Abstract

Holographic AR display is a promising technology for head-mounted display devices. However, it usually has a complicated optical system and a large form factor, preventing it from widespread applications. In this work, we propose a flat-panel design to produce a compact holographic AR display, where traditional optical elements are replaced by two holographic optical elements (HOEs). Here, these two thin HOEs together perform the optical functions of a beam expander, an ocular lens, and an optical combiner. Without any bulky traditional optics, our design could achieve a compact form factor that is similar to a pair of glasses. We also implemented a proof-of-concept prototype to verify its feasibility. Being compact, lightweight and free from accommodation-convergence discrepancy, our design is promising for fatigue-free AR displays.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

Full Article  |  PDF Article
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References

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2018 (2)

2017 (1)

Z. Chen, X. Sang, Q. Lin, J. Li, X. Yu, X. Gao, B. Yan, K. Wang, C. Yu, and S. Xie, “A see-through holographic head-mounted display with the large viewing angle,” Opt. Commun. 384, 125–129 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (8)

Q. Gao, J. Liu, J. Han, and X. Li, “Monocular 3D see-through head-mounted display via complex amplitude modulation,” Opt. Express 24(15), 17372–17383 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Li, D. Lee, Y. Jeong, J. Cho, and B. Lee, “Holographic display for see-through augmented reality using mirror-lens holographic optical element,” Opt. Lett. 41(11), 2486–2489 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Xie, P. Wang, X. Sang, and C. Li, “Augmented reality three-dimensional display with light field fusion,” Opt. Express 24(11), 11483–11494 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. K. Lee, S. Moon, S. Lee, D. Yoo, J. Y. Hong, and B. Lee, “Compact three-dimensional head-mounted display system with Savart plate,” Opt. Express 24(17), 19531–19544 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Lee, C. Jang, S. Moon, J. Cho, and B. Lee, “Additive light field displays: realization of augmented reality with holographic optical elements,” ACM Trans. Graph. 35(4), 60 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. Chen, Y. Weng, D. Xu, N. V. Tabiryan, and S. T. Wu, “Beam steering for virtual/augmented reality displays with a cycloidal diffractive waveplate,” Opt. Express 24(7), 7287–7298 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Liu, Y. Li, P. Zhou, X. Li, N. Rong, S. Huang, W. Lu, and Y. Su, “A multi‐plane optical see‐through head mounted display design for augmented reality applications,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 24(4), 246–251 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. H. Lee, F. Peng, and S. T. Wu, “Fast-response switchable lens for 3D and wearable displays,” Opt. Express 24(2), 1668–1675 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (3)

M. Kumar and C. Shakher, “Measurement of temperature and temperature distribution in gaseous flames by digital speckle pattern shearing interferometry using holographic optical element,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 73(7), 33–39 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. J. Yeom, H. J. Kim, S. B. Kim, H. Zhang, B. Li, Y. M. Ji, S. H. Kim, and J. H. Park, “3D holographic head mounted display using holographic optical elements with astigmatism aberration compensation,” Opt. Express 23(25), 32025–32034 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Wang, Y. Su, J. Wang, C. Zhang, Z. Zhang, and J. Li, “Method for holographic femtosecond laser parallel processing using digital blazed grating and the divergent spherical wave,” Opt. Eng. 54(1), 016109 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (4)

2013 (1)

J. Geng, “Three-dimensional display technologies,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 5(4), 456–535 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (2)

S. Liu, H. Hua, and D. Cheng, “A novel prototype for an optical see-through head-mounted display with addressable focus cues,” IEEE Trans. Vis. Comput. Graph. 16(3), 381–393 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Bavigadda, R. Jallapuram, E. Mihaylova, and V. Toal, “Electronic speckle-pattern interferometer using holographic optical elements for vibration measurements,” Opt. Lett. 35(19), 3273–3275 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

M. Lambooij, W. Ijsselsteijn, M. Fortuin, and I. Heynderickx, “Visual Discomfort and Visual Fatigue of Stereoscopic Displays: A Review,” J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 53(3), 030201 (2009).
[Crossref]

G. D. Love, D. M. Hoffman, P. J. W. Hands, J. Gao, A. K. Kirby, and M. S. Banks, “High-speed switchable lens enables the development of a volumetric stereoscopic display,” Opt. Express 17(18), 15716–15725 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

D. M. Hoffman, A. R. Girshick, K. Akeley, and M. S. Banks, “Vergence-accommodation conflicts hinder visual performance and cause visual fatigue,” J. Vis. 8(3), 33 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

R. Azuma, Y. Baillot, R. Behringer, S. Feiner, S. Julier, and B. MacIntyre, “Recent advances in augmented reality,” IEEE Comput. Graph. Appl. 21(6), 34–47 (2001).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

R. T. Azuma, “A survey of augmented reality,” Presence Teleop. Virtual Environ. 6(4), 355–385 (1997).
[Crossref]

1977 (1)

Akeley, K.

D. M. Hoffman, A. R. Girshick, K. Akeley, and M. S. Banks, “Vergence-accommodation conflicts hinder visual performance and cause visual fatigue,” J. Vis. 8(3), 33 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Azuma, R.

R. Azuma, Y. Baillot, R. Behringer, S. Feiner, S. Julier, and B. MacIntyre, “Recent advances in augmented reality,” IEEE Comput. Graph. Appl. 21(6), 34–47 (2001).
[Crossref]

Azuma, R. T.

R. T. Azuma, “A survey of augmented reality,” Presence Teleop. Virtual Environ. 6(4), 355–385 (1997).
[Crossref]

Baillot, Y.

R. Azuma, Y. Baillot, R. Behringer, S. Feiner, S. Julier, and B. MacIntyre, “Recent advances in augmented reality,” IEEE Comput. Graph. Appl. 21(6), 34–47 (2001).
[Crossref]

Banks, M. S.

G. D. Love, D. M. Hoffman, P. J. W. Hands, J. Gao, A. K. Kirby, and M. S. Banks, “High-speed switchable lens enables the development of a volumetric stereoscopic display,” Opt. Express 17(18), 15716–15725 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. M. Hoffman, A. R. Girshick, K. Akeley, and M. S. Banks, “Vergence-accommodation conflicts hinder visual performance and cause visual fatigue,” J. Vis. 8(3), 33 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bavigadda, V.

Behringer, R.

R. Azuma, Y. Baillot, R. Behringer, S. Feiner, S. Julier, and B. MacIntyre, “Recent advances in augmented reality,” IEEE Comput. Graph. Appl. 21(6), 34–47 (2001).
[Crossref]

Chen, H.

Chen, Q.

Chen, Z.

Z. Chen, X. Sang, Q. Lin, J. Li, X. Yu, X. Gao, B. Yan, K. Wang, C. Yu, and S. Xie, “A see-through holographic head-mounted display with the large viewing angle,” Opt. Commun. 384, 125–129 (2017).
[Crossref]

Cheng, D.

W. Song, Y. Wang, D. Cheng, and Y. Liu, “Light f ield head-mounted display with correct focus cue using micro structure array,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 12(6), 060010 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Liu, H. Hua, and D. Cheng, “A novel prototype for an optical see-through head-mounted display with addressable focus cues,” IEEE Trans. Vis. Comput. Graph. 16(3), 381–393 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cho, J.

S. Lee, C. Jang, S. Moon, J. Cho, and B. Lee, “Additive light field displays: realization of augmented reality with holographic optical elements,” ACM Trans. Graph. 35(4), 60 (2016).
[Crossref]

G. Li, D. Lee, Y. Jeong, J. Cho, and B. Lee, “Holographic display for see-through augmented reality using mirror-lens holographic optical element,” Opt. Lett. 41(11), 2486–2489 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Feiner, S.

R. Azuma, Y. Baillot, R. Behringer, S. Feiner, S. Julier, and B. MacIntyre, “Recent advances in augmented reality,” IEEE Comput. Graph. Appl. 21(6), 34–47 (2001).
[Crossref]

Fortuin, M.

M. Lambooij, W. Ijsselsteijn, M. Fortuin, and I. Heynderickx, “Visual Discomfort and Visual Fatigue of Stereoscopic Displays: A Review,” J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 53(3), 030201 (2009).
[Crossref]

Gao, J.

Gao, Q.

Gao, X.

Z. Chen, X. Sang, Q. Lin, J. Li, X. Yu, X. Gao, B. Yan, K. Wang, C. Yu, and S. Xie, “A see-through holographic head-mounted display with the large viewing angle,” Opt. Commun. 384, 125–129 (2017).
[Crossref]

Geng, J.

J. Geng, “Three-dimensional display technologies,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 5(4), 456–535 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Girshick, A. R.

D. M. Hoffman, A. R. Girshick, K. Akeley, and M. S. Banks, “Vergence-accommodation conflicts hinder visual performance and cause visual fatigue,” J. Vis. 8(3), 33 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hahn, J.

Han, J.

Hands, P. J. W.

Heynderickx, I.

M. Lambooij, W. Ijsselsteijn, M. Fortuin, and I. Heynderickx, “Visual Discomfort and Visual Fatigue of Stereoscopic Displays: A Review,” J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 53(3), 030201 (2009).
[Crossref]

Hoffman, D. M.

G. D. Love, D. M. Hoffman, P. J. W. Hands, J. Gao, A. K. Kirby, and M. S. Banks, “High-speed switchable lens enables the development of a volumetric stereoscopic display,” Opt. Express 17(18), 15716–15725 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. M. Hoffman, A. R. Girshick, K. Akeley, and M. S. Banks, “Vergence-accommodation conflicts hinder visual performance and cause visual fatigue,” J. Vis. 8(3), 33 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hong, J. Y.

Hu, X.

Hua, H.

Huang, S.

S. Liu, Y. Li, P. Zhou, X. Li, N. Rong, S. Huang, W. Lu, and Y. Su, “A multi‐plane optical see‐through head mounted display design for augmented reality applications,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 24(4), 246–251 (2016).
[Crossref]

Ijsselsteijn, W.

M. Lambooij, W. Ijsselsteijn, M. Fortuin, and I. Heynderickx, “Visual Discomfort and Visual Fatigue of Stereoscopic Displays: A Review,” J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 53(3), 030201 (2009).
[Crossref]

Jallapuram, R.

Jang, C.

S. Lee, C. Jang, S. Moon, J. Cho, and B. Lee, “Additive light field displays: realization of augmented reality with holographic optical elements,” ACM Trans. Graph. 35(4), 60 (2016).
[Crossref]

Javidi, B.

Jeong, Y.

Ji, Y. M.

Julier, S.

R. Azuma, Y. Baillot, R. Behringer, S. Feiner, S. Julier, and B. MacIntyre, “Recent advances in augmented reality,” IEEE Comput. Graph. Appl. 21(6), 34–47 (2001).
[Crossref]

Kim, H.

Kim, H. J.

Kim, M.

Kim, S. B.

Kim, S. H.

Kirby, A. K.

Kumar, M.

M. Kumar and C. Shakher, “Measurement of temperature and temperature distribution in gaseous flames by digital speckle pattern shearing interferometry using holographic optical element,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 73(7), 33–39 (2015).
[Crossref]

Lambooij, M.

M. Lambooij, W. Ijsselsteijn, M. Fortuin, and I. Heynderickx, “Visual Discomfort and Visual Fatigue of Stereoscopic Displays: A Review,” J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 53(3), 030201 (2009).
[Crossref]

Lee, B.

Lee, C. K.

Lee, D.

Lee, S.

C. K. Lee, S. Moon, S. Lee, D. Yoo, J. Y. Hong, and B. Lee, “Compact three-dimensional head-mounted display system with Savart plate,” Opt. Express 24(17), 19531–19544 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Lee, C. Jang, S. Moon, J. Cho, and B. Lee, “Additive light field displays: realization of augmented reality with holographic optical elements,” ACM Trans. Graph. 35(4), 60 (2016).
[Crossref]

Lee, Y. H.

Li, B.

Li, C.

Li, G.

Li, J.

Z. Chen, X. Sang, Q. Lin, J. Li, X. Yu, X. Gao, B. Yan, K. Wang, C. Yu, and S. Xie, “A see-through holographic head-mounted display with the large viewing angle,” Opt. Commun. 384, 125–129 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Wang, Y. Su, J. Wang, C. Zhang, Z. Zhang, and J. Li, “Method for holographic femtosecond laser parallel processing using digital blazed grating and the divergent spherical wave,” Opt. Eng. 54(1), 016109 (2015).
[Crossref]

Li, X.

S. Liu, Y. Li, P. Zhou, X. Li, N. Rong, S. Huang, W. Lu, and Y. Su, “A multi‐plane optical see‐through head mounted display design for augmented reality applications,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 24(4), 246–251 (2016).
[Crossref]

Q. Gao, J. Liu, J. Han, and X. Li, “Monocular 3D see-through head-mounted display via complex amplitude modulation,” Opt. Express 24(15), 17372–17383 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, Y.

S. Liu, Y. Li, P. Zhou, Q. Chen, and Y. Su, “Reverse-mode PSLC multi-plane optical see-through display for AR applications,” Opt. Express 26(3), 3394–3403 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Liu, Y. Li, P. Zhou, X. Li, N. Rong, S. Huang, W. Lu, and Y. Su, “A multi‐plane optical see‐through head mounted display design for augmented reality applications,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 24(4), 246–251 (2016).
[Crossref]

Lin, Q.

Z. Chen, X. Sang, Q. Lin, J. Li, X. Yu, X. Gao, B. Yan, K. Wang, C. Yu, and S. Xie, “A see-through holographic head-mounted display with the large viewing angle,” Opt. Commun. 384, 125–129 (2017).
[Crossref]

Liu, J.

Liu, S.

S. Liu, Y. Li, P. Zhou, Q. Chen, and Y. Su, “Reverse-mode PSLC multi-plane optical see-through display for AR applications,” Opt. Express 26(3), 3394–3403 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Liu, Y. Li, P. Zhou, X. Li, N. Rong, S. Huang, W. Lu, and Y. Su, “A multi‐plane optical see‐through head mounted display design for augmented reality applications,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 24(4), 246–251 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Liu, H. Hua, and D. Cheng, “A novel prototype for an optical see-through head-mounted display with addressable focus cues,” IEEE Trans. Vis. Comput. Graph. 16(3), 381–393 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, Y.

Love, G. D.

Lu, W.

S. Liu, Y. Li, P. Zhou, X. Li, N. Rong, S. Huang, W. Lu, and Y. Su, “A multi‐plane optical see‐through head mounted display design for augmented reality applications,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 24(4), 246–251 (2016).
[Crossref]

MacIntyre, B.

R. Azuma, Y. Baillot, R. Behringer, S. Feiner, S. Julier, and B. MacIntyre, “Recent advances in augmented reality,” IEEE Comput. Graph. Appl. 21(6), 34–47 (2001).
[Crossref]

Mihaylova, E.

Moon, E.

Moon, S.

S. Lee, C. Jang, S. Moon, J. Cho, and B. Lee, “Additive light field displays: realization of augmented reality with holographic optical elements,” ACM Trans. Graph. 35(4), 60 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. K. Lee, S. Moon, S. Lee, D. Yoo, J. Y. Hong, and B. Lee, “Compact three-dimensional head-mounted display system with Savart plate,” Opt. Express 24(17), 19531–19544 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Park, J. H.

Peng, F.

Roh, J.

Rong, N.

S. Liu, Y. Li, P. Zhou, X. Li, N. Rong, S. Huang, W. Lu, and Y. Su, “A multi‐plane optical see‐through head mounted display design for augmented reality applications,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 24(4), 246–251 (2016).
[Crossref]

Sang, X.

Z. Chen, X. Sang, Q. Lin, J. Li, X. Yu, X. Gao, B. Yan, K. Wang, C. Yu, and S. Xie, “A see-through holographic head-mounted display with the large viewing angle,” Opt. Commun. 384, 125–129 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Xie, P. Wang, X. Sang, and C. Li, “Augmented reality three-dimensional display with light field fusion,” Opt. Express 24(11), 11483–11494 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shakher, C.

M. Kumar and C. Shakher, “Measurement of temperature and temperature distribution in gaseous flames by digital speckle pattern shearing interferometry using holographic optical element,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 73(7), 33–39 (2015).
[Crossref]

Song, W.

Su, Y.

S. Liu, Y. Li, P. Zhou, Q. Chen, and Y. Su, “Reverse-mode PSLC multi-plane optical see-through display for AR applications,” Opt. Express 26(3), 3394–3403 (2018).
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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Working principle and device structure of the optical-see-through holographic AR display.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Recording and (b) reconstruction processes of HOE 1. BS is beam splitter.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Recording and (b) reconstruction processes of the first sub-hologram on HOE2.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) Recording and (b) reconstruction processes of the second sub-hologram on HOE 2.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) Angular and (b) wavelength selectivity of the second sub-hologram on HOE 2.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 The reconstructed expanded beam from HOE 2: (a) the image of the beam spot, and (b) the normalized intensity distribution.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 (a) Laser spectra of the input and output beams of the HOE expander. (b) and (c) are holographic images reconstructed using light from the HOE expander and a conventional expander, respectively.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Prototype of the holographic AR display on an optical table.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Photos of augmented images on the real world when focusing at 80 cm (a) and 5 cm (b), respectively.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Specifications of the fabricated HOEs in the prototype

Equations (3)

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α=arctan( d 1 / D 1 ).
β=arcsin( b 1 / b 2 ),
b 2 = D 2 /sin45°.

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