello, E. R. Eliel, G. W. ’t Hooft, and J. P. Woerdman, “High-dimensional mode analyzers for spatial quantum entanglement,” Phys. Rev. A 73(3), 032339 (2006).
[Crossref]

S. S. R. Oemrawsingh, X. Ma, D. Voigt, A. Aiello, E. R. Eliel, G. W. ’t Hooft, and J. P. Woerdman, “Experimental demonstration of fractional orbital angular momentum entanglement of two photons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(24), 240501 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Adhikary, G.

D. Gauthier, P. R. Ribič, G. Adhikary, A. Camper, C. Chappuis, R. Cucini, L. F. DiMauro, G. Dovillaire, F. Frassetto, R. Géneaux, P. Miotti, L. Poletto, B. Ressel, C. Spezzani, M. Stupar, T. Ruchon, and G. De Ninno, “Tunable orbital angular momentum in high-harmonic generation,” Nat. Commun. 8, 14971 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ahmed, N.

J. Wang, J. Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

Aiello, A.

S. S. R. Oemrawsingh, J. A. de Jong, X. Ma, A. Aiello, E. R. Eliel, G. W. ’t Hooft, and J. P. Woerdman, “High-dimensional mode analyzers for spatial quantum entanglement,” Phys. Rev. A 73(3), 032339 (2006).
[Crossref]

S. S. R. Oemrawsingh, X. Ma, D. Voigt, A. Aiello, E. R. Eliel, G. W. ’t Hooft, and J. P. Woerdman, “Experimental demonstration of fractional orbital angular momentum entanglement of two photons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(24), 240501 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Tampo, M.

B. Dromey, M. Zepf, A. Gopal, K. Lancaster, M. S. Wei, K. Krushelnick, M. Tatarakis, N. Vakakis, S. Moustaizis, R. Kodama, M. Tampo, C. Stoeckl, R. Clarke, H. Habara, D. Neely, S. Karsch, and P. Norreys, “High harmonic generation in the relativistic limit,” Nat. Phys. 2(7), 456–459 (2006).
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Tao, S.

Tatarakis, M.

B. Dromey, M. Zepf, A. Gopal, K. Lancaster, M. S. Wei, K. Krushelnick, M. Tatarakis, N. Vakakis, S. Moustaizis, R. Kodama, M. Tampo, C. Stoeckl, R. Clarke, H. Habara, D. Neely, S. Karsch, and P. Norreys, “High harmonic generation in the relativistic limit,” Nat. Phys. 2(7), 456–459 (2006).
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U. Teubner and P. Gibbon, “High-order harmonics from laser-irradiated plasma surfaces,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 81(2), 445–479 (2009).
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U. Teubner, G. Pretzler, T. Schlegel, K. Eidmann, E. Förster, and K. Witte, “Anomalies in high-order harmonic generation at relativistic intensities,” Phys. Rev. A 67(1), 013816 (2003).
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T. Kuga, Y. Torii, N. Shiokawa, T. Hirano, Y. Shimizu, and H. Sasada, “Novel optical trap of atoms with a doughnut beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78(25), 4713–4716 (1997).
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J. Wang, J. Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

Turpin, A.

A. Turpin, L. Rego, A. Picón, J. San Román, and C. Hernández-García, “Extreme ultraviolet fractional orbital angular momentum beams from high harmonic generation,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 43888 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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B. Dromey, M. Zepf, A. Gopal, K. Lancaster, M. S. Wei, K. Krushelnick, M. Tatarakis, N. Vakakis, S. Moustaizis, R. Kodama, M. Tampo, C. Stoeckl, R. Clarke, H. Habara, D. Neely, S. Karsch, and P. Norreys, “High harmonic generation in the relativistic limit,” Nat. Phys. 2(7), 456–459 (2006).
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X. Zhang, B. Shen, Y. Shi, X. Wang, L. Zhang, W. Wang, J. Xu, L. Yi, and Z. Xu, “Generation of intense high-order vortex harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 114(17), 173901 (2015).
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X. Zhang, B. Shen, Y. Shi, L. Zhang, L. Ji, X. Wang, Z. Xu, and T. Tajima, “Intense harmonics generation with customized photon frequency and optical vortex,” New J. Phys. 18(8), 083046 (2016).
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B. Dromey, M. Zepf, A. Gopal, K. Lancaster, M. S. Wei, K. Krushelnick, M. Tatarakis, N. Vakakis, S. Moustaizis, R. Kodama, M. Tampo, C. Stoeckl, R. Clarke, H. Habara, D. Neely, S. Karsch, and P. Norreys, “High harmonic generation in the relativistic limit,” Nat. Phys. 2(7), 456–459 (2006).
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X. Zhang, B. Shen, Y. Shi, L. Zhang, L. Ji, X. Wang, Z. Xu, and T. Tajima, “Intense harmonics generation with customized photon frequency and optical vortex,” New J. Phys. 18(8), 083046 (2016).
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X. Zhang, B. Shen, Y. Shi, X. Wang, L. Zhang, W. Wang, J. Xu, L. Yi, and Z. Xu, “Generation of intense high-order vortex harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 114(17), 173901 (2015).
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Zhang, X.

X. Zhang, B. Shen, Y. Shi, L. Zhang, L. Ji, X. Wang, Z. Xu, and T. Tajima, “Intense harmonics generation with customized photon frequency and optical vortex,” New J. Phys. 18(8), 083046 (2016).
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X. Zhang, B. Shen, Y. Shi, X. Wang, L. Zhang, W. Wang, J. Xu, L. Yi, and Z. Xu, “Generation of intense high-order vortex harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 114(17), 173901 (2015).
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J. B. Götte, S. Franke-Arnold, R. Zambrini, and S. M. Barnett, “Quantum formulation of fractional orbital angular momentum,” J. Mod. Opt. 54(12), 1723–1738 (2007).
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F. Kong, C. Zhang, F. Bouchard, Z. Li, G. G. Brown, D. H. Ko, T. J. Hammond, L. Arissian, R. W. Boyd, E. Karimi, and P. B. Corkum, “Controlling the orbital angular momentum of high harmonic vortices,” Nat. Commun. 8, 14970 (2017).
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Nat. Phys. (3)

F. Tamburini, T. Bo, G. Molinaterriza, and G. Anzolin, “Twisting of light around rotating black holes,” Nat. Phys. 7(3), 195–197 (2011).
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X. Zhang, B. Shen, Y. Shi, L. Zhang, L. Ji, X. Wang, Z. Xu, and T. Tajima, “Intense harmonics generation with customized photon frequency and optical vortex,” New J. Phys. 18(8), 083046 (2016).
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G. D. Tsakiris, K. Eidmann, J. Meyer-ter-Vehn, and F. Krausz, “Route to intense single attosecond pulses,” New J. Phys. 8, 19 (2006).
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C. S. Guo, Y. N. Yu, and Z. Hong, “Optical sorting using an array of optical vortices with fractional topological charge,” Opt. Commun. 283(9), 1889–1893 (2010).
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U. Teubner, G. Pretzler, T. Schlegel, K. Eidmann, E. Förster, and K. Witte, “Anomalies in high-order harmonic generation at relativistic intensities,” Phys. Rev. A 67(1), 013816 (2003).
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A. Turpin, L. Rego, A. Picón, J. San Román, and C. Hernández-García, “Extreme ultraviolet fractional orbital angular momentum beams from high harmonic generation,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 43888 (2017).
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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Electric field Ey of the incident pulse in the xy plane at z = 0 and at t = 10T. (b) Electric field Ey of the reflected pulse in the xy plane at z = 0 at t = 20T after the incident beam is completely reflected from the solid target. The black dotted lines in (a) and (b) show the position x=5λ, and the gray box shows the target position. (c) The OAM spectrum of the driving fractional vortex beam. The incident and reflected electric field Ey in the zy plane at x=5λ is shown in (d) and (e), which occurs at the same time as (a) and (b), respectively. (f) Transverse intensity distribution of the incident beam integrated for entire pulse at the same time used in (a) and (d).
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Frequency spectrum of the laser field after interaction between the input pulse and target. The field signal corresponds to y=5λ and z = 0 at t = 20T.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Reflected electric field distribution of the (a1) first, (b1) third, (c1) fifth, and (d1) seventh harmonics in the zy plane at x=5λ and t = 20T. Corresponding transverse intensity distribution of harmonics integrated for entire pulse are shown in (a2) - (d2).
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Relationship between L x ¯ ( ω n ), n L x ¯ ( ω 0 ), and harmonic orders for different fractional modes (a) and integral eigen-modes (b).
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Transverse electron density distribution at x=10λ when (a) t = 14.25 T, (b) 14.5 T, (c) 14.75 T, and (d) 15 T. The incident vortex beam is the α=1.7 mode.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 The relationship between α n of nth harmonic and its harmonic order n for the fundamental frequency beam with α 0 =1.7. The gray dotted line is the relationship between n α 0 and the harmonic order n.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 The OAM spectrum of reflected 3rd (a), 5th (b), 7th (c) order harmonics with fundamental beam of the mode α = 1.7. The OAM spectrum is obtained by performing the Fourier transformation of the laser field along the azimuth coordinate and integrating along the radius.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Average OAM of nth Harmonics for Different Fractional Vortex Modes.

Equations (9)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

a( LG pl )= a 0 ( 2 r r 0 ) | l | exp( r 2 r 0 2 )exp( ilφ ) ( 1 ) p L p l ( 2 r 2 r 0 2 ) sin 2 ( πt 2 t 0 ),
L x ¯ = L x N p = L x E n / ω n = ω n L x E n .
E( ω 0 )~ a 0 exp( i ω 0 t+ikx )exp( iαϕ ) ~ a 0 π exp( i ω 0 t+ikx )exp( iπα )sin( πα ) m= exp( imϕ ) αm ,
L x ¯ ( ω 0 )= E( ω 0 )| L ^ x | E( ω 0 ) E( ω 0 )| E( ω 0 ) = m= exp( imϕ ) αm | L ^ x | m= exp( imϕ ) αm m= exp( imϕ ) αm | m= exp( imϕ ) αm .
E r ~ a 0 π exp( ikx )exp[ i( ω 0 t+κexp( i2( ω 0 t+ L x ¯ ( ω 0 )ϕ ) ) ) ]exp( iπα ) m= exp( imϕ ) αm ,
E r ~ a 0 π exp( ikx )exp( -i L x ¯ ( ω 0 )ϕ ) n=0 [ J q ( κ )exp[ i( 2n+1 )( ω 0 t+ L x ¯ ( ω 0 )ϕ ) ] ] ×exp( iπα )sin( πα ) m= exp( imϕ ) αm
E( ω n )~ a 0 π exp( ikx )exp( i( n1 ) L x ¯ ( ω 0 )ϕ ) J n1 2 ( κ )exp( in ω 0 t ), ×exp( iπα )sin( πα ) m= exp( imϕ ) αm
L x ¯ ( ω n )= E( ω n )| L ^ x | E( ω n ) E( ω n )| E( ω n ) = exp( i( n1 ) L x ¯ ( ω 0 )ϕ ) m= exp( imϕ ) αm | L ^ x | exp( i( n1 ) L x ¯ ( ω 0 )ϕ ) m= exp( imϕ ) αm exp( i( n1 ) L x ¯ ( ω 0 )ϕ ) m= exp( imϕ ) αm | exp( i( n1 ) L x ¯ ( ω 0 )ϕ ) m= exp( imϕ ) αm . =n L x ¯ ( ω 0 )
n( α sin( 2απ )/ 2π )= α n sin( 2 α n π )/ 2π .

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