Abstract

Bragg coherent diffraction imaging (BCDI) is a powerful X-ray imaging technique for crystalline materials, providing high resolution maps of structure and strain. The technique is typically used to study a small isolated object, and is in general not compatible with a bulk polycrystalline sample, due to overlap of diffraction signals from various crystalline elements. In this paper, we present an imaging method for bulk samples, based on the use of a coherent source. The diffracted X-ray beam from a grain or domain of choice is magnified by an objective before being monitored by a 2D detector in the far field. The reconstruction principle is similar to the case of BCDI, while taking the magnification and pupil function into account. The concept is demonstrated using numerical simulations and reconstructions. We find that by using an object-lens distance shorter than the focal length, the numerical aperture is larger than in a traditional imaging geometry, and at the same time the setup is insensitive to small phase errors by lens imperfections. According to our simulations, we expect to be able to achieve a spatial resolution smaller than 20 nm when using the objective lens in this configuration.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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    [Crossref]
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  38. P. Godard, G. Carbone, M. Allain, F. Mastropietro, G. Chen, L. Capello, A. Diaz, T. H. Metzger, J. Stangl, and V. Chamard, “Three-dimensional high-resolution quantitative microscopy of extended crystals,” Nat. Commun. 2(1), 568 (2011).
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2018 (1)

A. F. Pedersen, H. Simons, C. Detlefs, and H. F. Poulsen, “The fractional Fourier transform as a simulation tool for lens-based X-ray microscopy,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 25(3), 717–728 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2017 (6)

F. Seiboth, A. Schropp, M. Scholz, F. Wittwer, C. Rödel, M. Wünsche, T. Ullsperger, S. Nolte, J. Rahomäki, K. Parfeniukas, S. Giakoumidis, U. Vogt, U. Wagner, C. Rau, U. Boesenberg, J. Garrevoet, G. Falkenberg, E. C. Galtier, H. Ja Lee, B. Nagler, and C. G. Schroer, “Perfect X-ray focusing via fitting corrective glasses to aberrated optics,” Nat. Commun. 8, 14623 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. F. Poulsen, A. C. Jakobsen, H. Simons, S. R. Ahl, P. K. Cook, and C. Detlefs, “X-ray diffraction microscopy based on refractive optics,” J. Appl. Cryst. 50(5), 1441–1456 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. O. Hruszkewycz, M. Allain, M. V. Holt, C. E. Murray, J. R. Holt, P. H. Fuoss, and V. Chamard, “High-resolution three-dimensional structural microscopy by single-angle Bragg ptychography,” Nat. Mater. 16(2), 244–251 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Yau, W. Cha, M. W. Kanan, G. B. Stephenson, and A. Ulvestad, “Bragg coherent diffractive imaging of single-grain defect dynamics in polycrystalline films,” Science 356(6339), 739–742 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Mastropietro, P. Godard, M. Burghammer, C. Chevallard, J. Daillant, J. Duboisset, M. Allain, P. Guenoun, J. Nouet, and V. Chamard, “Revealing crystalline domains in a mollusc shell single-crystalline prism,” Nat. Mater. 16(9), 946–952 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Simons, S. R. Ahl, H. F. Poulsen, and C. Detlefs, “Simulating and optimizing compound refractive lens-based X-ray microscopes,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 24(2), 392–401 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (1)

H. Simons, A. C. Jakobsen, S. R. Ahl, C. Detlefs, and H. F. Poulsen, “Multiscale 3D characterization with dark-field x-ray microscopy,” MRS Bull. 41(06), 454–459 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (8)

A. I. Pateras, M. Allain, P. Godard, L. Largeau, G. Patriarche, A. Talneau, K. Pantzas, M. Burghammer, A. A. Minkevich, and V. Chamard, “Nondestructive three-dimensional imaging of crystal strain and rotations in an extended bonded semiconductor heterostructure,” Phys. Rev. B 92(20), 205305 (2015).
[Crossref]

V. Chamard, M. Allain, P. Godard, A. Talneau, G. Patriarche, and M. Burghammer, “Strain in a silicon-on-insulator nanostructure revealed by 3D x-ray Bragg ptychography,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 9827 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Miao, T. Ishikawa, I. K. Robinson, and M. M. Murnane, “Beyond crystallography: diffractive imaging using coherent x-ray light sources,” Science 348(6234), 530–535 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Roth, C. Detlefs, I. Snigireva, and A. Snigirev, “X-ray diffraction microscopy based on refractive optics,” Opt. Commun. 340, 33–38 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. J. Morgan, M. Prasciolu, A. Andrejczuk, J. Krzywinski, A. Meents, D. Pennicard, H. Graafsma, A. Barty, R. J. Bean, M. Barthelmess, D. Oberthuer, O. Yefanov, A. Aquila, H. N. Chapman, and S. Bajt, “High numerical aperture multilayer Laue lenses,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 9892 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Prasciolu, A. F. G. Leontowich, J. Krzywinski, A. Andrejczuk, H. N. Chapman, and S. Bajt, “Fabrication of wedged multilayer Laue lenses,” Opt. Mater. Express 5(4), 748–755 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Andrejczuk, J. Krzywinski, and S. Bajt, “Influence of imperfections in a wedged multilayer Laue lens for the focusing of X-rays investigated by beam propagation method,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. Sect. B Beam Interact. Mater. At. 364, 60–64 (2015).

H. Simons, A. King, W. Ludwig, C. Detlefs, W. Pantleon, S. Schmidt, I. Snigireva, A. Snigirev, H. F. Poulsen, and H. F. Poulsen, “Dark-field X-ray microscopy for multiscale structural characterization,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 6098 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (1)

J. Hilhorst, F. Marschall, T. N. Tran Thi, A. Last, and T. U. Schülli, “Full-field X-ray diffraction microscopy using polymeric compound refractive lenses,” J. Appl. Cryst. 47(6), 1882–1888 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

R. Harder and I. K. Robinson, “Coherent X-Ray Diffraction Imaging of Morphology and Strain in Nanomaterials,” JOM 65(9), 1202–1207 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. N. Clark, L. Beitra, G. Xiong, A. Higginbotham, D. M. Fritz, H. T. Lemke, D. Zhu, M. Chollet, G. J. Williams, M. Messerschmidt, B. Abbey, R. J. Harder, A. M. Korsunsky, J. S. Wark, and I. K. Robinson, “Ultrafast Three-Dimensional Imaging of Lattice Dynamics in Individual Gold Nanocrystals,” Science 341(6141), 56–59 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (2)

H. F. Poulsen, “An introduction to three-dimensional X-ray diffraction microscopy,” J. Appl. Cryst. 45(6), 1084–1097 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. N. Clark, X. Huang, R. Harder, and I. K. Robinson, “High-resolution three-dimensional partially coherent diffraction imaging,” Nat. Commun. 3(1), 993 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (2)

P. Godard, G. Carbone, M. Allain, F. Mastropietro, G. Chen, L. Capello, A. Diaz, T. H. Metzger, J. Stangl, and V. Chamard, “Three-dimensional high-resolution quantitative microscopy of extended crystals,” Nat. Commun. 2(1), 568 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Godard, M. Allain, and V. Chamard, “Imaging of highly inhomogeneous strain field in nanocrystals using x-ray Bragg ptychography: A numerical study,” Phys. Rev. B 84(14), 144109 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

W. Cha, S. Song, N. C. Jeong, R. Harder, K. B. Yoon, I. K. Robinson, and H. Kim, “Exploration of crystal strains using coherent x-ray diffraction,” New J. Phys. 12(3), 035022 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

L. W. Whitehead, G. J. Williams, H. M. Quiney, D. J. Vine, R. A. Dilanian, S. Flewett, K. A. Nugent, A. G. Peele, E. Balaur, and I. McNulty, “Diffractive Imaging Using Partially Coherent X Rays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(24), 243902 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. J. Leake, M. C. Newton, R. Harder, and I. K. Robinson, “Longitudinal coherence function in X-ray imaging of crystals,” Opt. Express 17(18), 15853–15859 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

W. Ludwig, S. Schmidt, E. M. Lauridsen, and H. F. Poulsen, “X-ray diffraction contrast tomography: a novel technique for three-dimensional grain mapping of polycrystals. I. Direct beam case,” J. Appl. Cryst. 41(2), 302–309 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (3)

A. A. Minkevich, M. Gailhanou, J.-S. Micha, B. Charlet, V. Chamard, and O. Thomas, “Inversion of the diffraction pattern from an inhomogeneously strained crystal using an iterative algorithm,” Phys. Rev. B 76(10), 104106 (2007).
[Crossref]

S. Marchesini, “Invited article: a [corrected] unified evaluation of iterative projection algorithms for phase retrieval,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78(1), 011301 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Harder, M. A. Pfeifer, G. J. Williams, I. A. Vartaniants, and I. K. Robinson, “Orientation variation of surface strain,” Phys. Rev. B 76(11), 115425 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

M. A. Pfeifer, G. J. Williams, I. A. Vartanyants, R. Harder, and I. K. Robinson, “Three-dimensional mapping of a deformation field inside a nanocrystal,” Nature 442(7098), 63–66 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

D. Shapiro, P. Thibault, T. Beetz, V. Elser, M. Howells, C. Jacobsen, J. Kirz, E. Lima, H. Miao, A. M. Neiman, and D. Sayre, “Biological imaging by soft x-ray diffraction microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102(43), 15343–15346 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

S. Marchesini, H. He, H. N. Chapman, S. P. Hau-Riege, A. Noy, M. R. Howells, U. Weierstall, and J. C. H. Spence, “X-ray image reconstruction from a diffraction pattern alone,” Phys. Rev. B 68(14), 140101 (2003).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

J. Miao, P. Charalambous, J. Kirz, and D. Sayre, “Extending the methodology of X-ray crystallography to allow imaging of micrometre-sized non-crystalline specimens,” Nature 400(6742), 342–344 (1999).
[Crossref]

1982 (1)

1969 (1)

S. Takagi, “A Dynamical Theory of Diffraction for a Distorted Crystal,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 26(5), 1239–1253 (1969).
[Crossref]

1952 (1)

D. Sayre, “Some implications of a theorem due to Shannon,” Acta Crystallogr. 5(6), 843 (1952).
[Crossref]

Abbey, B.

J. N. Clark, L. Beitra, G. Xiong, A. Higginbotham, D. M. Fritz, H. T. Lemke, D. Zhu, M. Chollet, G. J. Williams, M. Messerschmidt, B. Abbey, R. J. Harder, A. M. Korsunsky, J. S. Wark, and I. K. Robinson, “Ultrafast Three-Dimensional Imaging of Lattice Dynamics in Individual Gold Nanocrystals,” Science 341(6141), 56–59 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ahl, S. R.

H. Simons, S. R. Ahl, H. F. Poulsen, and C. Detlefs, “Simulating and optimizing compound refractive lens-based X-ray microscopes,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 24(2), 392–401 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. F. Poulsen, A. C. Jakobsen, H. Simons, S. R. Ahl, P. K. Cook, and C. Detlefs, “X-ray diffraction microscopy based on refractive optics,” J. Appl. Cryst. 50(5), 1441–1456 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. Simons, A. C. Jakobsen, S. R. Ahl, C. Detlefs, and H. F. Poulsen, “Multiscale 3D characterization with dark-field x-ray microscopy,” MRS Bull. 41(06), 454–459 (2016).
[Crossref]

Allain, M.

F. Mastropietro, P. Godard, M. Burghammer, C. Chevallard, J. Daillant, J. Duboisset, M. Allain, P. Guenoun, J. Nouet, and V. Chamard, “Revealing crystalline domains in a mollusc shell single-crystalline prism,” Nat. Mater. 16(9), 946–952 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. O. Hruszkewycz, M. Allain, M. V. Holt, C. E. Murray, J. R. Holt, P. H. Fuoss, and V. Chamard, “High-resolution three-dimensional structural microscopy by single-angle Bragg ptychography,” Nat. Mater. 16(2), 244–251 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. I. Pateras, M. Allain, P. Godard, L. Largeau, G. Patriarche, A. Talneau, K. Pantzas, M. Burghammer, A. A. Minkevich, and V. Chamard, “Nondestructive three-dimensional imaging of crystal strain and rotations in an extended bonded semiconductor heterostructure,” Phys. Rev. B 92(20), 205305 (2015).
[Crossref]

V. Chamard, M. Allain, P. Godard, A. Talneau, G. Patriarche, and M. Burghammer, “Strain in a silicon-on-insulator nanostructure revealed by 3D x-ray Bragg ptychography,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 9827 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Godard, M. Allain, and V. Chamard, “Imaging of highly inhomogeneous strain field in nanocrystals using x-ray Bragg ptychography: A numerical study,” Phys. Rev. B 84(14), 144109 (2011).
[Crossref]

P. Godard, G. Carbone, M. Allain, F. Mastropietro, G. Chen, L. Capello, A. Diaz, T. H. Metzger, J. Stangl, and V. Chamard, “Three-dimensional high-resolution quantitative microscopy of extended crystals,” Nat. Commun. 2(1), 568 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Andrejczuk, A.

A. Andrejczuk, J. Krzywinski, and S. Bajt, “Influence of imperfections in a wedged multilayer Laue lens for the focusing of X-rays investigated by beam propagation method,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. Sect. B Beam Interact. Mater. At. 364, 60–64 (2015).

M. Prasciolu, A. F. G. Leontowich, J. Krzywinski, A. Andrejczuk, H. N. Chapman, and S. Bajt, “Fabrication of wedged multilayer Laue lenses,” Opt. Mater. Express 5(4), 748–755 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. J. Morgan, M. Prasciolu, A. Andrejczuk, J. Krzywinski, A. Meents, D. Pennicard, H. Graafsma, A. Barty, R. J. Bean, M. Barthelmess, D. Oberthuer, O. Yefanov, A. Aquila, H. N. Chapman, and S. Bajt, “High numerical aperture multilayer Laue lenses,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 9892 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aquila, A.

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J. N. Clark, L. Beitra, G. Xiong, A. Higginbotham, D. M. Fritz, H. T. Lemke, D. Zhu, M. Chollet, G. J. Williams, M. Messerschmidt, B. Abbey, R. J. Harder, A. M. Korsunsky, J. S. Wark, and I. K. Robinson, “Ultrafast Three-Dimensional Imaging of Lattice Dynamics in Individual Gold Nanocrystals,” Science 341(6141), 56–59 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. N. Clark, X. Huang, R. Harder, and I. K. Robinson, “High-resolution three-dimensional partially coherent diffraction imaging,” Nat. Commun. 3(1), 993 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Cha, S. Song, N. C. Jeong, R. Harder, K. B. Yoon, I. K. Robinson, and H. Kim, “Exploration of crystal strains using coherent x-ray diffraction,” New J. Phys. 12(3), 035022 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. J. Leake, M. C. Newton, R. Harder, and I. K. Robinson, “Longitudinal coherence function in X-ray imaging of crystals,” Opt. Express 17(18), 15853–15859 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Harder, M. A. Pfeifer, G. J. Williams, I. A. Vartaniants, and I. K. Robinson, “Orientation variation of surface strain,” Phys. Rev. B 76(11), 115425 (2007).
[Crossref]

M. A. Pfeifer, G. J. Williams, I. A. Vartanyants, R. Harder, and I. K. Robinson, “Three-dimensional mapping of a deformation field inside a nanocrystal,” Nature 442(7098), 63–66 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rödel, C.

F. Seiboth, A. Schropp, M. Scholz, F. Wittwer, C. Rödel, M. Wünsche, T. Ullsperger, S. Nolte, J. Rahomäki, K. Parfeniukas, S. Giakoumidis, U. Vogt, U. Wagner, C. Rau, U. Boesenberg, J. Garrevoet, G. Falkenberg, E. C. Galtier, H. Ja Lee, B. Nagler, and C. G. Schroer, “Perfect X-ray focusing via fitting corrective glasses to aberrated optics,” Nat. Commun. 8, 14623 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Roth, T.

T. Roth, C. Detlefs, I. Snigireva, and A. Snigirev, “X-ray diffraction microscopy based on refractive optics,” Opt. Commun. 340, 33–38 (2015).
[Crossref]

Sayre, D.

D. Shapiro, P. Thibault, T. Beetz, V. Elser, M. Howells, C. Jacobsen, J. Kirz, E. Lima, H. Miao, A. M. Neiman, and D. Sayre, “Biological imaging by soft x-ray diffraction microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102(43), 15343–15346 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Miao, P. Charalambous, J. Kirz, and D. Sayre, “Extending the methodology of X-ray crystallography to allow imaging of micrometre-sized non-crystalline specimens,” Nature 400(6742), 342–344 (1999).
[Crossref]

D. Sayre, “Some implications of a theorem due to Shannon,” Acta Crystallogr. 5(6), 843 (1952).
[Crossref]

Schmidt, S.

H. Simons, A. King, W. Ludwig, C. Detlefs, W. Pantleon, S. Schmidt, I. Snigireva, A. Snigirev, H. F. Poulsen, and H. F. Poulsen, “Dark-field X-ray microscopy for multiscale structural characterization,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 6098 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Ludwig, S. Schmidt, E. M. Lauridsen, and H. F. Poulsen, “X-ray diffraction contrast tomography: a novel technique for three-dimensional grain mapping of polycrystals. I. Direct beam case,” J. Appl. Cryst. 41(2), 302–309 (2008).
[Crossref]

Scholz, M.

F. Seiboth, A. Schropp, M. Scholz, F. Wittwer, C. Rödel, M. Wünsche, T. Ullsperger, S. Nolte, J. Rahomäki, K. Parfeniukas, S. Giakoumidis, U. Vogt, U. Wagner, C. Rau, U. Boesenberg, J. Garrevoet, G. Falkenberg, E. C. Galtier, H. Ja Lee, B. Nagler, and C. G. Schroer, “Perfect X-ray focusing via fitting corrective glasses to aberrated optics,” Nat. Commun. 8, 14623 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schroer, C. G.

F. Seiboth, A. Schropp, M. Scholz, F. Wittwer, C. Rödel, M. Wünsche, T. Ullsperger, S. Nolte, J. Rahomäki, K. Parfeniukas, S. Giakoumidis, U. Vogt, U. Wagner, C. Rau, U. Boesenberg, J. Garrevoet, G. Falkenberg, E. C. Galtier, H. Ja Lee, B. Nagler, and C. G. Schroer, “Perfect X-ray focusing via fitting corrective glasses to aberrated optics,” Nat. Commun. 8, 14623 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schropp, A.

F. Seiboth, A. Schropp, M. Scholz, F. Wittwer, C. Rödel, M. Wünsche, T. Ullsperger, S. Nolte, J. Rahomäki, K. Parfeniukas, S. Giakoumidis, U. Vogt, U. Wagner, C. Rau, U. Boesenberg, J. Garrevoet, G. Falkenberg, E. C. Galtier, H. Ja Lee, B. Nagler, and C. G. Schroer, “Perfect X-ray focusing via fitting corrective glasses to aberrated optics,” Nat. Commun. 8, 14623 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schülli, T. U.

J. Hilhorst, F. Marschall, T. N. Tran Thi, A. Last, and T. U. Schülli, “Full-field X-ray diffraction microscopy using polymeric compound refractive lenses,” J. Appl. Cryst. 47(6), 1882–1888 (2014).
[Crossref]

Seiboth, F.

F. Seiboth, A. Schropp, M. Scholz, F. Wittwer, C. Rödel, M. Wünsche, T. Ullsperger, S. Nolte, J. Rahomäki, K. Parfeniukas, S. Giakoumidis, U. Vogt, U. Wagner, C. Rau, U. Boesenberg, J. Garrevoet, G. Falkenberg, E. C. Galtier, H. Ja Lee, B. Nagler, and C. G. Schroer, “Perfect X-ray focusing via fitting corrective glasses to aberrated optics,” Nat. Commun. 8, 14623 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shapiro, D.

D. Shapiro, P. Thibault, T. Beetz, V. Elser, M. Howells, C. Jacobsen, J. Kirz, E. Lima, H. Miao, A. M. Neiman, and D. Sayre, “Biological imaging by soft x-ray diffraction microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102(43), 15343–15346 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Simons, H.

A. F. Pedersen, H. Simons, C. Detlefs, and H. F. Poulsen, “The fractional Fourier transform as a simulation tool for lens-based X-ray microscopy,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 25(3), 717–728 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Simons, S. R. Ahl, H. F. Poulsen, and C. Detlefs, “Simulating and optimizing compound refractive lens-based X-ray microscopes,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 24(2), 392–401 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. F. Poulsen, A. C. Jakobsen, H. Simons, S. R. Ahl, P. K. Cook, and C. Detlefs, “X-ray diffraction microscopy based on refractive optics,” J. Appl. Cryst. 50(5), 1441–1456 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. Simons, A. C. Jakobsen, S. R. Ahl, C. Detlefs, and H. F. Poulsen, “Multiscale 3D characterization with dark-field x-ray microscopy,” MRS Bull. 41(06), 454–459 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. Simons, A. King, W. Ludwig, C. Detlefs, W. Pantleon, S. Schmidt, I. Snigireva, A. Snigirev, H. F. Poulsen, and H. F. Poulsen, “Dark-field X-ray microscopy for multiscale structural characterization,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 6098 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Snigirev, A.

H. Simons, A. King, W. Ludwig, C. Detlefs, W. Pantleon, S. Schmidt, I. Snigireva, A. Snigirev, H. F. Poulsen, and H. F. Poulsen, “Dark-field X-ray microscopy for multiscale structural characterization,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 6098 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Roth, C. Detlefs, I. Snigireva, and A. Snigirev, “X-ray diffraction microscopy based on refractive optics,” Opt. Commun. 340, 33–38 (2015).
[Crossref]

Snigireva, I.

T. Roth, C. Detlefs, I. Snigireva, and A. Snigirev, “X-ray diffraction microscopy based on refractive optics,” Opt. Commun. 340, 33–38 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Simons, A. King, W. Ludwig, C. Detlefs, W. Pantleon, S. Schmidt, I. Snigireva, A. Snigirev, H. F. Poulsen, and H. F. Poulsen, “Dark-field X-ray microscopy for multiscale structural characterization,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 6098 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Song, S.

W. Cha, S. Song, N. C. Jeong, R. Harder, K. B. Yoon, I. K. Robinson, and H. Kim, “Exploration of crystal strains using coherent x-ray diffraction,” New J. Phys. 12(3), 035022 (2010).
[Crossref]

Spence, J. C. H.

S. Marchesini, H. He, H. N. Chapman, S. P. Hau-Riege, A. Noy, M. R. Howells, U. Weierstall, and J. C. H. Spence, “X-ray image reconstruction from a diffraction pattern alone,” Phys. Rev. B 68(14), 140101 (2003).
[Crossref]

Stangl, J.

P. Godard, G. Carbone, M. Allain, F. Mastropietro, G. Chen, L. Capello, A. Diaz, T. H. Metzger, J. Stangl, and V. Chamard, “Three-dimensional high-resolution quantitative microscopy of extended crystals,” Nat. Commun. 2(1), 568 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stephenson, G. B.

A. Yau, W. Cha, M. W. Kanan, G. B. Stephenson, and A. Ulvestad, “Bragg coherent diffractive imaging of single-grain defect dynamics in polycrystalline films,” Science 356(6339), 739–742 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Takagi, S.

S. Takagi, “A Dynamical Theory of Diffraction for a Distorted Crystal,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 26(5), 1239–1253 (1969).
[Crossref]

Talneau, A.

A. I. Pateras, M. Allain, P. Godard, L. Largeau, G. Patriarche, A. Talneau, K. Pantzas, M. Burghammer, A. A. Minkevich, and V. Chamard, “Nondestructive three-dimensional imaging of crystal strain and rotations in an extended bonded semiconductor heterostructure,” Phys. Rev. B 92(20), 205305 (2015).
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V. Chamard, M. Allain, P. Godard, A. Talneau, G. Patriarche, and M. Burghammer, “Strain in a silicon-on-insulator nanostructure revealed by 3D x-ray Bragg ptychography,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 9827 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Thibault, P.

D. Shapiro, P. Thibault, T. Beetz, V. Elser, M. Howells, C. Jacobsen, J. Kirz, E. Lima, H. Miao, A. M. Neiman, and D. Sayre, “Biological imaging by soft x-ray diffraction microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102(43), 15343–15346 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Thomas, O.

A. A. Minkevich, M. Gailhanou, J.-S. Micha, B. Charlet, V. Chamard, and O. Thomas, “Inversion of the diffraction pattern from an inhomogeneously strained crystal using an iterative algorithm,” Phys. Rev. B 76(10), 104106 (2007).
[Crossref]

Tran Thi, T. N.

J. Hilhorst, F. Marschall, T. N. Tran Thi, A. Last, and T. U. Schülli, “Full-field X-ray diffraction microscopy using polymeric compound refractive lenses,” J. Appl. Cryst. 47(6), 1882–1888 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ullsperger, T.

F. Seiboth, A. Schropp, M. Scholz, F. Wittwer, C. Rödel, M. Wünsche, T. Ullsperger, S. Nolte, J. Rahomäki, K. Parfeniukas, S. Giakoumidis, U. Vogt, U. Wagner, C. Rau, U. Boesenberg, J. Garrevoet, G. Falkenberg, E. C. Galtier, H. Ja Lee, B. Nagler, and C. G. Schroer, “Perfect X-ray focusing via fitting corrective glasses to aberrated optics,” Nat. Commun. 8, 14623 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ulvestad, A.

A. Yau, W. Cha, M. W. Kanan, G. B. Stephenson, and A. Ulvestad, “Bragg coherent diffractive imaging of single-grain defect dynamics in polycrystalline films,” Science 356(6339), 739–742 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vartaniants, I. A.

R. Harder, M. A. Pfeifer, G. J. Williams, I. A. Vartaniants, and I. K. Robinson, “Orientation variation of surface strain,” Phys. Rev. B 76(11), 115425 (2007).
[Crossref]

Vartanyants, I. A.

M. A. Pfeifer, G. J. Williams, I. A. Vartanyants, R. Harder, and I. K. Robinson, “Three-dimensional mapping of a deformation field inside a nanocrystal,” Nature 442(7098), 63–66 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vine, D. J.

L. W. Whitehead, G. J. Williams, H. M. Quiney, D. J. Vine, R. A. Dilanian, S. Flewett, K. A. Nugent, A. G. Peele, E. Balaur, and I. McNulty, “Diffractive Imaging Using Partially Coherent X Rays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(24), 243902 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vogt, U.

F. Seiboth, A. Schropp, M. Scholz, F. Wittwer, C. Rödel, M. Wünsche, T. Ullsperger, S. Nolte, J. Rahomäki, K. Parfeniukas, S. Giakoumidis, U. Vogt, U. Wagner, C. Rau, U. Boesenberg, J. Garrevoet, G. Falkenberg, E. C. Galtier, H. Ja Lee, B. Nagler, and C. G. Schroer, “Perfect X-ray focusing via fitting corrective glasses to aberrated optics,” Nat. Commun. 8, 14623 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wagner, U.

F. Seiboth, A. Schropp, M. Scholz, F. Wittwer, C. Rödel, M. Wünsche, T. Ullsperger, S. Nolte, J. Rahomäki, K. Parfeniukas, S. Giakoumidis, U. Vogt, U. Wagner, C. Rau, U. Boesenberg, J. Garrevoet, G. Falkenberg, E. C. Galtier, H. Ja Lee, B. Nagler, and C. G. Schroer, “Perfect X-ray focusing via fitting corrective glasses to aberrated optics,” Nat. Commun. 8, 14623 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wark, J. S.

J. N. Clark, L. Beitra, G. Xiong, A. Higginbotham, D. M. Fritz, H. T. Lemke, D. Zhu, M. Chollet, G. J. Williams, M. Messerschmidt, B. Abbey, R. J. Harder, A. M. Korsunsky, J. S. Wark, and I. K. Robinson, “Ultrafast Three-Dimensional Imaging of Lattice Dynamics in Individual Gold Nanocrystals,” Science 341(6141), 56–59 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Weierstall, U.

S. Marchesini, H. He, H. N. Chapman, S. P. Hau-Riege, A. Noy, M. R. Howells, U. Weierstall, and J. C. H. Spence, “X-ray image reconstruction from a diffraction pattern alone,” Phys. Rev. B 68(14), 140101 (2003).
[Crossref]

Whitehead, L. W.

L. W. Whitehead, G. J. Williams, H. M. Quiney, D. J. Vine, R. A. Dilanian, S. Flewett, K. A. Nugent, A. G. Peele, E. Balaur, and I. McNulty, “Diffractive Imaging Using Partially Coherent X Rays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(24), 243902 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Williams, G. J.

J. N. Clark, L. Beitra, G. Xiong, A. Higginbotham, D. M. Fritz, H. T. Lemke, D. Zhu, M. Chollet, G. J. Williams, M. Messerschmidt, B. Abbey, R. J. Harder, A. M. Korsunsky, J. S. Wark, and I. K. Robinson, “Ultrafast Three-Dimensional Imaging of Lattice Dynamics in Individual Gold Nanocrystals,” Science 341(6141), 56–59 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. W. Whitehead, G. J. Williams, H. M. Quiney, D. J. Vine, R. A. Dilanian, S. Flewett, K. A. Nugent, A. G. Peele, E. Balaur, and I. McNulty, “Diffractive Imaging Using Partially Coherent X Rays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(24), 243902 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Harder, M. A. Pfeifer, G. J. Williams, I. A. Vartaniants, and I. K. Robinson, “Orientation variation of surface strain,” Phys. Rev. B 76(11), 115425 (2007).
[Crossref]

M. A. Pfeifer, G. J. Williams, I. A. Vartanyants, R. Harder, and I. K. Robinson, “Three-dimensional mapping of a deformation field inside a nanocrystal,” Nature 442(7098), 63–66 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wittwer, F.

F. Seiboth, A. Schropp, M. Scholz, F. Wittwer, C. Rödel, M. Wünsche, T. Ullsperger, S. Nolte, J. Rahomäki, K. Parfeniukas, S. Giakoumidis, U. Vogt, U. Wagner, C. Rau, U. Boesenberg, J. Garrevoet, G. Falkenberg, E. C. Galtier, H. Ja Lee, B. Nagler, and C. G. Schroer, “Perfect X-ray focusing via fitting corrective glasses to aberrated optics,” Nat. Commun. 8, 14623 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wünsche, M.

F. Seiboth, A. Schropp, M. Scholz, F. Wittwer, C. Rödel, M. Wünsche, T. Ullsperger, S. Nolte, J. Rahomäki, K. Parfeniukas, S. Giakoumidis, U. Vogt, U. Wagner, C. Rau, U. Boesenberg, J. Garrevoet, G. Falkenberg, E. C. Galtier, H. Ja Lee, B. Nagler, and C. G. Schroer, “Perfect X-ray focusing via fitting corrective glasses to aberrated optics,” Nat. Commun. 8, 14623 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xiong, G.

J. N. Clark, L. Beitra, G. Xiong, A. Higginbotham, D. M. Fritz, H. T. Lemke, D. Zhu, M. Chollet, G. J. Williams, M. Messerschmidt, B. Abbey, R. J. Harder, A. M. Korsunsky, J. S. Wark, and I. K. Robinson, “Ultrafast Three-Dimensional Imaging of Lattice Dynamics in Individual Gold Nanocrystals,” Science 341(6141), 56–59 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yau, A.

A. Yau, W. Cha, M. W. Kanan, G. B. Stephenson, and A. Ulvestad, “Bragg coherent diffractive imaging of single-grain defect dynamics in polycrystalline films,” Science 356(6339), 739–742 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yefanov, O.

A. J. Morgan, M. Prasciolu, A. Andrejczuk, J. Krzywinski, A. Meents, D. Pennicard, H. Graafsma, A. Barty, R. J. Bean, M. Barthelmess, D. Oberthuer, O. Yefanov, A. Aquila, H. N. Chapman, and S. Bajt, “High numerical aperture multilayer Laue lenses,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 9892 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yoon, K. B.

W. Cha, S. Song, N. C. Jeong, R. Harder, K. B. Yoon, I. K. Robinson, and H. Kim, “Exploration of crystal strains using coherent x-ray diffraction,” New J. Phys. 12(3), 035022 (2010).
[Crossref]

Zhu, D.

J. N. Clark, L. Beitra, G. Xiong, A. Higginbotham, D. M. Fritz, H. T. Lemke, D. Zhu, M. Chollet, G. J. Williams, M. Messerschmidt, B. Abbey, R. J. Harder, A. M. Korsunsky, J. S. Wark, and I. K. Robinson, “Ultrafast Three-Dimensional Imaging of Lattice Dynamics in Individual Gold Nanocrystals,” Science 341(6141), 56–59 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Acta Crystallogr. (1)

D. Sayre, “Some implications of a theorem due to Shannon,” Acta Crystallogr. 5(6), 843 (1952).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (1)

J. Appl. Cryst. (4)

H. F. Poulsen, A. C. Jakobsen, H. Simons, S. R. Ahl, P. K. Cook, and C. Detlefs, “X-ray diffraction microscopy based on refractive optics,” J. Appl. Cryst. 50(5), 1441–1456 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Hilhorst, F. Marschall, T. N. Tran Thi, A. Last, and T. U. Schülli, “Full-field X-ray diffraction microscopy using polymeric compound refractive lenses,” J. Appl. Cryst. 47(6), 1882–1888 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. F. Poulsen, “An introduction to three-dimensional X-ray diffraction microscopy,” J. Appl. Cryst. 45(6), 1084–1097 (2012).
[Crossref]

W. Ludwig, S. Schmidt, E. M. Lauridsen, and H. F. Poulsen, “X-ray diffraction contrast tomography: a novel technique for three-dimensional grain mapping of polycrystals. I. Direct beam case,” J. Appl. Cryst. 41(2), 302–309 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. (1)

S. Takagi, “A Dynamical Theory of Diffraction for a Distorted Crystal,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 26(5), 1239–1253 (1969).
[Crossref]

J. Synchrotron Radiat. (2)

H. Simons, S. R. Ahl, H. F. Poulsen, and C. Detlefs, “Simulating and optimizing compound refractive lens-based X-ray microscopes,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 24(2), 392–401 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. F. Pedersen, H. Simons, C. Detlefs, and H. F. Poulsen, “The fractional Fourier transform as a simulation tool for lens-based X-ray microscopy,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 25(3), 717–728 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

JOM (1)

R. Harder and I. K. Robinson, “Coherent X-Ray Diffraction Imaging of Morphology and Strain in Nanomaterials,” JOM 65(9), 1202–1207 (2013).
[Crossref]

MRS Bull. (1)

H. Simons, A. C. Jakobsen, S. R. Ahl, C. Detlefs, and H. F. Poulsen, “Multiscale 3D characterization with dark-field x-ray microscopy,” MRS Bull. 41(06), 454–459 (2016).
[Crossref]

Nat. Commun. (4)

F. Seiboth, A. Schropp, M. Scholz, F. Wittwer, C. Rödel, M. Wünsche, T. Ullsperger, S. Nolte, J. Rahomäki, K. Parfeniukas, S. Giakoumidis, U. Vogt, U. Wagner, C. Rau, U. Boesenberg, J. Garrevoet, G. Falkenberg, E. C. Galtier, H. Ja Lee, B. Nagler, and C. G. Schroer, “Perfect X-ray focusing via fitting corrective glasses to aberrated optics,” Nat. Commun. 8, 14623 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. N. Clark, X. Huang, R. Harder, and I. K. Robinson, “High-resolution three-dimensional partially coherent diffraction imaging,” Nat. Commun. 3(1), 993 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Simons, A. King, W. Ludwig, C. Detlefs, W. Pantleon, S. Schmidt, I. Snigireva, A. Snigirev, H. F. Poulsen, and H. F. Poulsen, “Dark-field X-ray microscopy for multiscale structural characterization,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 6098 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Godard, G. Carbone, M. Allain, F. Mastropietro, G. Chen, L. Capello, A. Diaz, T. H. Metzger, J. Stangl, and V. Chamard, “Three-dimensional high-resolution quantitative microscopy of extended crystals,” Nat. Commun. 2(1), 568 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Mater. (2)

S. O. Hruszkewycz, M. Allain, M. V. Holt, C. E. Murray, J. R. Holt, P. H. Fuoss, and V. Chamard, “High-resolution three-dimensional structural microscopy by single-angle Bragg ptychography,” Nat. Mater. 16(2), 244–251 (2017).
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F. Mastropietro, P. Godard, M. Burghammer, C. Chevallard, J. Daillant, J. Duboisset, M. Allain, P. Guenoun, J. Nouet, and V. Chamard, “Revealing crystalline domains in a mollusc shell single-crystalline prism,” Nat. Mater. 16(9), 946–952 (2017).
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Nature (2)

J. Miao, P. Charalambous, J. Kirz, and D. Sayre, “Extending the methodology of X-ray crystallography to allow imaging of micrometre-sized non-crystalline specimens,” Nature 400(6742), 342–344 (1999).
[Crossref]

M. A. Pfeifer, G. J. Williams, I. A. Vartanyants, R. Harder, and I. K. Robinson, “Three-dimensional mapping of a deformation field inside a nanocrystal,” Nature 442(7098), 63–66 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

New J. Phys. (1)

W. Cha, S. Song, N. C. Jeong, R. Harder, K. B. Yoon, I. K. Robinson, and H. Kim, “Exploration of crystal strains using coherent x-ray diffraction,” New J. Phys. 12(3), 035022 (2010).
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Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. Sect. B Beam Interact. Mater. At. (1)

A. Andrejczuk, J. Krzywinski, and S. Bajt, “Influence of imperfections in a wedged multilayer Laue lens for the focusing of X-rays investigated by beam propagation method,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. Sect. B Beam Interact. Mater. At. 364, 60–64 (2015).

Opt. Commun. (1)

T. Roth, C. Detlefs, I. Snigireva, and A. Snigirev, “X-ray diffraction microscopy based on refractive optics,” Opt. Commun. 340, 33–38 (2015).
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Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Mater. Express (1)

Phys. Rev. B (5)

R. Harder, M. A. Pfeifer, G. J. Williams, I. A. Vartaniants, and I. K. Robinson, “Orientation variation of surface strain,” Phys. Rev. B 76(11), 115425 (2007).
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S. Marchesini, H. He, H. N. Chapman, S. P. Hau-Riege, A. Noy, M. R. Howells, U. Weierstall, and J. C. H. Spence, “X-ray image reconstruction from a diffraction pattern alone,” Phys. Rev. B 68(14), 140101 (2003).
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A. A. Minkevich, M. Gailhanou, J.-S. Micha, B. Charlet, V. Chamard, and O. Thomas, “Inversion of the diffraction pattern from an inhomogeneously strained crystal using an iterative algorithm,” Phys. Rev. B 76(10), 104106 (2007).
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Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

L. W. Whitehead, G. J. Williams, H. M. Quiney, D. J. Vine, R. A. Dilanian, S. Flewett, K. A. Nugent, A. G. Peele, E. Balaur, and I. McNulty, “Diffractive Imaging Using Partially Coherent X Rays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(24), 243902 (2009).
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Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1)

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Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

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Sci. Rep. (2)

V. Chamard, M. Allain, P. Godard, A. Talneau, G. Patriarche, and M. Burghammer, “Strain in a silicon-on-insulator nanostructure revealed by 3D x-ray Bragg ptychography,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 9827 (2015).
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A. J. Morgan, M. Prasciolu, A. Andrejczuk, J. Krzywinski, A. Meents, D. Pennicard, H. Graafsma, A. Barty, R. J. Bean, M. Barthelmess, D. Oberthuer, O. Yefanov, A. Aquila, H. N. Chapman, and S. Bajt, “High numerical aperture multilayer Laue lenses,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 9892 (2015).
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[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Yau, W. Cha, M. W. Kanan, G. B. Stephenson, and A. Ulvestad, “Bragg coherent diffractive imaging of single-grain defect dynamics in polycrystalline films,” Science 356(6339), 739–742 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. N. Clark, L. Beitra, G. Xiong, A. Higginbotham, D. M. Fritz, H. T. Lemke, D. Zhu, M. Chollet, G. J. Williams, M. Messerschmidt, B. Abbey, R. J. Harder, A. M. Korsunsky, J. S. Wark, and I. K. Robinson, “Ultrafast Three-Dimensional Imaging of Lattice Dynamics in Individual Gold Nanocrystals,” Science 341(6141), 56–59 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (2)

H. F. Poulsen, Three-Dimensional X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy (Springer, 2004).

A. F. Pedersen, Andersfp/XFrFT: XFrFT (Zenodo, 2017).

Supplementary Material (3)

NameDescription
» Visualization 1       Test object
» Visualization 2       X-ray diffraction pattern without lens
» Visualization 3       3D diffraction pattern with lens

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 BCDI with an objective lens for imaging poly-crystalline material: (a) Selection of the diffracting crystal with a finite size optical element placed on the detection arm. (b) The classical BCDI configuration. (c) Objective BCDI introducing a lens in a 1:1 configuration and (d) Objective BCDI with a lens using a 1:2 virtual image. The components are not to scale, but the relative image-detector distances are correct.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 The numerical model. (a) The 3D BCDI geometry with the object coordinate system (x, y, z), and the incident (ki) and exit (kf) angles are θ. During a rocking scan the object is rotated by δθ around the x-axis. The CRL objective lens is placed along the axis of the exit beam, and the real space coordinate at its exit plane is (r1, r2). The detector is used to record the reciprocal space (q1, q2, q3). (b) 3D rendering of the test micro-crystal, a cube with a cylindrical top. The ki, kf and chosen Bragg vector (G)111 are indicated along with the other coordinate axes in (a). (c)-(e) Cross sections of the test object along the laboratory frame planes, the (x, y), (z, y) and (x, z) planes, respectively. The brightness indicates the density and the color indicate the phase, following the color scale provided as an inset of (e).
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Calculation of the 3D intensity patterns. (a) Calculation of the series of 2D exit-fields, ψi(r), produced along the rocking curve through a single 3D forward Fourier transform (3D FFT) followed by a series of 2D inverse Fourier transforms (2D IFFT) of slices of the reciprocal space. The effective pupil function amplitude (b) and phase (c), in the (r1, r2) plane. (d) Amplitude of the exit field at the exit plane of the CRL without attenuation and (e) after applying the pupil function in (b)-(c), plotted on a logarithmic scale. (f)-(g) 2D intensity patterns in the detection frame along the (q2, q1) and (q2, q3) planes, respectively, for the BCDI case. (h)-(i) Same as (f)-(g), for the objective BCDI case. In (f)-(i), the intensity has been corrupted by Poisson shot noise, for a maximum of intensity of 1,000,000 counts; the intensity scale is logarithmic, and covers 6 orders of magnitude. The insets in (d)-(i) correspond to close-ups on the interference fringe distribution, which do not exhibit discernable differences.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 3D Reconstruction of the sample image. (a)-(b) Results of the reconstruction obtained for the lensless BCDI configuration with the high SNR data, shown in the (x, y) and (z, y) planes, respectively. (c)-(d) Same as (a)-(b), but for the low SNR data set. (e)-(f) Same as (a)-(b) but for the objective BCDI configuration. (g)-(h) Same as (e)-(f) but for the low SNR data set. The brightness encodes the amplitude and the color encodes the phase, as indicated by the color scale inset in (g) and is the same as in Fig. 2.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Quality of (z, y) planes of the 3D reconstuctions shown in Fig. 4. Row above: amplitude difference between true object and retrived object with respect to color scale to the right of (g). Row below: phase difference between true object and retrived object with respect to color scale to the right of (h). (a)-(b) Lensless BCDI with high SNR. (c)-(d) Lensless BCDI with low SNR. (e)-(f) Objective BCDI with high SNR. (g)-(h) Objective BCDI with low SNR.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Effect of the CRL objective phase aberrations. (a)-(b) The (x, y) and (z, y) planes of the direct inversion of the simulated diffracted field with the CRL. (c)-(d) Same as (a)-(b), but replacing the phase of the simulated diffracted field with the CRL by the phase obtained from the lensless propagation. (e) Amplitude and phase of the diffracted field in the lensless simulation. (f) Amplitude and phase of the diffracted field simulated using the CRL objective with aberrations. (g) Amplitude and phase of the reconstructed field from the intensity pattern obtained using the CRL objective with aberrations. (h) shows the colorscale used in all the plots, which is the same as in Figs. 2 and 4.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 The (q2, q1)-plane of the 3D diffraction pattern is shown using a conventional BCDI setup (a)-(c), and with an objective lens (d)-(f). In both cases the images have either no noise (a) and (d), 1,000,000 photons in the brightest pixel (b) and (e), or 50,000 photons in the brightest pixel (c) and (f). In all cases the intensity is shown on a logarithmic scale and shows the same 6 orders of magnitude.

Equations (7)

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1 d 1 + 1 d 2 = 1 f  ,
M= d 2 d 1 ,
NA= D d 1  ,
f N =fφcot( Nφ ), φ= T/f ,#
1 d 1 + 1 d 2 1 f N + fφtan( Nφ ) d 1 d 2 =0,#
M= d 2 sin( Nφ ) fφ +cos( Nφ ),#
NA=2.35 σ a ,#

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