Abstract

Fourier ptychography (FP) is a promising computational imaging technique that overcomes the physical space-bandwidth product (SBP) limit of a conventional microscope by applying angular-varied illuminations. However, to date, the effective imaging numerical aperture (NA) achievable with a commercial LED board is still limited to the range of 0.3−0.7 with a 4 × /0.1NA objective due to the geometric constraint with the declined illumination intensities and attenuated signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Thus the highest achievable half-pitch resolution is usually constrained between 500−1000 nm, which cannot meet the requirements of high-resolution biomedical imaging applications. Although it is possible to improve the resolution by using a high-NA objective lens, the FP approach is less appealing as the decrease of field-of-view (FOV) will far exceed the improvement of spatial resolution in this case. In this paper, we initially present a subwavelength resolution Fourier ptychography (SRFP) platform with a hemispherical digital condenser to provide high-angle programmable plane-wave illuminations of 0.95NA, attaining a 4 × /0.1NA objective with the final effective imaging performance of 1.05NA at a half-pitch resolution of 244 nm with the incident wavelength of 465 nm across a wide FOV of 14.60 mm2, corresponding to a SBP of 245 megapixels. Our work provides an essential step of FP towards high-throughput imaging applications.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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2017 (7)

Y. Zhang, A. Pan, M. Lei, and B. Yao, “Data preprocessing methods for robust Fourier ptychographic microscopy,” Opt. Eng. 56(12), 123107 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. Pan, Y. Zhang, T. Zhao, Z. Wang, D. Dan, M. Lei, and B. Yao, “System calibration method for Fourier ptychographic microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 22(9), 1–11 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Sun, C. Zuo, L. Zhang, and Q. Chen, “Resolution-enhanced Fourier ptychographic microscopy based on high-numerical-aperture illuminations,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 1187 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Fan, J. Sun, Q. Chen, M. Wang, and C. Zuo, “Adaptive denoising method for Fourier ptychographic microscopy,” Opt. Commun. 404, 23–31 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. Alotaibi, S. Skinner-Ramos, A. Alamri, B. Alharbi, M. Alfarraj, and L. Grave de Peralta, “Illumination-direction multiplexing Fourier ptychographic microscopy using hemispherical digital condensers,” Appl. Opt. 56(14), 4052–4057 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Liu, Y. Li, W. Wang, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, J. Tan, and C. Liu, “Stable and robust frequency domain position compensation strategy for Fourier ptychographic microscopy,” Opt. Express 25(23), 28053–28067 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Rivenson, Z. Göröcs, H. Günaydin, Y. Zhang, H. Wang, and A. Ozcan, “Deep learning microscopy,” Optica 4(11), 1437–1443 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (6)

2015 (9)

S. Sen, L. Molina, D. Cao, D. B. Desai, A. A. Bernussi, and L. Grave de Peralta, “Versatile optical microscopy using a reconfigurable hemispherical digital condenser,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(3), 658–667 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Ou, R. Horstmeyer, G. Zheng, and C. Yang, “High numerical aperture Fourier ptychography: principle, implementation and characterization,” Opt. Express 23(3), 3472–3491 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Guo, S. Dong, P. Nanda, and G. Zheng, “Optimization of sampling pattern and the design of Fourier ptychographic illuminator,” Opt. Express 23(5), 6171–6180 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Guo, J. Liao, Z. Bian, X. Heng, and G. Zheng, “InstantScope: a low-cost whole slide imaging system with instant focal plane detection,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(9), 3210–3216 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Tian, Z. Liu, L. Yeh, M. Chen, J. Zhong, and L. Waller, “Computational illumination for high-speed in vitro Fourier ptychographic microscopy,” Optica 2(10), 904–911 (2015).
[Crossref]

Z. Wang, M. Lei, B. Yao, Y. Cai, Y. Liang, Y. Yang, X. Yang, H. Li, and D. Xiong, “Compact multi-band fluorescent microscope with an electrically tunable lens for autofocusing,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(11), 4353–4364 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Luo, A. Greenbaum, Y. Zhang, and A. Ozcan, “Synthetic aperture-based on-chip microscopy,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(3), e261 (2015).
[Crossref]

Z. F. Phillips, M. V. D’Ambrosio, L. Tian, J. J. Rulison, H. S. Patel, N. Sadras, A. V. Gande, N. A. Switz, D. A. Fletcher, and L. Waller, “Multi-contrast imaging and digital refocusing on a mobile microscope with a domed LED array,” PLoS One 10(5), e0124938 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Horstmeyer, X. Ou, G. Zheng, P. Willems, and C. Yang, “Digital pathology with Fourier ptychography,” Comput. Med. Imaging Graph. 42, 38–43 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (4)

2013 (4)

X. Ou, R. Horstmeyer, C. Yang, and G. Zheng, “Quantitative phase imaging via Fourier ptychographic microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 38(22), 4845–4848 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Bian, S. Dong, and G. Zheng, “Adaptive system correction for robust Fourier ptychographic imaging,” Opt. Express 21(26), 32400–32410 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Dan, M. Lei, B. Yao, W. Wang, M. Winterhalder, A. Zumbusch, Y. Qi, L. Xia, S. Yan, Y. Yang, P. Gao, T. Ye, and W. Zhao, “DMD-based LED-illumination super-resolution and optical sectioning microscopy,” Sci. Rep. 3(1), 1116 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Zheng, R. Horstmeyer, and C. Yang, “Wide-field, high-resolution Fourier ptychographic microscopy,” Nat. Photonics 7(9), 739–745 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (3)

2010 (1)

A. R. Cohen, F. L. Gomes, B. Roysam, and M. Cayouette, “Computational prediction of neural progenitor cell fates,” Nat. Methods 7(3), 213–218 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

A. M. Maiden and J. M. Rodenburg, “An improved ptychographical phase retrieval algorithm for diffractive imaging,” Ultramicroscopy 109(10), 1256–1262 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

M. G. Gustafsson, L. Shao, P. M. Carlton, C. J. Wang, I. N. Golubovskaya, W. Z. Cande, D. A. Agard, and J. W. Sedat, “Three-dimensional resolution doubling in wide-field fluorescence microscopy by structured illumination,” Biophys. J. 94(12), 4957–4970 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

2004 (1)

J. M. Rodenburg and H. M. L. Faulkner, “A phase retrieval algorithm for shifting illumination,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(20), 4795–4797 (2004).
[Crossref]

Agard, D. A.

M. G. Gustafsson, L. Shao, P. M. Carlton, C. J. Wang, I. N. Golubovskaya, W. Z. Cande, D. A. Agard, and J. W. Sedat, “Three-dimensional resolution doubling in wide-field fluorescence microscopy by structured illumination,” Biophys. J. 94(12), 4957–4970 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ahmed, I.

Alamri, A.

Alfarraj, M.

Alharbi, B.

Aljubran, B.

Alotaibi, M.

Bernussi, A. A.

Bian, Z.

Brooker, G.

Cai, Y.

Cande, W. Z.

M. G. Gustafsson, L. Shao, P. M. Carlton, C. J. Wang, I. N. Golubovskaya, W. Z. Cande, D. A. Agard, and J. W. Sedat, “Three-dimensional resolution doubling in wide-field fluorescence microscopy by structured illumination,” Biophys. J. 94(12), 4957–4970 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cao, D.

Carlton, P. M.

M. G. Gustafsson, L. Shao, P. M. Carlton, C. J. Wang, I. N. Golubovskaya, W. Z. Cande, D. A. Agard, and J. W. Sedat, “Three-dimensional resolution doubling in wide-field fluorescence microscopy by structured illumination,” Biophys. J. 94(12), 4957–4970 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cayouette, M.

A. R. Cohen, F. L. Gomes, B. Roysam, and M. Cayouette, “Computational prediction of neural progenitor cell fates,” Nat. Methods 7(3), 213–218 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, M.

Chen, Q.

Chung, J.

Cohen, A. R.

A. R. Cohen, F. L. Gomes, B. Roysam, and M. Cayouette, “Computational prediction of neural progenitor cell fates,” Nat. Methods 7(3), 213–218 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D’Ambrosio, M. V.

Z. F. Phillips, M. V. D’Ambrosio, L. Tian, J. J. Rulison, H. S. Patel, N. Sadras, A. V. Gande, N. A. Switz, D. A. Fletcher, and L. Waller, “Multi-contrast imaging and digital refocusing on a mobile microscope with a domed LED array,” PLoS One 10(5), e0124938 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dan, D.

A. Pan, Y. Zhang, T. Zhao, Z. Wang, D. Dan, M. Lei, and B. Yao, “System calibration method for Fourier ptychographic microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 22(9), 1–11 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Dan, M. Lei, B. Yao, W. Wang, M. Winterhalder, A. Zumbusch, Y. Qi, L. Xia, S. Yan, Y. Yang, P. Gao, T. Ye, and W. Zhao, “DMD-based LED-illumination super-resolution and optical sectioning microscopy,” Sci. Rep. 3(1), 1116 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Desai, D. B.

Dominguez, D.

Dong, S.

Fan, Y.

Y. Fan, J. Sun, Q. Chen, M. Wang, and C. Zuo, “Adaptive denoising method for Fourier ptychographic microscopy,” Opt. Commun. 404, 23–31 (2017).
[Crossref]

Faulkner, H. M. L.

J. M. Rodenburg and H. M. L. Faulkner, “A phase retrieval algorithm for shifting illumination,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(20), 4795–4797 (2004).
[Crossref]

Fienup, J. R.

Fletcher, D. A.

Z. F. Phillips, M. V. D’Ambrosio, L. Tian, J. J. Rulison, H. S. Patel, N. Sadras, A. V. Gande, N. A. Switz, D. A. Fletcher, and L. Waller, “Multi-contrast imaging and digital refocusing on a mobile microscope with a domed LED array,” PLoS One 10(5), e0124938 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gande, A. V.

Z. F. Phillips, M. V. D’Ambrosio, L. Tian, J. J. Rulison, H. S. Patel, N. Sadras, A. V. Gande, N. A. Switz, D. A. Fletcher, and L. Waller, “Multi-contrast imaging and digital refocusing on a mobile microscope with a domed LED array,” PLoS One 10(5), e0124938 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gao, P.

D. Dan, M. Lei, B. Yao, W. Wang, M. Winterhalder, A. Zumbusch, Y. Qi, L. Xia, S. Yan, Y. Yang, P. Gao, T. Ye, and W. Zhao, “DMD-based LED-illumination super-resolution and optical sectioning microscopy,” Sci. Rep. 3(1), 1116 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

García, J.

García-Martínez, P.

Golubovskaya, I. N.

M. G. Gustafsson, L. Shao, P. M. Carlton, C. J. Wang, I. N. Golubovskaya, W. Z. Cande, D. A. Agard, and J. W. Sedat, “Three-dimensional resolution doubling in wide-field fluorescence microscopy by structured illumination,” Biophys. J. 94(12), 4957–4970 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gomes, F. L.

A. R. Cohen, F. L. Gomes, B. Roysam, and M. Cayouette, “Computational prediction of neural progenitor cell fates,” Nat. Methods 7(3), 213–218 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Göröcs, Z.

Grave de Peralta, L.

Greenbaum, A.

W. Luo, A. Greenbaum, Y. Zhang, and A. Ozcan, “Synthetic aperture-based on-chip microscopy,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(3), e261 (2015).
[Crossref]

Günaydin, H.

Guo, K.

Gustafsson, M. G.

M. G. Gustafsson, L. Shao, P. M. Carlton, C. J. Wang, I. N. Golubovskaya, W. Z. Cande, D. A. Agard, and J. W. Sedat, “Three-dimensional resolution doubling in wide-field fluorescence microscopy by structured illumination,” Biophys. J. 94(12), 4957–4970 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Heng, X.

Horstmeyer, R.

Kim, J.

Kumar, A.

Lei, M.

A. Pan, Y. Zhang, T. Zhao, Z. Wang, D. Dan, M. Lei, and B. Yao, “System calibration method for Fourier ptychographic microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 22(9), 1–11 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Zhang, A. Pan, M. Lei, and B. Yao, “Data preprocessing methods for robust Fourier ptychographic microscopy,” Opt. Eng. 56(12), 123107 (2017).
[Crossref]

Z. Wang, M. Lei, B. Yao, Y. Cai, Y. Liang, Y. Yang, X. Yang, H. Li, and D. Xiong, “Compact multi-band fluorescent microscope with an electrically tunable lens for autofocusing,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(11), 4353–4364 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Dan, M. Lei, B. Yao, W. Wang, M. Winterhalder, A. Zumbusch, Y. Qi, L. Xia, S. Yan, Y. Yang, P. Gao, T. Ye, and W. Zhao, “DMD-based LED-illumination super-resolution and optical sectioning microscopy,” Sci. Rep. 3(1), 1116 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, H.

Li, X.

Li, Y.

Liang, Y.

Liao, J.

Liu, C.

Liu, J.

Liu, Z.

Luo, W.

W. Luo, A. Greenbaum, Y. Zhang, and A. Ozcan, “Synthetic aperture-based on-chip microscopy,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(3), e261 (2015).
[Crossref]

Maiden, A. M.

A. M. Maiden and J. M. Rodenburg, “An improved ptychographical phase retrieval algorithm for diffractive imaging,” Ultramicroscopy 109(10), 1256–1262 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mico, V.

Molina, L.

Nanda, P.

O’Loughlin, T.

Ou, X.

Ozcan, A.

Y. Rivenson, Z. Göröcs, H. Günaydin, Y. Zhang, H. Wang, and A. Ozcan, “Deep learning microscopy,” Optica 4(11), 1437–1443 (2017).
[Crossref]

W. Luo, A. Greenbaum, Y. Zhang, and A. Ozcan, “Synthetic aperture-based on-chip microscopy,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(3), e261 (2015).
[Crossref]

Pan, A.

A. Pan, Y. Zhang, T. Zhao, Z. Wang, D. Dan, M. Lei, and B. Yao, “System calibration method for Fourier ptychographic microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 22(9), 1–11 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Zhang, A. Pan, M. Lei, and B. Yao, “Data preprocessing methods for robust Fourier ptychographic microscopy,” Opt. Eng. 56(12), 123107 (2017).
[Crossref]

Patel, H. S.

Z. F. Phillips, M. V. D’Ambrosio, L. Tian, J. J. Rulison, H. S. Patel, N. Sadras, A. V. Gande, N. A. Switz, D. A. Fletcher, and L. Waller, “Multi-contrast imaging and digital refocusing on a mobile microscope with a domed LED array,” PLoS One 10(5), e0124938 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Phillips, Z. F.

Z. F. Phillips, M. V. D’Ambrosio, L. Tian, J. J. Rulison, H. S. Patel, N. Sadras, A. V. Gande, N. A. Switz, D. A. Fletcher, and L. Waller, “Multi-contrast imaging and digital refocusing on a mobile microscope with a domed LED array,” PLoS One 10(5), e0124938 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Qi, Y.

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J. M. Rodenburg and H. M. L. Faulkner, “A phase retrieval algorithm for shifting illumination,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(20), 4795–4797 (2004).
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Roysam, B.

A. R. Cohen, F. L. Gomes, B. Roysam, and M. Cayouette, “Computational prediction of neural progenitor cell fates,” Nat. Methods 7(3), 213–218 (2010).
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Z. Bian, S. Dong, and G. Zheng, “Adaptive system correction for robust Fourier ptychographic imaging,” Opt. Express 21(26), 32400–32410 (2013).
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G. Zheng, R. Horstmeyer, and C. Yang, “Wide-field, high-resolution Fourier ptychographic microscopy,” Nat. Photonics 7(9), 739–745 (2013).
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Zhong, J.

Zumbusch, A.

D. Dan, M. Lei, B. Yao, W. Wang, M. Winterhalder, A. Zumbusch, Y. Qi, L. Xia, S. Yan, Y. Yang, P. Gao, T. Ye, and W. Zhao, “DMD-based LED-illumination super-resolution and optical sectioning microscopy,” Sci. Rep. 3(1), 1116 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zuo, C.

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

J. M. Rodenburg and H. M. L. Faulkner, “A phase retrieval algorithm for shifting illumination,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(20), 4795–4797 (2004).
[Crossref]

Biomed. Opt. Express (6)

Biophys. J. (1)

M. G. Gustafsson, L. Shao, P. M. Carlton, C. J. Wang, I. N. Golubovskaya, W. Z. Cande, D. A. Agard, and J. W. Sedat, “Three-dimensional resolution doubling in wide-field fluorescence microscopy by structured illumination,” Biophys. J. 94(12), 4957–4970 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Comput. Med. Imaging Graph. (1)

R. Horstmeyer, X. Ou, G. Zheng, P. Willems, and C. Yang, “Digital pathology with Fourier ptychography,” Comput. Med. Imaging Graph. 42, 38–43 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

A. Pan, Y. Zhang, T. Zhao, Z. Wang, D. Dan, M. Lei, and B. Yao, “System calibration method for Fourier ptychographic microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 22(9), 1–11 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Cell Sci. (1)

N. Rimon and M. Schuldiner, “Getting the whole picture: combining throughput with content in microscopy,” J. Cell Sci. 124(22), 3743–3751 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Light Sci. Appl. (1)

W. Luo, A. Greenbaum, Y. Zhang, and A. Ozcan, “Synthetic aperture-based on-chip microscopy,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(3), e261 (2015).
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Nat. Methods (1)

A. R. Cohen, F. L. Gomes, B. Roysam, and M. Cayouette, “Computational prediction of neural progenitor cell fates,” Nat. Methods 7(3), 213–218 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (1)

G. Zheng, R. Horstmeyer, and C. Yang, “Wide-field, high-resolution Fourier ptychographic microscopy,” Nat. Photonics 7(9), 739–745 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun. (1)

Y. Fan, J. Sun, Q. Chen, M. Wang, and C. Zuo, “Adaptive denoising method for Fourier ptychographic microscopy,” Opt. Commun. 404, 23–31 (2017).
[Crossref]

Opt. Eng. (1)

Y. Zhang, A. Pan, M. Lei, and B. Yao, “Data preprocessing methods for robust Fourier ptychographic microscopy,” Opt. Eng. 56(12), 123107 (2017).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (11)

J. Sun, Q. Chen, Y. Zhang, and C. Zuo, “Sampling criteria for Fourier ptychographic microscopy in object space and frequency space,” Opt. Express 24(14), 15765–15781 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Ou, R. Horstmeyer, G. Zheng, and C. Yang, “High numerical aperture Fourier ptychography: principle, implementation and characterization,” Opt. Express 23(3), 3472–3491 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Ou, G. Zheng, and C. Yang, “Embedded pupil function recovery for Fourier ptychographic microscopy,” Opt. Express 22(5), 4960–4972 (2014).
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C. Zuo, J. Sun, and Q. Chen, “Adaptive step-size strategy for noise-robust Fourier ptychographic microscopy,” Opt. Express 24(18), 20724–20744 (2016).
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K. Guo, S. Dong, P. Nanda, and G. Zheng, “Optimization of sampling pattern and the design of Fourier ptychographic illuminator,” Opt. Express 23(5), 6171–6180 (2015).
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Z. Bian, S. Dong, and G. Zheng, “Adaptive system correction for robust Fourier ptychographic imaging,” Opt. Express 21(26), 32400–32410 (2013).
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J. Rosen, N. Siegel, and G. Brooker, “Theoretical and experimental demonstration of resolution beyond the Rayleigh limit by FINCH fluorescence microscopic imaging,” Opt. Express 19(27), 26249–26268 (2011).
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S. Dong, P. Nanda, R. Shiradkar, K. Guo, and G. Zheng, “High-resolution fluorescence imaging via pattern-illuminated Fourier ptychography,” Opt. Express 22(17), 20856–20870 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Liu, Y. Li, W. Wang, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, J. Tan, and C. Liu, “Stable and robust frequency domain position compensation strategy for Fourier ptychographic microscopy,” Opt. Express 25(23), 28053–28067 (2017).
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Optica (3)

PLoS One (1)

Z. F. Phillips, M. V. D’Ambrosio, L. Tian, J. J. Rulison, H. S. Patel, N. Sadras, A. V. Gande, N. A. Switz, D. A. Fletcher, and L. Waller, “Multi-contrast imaging and digital refocusing on a mobile microscope with a domed LED array,” PLoS One 10(5), e0124938 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sci. Rep. (2)

J. Sun, C. Zuo, L. Zhang, and Q. Chen, “Resolution-enhanced Fourier ptychographic microscopy based on high-numerical-aperture illuminations,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 1187 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Dan, M. Lei, B. Yao, W. Wang, M. Winterhalder, A. Zumbusch, Y. Qi, L. Xia, S. Yan, Y. Yang, P. Gao, T. Ye, and W. Zhao, “DMD-based LED-illumination super-resolution and optical sectioning microscopy,” Sci. Rep. 3(1), 1116 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ultramicroscopy (1)

A. M. Maiden and J. M. Rodenburg, “An improved ptychographical phase retrieval algorithm for diffractive imaging,” Ultramicroscopy 109(10), 1256–1262 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Supplementary Material (1)

NameDescription
» Visualization 1       During the data acquisition process, 415 LED elements on the hemispherical digital condenser are lighted up sequentially as shown in Video 1.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Schematic of traditional FP platform with LED board. (a1) A 32 × 32 programmable R/G/B LED matrix. (a2) The enlargement of a compact inverted microscope with light path diagram. MO: microscope objective; TL: tube lens; M1 and M2: mirrors; BS: beam splitter. (b) Schematic of our SRFP platform with hemispherical digital condensers. (b1) Assembly of two 3D-printed quarter-spherical condensers. (b2) Photography of the hemispherical digital condensers. (c) and (d) Photographs of the corresponding optical setups, respectively.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Imaging results of conventional bright-field microscopy for the USAF resolution target. (a), (b), (c) and (d) The full FOV of the incoherent microscopy by using a 4 × /0.1NA, 10 × /0.3NA, 20 × /0.45NA and 40 × /0.6NA objective, respectively. (a1), (b1), (c1) and (d1) The corresponding zoom-in sections.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Experimental results of the USAF resolution target with traditional FP platform. (a) The full FOV captured with a 4 × /0.1NA objective. (a1) and (a2) Enlarged sub-regions of Fig. 2(a) and Fig. 2(a1), respectively. (b), (b1)-(b6) and (c1)-(c6) The recovery results of the same sub-region with different NAsyn and their close-up, respectively. (d1)-(d6) and (e1)-(e6) The recovered spectrum and their corresponding LR segments at the highest illumination angle of different NAsyn respectively.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Experimental results of the USAF resolution target with SRFP platform. (a1)-(a5) and (d1)-(d5) The recovery results of the same sub-region with different NAsyn under different brightness respectively. (b1)-(b5), (c1)-(c5), (e1)-(e5) and (f1)-(f5) The recovered spectrum and their corresponding LR segments at the highest illumination angle of different NAsyn under different brightness respectively.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 The LED intensity correction method. (a) and (b) The model of planar LED array and hemispherical digital condenser respectively. (c) and (d) Normalized measured intensity falloff as a function of incident angle with the LED board and the condenser respectively. Falloff is proportional to cos4θ for the LED board and cosθ for the condenser (black line). (e) and (f) Top view of the normalized illumination brightness of each LED element for the planar LED array and the condenser respectively.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Simulations and experimental results with system calibration methods in SRFP platform. (a) and (b) The group truth of intensity and phase in simulations respectively. (a1)-(a4), (b1)-(b4) and (c1)-(c4) The recovered results of intensity, phase and spectrum with different processing procedures in simulations. The numbers listed in the bottom right indicate the RMSE relative to the simulation ground truth. (d1)-(d4) and (e1)-(e4) The recovered results of intensity and spectrum of USAF resolution target with different processing procedures in experiments. A: LED intensity correction method; B: LED position correction method.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Imaging and recovery results of conventional bright-field microscopy, traditional FP and SRFP platforms for the same rabbit tongue tissue section. (a) The full FOV captured with a 4 × /0.1NA objective. (b1)-(b3) Imaging and recovery results of the same sub-region (blue rectangle, 100 × 100 pixels) using different platforms. (c) Intensity distributions along the solid line in Figs. 7(b1)–(b3). (d1)-(d4) Phase reconstructions with traditional FP and SRFP within a fixed sub-region (red rectangle 200 × 200 pixels).

Tables (2)

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Table 1 Component design specification of hemispherical digital condensers

Tables Icon

Table 2 Comparison of the measured half-pitch resolution, FOV, and SBP with different illuminators and objectives. (λ = 465nm)

Equations (5)

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R overlap = 1 π ( 2arccos S t 2N A obj S t N A obj 2 N A obj 2 S t 2 4 )
R cam = λ 2N A obj mag Δx
Re s half = λ 2( N A obj +N A illu )
SBP= FOV Re s half 2 .
{ x m,n = r m sin( δ n +φ )+Δx y m,n = r m cos( δ n +φ )+Δy

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