Abstract

We study the plasmonic properties of face-to-face phosphorene pairs, including their optical constraints and optical gradient forces. The symmetric and anti-symmetric plasmonic modes occur due to the strong anisotropic dispersion of phosphorene. Compared with the anti-symmetric mode, the symmetric mode has a stronger optical constraint and much larger gradient force. Especially, the optical constraint of the symmetric mode can even reach as high as 96% when the two phosphorene layers are along the armchair and zigzag direction respectively. We also propose a scheme of an ultra-small phase shifter using phosphorene-based photonic devices.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2018 (3)

T. Cao and Y. Qiu, “Lateral sorting of chiral nanoparticles using Fano-enhanced chiral force in visible region,” Nanoscale 10(2), 566–574 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Cao, J. Bao, and L. Mao, “Switching of Giant Lateral Force on Sub-10 nm Particle Using Phase-Change Nanoantenna,” Adv. Theory Simul. 1(2), 1870005 (2018).
[Crossref]

T. Cao, L. Tian, H. Liang, and K. R. Qin, “Reconfigurable, graphene-coated, chalcogenide nanowires with a sub-10-nm enantioselective sorting capability,” Microsyst. Nanoeng. 4(1), 1–8 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (3)

2016 (7)

C. X. Wang, C. Zhang, J. W. Jiang, H. S. Park, and T. Rabczuk, “Mechanical strain effects on black phosphorus nanoresonators,” Nanoscale 8(2), 901–905 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Feng, F. Yan, W. Luo, and K. Wang, “Charge trap memory based on few-layer black phosphorus,” Nanoscale 8(5), 2686–2692 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Lu, A. Carvalho, J. Wu, H. Liu, E. S. Tok, A. H. C. Neto, B. Özyilmaz, and C. H. Sow, “Enhanced photoresponse from phosphorene–phosphorene-suboxide junction fashioned by focused laser micromachining,” Adv. Mater. 28(21), 4090–4096 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Liu and K. Aydin, “Localized Surface Plasmons in Nanostructured Monolayer Black Phosphorus,” Nano Lett. 16(6), 3457–3462 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Cao, J. Bao, L. Mao, T. Zhang, A. Novitsky, M. Nieto-Vesperinas, and C. W. Qiu, “Controlling lateral Fano interference optical force with Au-Ge2Sb2Te5 hybrid nanostructure,” ACS Photonics 3(10), 1934–1942 (2016).
[Crossref]

T. Cao, L. Mao, D. Gao, W. Ding, and C. W. Qiu, “Fano resonant Ge2Sb2Te5 nanoparticles realize switchable lateral optical force,” Nanoscale 8(10), 5657–5666 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Jung, J. Shim, K. Kwon, J. B. You, K. Choi, and K. Yu, “Hybrid integration of III-V semiconductor lasers on silicon waveguides using optofluidic microbubble manipulation,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 29841 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (11)

Q. Zhang, X. Li, M. M. Hossain, Y. Xue, J. Zhang, J. Song, J. Liu, M. D. Turner, S. Fan, Q. Bao, and M. Gu, “Graphene surface plasmons at the near-infrared optical regime,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 6559 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Lu, C. Zeng, Q. Zhang, X. Liu, M. M. Hossain, P. Reineck, and M. Gu, “Graphene-based active slow surface plasmon polaritons,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 8443 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Ge, C. Li, Z. Zhang, C. Zhang, Y. Zhang, J. Qiu, Q. Wang, J. Liu, S. Jia, J. Feng, and D. Sun, “Dynamical evolution of anisotropic response in black phosphorus under ultrafast photoexcitation,” Nano Lett. 15(7), 4650–4656 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. He, D. He, Y. Wang, Q. Cui, M. Z. Bellus, H.-Y. Chiu, and H. Zhao, “Exceptional and Anisotropic Transport Properties of Photocarriers in Black Phosphorus,” ACS Nano 9(6), 6436–6442 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. R. Lin, C. H. Lin, and J. C. Hsu, “Strong Optomechanical Interaction in Hybrid Plasmonic-Photonic Crystal Nanocavities with Surface Acoustic Waves,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 13782 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Leijssen and E. Verhagen, “Strong optomechanical interactions in a sliced photonic crystal nanobeam,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 15974 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Wang, L. Shi, Y. Liu, X. Xu, and X. Zhang, “Optical nonreciprocity in asymmetric optomechanical couplers,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 8657 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wu, G. K. Koon, D. Xiang, C. Han, C. T. Toh, E. S. Kulkarni, I. Verzhbitskiy, A. Carvalho, A. S. Rodin, S. P. Koenig, G. Eda, W. Chen, A. H. Neto, and B. Özyilmaz, “Colossal Ultraviolet Photoresponsivity of Few-Layer Black Phosphorus,” ACS Nano 9(8), 8070–8077 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Luo, J. Maassen, Y. Deng, Y. Du, R. P. Garrelts, M. S. Lundstrom, P. D. Ye, and X. Xu, “Anisotropic in-plane thermal conductivity observed in few-layer black phosphorus,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 8572 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Viti, J. Hu, D. Coquillat, W. Knap, A. Tredicucci, A. Politano, and M. S. Vitiello, “Black phosphorus terahertz photodetectors,” Adv. Mater. 27(37), 5567–5572 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Zhu, M. N. Yogeesh, S. Yang, S. H. Aldave, J. S. Kim, S. Sonde, L. Tao, N. Lu, and D. Akinwande, “Flexible black phosphorus ambipolar transistors, circuits and AM demodulator,” Nano Lett. 15(3), 1883–1890 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (14)

T. Low, R. Roldán, H. Wang, F. Xia, P. Avouris, L. M. Moreno, and F. Guinea, “Plasmons and screening in monolayer and multilayer black phosphorus,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113(10), 106802 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Low, R. Roldán, H. Wang, F. Xia, P. Avouris, L. M. Moreno, and F. Guinea, “Plasmons and Screening in Monolayer and Multilayer Black Phosphorus,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113(10), 106802 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Low, A. S. Rodin, A. Carvalho, Y. Jiang, H. Wang, F. Xia, and A. H. C. Neto, “Tunable optical properties of multilayer black phosphorus thin films,” Phys. Rev. B 90(7), 075434 (2014).
[Crossref]

F. Xia, H. Wang, and Y. Jia, “Rediscovering black phosphorus as an anisotropic layered material for optoelectronics and electronics,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 4458 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Deng, Z. Luo, N. J. Conrad, H. Liu, Y. Gong, S. Najmaei, P. M. Ajayan, J. Lou, X. Xu, and P. D. Ye, “Black Phosphorus-Monolayer MoS2 van der Waals Heterojunction p-n Diode,” ACS Nano 8(8), 8292–8299 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Buscema, D. J. Groenendijk, G. A. Steele, H. S. van der Zant, and A. Castellanos-Gomez, “Photovoltaic effect in few-layer black phosphorus PN junctions defined by local electrostatic gating,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 4651 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Buscema, D. J. Groenendijk, S. I. Blanter, G. A. Steele, H. S. van der Zant, and A. Castellanos-Gomez, “Fast and broadband photoresponse of few-layer black phosphorus field-effect transistors,” Nano Lett. 14(6), 3347–3352 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Li, Y. Yu, G. J. Ye, Q. Ge, X. Ou, H. Wu, D. Feng, X. H. Chen, and Y. Zhang, “Black Phosphorus Field-effect Transistors,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(5), 372–377 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Zhang, J. Yang, R. Xu, F. Wang, W. Li, M. Ghufran, Y. W. Zhang, Z. Yu, G. Zhang, Q. Qin, and Y. Lu, “Extraordinary Photoluminescence and Strong Temperature/Angle-Dependent Raman Responses in Few-Layer Phosphorene,” ACS Nano 8(9), 9590–9596 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. W. Qiu, D. Palima, A. Novitsky, D. Gao, W. Ding, S. V. Zhukovsky, and J. Gluckstad, “Engineering light-matter interaction for emerging optical manipulation applications,” Nanophotonics 3(3), 181–201 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Guo, N. Lu, J. Dai, X. Wu, and X. C. Zeng, “Phosphorene Nanoribbons, Phosphorus Nanotubes, and van der Waals Multilayers,” J. Phys. Chem. C 118(25), 14051–14059 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Liu, A. T. Neal, Z. Zhu, Z. Luo, X. Xu, D. Tománek, and P. D. Ye, “Phosphorene: an unexplored 2D semiconductor with a high hole mobility,” ACS Nano 8(4), 4033–4041 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Alonso-González, A. Y. Nikitin, F. Golmar, A. Centeno, A. Pesquera, S. Vélez, J. Chen, G. Navickaite, F. Koppens, A. Zurutuza, F. Casanova, L. E. Hueso, and R. Hillenbrand, “Controlling graphene plasmons with resonant metal antennas and spatial conductivity patterns,” Science 344(6190), 1369–1373 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Yu. Nikitin, P. Alonso-González, and R. Hillenbrand, “Efficient coupling of light to graphene plasmons by compressing surface polaritons with tapered bulk materials,” Nano Lett. 14(5), 2896–2901 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (3)

V. W. Brar, M. S. Jang, M. Sherrott, J. J. Lopez, and H. A. Atwater, “Highly Confined Tunable Mid-Infrared Plasmonics in Graphene Nanoresonators,” Nano Lett. 13(6), 2541–2547 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Cheng, S. Chen, P. Yu, X. Duan, B. Xie, and J. Tian, “Dynamically tunable plasmonically induced transparency in periodically patterned graphene nanostrips,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(20), 203122 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. Palima and J. Glückstadm, “Gearing up for optical microrobotics: micromanipulation and actuation of synthetic microstructures by optical forces,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7(4), 478–494 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (3)

T. Cao, L. Zhang, and M. J. Cryan, “Optical forces in metal/dielectric/metal fishnet metamaterials in the visible wavelength regime,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(5), 1861–1869 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. Grigorenko, M. Polini, and K. Novoselov, “Graphene plasmonics,” Nat. Photonics 6(11), 749–758 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. He, S. He, J. Gao, and X. Yang, “Giant transverse optical forces in nanoscale slot waveguides of hyperbolic metamaterials,” Opt. Express 20(20), 22372–22382 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (7)

A. Vakil and N. Engheta, “Transformation optics using graphene,” Science 332(6035), 1291–1294 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Ju, B. Geng, J. Horng, C. Girit, M. Martin, Z. Hao, H. A. Bechtel, X. Liang, A. Zettl, Y. R. Shen, and F. Wang, “Graphene plasmonics for tunable terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(10), 630–634 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Vakil and N. Engheta, “Transformation optics using graphene,” Science 332(6035), 1291–1294 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Y. Chen and A. Alù, “Atomically thin surface cloak using graphene monolayers,” ACS Nano 5(7), 5855–5863 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Novitsky, C. W. Qiu, and H. Wang, “Single gradientless light beam drags particles as tractor beams,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(20), 203601 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Ma and M. L. Povinelli, “Mechanical Kerr nonlinearities due to bipolar optical forces between deformable silicon waveguides,” Opt. Express 19(11), 10102–10110 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Yang, Y. Liu, R. F. Oulton, X. Yin, and X. Zhang, “Optical forces in hybrid plasmonic waveguides,” Nano Lett. 11(2), 321–328 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (1)

D. Van Thourhout and J. Roels, “Optomechanical device actuation through the optical gradient force,” Nat. Photonics 4(4), 211–217 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

2008 (1)

M. Li, W. H. Pernice, C. Xiong, T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, and H. X. Tang, “Harnessing optical forces in integrated photonic circuits,” Nature 456(7221), 480–484 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

2004 (2)

M. L. Povinelli, M. Ibanescu, S. G. Johnson, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Slow-light enhancement of radiation pressure in an omnidirectional-reflector waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(9), 1466–1468 (2004).
[Crossref]

V. R. Almeida, Q. Xu, C. A. Barrios, and M. Lipson, “Guiding and confining light in void nanostructure,” Opt. Lett. 29(11), 1209–1211 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ajayan, P. M.

Y. Deng, Z. Luo, N. J. Conrad, H. Liu, Y. Gong, S. Najmaei, P. M. Ajayan, J. Lou, X. Xu, and P. D. Ye, “Black Phosphorus-Monolayer MoS2 van der Waals Heterojunction p-n Diode,” ACS Nano 8(8), 8292–8299 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Akinwande, D.

W. Zhu, M. N. Yogeesh, S. Yang, S. H. Aldave, J. S. Kim, S. Sonde, L. Tao, N. Lu, and D. Akinwande, “Flexible black phosphorus ambipolar transistors, circuits and AM demodulator,” Nano Lett. 15(3), 1883–1890 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aldave, S. H.

W. Zhu, M. N. Yogeesh, S. Yang, S. H. Aldave, J. S. Kim, S. Sonde, L. Tao, N. Lu, and D. Akinwande, “Flexible black phosphorus ambipolar transistors, circuits and AM demodulator,” Nano Lett. 15(3), 1883–1890 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Almeida, V. R.

Alonso-González, P.

P. Alonso-González, A. Y. Nikitin, F. Golmar, A. Centeno, A. Pesquera, S. Vélez, J. Chen, G. Navickaite, F. Koppens, A. Zurutuza, F. Casanova, L. E. Hueso, and R. Hillenbrand, “Controlling graphene plasmons with resonant metal antennas and spatial conductivity patterns,” Science 344(6190), 1369–1373 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Yu. Nikitin, P. Alonso-González, and R. Hillenbrand, “Efficient coupling of light to graphene plasmons by compressing surface polaritons with tapered bulk materials,” Nano Lett. 14(5), 2896–2901 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Alù, A.

P. Y. Chen and A. Alù, “Atomically thin surface cloak using graphene monolayers,” ACS Nano 5(7), 5855–5863 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Atwater, H. A.

V. W. Brar, M. S. Jang, M. Sherrott, J. J. Lopez, and H. A. Atwater, “Highly Confined Tunable Mid-Infrared Plasmonics in Graphene Nanoresonators,” Nano Lett. 13(6), 2541–2547 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Avouris, P.

T. Low, R. Roldán, H. Wang, F. Xia, P. Avouris, L. M. Moreno, and F. Guinea, “Plasmons and Screening in Monolayer and Multilayer Black Phosphorus,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113(10), 106802 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Low, R. Roldán, H. Wang, F. Xia, P. Avouris, L. M. Moreno, and F. Guinea, “Plasmons and screening in monolayer and multilayer black phosphorus,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113(10), 106802 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aydin, K.

Z. Liu and K. Aydin, “Localized Surface Plasmons in Nanostructured Monolayer Black Phosphorus,” Nano Lett. 16(6), 3457–3462 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baehr-Jones, T.

M. Li, W. H. Pernice, C. Xiong, T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, and H. X. Tang, “Harnessing optical forces in integrated photonic circuits,” Nature 456(7221), 480–484 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bao, J.

T. Cao, J. Bao, and L. Mao, “Switching of Giant Lateral Force on Sub-10 nm Particle Using Phase-Change Nanoantenna,” Adv. Theory Simul. 1(2), 1870005 (2018).
[Crossref]

T. Cao, J. Bao, L. Mao, T. Zhang, A. Novitsky, M. Nieto-Vesperinas, and C. W. Qiu, “Controlling lateral Fano interference optical force with Au-Ge2Sb2Te5 hybrid nanostructure,” ACS Photonics 3(10), 1934–1942 (2016).
[Crossref]

Bao, Q.

Q. Zhang, X. Li, M. M. Hossain, Y. Xue, J. Zhang, J. Song, J. Liu, M. D. Turner, S. Fan, Q. Bao, and M. Gu, “Graphene surface plasmons at the near-infrared optical regime,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 6559 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Barrios, C. A.

Bechtel, H. A.

L. Ju, B. Geng, J. Horng, C. Girit, M. Martin, Z. Hao, H. A. Bechtel, X. Liang, A. Zettl, Y. R. Shen, and F. Wang, “Graphene plasmonics for tunable terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(10), 630–634 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bellus, M. Z.

J. He, D. He, Y. Wang, Q. Cui, M. Z. Bellus, H.-Y. Chiu, and H. Zhao, “Exceptional and Anisotropic Transport Properties of Photocarriers in Black Phosphorus,” ACS Nano 9(6), 6436–6442 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Blanter, S. I.

M. Buscema, D. J. Groenendijk, S. I. Blanter, G. A. Steele, H. S. van der Zant, and A. Castellanos-Gomez, “Fast and broadband photoresponse of few-layer black phosphorus field-effect transistors,” Nano Lett. 14(6), 3347–3352 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brar, V. W.

V. W. Brar, M. S. Jang, M. Sherrott, J. J. Lopez, and H. A. Atwater, “Highly Confined Tunable Mid-Infrared Plasmonics in Graphene Nanoresonators,” Nano Lett. 13(6), 2541–2547 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Buscema, M.

M. Buscema, D. J. Groenendijk, G. A. Steele, H. S. van der Zant, and A. Castellanos-Gomez, “Photovoltaic effect in few-layer black phosphorus PN junctions defined by local electrostatic gating,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 4651 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Buscema, D. J. Groenendijk, S. I. Blanter, G. A. Steele, H. S. van der Zant, and A. Castellanos-Gomez, “Fast and broadband photoresponse of few-layer black phosphorus field-effect transistors,” Nano Lett. 14(6), 3347–3352 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cao, T.

T. Cao and Y. Qiu, “Lateral sorting of chiral nanoparticles using Fano-enhanced chiral force in visible region,” Nanoscale 10(2), 566–574 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Cao, J. Bao, and L. Mao, “Switching of Giant Lateral Force on Sub-10 nm Particle Using Phase-Change Nanoantenna,” Adv. Theory Simul. 1(2), 1870005 (2018).
[Crossref]

T. Cao, L. Tian, H. Liang, and K. R. Qin, “Reconfigurable, graphene-coated, chalcogenide nanowires with a sub-10-nm enantioselective sorting capability,” Microsyst. Nanoeng. 4(1), 1–8 (2018).
[Crossref]

T. Cao, J. Bao, L. Mao, T. Zhang, A. Novitsky, M. Nieto-Vesperinas, and C. W. Qiu, “Controlling lateral Fano interference optical force with Au-Ge2Sb2Te5 hybrid nanostructure,” ACS Photonics 3(10), 1934–1942 (2016).
[Crossref]

T. Cao, L. Mao, D. Gao, W. Ding, and C. W. Qiu, “Fano resonant Ge2Sb2Te5 nanoparticles realize switchable lateral optical force,” Nanoscale 8(10), 5657–5666 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Cao, L. Zhang, and M. J. Cryan, “Optical forces in metal/dielectric/metal fishnet metamaterials in the visible wavelength regime,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(5), 1861–1869 (2012).
[Crossref]

Capasso, F.

Carvalho, A.

J. Lu, A. Carvalho, J. Wu, H. Liu, E. S. Tok, A. H. C. Neto, B. Özyilmaz, and C. H. Sow, “Enhanced photoresponse from phosphorene–phosphorene-suboxide junction fashioned by focused laser micromachining,” Adv. Mater. 28(21), 4090–4096 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wu, G. K. Koon, D. Xiang, C. Han, C. T. Toh, E. S. Kulkarni, I. Verzhbitskiy, A. Carvalho, A. S. Rodin, S. P. Koenig, G. Eda, W. Chen, A. H. Neto, and B. Özyilmaz, “Colossal Ultraviolet Photoresponsivity of Few-Layer Black Phosphorus,” ACS Nano 9(8), 8070–8077 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Low, A. S. Rodin, A. Carvalho, Y. Jiang, H. Wang, F. Xia, and A. H. C. Neto, “Tunable optical properties of multilayer black phosphorus thin films,” Phys. Rev. B 90(7), 075434 (2014).
[Crossref]

Casanova, F.

P. Alonso-González, A. Y. Nikitin, F. Golmar, A. Centeno, A. Pesquera, S. Vélez, J. Chen, G. Navickaite, F. Koppens, A. Zurutuza, F. Casanova, L. E. Hueso, and R. Hillenbrand, “Controlling graphene plasmons with resonant metal antennas and spatial conductivity patterns,” Science 344(6190), 1369–1373 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Castellanos-Gomez, A.

M. Buscema, D. J. Groenendijk, G. A. Steele, H. S. van der Zant, and A. Castellanos-Gomez, “Photovoltaic effect in few-layer black phosphorus PN junctions defined by local electrostatic gating,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 4651 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Buscema, D. J. Groenendijk, S. I. Blanter, G. A. Steele, H. S. van der Zant, and A. Castellanos-Gomez, “Fast and broadband photoresponse of few-layer black phosphorus field-effect transistors,” Nano Lett. 14(6), 3347–3352 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Centeno, A.

P. Alonso-González, A. Y. Nikitin, F. Golmar, A. Centeno, A. Pesquera, S. Vélez, J. Chen, G. Navickaite, F. Koppens, A. Zurutuza, F. Casanova, L. E. Hueso, and R. Hillenbrand, “Controlling graphene plasmons with resonant metal antennas and spatial conductivity patterns,” Science 344(6190), 1369–1373 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, J.

P. Alonso-González, A. Y. Nikitin, F. Golmar, A. Centeno, A. Pesquera, S. Vélez, J. Chen, G. Navickaite, F. Koppens, A. Zurutuza, F. Casanova, L. E. Hueso, and R. Hillenbrand, “Controlling graphene plasmons with resonant metal antennas and spatial conductivity patterns,” Science 344(6190), 1369–1373 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, P. Y.

P. Y. Chen and A. Alù, “Atomically thin surface cloak using graphene monolayers,” ACS Nano 5(7), 5855–5863 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, S.

H. Cheng, S. Chen, P. Yu, X. Duan, B. Xie, and J. Tian, “Dynamically tunable plasmonically induced transparency in periodically patterned graphene nanostrips,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(20), 203122 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chen, W.

J. Wu, G. K. Koon, D. Xiang, C. Han, C. T. Toh, E. S. Kulkarni, I. Verzhbitskiy, A. Carvalho, A. S. Rodin, S. P. Koenig, G. Eda, W. Chen, A. H. Neto, and B. Özyilmaz, “Colossal Ultraviolet Photoresponsivity of Few-Layer Black Phosphorus,” ACS Nano 9(8), 8070–8077 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, X. H.

L. Li, Y. Yu, G. J. Ye, Q. Ge, X. Ou, H. Wu, D. Feng, X. H. Chen, and Y. Zhang, “Black Phosphorus Field-effect Transistors,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(5), 372–377 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cheng, H.

H. Cheng, S. Chen, P. Yu, X. Duan, B. Xie, and J. Tian, “Dynamically tunable plasmonically induced transparency in periodically patterned graphene nanostrips,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(20), 203122 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chiu, H.-Y.

J. He, D. He, Y. Wang, Q. Cui, M. Z. Bellus, H.-Y. Chiu, and H. Zhao, “Exceptional and Anisotropic Transport Properties of Photocarriers in Black Phosphorus,” ACS Nano 9(6), 6436–6442 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Choi, K.

Y. Jung, J. Shim, K. Kwon, J. B. You, K. Choi, and K. Yu, “Hybrid integration of III-V semiconductor lasers on silicon waveguides using optofluidic microbubble manipulation,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 29841 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Conrad, N. J.

Y. Deng, Z. Luo, N. J. Conrad, H. Liu, Y. Gong, S. Najmaei, P. M. Ajayan, J. Lou, X. Xu, and P. D. Ye, “Black Phosphorus-Monolayer MoS2 van der Waals Heterojunction p-n Diode,” ACS Nano 8(8), 8292–8299 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Coquillat, D.

L. Viti, J. Hu, D. Coquillat, W. Knap, A. Tredicucci, A. Politano, and M. S. Vitiello, “Black phosphorus terahertz photodetectors,” Adv. Mater. 27(37), 5567–5572 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cryan, M. J.

T. Cao, L. Zhang, and M. J. Cryan, “Optical forces in metal/dielectric/metal fishnet metamaterials in the visible wavelength regime,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(5), 1861–1869 (2012).
[Crossref]

Cui, Q.

J. He, D. He, Y. Wang, Q. Cui, M. Z. Bellus, H.-Y. Chiu, and H. Zhao, “Exceptional and Anisotropic Transport Properties of Photocarriers in Black Phosphorus,” ACS Nano 9(6), 6436–6442 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dai, J.

H. Guo, N. Lu, J. Dai, X. Wu, and X. C. Zeng, “Phosphorene Nanoribbons, Phosphorus Nanotubes, and van der Waals Multilayers,” J. Phys. Chem. C 118(25), 14051–14059 (2014).
[Crossref]

Deng, Y.

Z. Luo, J. Maassen, Y. Deng, Y. Du, R. P. Garrelts, M. S. Lundstrom, P. D. Ye, and X. Xu, “Anisotropic in-plane thermal conductivity observed in few-layer black phosphorus,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 8572 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Deng, Z. Luo, N. J. Conrad, H. Liu, Y. Gong, S. Najmaei, P. M. Ajayan, J. Lou, X. Xu, and P. D. Ye, “Black Phosphorus-Monolayer MoS2 van der Waals Heterojunction p-n Diode,” ACS Nano 8(8), 8292–8299 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ding, W.

T. Cao, L. Mao, D. Gao, W. Ding, and C. W. Qiu, “Fano resonant Ge2Sb2Te5 nanoparticles realize switchable lateral optical force,” Nanoscale 8(10), 5657–5666 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. W. Qiu, D. Palima, A. Novitsky, D. Gao, W. Ding, S. V. Zhukovsky, and J. Gluckstad, “Engineering light-matter interaction for emerging optical manipulation applications,” Nanophotonics 3(3), 181–201 (2014).
[Crossref]

Du, Y.

Z. Luo, J. Maassen, Y. Deng, Y. Du, R. P. Garrelts, M. S. Lundstrom, P. D. Ye, and X. Xu, “Anisotropic in-plane thermal conductivity observed in few-layer black phosphorus,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 8572 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Duan, X.

H. Cheng, S. Chen, P. Yu, X. Duan, B. Xie, and J. Tian, “Dynamically tunable plasmonically induced transparency in periodically patterned graphene nanostrips,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(20), 203122 (2013).
[Crossref]

Eda, G.

J. Wu, G. K. Koon, D. Xiang, C. Han, C. T. Toh, E. S. Kulkarni, I. Verzhbitskiy, A. Carvalho, A. S. Rodin, S. P. Koenig, G. Eda, W. Chen, A. H. Neto, and B. Özyilmaz, “Colossal Ultraviolet Photoresponsivity of Few-Layer Black Phosphorus,” ACS Nano 9(8), 8070–8077 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Engheta, N.

A. Vakil and N. Engheta, “Transformation optics using graphene,” Science 332(6035), 1291–1294 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Vakil and N. Engheta, “Transformation optics using graphene,” Science 332(6035), 1291–1294 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fan, S.

Q. Zhang, X. Li, M. M. Hossain, Y. Xue, J. Zhang, J. Song, J. Liu, M. D. Turner, S. Fan, Q. Bao, and M. Gu, “Graphene surface plasmons at the near-infrared optical regime,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 6559 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fang, N. X.

Feng, D.

L. Li, Y. Yu, G. J. Ye, Q. Ge, X. Ou, H. Wu, D. Feng, X. H. Chen, and Y. Zhang, “Black Phosphorus Field-effect Transistors,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(5), 372–377 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Feng, J.

S. Ge, C. Li, Z. Zhang, C. Zhang, Y. Zhang, J. Qiu, Q. Wang, J. Liu, S. Jia, J. Feng, and D. Sun, “Dynamical evolution of anisotropic response in black phosphorus under ultrafast photoexcitation,” Nano Lett. 15(7), 4650–4656 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Feng, Q.

Q. Feng, F. Yan, W. Luo, and K. Wang, “Charge trap memory based on few-layer black phosphorus,” Nanoscale 8(5), 2686–2692 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gan, X.

Gao, D.

T. Cao, L. Mao, D. Gao, W. Ding, and C. W. Qiu, “Fano resonant Ge2Sb2Te5 nanoparticles realize switchable lateral optical force,” Nanoscale 8(10), 5657–5666 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. W. Qiu, D. Palima, A. Novitsky, D. Gao, W. Ding, S. V. Zhukovsky, and J. Gluckstad, “Engineering light-matter interaction for emerging optical manipulation applications,” Nanophotonics 3(3), 181–201 (2014).
[Crossref]

Gao, J.

Garrelts, R. P.

Z. Luo, J. Maassen, Y. Deng, Y. Du, R. P. Garrelts, M. S. Lundstrom, P. D. Ye, and X. Xu, “Anisotropic in-plane thermal conductivity observed in few-layer black phosphorus,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 8572 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ge, Q.

L. Li, Y. Yu, G. J. Ye, Q. Ge, X. Ou, H. Wu, D. Feng, X. H. Chen, and Y. Zhang, “Black Phosphorus Field-effect Transistors,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(5), 372–377 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ge, S.

S. Ge, C. Li, Z. Zhang, C. Zhang, Y. Zhang, J. Qiu, Q. Wang, J. Liu, S. Jia, J. Feng, and D. Sun, “Dynamical evolution of anisotropic response in black phosphorus under ultrafast photoexcitation,” Nano Lett. 15(7), 4650–4656 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Geng, B.

L. Ju, B. Geng, J. Horng, C. Girit, M. Martin, Z. Hao, H. A. Bechtel, X. Liang, A. Zettl, Y. R. Shen, and F. Wang, “Graphene plasmonics for tunable terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(10), 630–634 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ghufran, M.

S. Zhang, J. Yang, R. Xu, F. Wang, W. Li, M. Ghufran, Y. W. Zhang, Z. Yu, G. Zhang, Q. Qin, and Y. Lu, “Extraordinary Photoluminescence and Strong Temperature/Angle-Dependent Raman Responses in Few-Layer Phosphorene,” ACS Nano 8(9), 9590–9596 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Girit, C.

L. Ju, B. Geng, J. Horng, C. Girit, M. Martin, Z. Hao, H. A. Bechtel, X. Liang, A. Zettl, Y. R. Shen, and F. Wang, “Graphene plasmonics for tunable terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(10), 630–634 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gluckstad, J.

C. W. Qiu, D. Palima, A. Novitsky, D. Gao, W. Ding, S. V. Zhukovsky, and J. Gluckstad, “Engineering light-matter interaction for emerging optical manipulation applications,” Nanophotonics 3(3), 181–201 (2014).
[Crossref]

Glückstadm, J.

D. Palima and J. Glückstadm, “Gearing up for optical microrobotics: micromanipulation and actuation of synthetic microstructures by optical forces,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7(4), 478–494 (2013).
[Crossref]

Golmar, F.

P. Alonso-González, A. Y. Nikitin, F. Golmar, A. Centeno, A. Pesquera, S. Vélez, J. Chen, G. Navickaite, F. Koppens, A. Zurutuza, F. Casanova, L. E. Hueso, and R. Hillenbrand, “Controlling graphene plasmons with resonant metal antennas and spatial conductivity patterns,” Science 344(6190), 1369–1373 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gong, Y.

H. Lu, Y. Gong, D. Mao, X. Gan, and J. Zhao, “Strong plasmonic confinement and optical force in phosphorene pairs,” Opt. Express 25(5), 5255–5263 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Deng, Z. Luo, N. J. Conrad, H. Liu, Y. Gong, S. Najmaei, P. M. Ajayan, J. Lou, X. Xu, and P. D. Ye, “Black Phosphorus-Monolayer MoS2 van der Waals Heterojunction p-n Diode,” ACS Nano 8(8), 8292–8299 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Grigorenko, A.

A. Grigorenko, M. Polini, and K. Novoselov, “Graphene plasmonics,” Nat. Photonics 6(11), 749–758 (2012).
[Crossref]

Groenendijk, D. J.

M. Buscema, D. J. Groenendijk, S. I. Blanter, G. A. Steele, H. S. van der Zant, and A. Castellanos-Gomez, “Fast and broadband photoresponse of few-layer black phosphorus field-effect transistors,” Nano Lett. 14(6), 3347–3352 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Buscema, D. J. Groenendijk, G. A. Steele, H. S. van der Zant, and A. Castellanos-Gomez, “Photovoltaic effect in few-layer black phosphorus PN junctions defined by local electrostatic gating,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 4651 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gu, M.

Q. Zhang, X. Li, M. M. Hossain, Y. Xue, J. Zhang, J. Song, J. Liu, M. D. Turner, S. Fan, Q. Bao, and M. Gu, “Graphene surface plasmons at the near-infrared optical regime,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 6559 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Lu, C. Zeng, Q. Zhang, X. Liu, M. M. Hossain, P. Reineck, and M. Gu, “Graphene-based active slow surface plasmon polaritons,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 8443 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Guinea, F.

T. Low, R. Roldán, H. Wang, F. Xia, P. Avouris, L. M. Moreno, and F. Guinea, “Plasmons and Screening in Monolayer and Multilayer Black Phosphorus,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113(10), 106802 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Low, R. Roldán, H. Wang, F. Xia, P. Avouris, L. M. Moreno, and F. Guinea, “Plasmons and screening in monolayer and multilayer black phosphorus,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113(10), 106802 (2014).
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Guo, H.

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Moreno, L. M.

T. Low, R. Roldán, H. Wang, F. Xia, P. Avouris, L. M. Moreno, and F. Guinea, “Plasmons and screening in monolayer and multilayer black phosphorus,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113(10), 106802 (2014).
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H. Liu, A. T. Neal, Z. Zhu, Z. Luo, X. Xu, D. Tománek, and P. D. Ye, “Phosphorene: an unexplored 2D semiconductor with a high hole mobility,” ACS Nano 8(4), 4033–4041 (2014).
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Z. Luo, J. Maassen, Y. Deng, Y. Du, R. P. Garrelts, M. S. Lundstrom, P. D. Ye, and X. Xu, “Anisotropic in-plane thermal conductivity observed in few-layer black phosphorus,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 8572 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Liu, A. T. Neal, Z. Zhu, Z. Luo, X. Xu, D. Tománek, and P. D. Ye, “Phosphorene: an unexplored 2D semiconductor with a high hole mobility,” ACS Nano 8(4), 4033–4041 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Deng, Z. Luo, N. J. Conrad, H. Liu, Y. Gong, S. Najmaei, P. M. Ajayan, J. Lou, X. Xu, and P. D. Ye, “Black Phosphorus-Monolayer MoS2 van der Waals Heterojunction p-n Diode,” ACS Nano 8(8), 8292–8299 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yin, X.

X. Yang, Y. Liu, R. F. Oulton, X. Yin, and X. Zhang, “Optical forces in hybrid plasmonic waveguides,” Nano Lett. 11(2), 321–328 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yogeesh, M. N.

W. Zhu, M. N. Yogeesh, S. Yang, S. H. Aldave, J. S. Kim, S. Sonde, L. Tao, N. Lu, and D. Akinwande, “Flexible black phosphorus ambipolar transistors, circuits and AM demodulator,” Nano Lett. 15(3), 1883–1890 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

You, J. B.

Y. Jung, J. Shim, K. Kwon, J. B. You, K. Choi, and K. Yu, “Hybrid integration of III-V semiconductor lasers on silicon waveguides using optofluidic microbubble manipulation,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 29841 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yu, K.

Y. Jung, J. Shim, K. Kwon, J. B. You, K. Choi, and K. Yu, “Hybrid integration of III-V semiconductor lasers on silicon waveguides using optofluidic microbubble manipulation,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 29841 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yu, P.

H. Cheng, S. Chen, P. Yu, X. Duan, B. Xie, and J. Tian, “Dynamically tunable plasmonically induced transparency in periodically patterned graphene nanostrips,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(20), 203122 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yu, Y.

L. Li, Y. Yu, G. J. Ye, Q. Ge, X. Ou, H. Wu, D. Feng, X. H. Chen, and Y. Zhang, “Black Phosphorus Field-effect Transistors,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(5), 372–377 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yu, Z.

S. Zhang, J. Yang, R. Xu, F. Wang, W. Li, M. Ghufran, Y. W. Zhang, Z. Yu, G. Zhang, Q. Qin, and Y. Lu, “Extraordinary Photoluminescence and Strong Temperature/Angle-Dependent Raman Responses in Few-Layer Phosphorene,” ACS Nano 8(9), 9590–9596 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zeng, C.

H. Lu, C. Zeng, Q. Zhang, X. Liu, M. M. Hossain, P. Reineck, and M. Gu, “Graphene-based active slow surface plasmon polaritons,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 8443 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zeng, X. C.

H. Guo, N. Lu, J. Dai, X. Wu, and X. C. Zeng, “Phosphorene Nanoribbons, Phosphorus Nanotubes, and van der Waals Multilayers,” J. Phys. Chem. C 118(25), 14051–14059 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zettl, A.

L. Ju, B. Geng, J. Horng, C. Girit, M. Martin, Z. Hao, H. A. Bechtel, X. Liang, A. Zettl, Y. R. Shen, and F. Wang, “Graphene plasmonics for tunable terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(10), 630–634 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, C.

C. X. Wang, C. Zhang, J. W. Jiang, H. S. Park, and T. Rabczuk, “Mechanical strain effects on black phosphorus nanoresonators,” Nanoscale 8(2), 901–905 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Ge, C. Li, Z. Zhang, C. Zhang, Y. Zhang, J. Qiu, Q. Wang, J. Liu, S. Jia, J. Feng, and D. Sun, “Dynamical evolution of anisotropic response in black phosphorus under ultrafast photoexcitation,” Nano Lett. 15(7), 4650–4656 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, G.

S. Zhang, J. Yang, R. Xu, F. Wang, W. Li, M. Ghufran, Y. W. Zhang, Z. Yu, G. Zhang, Q. Qin, and Y. Lu, “Extraordinary Photoluminescence and Strong Temperature/Angle-Dependent Raman Responses in Few-Layer Phosphorene,” ACS Nano 8(9), 9590–9596 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, J.

Q. Zhang, X. Li, M. M. Hossain, Y. Xue, J. Zhang, J. Song, J. Liu, M. D. Turner, S. Fan, Q. Bao, and M. Gu, “Graphene surface plasmons at the near-infrared optical regime,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 6559 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, L.

T. Cao, L. Zhang, and M. J. Cryan, “Optical forces in metal/dielectric/metal fishnet metamaterials in the visible wavelength regime,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(5), 1861–1869 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Q.

Q. Zhang, X. Li, M. M. Hossain, Y. Xue, J. Zhang, J. Song, J. Liu, M. D. Turner, S. Fan, Q. Bao, and M. Gu, “Graphene surface plasmons at the near-infrared optical regime,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 6559 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Lu, C. Zeng, Q. Zhang, X. Liu, M. M. Hossain, P. Reineck, and M. Gu, “Graphene-based active slow surface plasmon polaritons,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 8443 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, S.

S. Zhang, J. Yang, R. Xu, F. Wang, W. Li, M. Ghufran, Y. W. Zhang, Z. Yu, G. Zhang, Q. Qin, and Y. Lu, “Extraordinary Photoluminescence and Strong Temperature/Angle-Dependent Raman Responses in Few-Layer Phosphorene,” ACS Nano 8(9), 9590–9596 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, T.

T. Cao, J. Bao, L. Mao, T. Zhang, A. Novitsky, M. Nieto-Vesperinas, and C. W. Qiu, “Controlling lateral Fano interference optical force with Au-Ge2Sb2Te5 hybrid nanostructure,” ACS Photonics 3(10), 1934–1942 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zhang, X.

Z. Wang, L. Shi, Y. Liu, X. Xu, and X. Zhang, “Optical nonreciprocity in asymmetric optomechanical couplers,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 8657 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Yang, Y. Liu, R. F. Oulton, X. Yin, and X. Zhang, “Optical forces in hybrid plasmonic waveguides,” Nano Lett. 11(2), 321–328 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, Y.

S. Ge, C. Li, Z. Zhang, C. Zhang, Y. Zhang, J. Qiu, Q. Wang, J. Liu, S. Jia, J. Feng, and D. Sun, “Dynamical evolution of anisotropic response in black phosphorus under ultrafast photoexcitation,” Nano Lett. 15(7), 4650–4656 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Li, Y. Yu, G. J. Ye, Q. Ge, X. Ou, H. Wu, D. Feng, X. H. Chen, and Y. Zhang, “Black Phosphorus Field-effect Transistors,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(5), 372–377 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, Y. W.

S. Zhang, J. Yang, R. Xu, F. Wang, W. Li, M. Ghufran, Y. W. Zhang, Z. Yu, G. Zhang, Q. Qin, and Y. Lu, “Extraordinary Photoluminescence and Strong Temperature/Angle-Dependent Raman Responses in Few-Layer Phosphorene,” ACS Nano 8(9), 9590–9596 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, Z.

S. Ge, C. Li, Z. Zhang, C. Zhang, Y. Zhang, J. Qiu, Q. Wang, J. Liu, S. Jia, J. Feng, and D. Sun, “Dynamical evolution of anisotropic response in black phosphorus under ultrafast photoexcitation,” Nano Lett. 15(7), 4650–4656 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhao, H.

J. He, D. He, Y. Wang, Q. Cui, M. Z. Bellus, H.-Y. Chiu, and H. Zhao, “Exceptional and Anisotropic Transport Properties of Photocarriers in Black Phosphorus,” ACS Nano 9(6), 6436–6442 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhao, J.

Zhu, W.

W. Zhu, M. N. Yogeesh, S. Yang, S. H. Aldave, J. S. Kim, S. Sonde, L. Tao, N. Lu, and D. Akinwande, “Flexible black phosphorus ambipolar transistors, circuits and AM demodulator,” Nano Lett. 15(3), 1883–1890 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhu, Z.

H. Liu, A. T. Neal, Z. Zhu, Z. Luo, X. Xu, D. Tománek, and P. D. Ye, “Phosphorene: an unexplored 2D semiconductor with a high hole mobility,” ACS Nano 8(4), 4033–4041 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhukovsky, S. V.

C. W. Qiu, D. Palima, A. Novitsky, D. Gao, W. Ding, S. V. Zhukovsky, and J. Gluckstad, “Engineering light-matter interaction for emerging optical manipulation applications,” Nanophotonics 3(3), 181–201 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zurutuza, A.

P. Alonso-González, A. Y. Nikitin, F. Golmar, A. Centeno, A. Pesquera, S. Vélez, J. Chen, G. Navickaite, F. Koppens, A. Zurutuza, F. Casanova, L. E. Hueso, and R. Hillenbrand, “Controlling graphene plasmons with resonant metal antennas and spatial conductivity patterns,” Science 344(6190), 1369–1373 (2014).
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ACS Nano (6)

P. Y. Chen and A. Alù, “Atomically thin surface cloak using graphene monolayers,” ACS Nano 5(7), 5855–5863 (2011).
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H. Liu, A. T. Neal, Z. Zhu, Z. Luo, X. Xu, D. Tománek, and P. D. Ye, “Phosphorene: an unexplored 2D semiconductor with a high hole mobility,” ACS Nano 8(4), 4033–4041 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. He, D. He, Y. Wang, Q. Cui, M. Z. Bellus, H.-Y. Chiu, and H. Zhao, “Exceptional and Anisotropic Transport Properties of Photocarriers in Black Phosphorus,” ACS Nano 9(6), 6436–6442 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Deng, Z. Luo, N. J. Conrad, H. Liu, Y. Gong, S. Najmaei, P. M. Ajayan, J. Lou, X. Xu, and P. D. Ye, “Black Phosphorus-Monolayer MoS2 van der Waals Heterojunction p-n Diode,” ACS Nano 8(8), 8292–8299 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wu, G. K. Koon, D. Xiang, C. Han, C. T. Toh, E. S. Kulkarni, I. Verzhbitskiy, A. Carvalho, A. S. Rodin, S. P. Koenig, G. Eda, W. Chen, A. H. Neto, and B. Özyilmaz, “Colossal Ultraviolet Photoresponsivity of Few-Layer Black Phosphorus,” ACS Nano 9(8), 8070–8077 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Zhang, J. Yang, R. Xu, F. Wang, W. Li, M. Ghufran, Y. W. Zhang, Z. Yu, G. Zhang, Q. Qin, and Y. Lu, “Extraordinary Photoluminescence and Strong Temperature/Angle-Dependent Raman Responses in Few-Layer Phosphorene,” ACS Nano 8(9), 9590–9596 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

ACS Photonics (1)

T. Cao, J. Bao, L. Mao, T. Zhang, A. Novitsky, M. Nieto-Vesperinas, and C. W. Qiu, “Controlling lateral Fano interference optical force with Au-Ge2Sb2Te5 hybrid nanostructure,” ACS Photonics 3(10), 1934–1942 (2016).
[Crossref]

Adv. Mater. (2)

J. Lu, A. Carvalho, J. Wu, H. Liu, E. S. Tok, A. H. C. Neto, B. Özyilmaz, and C. H. Sow, “Enhanced photoresponse from phosphorene–phosphorene-suboxide junction fashioned by focused laser micromachining,” Adv. Mater. 28(21), 4090–4096 (2016).
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L. Viti, J. Hu, D. Coquillat, W. Knap, A. Tredicucci, A. Politano, and M. S. Vitiello, “Black phosphorus terahertz photodetectors,” Adv. Mater. 27(37), 5567–5572 (2015).
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Adv. Theory Simul. (1)

T. Cao, J. Bao, and L. Mao, “Switching of Giant Lateral Force on Sub-10 nm Particle Using Phase-Change Nanoantenna,” Adv. Theory Simul. 1(2), 1870005 (2018).
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Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

H. Cheng, S. Chen, P. Yu, X. Duan, B. Xie, and J. Tian, “Dynamically tunable plasmonically induced transparency in periodically patterned graphene nanostrips,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(20), 203122 (2013).
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M. L. Povinelli, M. Ibanescu, S. G. Johnson, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Slow-light enhancement of radiation pressure in an omnidirectional-reflector waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(9), 1466–1468 (2004).
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IEEE Photonics J. (1)

T. Cao, L. Zhang, and M. J. Cryan, “Optical forces in metal/dielectric/metal fishnet metamaterials in the visible wavelength regime,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(5), 1861–1869 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. Chem. C (1)

H. Guo, N. Lu, J. Dai, X. Wu, and X. C. Zeng, “Phosphorene Nanoribbons, Phosphorus Nanotubes, and van der Waals Multilayers,” J. Phys. Chem. C 118(25), 14051–14059 (2014).
[Crossref]

Laser Photonics Rev. (1)

D. Palima and J. Glückstadm, “Gearing up for optical microrobotics: micromanipulation and actuation of synthetic microstructures by optical forces,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7(4), 478–494 (2013).
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Microsyst. Nanoeng. (1)

T. Cao, L. Tian, H. Liang, and K. R. Qin, “Reconfigurable, graphene-coated, chalcogenide nanowires with a sub-10-nm enantioselective sorting capability,” Microsyst. Nanoeng. 4(1), 1–8 (2018).
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Nano Lett. (7)

M. Buscema, D. J. Groenendijk, S. I. Blanter, G. A. Steele, H. S. van der Zant, and A. Castellanos-Gomez, “Fast and broadband photoresponse of few-layer black phosphorus field-effect transistors,” Nano Lett. 14(6), 3347–3352 (2014).
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Z. Liu and K. Aydin, “Localized Surface Plasmons in Nanostructured Monolayer Black Phosphorus,” Nano Lett. 16(6), 3457–3462 (2016).
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W. Zhu, M. N. Yogeesh, S. Yang, S. H. Aldave, J. S. Kim, S. Sonde, L. Tao, N. Lu, and D. Akinwande, “Flexible black phosphorus ambipolar transistors, circuits and AM demodulator,” Nano Lett. 15(3), 1883–1890 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Yang, Y. Liu, R. F. Oulton, X. Yin, and X. Zhang, “Optical forces in hybrid plasmonic waveguides,” Nano Lett. 11(2), 321–328 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Ge, C. Li, Z. Zhang, C. Zhang, Y. Zhang, J. Qiu, Q. Wang, J. Liu, S. Jia, J. Feng, and D. Sun, “Dynamical evolution of anisotropic response in black phosphorus under ultrafast photoexcitation,” Nano Lett. 15(7), 4650–4656 (2015).
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V. W. Brar, M. S. Jang, M. Sherrott, J. J. Lopez, and H. A. Atwater, “Highly Confined Tunable Mid-Infrared Plasmonics in Graphene Nanoresonators,” Nano Lett. 13(6), 2541–2547 (2013).
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A. Yu. Nikitin, P. Alonso-González, and R. Hillenbrand, “Efficient coupling of light to graphene plasmons by compressing surface polaritons with tapered bulk materials,” Nano Lett. 14(5), 2896–2901 (2014).
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Nanophotonics (1)

C. W. Qiu, D. Palima, A. Novitsky, D. Gao, W. Ding, S. V. Zhukovsky, and J. Gluckstad, “Engineering light-matter interaction for emerging optical manipulation applications,” Nanophotonics 3(3), 181–201 (2014).
[Crossref]

Nanoscale (4)

T. Cao, L. Mao, D. Gao, W. Ding, and C. W. Qiu, “Fano resonant Ge2Sb2Te5 nanoparticles realize switchable lateral optical force,” Nanoscale 8(10), 5657–5666 (2016).
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T. Cao and Y. Qiu, “Lateral sorting of chiral nanoparticles using Fano-enhanced chiral force in visible region,” Nanoscale 10(2), 566–574 (2018).
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Q. Feng, F. Yan, W. Luo, and K. Wang, “Charge trap memory based on few-layer black phosphorus,” Nanoscale 8(5), 2686–2692 (2016).
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C. X. Wang, C. Zhang, J. W. Jiang, H. S. Park, and T. Rabczuk, “Mechanical strain effects on black phosphorus nanoresonators,” Nanoscale 8(2), 901–905 (2016).
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Nat. Commun. (3)

M. Buscema, D. J. Groenendijk, G. A. Steele, H. S. van der Zant, and A. Castellanos-Gomez, “Photovoltaic effect in few-layer black phosphorus PN junctions defined by local electrostatic gating,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 4651 (2014).
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Z. Luo, J. Maassen, Y. Deng, Y. Du, R. P. Garrelts, M. S. Lundstrom, P. D. Ye, and X. Xu, “Anisotropic in-plane thermal conductivity observed in few-layer black phosphorus,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 8572 (2015).
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F. Xia, H. Wang, and Y. Jia, “Rediscovering black phosphorus as an anisotropic layered material for optoelectronics and electronics,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 4458 (2014).
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Nat. Nanotechnol. (2)

L. Ju, B. Geng, J. Horng, C. Girit, M. Martin, Z. Hao, H. A. Bechtel, X. Liang, A. Zettl, Y. R. Shen, and F. Wang, “Graphene plasmonics for tunable terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(10), 630–634 (2011).
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L. Li, Y. Yu, G. J. Ye, Q. Ge, X. Ou, H. Wu, D. Feng, X. H. Chen, and Y. Zhang, “Black Phosphorus Field-effect Transistors,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(5), 372–377 (2014).
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M. Li, W. H. Pernice, C. Xiong, T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, and H. X. Tang, “Harnessing optical forces in integrated photonic circuits,” Nature 456(7221), 480–484 (2008).
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T. Low, A. S. Rodin, A. Carvalho, Y. Jiang, H. Wang, F. Xia, and A. H. C. Neto, “Tunable optical properties of multilayer black phosphorus thin films,” Phys. Rev. B 90(7), 075434 (2014).
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T. R. Lin, C. H. Lin, and J. C. Hsu, “Strong Optomechanical Interaction in Hybrid Plasmonic-Photonic Crystal Nanocavities with Surface Acoustic Waves,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 13782 (2015).
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R. Leijssen and E. Verhagen, “Strong optomechanical interactions in a sliced photonic crystal nanobeam,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 15974 (2015).
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Z. Wang, L. Shi, Y. Liu, X. Xu, and X. Zhang, “Optical nonreciprocity in asymmetric optomechanical couplers,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 8657 (2015).
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Y. Jung, J. Shim, K. Kwon, J. B. You, K. Choi, and K. Yu, “Hybrid integration of III-V semiconductor lasers on silicon waveguides using optofluidic microbubble manipulation,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 29841 (2016).
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H. Lu, C. Zeng, Q. Zhang, X. Liu, M. M. Hossain, P. Reineck, and M. Gu, “Graphene-based active slow surface plasmon polaritons,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 8443 (2015).
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Q. Zhang, X. Li, M. M. Hossain, Y. Xue, J. Zhang, J. Song, J. Liu, M. D. Turner, S. Fan, Q. Bao, and M. Gu, “Graphene surface plasmons at the near-infrared optical regime,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 6559 (2015).
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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) The molecular structure of three-layer phosphorene; (b) Top view of BP. The x and z axes are along the zigzag and armchair directions, respectively; (c) The first diagrammatic sketch of the structure employed.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Real and (b) imaginary parts of the relative permittivities of BP in the z-axis (armchair) and x-axis (zigzag) directions in the infrared regions.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a,b) The electric field y-component with d = 50 nm and effective refractive index of the symmetric mode and the anti-symmetric mode for the Armchair configuration, respectively. (c,d) Optical constraint ratio(ξ) of the two modes in the BP pair with various d. The inset shows the intensity of normalized Pz with d = 50 nm. (e) The gradient force of the two modes with different d.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a,b) The effective refractive index of several different widths and thickness, respectively.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a,b) The electric field y-component with d = 50 nm and effective refractive index of the symmetric mode and the anti-symmetric mode for the Zigzag configuration, respectively. (c,d) Optical constraint ratio(ξ) of the two modes in the BP pair with various d. The inset shows the intensity of normalized Pz with d = 50 nm. (e) The gradient force of the two modes with different d.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 (a,b) The electric field y-component with d = 50 nm and effective refractive index of the symmetric mode and the anti-symmetric mode for the Armchair + Zigzag configuration, respectively. (c,d) Optical constraint ratio(ξ) of the two modes in the BP pair with various d. The inset shows the intensity of normalized Pz with d = 50 nm. (e) The gradient force of the two modes with different d.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 (a) The first diagrammatic sketch of the structure employed. (b) The electric field x-component of the symmetric mode and the anti-symmetric mode for the phosphorene nanoribbons arranged in three ways with d = 20 nm, respectively. (c,d) The effective refractive index and the gradient force of the above modes with various d.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 (a) The 3D schematic illustration of the optomechanical phase shifter. (b) The propagation length of the mode given by the inset. The inset shows the electric field x-component at wavelength λ0 = 20 μm. (c,d) Deflection and the effective refractive index along the free-standing waveguide under the circumstance of different incident power.

Equations (13)

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σ j j = i D j π ( ω + i ς / ) .
m c x = 2 2 υ c , m c z = 2 ( Δ + ς c ) 2 γ 2 ,
ε j j = ε r + i σ j j ε 0 ω t ,
E y = E 0 { cos ( k y t 2 + θ ) ψ ( y ) 0 < | y | < d 2 1 ε y cos [ k y ( | y | d 2 t 2 ) + θ ] d 2 < | y | < d 2 + t cos ( k y t 2 + θ ) exp [ χ ( | y | d 2 t ) ] | y | > d 2 + t
E z = E 0 { i χ β cos ( k y t 2 + θ ) ψ ' ( y ) 0 < | y | < d 2 i k y β ε z y | y | sin [ k y ( | y | d 2 t 2 ) + θ ] d 2 < | y | < d 2 + t i χ β y | y | cos ( k y t 2 + θ ) exp [ χ ( | y | d 2 t ) ] | y | > d 2 + t .
β 2 ε y + k y 2 ε z = k 0 2 , β 2 χ 2 = k 0 2 ,
tan ( k y t 2 + θ ) = χ ε z k y Θ ,
tan ( k y t 2 + θ ) = χ ε z k y ,
T i j = ε 0 ( E i E j δ i j E 2 / 2 ) + μ 0 ( H i H j δ i j H 2 / 2 ) ,
f n = s T d S n y ,
f n = 1 c n e f f d | ω .
ξ = d / 2 d / 2 P z d s / P z d s .
Δ φ = β 1 ( z ) d z β 2 ( z ) d z ,

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