Abstract

Here, we propose and demonstrate a performance degradation mitigation scheme in TV backlight and smart-phone-based visible light communication (VLC) system when the display content in the light-panel is dynamically changing. In order to evaluate the influence of the dynamic display contents to the VLC performance, we use a noise-ratio (NR) and noise-ratio standard deviation (NRSD) as the figure-of-merits for the bright-and-dark contrast of the display content; and the dispersal of the changing display content regarding the bright-and-dark contrast respectively. Performances of 4 dynamic display contents with different combinations of NR and NRSD are analyzed. They are: low NR and low NRSD (NR = 36.69%; NRSD = 0.0226); low NR and high NRSD (NR = 30.09%; NRSD = 0.2698); high NR and low NRSD (NR = 81.66%; NRSD = 0.0052); high NR and high NRSD (NR = 73.91%; and NRSD = 0.2717). The proposed scheme can work well; that is, even the transmission distance is up to 200 cm in both smart-phones. If the proposed scheme is not used, then high success rate can be observed only at the low NR and low NRSD display content when the transmission distance is < 100 cm.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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2018 (2)

2017 (5)

W. C. Wang, C. W. Chow, C. W. Chen, H. C. Hsieh, and Y. T. Chen, “Beacon jointed packet reconstruction scheme for mobile-phone based visible light communications using rolling shutter,” IEEE Photonics J. 9(6), 7907606 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. W. Chen, C. W. Chow, Y. Liu, and C. H. Yeh, “Efficient demodulation scheme for rolling-shutter-patterning of CMOS image sensor based visible light communications,” Opt. Express 25(20), 24362–24367 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. C. Chi, Y. F. Huang, T. C. Wu, C. T. Tsai, L. Y. Chen, H. C. Kuo, and G. R. Lin, “Violet laser diode enables lighting communication,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 10469 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. C. Wu, Y. C. Chi, H. Y. Wang, C. T. Tsai, Y. F. Huang, and G. R. Lin, “Tricolor R/G/B laser diode based eye-safe white lighting communication beyond 8 Gbit/s,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 11 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. H. Yeh, L. Y. Wei, and C. W. Chow, “Using a single VCSEL source employing OFDM downstream signal and remodulated OOK upstream signal for bi-directional visible light communications,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 15846 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (2)

Y. Liu, H. Y. Chen, K. Liang, C. W. Hsu, C. W. Chow, and C. H. Yeh, “Visible light communication using receivers of camera image sensor and solar cell,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(1), 7800107 (2016).
[Crossref]

K. Liang, C. W. Chow, and Y. Liu, “RGB visible light communication using mobile-phone camera and multi-input multi-output,” Opt. Express 24(9), 9383–9388 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (5)

2014 (3)

2013 (1)

I. Takai, S. Ito, K. Yasutomi, K. Kagawa, M. Andoh, and S. Kawahito, “LED and CMOS image sensor based optical wireless communication system for automotive applications,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(5), 6801418 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

Afgani, M.

C. Danakis, M. Afgani, G. Povey, I. Underwood, and H. Haas, “Using a CMOS camera sensor for visible light communication,” Proc. OWC, 1244–1248 (2012).
[Crossref]

Andoh, M.

I. Takai, S. Ito, K. Yasutomi, K. Kagawa, M. Andoh, and S. Kawahito, “LED and CMOS image sensor based optical wireless communication system for automotive applications,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(5), 6801418 (2013).
[Crossref]

Aoyama, H.

H. Aoyama and M. Oshima, “Visible light communication using a conventional image sensor,” Proc. CCNC 103–108 (2015).
[Crossref]

C.-H. Chang,

C.-H. Chang, C.-Y. Li, H.-H. Lu, C.-Y. Lin, J.-H. Chen, Z.-W. Wan, and C.-J. Cheng, “A 100-Gb/s multiple-input multiple-output visible laser light communication system,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(24), 4723–4729 (2014).
[Crossref]

C.-J. Cheng,

C.-H. Chang, C.-Y. Li, H.-H. Lu, C.-Y. Lin, J.-H. Chen, Z.-W. Wan, and C.-J. Cheng, “A 100-Gb/s multiple-input multiple-output visible laser light communication system,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(24), 4723–4729 (2014).
[Crossref]

C.-Y. Li,

C.-H. Chang, C.-Y. Li, H.-H. Lu, C.-Y. Lin, J.-H. Chen, Z.-W. Wan, and C.-J. Cheng, “A 100-Gb/s multiple-input multiple-output visible laser light communication system,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(24), 4723–4729 (2014).
[Crossref]

C.-Y. Lin,

C.-H. Chang, C.-Y. Li, H.-H. Lu, C.-Y. Lin, J.-H. Chen, Z.-W. Wan, and C.-J. Cheng, “A 100-Gb/s multiple-input multiple-output visible laser light communication system,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(24), 4723–4729 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chen, C. W.

W. C. Wang, C. W. Chow, C. W. Chen, H. C. Hsieh, and Y. T. Chen, “Beacon jointed packet reconstruction scheme for mobile-phone based visible light communications using rolling shutter,” IEEE Photonics J. 9(6), 7907606 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. W. Chen, C. W. Chow, Y. Liu, and C. H. Yeh, “Efficient demodulation scheme for rolling-shutter-patterning of CMOS image sensor based visible light communications,” Opt. Express 25(20), 24362–24367 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, C. Y.

Chen, H. Y.

Chen, J.

Chen, L. Y.

Y. C. Chi, Y. F. Huang, T. C. Wu, C. T. Tsai, L. Y. Chen, H. C. Kuo, and G. R. Lin, “Violet laser diode enables lighting communication,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 10469 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, M. C.

Chen, S. H.

Chen, W.

Chen, Y. T.

W. C. Wang, C. W. Chow, C. W. Chen, H. C. Hsieh, and Y. T. Chen, “Beacon jointed packet reconstruction scheme for mobile-phone based visible light communications using rolling shutter,” IEEE Photonics J. 9(6), 7907606 (2017).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y. Y.

Chi, Y. C.

Y. C. Chi, Y. F. Huang, T. C. Wu, C. T. Tsai, L. Y. Chen, H. C. Kuo, and G. R. Lin, “Violet laser diode enables lighting communication,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 10469 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. C. Wu, Y. C. Chi, H. Y. Wang, C. T. Tsai, Y. F. Huang, and G. R. Lin, “Tricolor R/G/B laser diode based eye-safe white lighting communication beyond 8 Gbit/s,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 11 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. C. Chi, D. H. Hsieh, C. T. Tsai, H. Y. Chen, H. C. Kuo, and G. R. Lin, “450-nm GaN laser diode enables high-speed visible light communication with 9-Gbps QAM-OFDM,” Opt. Express 23(10), 13051–13059 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chi, Y.-C.

Chow, C. W.

C. W. Chow, R. J. Shiu, Y. C. Liu, Y. Liu, and C. H. Yeh, “Non-flickering 100 m RGB visible light communication transmission based on a CMOS image sensor,” Opt. Express 26(6), 7079–7084 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. W. Chow, R. J. Shiu, Y. C. Liu, X. L. Liao, K. H. Lin, Y. C. Wang, and Y. Y. Chen, “Using advertisement light-panel and CMOS image sensor with frequency-shift-keying for visible light communication,” Opt. Express 26(10), 12530–12535 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. W. Chen, C. W. Chow, Y. Liu, and C. H. Yeh, “Efficient demodulation scheme for rolling-shutter-patterning of CMOS image sensor based visible light communications,” Opt. Express 25(20), 24362–24367 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. H. Yeh, L. Y. Wei, and C. W. Chow, “Using a single VCSEL source employing OFDM downstream signal and remodulated OOK upstream signal for bi-directional visible light communications,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 15846 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. C. Wang, C. W. Chow, C. W. Chen, H. C. Hsieh, and Y. T. Chen, “Beacon jointed packet reconstruction scheme for mobile-phone based visible light communications using rolling shutter,” IEEE Photonics J. 9(6), 7907606 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Liu, H. Y. Chen, K. Liang, C. W. Hsu, C. W. Chow, and C. H. Yeh, “Visible light communication using receivers of camera image sensor and solar cell,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(1), 7800107 (2016).
[Crossref]

K. Liang, C. W. Chow, and Y. Liu, “RGB visible light communication using mobile-phone camera and multi-input multi-output,” Opt. Express 24(9), 9383–9388 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. W. Chow, C. Y. Chen, and S. H. Chen, “Visible light communication using mobile-phone camera with data rate higher than frame rate,” Opt. Express 23(20), 26080–26085 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. H. Yeh, H. Y. Chen, C. W. Chow, and Y. L. Liu, “Utilization of multi-band OFDM modulation to increase traffic rate of phosphor-LED wireless VLC,” Opt. Express 23(2), 1133–1138 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. H. Yeh, C. W. Chow, H. Y. Chen, J. Chen, and Y. L. Liu, “Adaptive 84.44-190 Mbit/s phosphor-LED wireless communication utilizing no blue filter at practical transmission distance,” Opt. Express 22(8), 9783–9788 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Danakis, C.

C. Danakis, M. Afgani, G. Povey, I. Underwood, and H. Haas, “Using a CMOS camera sensor for visible light communication,” Proc. OWC, 1244–1248 (2012).
[Crossref]

Ghassemlooy, Z.

P. Luo, M. Zhang, Z. Ghassemlooy, H. Le Minh, H.-M. Tsai, X. Tang, L. C. Png, and D. Han, “Experimental demonstration of RGB LED-based optical camera communications,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(5), 7904242 (2015).
[Crossref]

H.-H. Lu,

C.-H. Chang, C.-Y. Li, H.-H. Lu, C.-Y. Lin, J.-H. Chen, Z.-W. Wan, and C.-J. Cheng, “A 100-Gb/s multiple-input multiple-output visible laser light communication system,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(24), 4723–4729 (2014).
[Crossref]

Haas, H.

H. Haas, “Visible light communication,” Proc. OFC, 1–72 (2015).

C. Danakis, M. Afgani, G. Povey, I. Underwood, and H. Haas, “Using a CMOS camera sensor for visible light communication,” Proc. OWC, 1244–1248 (2012).
[Crossref]

Han, D.

P. Luo, M. Zhang, Z. Ghassemlooy, H. Le Minh, H.-M. Tsai, X. Tang, L. C. Png, and D. Han, “Experimental demonstration of RGB LED-based optical camera communications,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(5), 7904242 (2015).
[Crossref]

He, J.-H.

Hsieh, D. H.

Hsieh, H. C.

W. C. Wang, C. W. Chow, C. W. Chen, H. C. Hsieh, and Y. T. Chen, “Beacon jointed packet reconstruction scheme for mobile-phone based visible light communications using rolling shutter,” IEEE Photonics J. 9(6), 7907606 (2017).
[Crossref]

Hsu, C. W.

Y. Liu, H. Y. Chen, K. Liang, C. W. Hsu, C. W. Chow, and C. H. Yeh, “Visible light communication using receivers of camera image sensor and solar cell,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(1), 7800107 (2016).
[Crossref]

Huang, Y. F.

T. C. Wu, Y. C. Chi, H. Y. Wang, C. T. Tsai, Y. F. Huang, and G. R. Lin, “Tricolor R/G/B laser diode based eye-safe white lighting communication beyond 8 Gbit/s,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 11 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. C. Chi, Y. F. Huang, T. C. Wu, C. T. Tsai, L. Y. Chen, H. C. Kuo, and G. R. Lin, “Violet laser diode enables lighting communication,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 10469 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ito, S.

I. Takai, S. Ito, K. Yasutomi, K. Kagawa, M. Andoh, and S. Kawahito, “LED and CMOS image sensor based optical wireless communication system for automotive applications,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(5), 6801418 (2013).
[Crossref]

J.-H. Chen,

C.-H. Chang, C.-Y. Li, H.-H. Lu, C.-Y. Lin, J.-H. Chen, Z.-W. Wan, and C.-J. Cheng, “A 100-Gb/s multiple-input multiple-output visible laser light communication system,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(24), 4723–4729 (2014).
[Crossref]

Janjua, B.

Jhang, T. W.

Kagawa, K.

I. Takai, S. Ito, K. Yasutomi, K. Kagawa, M. Andoh, and S. Kawahito, “LED and CMOS image sensor based optical wireless communication system for automotive applications,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(5), 6801418 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kawahito, S.

I. Takai, S. Ito, K. Yasutomi, K. Kagawa, M. Andoh, and S. Kawahito, “LED and CMOS image sensor based optical wireless communication system for automotive applications,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(5), 6801418 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kuo, H. C.

Y. C. Chi, Y. F. Huang, T. C. Wu, C. T. Tsai, L. Y. Chen, H. C. Kuo, and G. R. Lin, “Violet laser diode enables lighting communication,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 10469 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. C. Chi, D. H. Hsieh, C. T. Tsai, H. Y. Chen, H. C. Kuo, and G. R. Lin, “450-nm GaN laser diode enables high-speed visible light communication with 9-Gbps QAM-OFDM,” Opt. Express 23(10), 13051–13059 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kuo, H.-C.

Le Minh, H.

P. Luo, M. Zhang, Z. Ghassemlooy, H. Le Minh, H.-M. Tsai, X. Tang, L. C. Png, and D. Han, “Experimental demonstration of RGB LED-based optical camera communications,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(5), 7904242 (2015).
[Crossref]

Liang, K.

Y. Liu, H. Y. Chen, K. Liang, C. W. Hsu, C. W. Chow, and C. H. Yeh, “Visible light communication using receivers of camera image sensor and solar cell,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(1), 7800107 (2016).
[Crossref]

K. Liang, C. W. Chow, and Y. Liu, “RGB visible light communication using mobile-phone camera and multi-input multi-output,” Opt. Express 24(9), 9383–9388 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liao, X. L.

Lin, G. R.

T. C. Wu, Y. C. Chi, H. Y. Wang, C. T. Tsai, Y. F. Huang, and G. R. Lin, “Tricolor R/G/B laser diode based eye-safe white lighting communication beyond 8 Gbit/s,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 11 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. C. Chi, Y. F. Huang, T. C. Wu, C. T. Tsai, L. Y. Chen, H. C. Kuo, and G. R. Lin, “Violet laser diode enables lighting communication,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 10469 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. C. Chi, D. H. Hsieh, C. T. Tsai, H. Y. Chen, H. C. Kuo, and G. R. Lin, “450-nm GaN laser diode enables high-speed visible light communication with 9-Gbps QAM-OFDM,” Opt. Express 23(10), 13051–13059 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lin, G.-R.

Lin, K. H.

Lin, Y. P.

Liu, Y.

Liu, Y. C.

Liu, Y. L.

Lu, H. H.

Luo, P.

P. Luo, M. Zhang, Z. Ghassemlooy, H. Le Minh, H.-M. Tsai, X. Tang, L. C. Png, and D. Han, “Experimental demonstration of RGB LED-based optical camera communications,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(5), 7904242 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ng, T. K.

Ooi, B. S.

Oshima, M.

H. Aoyama and M. Oshima, “Visible light communication using a conventional image sensor,” Proc. CCNC 103–108 (2015).
[Crossref]

Oubei, H. M.

Png, L. C.

P. Luo, M. Zhang, Z. Ghassemlooy, H. Le Minh, H.-M. Tsai, X. Tang, L. C. Png, and D. Han, “Experimental demonstration of RGB LED-based optical camera communications,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(5), 7904242 (2015).
[Crossref]

Povey, G.

C. Danakis, M. Afgani, G. Povey, I. Underwood, and H. Haas, “Using a CMOS camera sensor for visible light communication,” Proc. OWC, 1244–1248 (2012).
[Crossref]

Retamal, J. R. D.

Shiu, R. J.

Takai, I.

I. Takai, S. Ito, K. Yasutomi, K. Kagawa, M. Andoh, and S. Kawahito, “LED and CMOS image sensor based optical wireless communication system for automotive applications,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(5), 6801418 (2013).
[Crossref]

Tang, X.

P. Luo, M. Zhang, Z. Ghassemlooy, H. Le Minh, H.-M. Tsai, X. Tang, L. C. Png, and D. Han, “Experimental demonstration of RGB LED-based optical camera communications,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(5), 7904242 (2015).
[Crossref]

Tsai, C. T.

T. C. Wu, Y. C. Chi, H. Y. Wang, C. T. Tsai, Y. F. Huang, and G. R. Lin, “Tricolor R/G/B laser diode based eye-safe white lighting communication beyond 8 Gbit/s,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 11 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. C. Chi, Y. F. Huang, T. C. Wu, C. T. Tsai, L. Y. Chen, H. C. Kuo, and G. R. Lin, “Violet laser diode enables lighting communication,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 10469 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. C. Chi, D. H. Hsieh, C. T. Tsai, H. Y. Chen, H. C. Kuo, and G. R. Lin, “450-nm GaN laser diode enables high-speed visible light communication with 9-Gbps QAM-OFDM,” Opt. Express 23(10), 13051–13059 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tsai, C.-T.

Tsai, H.-M.

P. Luo, M. Zhang, Z. Ghassemlooy, H. Le Minh, H.-M. Tsai, X. Tang, L. C. Png, and D. Han, “Experimental demonstration of RGB LED-based optical camera communications,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(5), 7904242 (2015).
[Crossref]

Underwood, I.

C. Danakis, M. Afgani, G. Povey, I. Underwood, and H. Haas, “Using a CMOS camera sensor for visible light communication,” Proc. OWC, 1244–1248 (2012).
[Crossref]

Wang, H. Y.

T. C. Wu, Y. C. Chi, H. Y. Wang, C. T. Tsai, Y. F. Huang, and G. R. Lin, “Tricolor R/G/B laser diode based eye-safe white lighting communication beyond 8 Gbit/s,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 11 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, H.-Y.

Wang, W. C.

W. C. Wang, C. W. Chow, C. W. Chen, H. C. Hsieh, and Y. T. Chen, “Beacon jointed packet reconstruction scheme for mobile-phone based visible light communications using rolling shutter,” IEEE Photonics J. 9(6), 7907606 (2017).
[Crossref]

Wang, Y. C.

Wang, Z.

Wei, L. Y.

C. H. Yeh, L. Y. Wei, and C. W. Chow, “Using a single VCSEL source employing OFDM downstream signal and remodulated OOK upstream signal for bi-directional visible light communications,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 15846 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wu, P. Y.

Wu, T. C.

Y. C. Chi, Y. F. Huang, T. C. Wu, C. T. Tsai, L. Y. Chen, H. C. Kuo, and G. R. Lin, “Violet laser diode enables lighting communication,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 10469 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. C. Wu, Y. C. Chi, H. Y. Wang, C. T. Tsai, Y. F. Huang, and G. R. Lin, “Tricolor R/G/B laser diode based eye-safe white lighting communication beyond 8 Gbit/s,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 11 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yasutomi, K.

I. Takai, S. Ito, K. Yasutomi, K. Kagawa, M. Andoh, and S. Kawahito, “LED and CMOS image sensor based optical wireless communication system for automotive applications,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(5), 6801418 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yeh, C. H.

Yu, C.

Z.-W. Wan,

C.-H. Chang, C.-Y. Li, H.-H. Lu, C.-Y. Lin, J.-H. Chen, Z.-W. Wan, and C.-J. Cheng, “A 100-Gb/s multiple-input multiple-output visible laser light communication system,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(24), 4723–4729 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhang, M.

P. Luo, M. Zhang, Z. Ghassemlooy, H. Le Minh, H.-M. Tsai, X. Tang, L. C. Png, and D. Han, “Experimental demonstration of RGB LED-based optical camera communications,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(5), 7904242 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhong, W. D.

IEEE Photonics J. (4)

Y. Liu, H. Y. Chen, K. Liang, C. W. Hsu, C. W. Chow, and C. H. Yeh, “Visible light communication using receivers of camera image sensor and solar cell,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(1), 7800107 (2016).
[Crossref]

P. Luo, M. Zhang, Z. Ghassemlooy, H. Le Minh, H.-M. Tsai, X. Tang, L. C. Png, and D. Han, “Experimental demonstration of RGB LED-based optical camera communications,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(5), 7904242 (2015).
[Crossref]

I. Takai, S. Ito, K. Yasutomi, K. Kagawa, M. Andoh, and S. Kawahito, “LED and CMOS image sensor based optical wireless communication system for automotive applications,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(5), 6801418 (2013).
[Crossref]

W. C. Wang, C. W. Chow, C. W. Chen, H. C. Hsieh, and Y. T. Chen, “Beacon jointed packet reconstruction scheme for mobile-phone based visible light communications using rolling shutter,” IEEE Photonics J. 9(6), 7907606 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

C.-H. Chang, C.-Y. Li, H.-H. Lu, C.-Y. Lin, J.-H. Chen, Z.-W. Wan, and C.-J. Cheng, “A 100-Gb/s multiple-input multiple-output visible laser light communication system,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(24), 4723–4729 (2014).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (11)

Z. Wang, C. Yu, W. D. Zhong, J. Chen, and W. Chen, “Performance of a novel LED lamp arrangement to reduce SNR fluctuation for multi-user visible light communication systems,” Opt. Express 20(4), 4564–4573 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. H. Yeh, H. Y. Chen, C. W. Chow, and Y. L. Liu, “Utilization of multi-band OFDM modulation to increase traffic rate of phosphor-LED wireless VLC,” Opt. Express 23(2), 1133–1138 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. W. Chow, R. J. Shiu, Y. C. Liu, Y. Liu, and C. H. Yeh, “Non-flickering 100 m RGB visible light communication transmission based on a CMOS image sensor,” Opt. Express 26(6), 7079–7084 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. W. Chow, C. Y. Chen, and S. H. Chen, “Visible light communication using mobile-phone camera with data rate higher than frame rate,” Opt. Express 23(20), 26080–26085 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Liang, C. W. Chow, and Y. Liu, “RGB visible light communication using mobile-phone camera and multi-input multi-output,” Opt. Express 24(9), 9383–9388 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. H. Yeh, C. W. Chow, H. Y. Chen, J. Chen, and Y. L. Liu, “Adaptive 84.44-190 Mbit/s phosphor-LED wireless communication utilizing no blue filter at practical transmission distance,” Opt. Express 22(8), 9783–9788 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. C. Chi, D. H. Hsieh, C. T. Tsai, H. Y. Chen, H. C. Kuo, and G. R. Lin, “450-nm GaN laser diode enables high-speed visible light communication with 9-Gbps QAM-OFDM,” Opt. Express 23(10), 13051–13059 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. H. Lu, Y. P. Lin, P. Y. Wu, C. Y. Chen, M. C. Chen, and T. W. Jhang, “A multiple-input-multiple-output visible light communication system based on VCSELs and spatial light modulators,” Opt. Express 22(3), 3468–3474 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Janjua, H. M. Oubei, J. R. D. Retamal, T. K. Ng, C.-T. Tsai, H.-Y. Wang, Y.-C. Chi, H.-C. Kuo, G.-R. Lin, J.-H. He, and B. S. Ooi, “Going beyond 4 Gbps data rate by employing RGB laser diodes for visible light communication,” Opt. Express 23(14), 18746–18753 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. W. Chen, C. W. Chow, Y. Liu, and C. H. Yeh, “Efficient demodulation scheme for rolling-shutter-patterning of CMOS image sensor based visible light communications,” Opt. Express 25(20), 24362–24367 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. W. Chow, R. J. Shiu, Y. C. Liu, X. L. Liao, K. H. Lin, Y. C. Wang, and Y. Y. Chen, “Using advertisement light-panel and CMOS image sensor with frequency-shift-keying for visible light communication,” Opt. Express 26(10), 12530–12535 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sci. Rep. (3)

T. C. Wu, Y. C. Chi, H. Y. Wang, C. T. Tsai, Y. F. Huang, and G. R. Lin, “Tricolor R/G/B laser diode based eye-safe white lighting communication beyond 8 Gbit/s,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 11 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. H. Yeh, L. Y. Wei, and C. W. Chow, “Using a single VCSEL source employing OFDM downstream signal and remodulated OOK upstream signal for bi-directional visible light communications,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 15846 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. C. Chi, Y. F. Huang, T. C. Wu, C. T. Tsai, L. Y. Chen, H. C. Kuo, and G. R. Lin, “Violet laser diode enables lighting communication,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 10469 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (4)

C. Danakis, M. Afgani, G. Povey, I. Underwood, and H. Haas, “Using a CMOS camera sensor for visible light communication,” Proc. OWC, 1244–1248 (2012).
[Crossref]

H. Haas, “Visible light communication,” Proc. OFC, 1–72 (2015).

E. Kreyszig, Advanced Engineering Mathematics 8th Ed., Wiley, (1999).

H. Aoyama and M. Oshima, “Visible light communication using a conventional image sensor,” Proc. CCNC 103–108 (2015).
[Crossref]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Concept of the proposed VLC degradation mitigation scheme using LED backlight and smart-phone; (b) Structure of the VLC packet.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Dynamic image frames and the combined grayscale pattern of the 30 frames at different NRs and NRSDs.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Experimental VLC packet success rates at different NRs and NRSDs captured using (a) smart-phone 1 and (b) smart-phone 2.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Different RS patterns captured in the frame at different FSK frequencies by smart-phone 1.

Tables Icon

Table 2 Measured stripe widths at different FSK modulation frequencies for both smart-phone systems.

Equations (2)

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NR= i rows j cols ( I i,j I i,j ' ) 2 i rows j cols ( I i,j ) 2
NRSD= i=1 n ( N R i NR ¯ ) 2 n1

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