Abstract

High harmonic generation (HHG) in solids has great potential for coherent extreme ultraviolet (EUV) sources, all-optical band-structure reconstruction, and electron dynamics metrology. Solid HHG driven by plasmonic near-fields will open a new paradigm, enabling high repetition-rate HHG with a compact laser, HHG manipulation with meta-surfaces, and precise control over carrier trajectory. In this paper, we demonstrate antenna-enhanced HHG in a wide-bandgap semiconductor ZnO. By exploiting gold nano-antennas resonating at the driver wavelength of 2 μm, we successfully trigger HHG at input intensity of ~0.02 TW/cm2 and observe harmonic radiations up to 9th-order. Orders-of-magnitude enhanced conversion efficiency at the hot-spots brings about ten-fold enhancement in the total yield. The spectral selection rule is found to reflect crystal symmetry, suggesting the possibility of nano-scaled EUV sources and band-structure reconstruction.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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    [Crossref]
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  4. J. Li, X. Ren, Y. Yin, K. Zhao, A. Chew, Y. Cheng, E. Cunningham, Y. Wang, S. Hu, Y. Wu, M. Chini, and Z. Chang, “53-attosecond X-ray pulses reach the carbon K-edge,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 186 (2017).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. J. Itatani, J. Levesque, D. Zeidler, H. Niikura, H. Pépin, J. C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Tomographic imaging of molecular orbitals,” Nature 432(7019), 867–871 (2004).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. O. Smirnova, Y. Mairesse, S. Patchkovskii, N. Dudovich, D. Villeneuve, P. Corkum, and M. Y. Ivanov, “High harmonic interferometry of multi-electron dynamics in molecules,” Nature 460(7258), 972–977 (2009).
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  24. F. Kusa, I. Morichika, A. Takegami, and S. Ashihara, “Enhanced ultrafast infrared spectroscopy using coupled nanoantenna arrays,” Opt. Express 25(11), 12896–12907 (2017).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  25. I. Morichika, F. Kusa, A. Takegami, A. Sakurai, and S. Ashihara, “Antenna-Enhanced Nonlinear Infrared Spectroscopy in Reflection Geometry,” J. Phys. Chem. C 121(21), 11643–11649 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  26. S. Han, H. Kim, Y. W. Kim, Y. J. Kim, S. Kim, I. Y. Park, and S. W. Kim, “High-harmonic generation by field enhanced femtosecond pulses in metal-sapphire nanostructure,” Nat. Commun. 7, 13105 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
  29. A. E. Abbass, H. C. Swart, and R. E. Kroon, “Non-plasmonic enhancement of the near band edge luminescence from ZnO using Ag nanoparticles,” J. Lumin. 182, 263–267 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  30. L. J. Brillson and Y. Lu, “ZnO Schottky barriers and Ohmic contacts,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(12), 121301 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  31. S. Bayan and D. Mohanta, “Significant Fowler–Nordheim tunneling across ZnO – Nanorod based nanojunctions for nanoelectronic device applications,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 13(4), 705–709 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  32. H. Hirori, K. Shinokita, M. Shirai, S. Tani, Y. Kadoya, and K. Tanaka, “Extraordinary carrier multiplication gated by a picosecond electric field pulse,” Nat. Commun. 2(1), 594 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  33. B. K. Canfield, H. Husu, J. Laukkanen, B. Bai, M. Kuittinen, J. Turunen, and M. Kauranen, “Local Field Asymmetry Drives Second-Harmonic Generation in Noncentrosymmetric Nanodimers,” Nano Lett. 7(5), 1251–1255 (2007).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  34. B. Metzger, M. Hentschel, T. Schumacher, M. Lippitz, X. Ye, C. B. Murray, B. Knabe, K. Buse, and H. Giessen, “Doubling the Efficiency of Third Harmonic Generation by Positioning ITO Nanocrystals into the Hot-Spot of Plasmonic Gap-Antennas,” Nano Lett. 14(5), 2867–2872 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  35. T. Shibanuma, G. Grinblat, P. Albella, and S. A. Maier, “Efficient Third Harmonic Generation from Metal-Dielectric Hybrid Nanoantennas,” Nano Lett. 17(4), 2647–2651 (2017).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  36. H. Yoshikawa and S. Adachi, “Optical Constants of ZnO,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36(10), 6237–6243 (1997).
    [Crossref]

2017 (11)

J. Li, X. Ren, Y. Yin, K. Zhao, A. Chew, Y. Cheng, E. Cunningham, Y. Wang, S. Hu, Y. Wu, M. Chini, and Z. Chang, “53-attosecond X-ray pulses reach the carbon K-edge,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 186 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Gholam-Mirzaei, J. Beetar, and M. Chini, “High harmonic generation in ZnO with a high-power mid-IR OPA,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(6), 061101 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. S. You, D. A. Reis, and S. Ghimire, “Anisotropic high-harmonic generation in bulk crystals,” Nat. Phys. 13(4), 345–349 (2017).
[Crossref]

N. Yoshikawa, T. Tamaya, and K. Tanaka, “High-harmonic generation in graphene enhanced by elliptically polarized light excitation,” Science 356(6339), 736–738 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Langer, M. Hohenleutner, U. Huttner, S. W. Koch, M. Kira, and R. Huber, “Symmetry-controlled temporal structure of high-harmonic carrier fields from a bulk crystal,” Nat. Photonics 11(4), 227–231 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Sivis, M. Taucer, G. Vampa, K. Johnston, A. Staudte, A. Y. Naumov, D. M. Villeneuve, C. Ropers, and P. B. Corkum, “Tailored semiconductors for high-harmonic optoelectronics,” Science 357(6348), 303–306 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Vampa, B. G. Ghamsari, S. S. Mousavi, T. J. Hammond, A. Olivieri, E. Lisicka-Skrek, A. Y. Naumov, D. M. Villeneuve, A. Staudte, P. Berini, and P. B. Corkum, “Plasmon-enhanced high-harmonic generation from silicon,” Nat. Phys. 13(7), 659–662 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. E. Abbass, H. C. Swart, and R. E. Kroon, “Non-plasmonic enhancement of the near band edge luminescence from ZnO using Ag nanoparticles,” J. Lumin. 182, 263–267 (2017).
[Crossref]

I. Morichika, F. Kusa, A. Takegami, A. Sakurai, and S. Ashihara, “Antenna-Enhanced Nonlinear Infrared Spectroscopy in Reflection Geometry,” J. Phys. Chem. C 121(21), 11643–11649 (2017).
[Crossref]

T. Shibanuma, G. Grinblat, P. Albella, and S. A. Maier, “Efficient Third Harmonic Generation from Metal-Dielectric Hybrid Nanoantennas,” Nano Lett. 17(4), 2647–2651 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Kusa, I. Morichika, A. Takegami, and S. Ashihara, “Enhanced ultrafast infrared spectroscopy using coupled nanoantenna arrays,” Opt. Express 25(11), 12896–12907 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (3)

S. Han, H. Kim, Y. W. Kim, Y. J. Kim, S. Kim, I. Y. Park, and S. W. Kim, “High-harmonic generation by field enhanced femtosecond pulses in metal-sapphire nanostructure,” Nat. Commun. 7, 13105 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Garg, M. Zhan, T. T. Luu, H. Lakhotia, T. Klostermann, A. Guggenmos, and E. Goulielmakis, “Multi-petahertz electronic metrology,” Nature 538(7625), 359–363 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Liu, Y. Li, Y. S. You, S. Ghimire, T. F. Feinz, and D. A. Reis, “High-harmonic generation from an atomically thin semiconductor,” Nat. Phys. 13(3), 262–265 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (4)

G. Vampa, T. J. Hammond, N. Thiré, B. E. Schmidt, F. Légaré, C. R. McDonald, T. Brabec, and P. B. Corkum, “Linking high harmonics from gases and solids,” Nature 522(7557), 462–464 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Vampa, T. J. Hammond, N. Thiré, B. E. Schmidt, F. Légaré, C. R. McDonald, T. Brabec, D. D. Klug, and P. B. Corkum, “All-Optical Reconstruction of Crystal Band Structure,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115(19), 193603 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. T. Luu, M. Garg, S. Y. Kruchinin, A. Moulet, M. T. Hassan, and E. Goulielmakis, “Extreme ultraviolet high-harmonic spectroscopy of solids,” Nature 521(7553), 498–502 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Kusa, K. E. Echternkamp, G. Herink, C. Ropers, and S. Ashihara, “Optical field emission from resonant gold nanorods driven by femtosecond mid-infrared pulses,” AIP Adv. 5(7), 077138 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (3)

B. Metzger, M. Hentschel, T. Schumacher, M. Lippitz, X. Ye, C. B. Murray, B. Knabe, K. Buse, and H. Giessen, “Doubling the Efficiency of Third Harmonic Generation by Positioning ITO Nanocrystals into the Hot-Spot of Plasmonic Gap-Antennas,” Nano Lett. 14(5), 2867–2872 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Kusa and S. Ashihara, “Spectral response of localized surface plasmon in resonance with mid-infrared light,” J. Appl. Phys. 116(15), 153103 (2014).
[Crossref]

O. Schubert, M. Hohenleutner, F. Langer, B. Urbanek, C. Lange, U. Huttner, D. Golde, T. Meier, M. Kira, S. W. Koch, and R. Huber, “Sub-cycle control of terahertz high-harmonic generation by dynamical Bloch oscillations,” Nat. Photonics 8(2), 119–123 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

S. Bayan and D. Mohanta, “Significant Fowler–Nordheim tunneling across ZnO – Nanorod based nanojunctions for nanoelectronic device applications,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 13(4), 705–709 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

C. Vozzi, M. Negro, and S. Stagira, “Strong-field phenomena driven by mid-infrared ultrafast sources,” J. Mod. Opt. 59(15), 1283–1302 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (3)

L. J. Brillson and Y. Lu, “ZnO Schottky barriers and Ohmic contacts,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(12), 121301 (2011).
[Crossref]

H. Hirori, K. Shinokita, M. Shirai, S. Tani, Y. Kadoya, and K. Tanaka, “Extraordinary carrier multiplication gated by a picosecond electric field pulse,” Nat. Commun. 2(1), 594 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Ghimire, A. D. DiChiara, E. Sistrunk, P. Agostini, L. F. DiMauro, and A. Reis, “Observation of high-order harmonic generation in a bulk crystal,” Nat. Phys. 7(2), 138–141 (2011).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

O. Smirnova, Y. Mairesse, S. Patchkovskii, N. Dudovich, D. Villeneuve, P. Corkum, and M. Y. Ivanov, “High harmonic interferometry of multi-electron dynamics in molecules,” Nature 460(7258), 972–977 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Krausz and M. Ivanov, “Attosecond physics,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 81(1), 163–234 (2009).
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

P. B. Corkum and F. Krausz, “Attosecond science,” Nat. Phys. 3(6), 381–387 (2007).
[Crossref]

B. K. Canfield, H. Husu, J. Laukkanen, B. Bai, M. Kuittinen, J. Turunen, and M. Kauranen, “Local Field Asymmetry Drives Second-Harmonic Generation in Noncentrosymmetric Nanodimers,” Nano Lett. 7(5), 1251–1255 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

J. Itatani, J. Levesque, D. Zeidler, H. Niikura, H. Pépin, J. C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Tomographic imaging of molecular orbitals,” Nature 432(7019), 867–871 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

K. B. Crozier, A. Sundaramurthy, G. S. Kino, and C. F. Quate, “Optical antennas: Resonators for local field enhancement,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(7), 4632–4642 (2003).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

T. Brabec and F. Krausz, “Intense few-cycle laser fields: Frontiers of nonlinear optics,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 72(2), 545–591 (2000).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

H. Yoshikawa and S. Adachi, “Optical Constants of ZnO,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36(10), 6237–6243 (1997).
[Crossref]

1993 (1)

P. B. Corkum, “Plasma perspective on strong field multiphoton ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71(13), 1994–1997 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1988 (1)

M. Ferray, A. L’Huillier, X. F. Li, L. A. Lomprk, G. Mainfray, and C. Manus, “Multiple-harmonic conversion of 1064 nm radiation in rare gases,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 21(3), L31–L35 (1988).
[Crossref]

Abbass, A. E.

A. E. Abbass, H. C. Swart, and R. E. Kroon, “Non-plasmonic enhancement of the near band edge luminescence from ZnO using Ag nanoparticles,” J. Lumin. 182, 263–267 (2017).
[Crossref]

Adachi, S.

H. Yoshikawa and S. Adachi, “Optical Constants of ZnO,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36(10), 6237–6243 (1997).
[Crossref]

Agostini, P.

S. Ghimire, A. D. DiChiara, E. Sistrunk, P. Agostini, L. F. DiMauro, and A. Reis, “Observation of high-order harmonic generation in a bulk crystal,” Nat. Phys. 7(2), 138–141 (2011).
[Crossref]

Albella, P.

T. Shibanuma, G. Grinblat, P. Albella, and S. A. Maier, “Efficient Third Harmonic Generation from Metal-Dielectric Hybrid Nanoantennas,” Nano Lett. 17(4), 2647–2651 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ashihara, S.

F. Kusa, I. Morichika, A. Takegami, and S. Ashihara, “Enhanced ultrafast infrared spectroscopy using coupled nanoantenna arrays,” Opt. Express 25(11), 12896–12907 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Morichika, F. Kusa, A. Takegami, A. Sakurai, and S. Ashihara, “Antenna-Enhanced Nonlinear Infrared Spectroscopy in Reflection Geometry,” J. Phys. Chem. C 121(21), 11643–11649 (2017).
[Crossref]

F. Kusa, K. E. Echternkamp, G. Herink, C. Ropers, and S. Ashihara, “Optical field emission from resonant gold nanorods driven by femtosecond mid-infrared pulses,” AIP Adv. 5(7), 077138 (2015).
[Crossref]

F. Kusa and S. Ashihara, “Spectral response of localized surface plasmon in resonance with mid-infrared light,” J. Appl. Phys. 116(15), 153103 (2014).
[Crossref]

Bai, B.

B. K. Canfield, H. Husu, J. Laukkanen, B. Bai, M. Kuittinen, J. Turunen, and M. Kauranen, “Local Field Asymmetry Drives Second-Harmonic Generation in Noncentrosymmetric Nanodimers,” Nano Lett. 7(5), 1251–1255 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bayan, S.

S. Bayan and D. Mohanta, “Significant Fowler–Nordheim tunneling across ZnO – Nanorod based nanojunctions for nanoelectronic device applications,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 13(4), 705–709 (2013).
[Crossref]

Beetar, J.

S. Gholam-Mirzaei, J. Beetar, and M. Chini, “High harmonic generation in ZnO with a high-power mid-IR OPA,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(6), 061101 (2017).
[Crossref]

Berini, P.

G. Vampa, B. G. Ghamsari, S. S. Mousavi, T. J. Hammond, A. Olivieri, E. Lisicka-Skrek, A. Y. Naumov, D. M. Villeneuve, A. Staudte, P. Berini, and P. B. Corkum, “Plasmon-enhanced high-harmonic generation from silicon,” Nat. Phys. 13(7), 659–662 (2017).
[Crossref]

Brabec, T.

G. Vampa, T. J. Hammond, N. Thiré, B. E. Schmidt, F. Légaré, C. R. McDonald, T. Brabec, and P. B. Corkum, “Linking high harmonics from gases and solids,” Nature 522(7557), 462–464 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Vampa, T. J. Hammond, N. Thiré, B. E. Schmidt, F. Légaré, C. R. McDonald, T. Brabec, D. D. Klug, and P. B. Corkum, “All-Optical Reconstruction of Crystal Band Structure,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115(19), 193603 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Brabec and F. Krausz, “Intense few-cycle laser fields: Frontiers of nonlinear optics,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 72(2), 545–591 (2000).
[Crossref]

Brillson, L. J.

L. J. Brillson and Y. Lu, “ZnO Schottky barriers and Ohmic contacts,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(12), 121301 (2011).
[Crossref]

Buse, K.

B. Metzger, M. Hentschel, T. Schumacher, M. Lippitz, X. Ye, C. B. Murray, B. Knabe, K. Buse, and H. Giessen, “Doubling the Efficiency of Third Harmonic Generation by Positioning ITO Nanocrystals into the Hot-Spot of Plasmonic Gap-Antennas,” Nano Lett. 14(5), 2867–2872 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Canfield, B. K.

B. K. Canfield, H. Husu, J. Laukkanen, B. Bai, M. Kuittinen, J. Turunen, and M. Kauranen, “Local Field Asymmetry Drives Second-Harmonic Generation in Noncentrosymmetric Nanodimers,” Nano Lett. 7(5), 1251–1255 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chang, Z.

J. Li, X. Ren, Y. Yin, K. Zhao, A. Chew, Y. Cheng, E. Cunningham, Y. Wang, S. Hu, Y. Wu, M. Chini, and Z. Chang, “53-attosecond X-ray pulses reach the carbon K-edge,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 186 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cheng, Y.

J. Li, X. Ren, Y. Yin, K. Zhao, A. Chew, Y. Cheng, E. Cunningham, Y. Wang, S. Hu, Y. Wu, M. Chini, and Z. Chang, “53-attosecond X-ray pulses reach the carbon K-edge,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 186 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chew, A.

J. Li, X. Ren, Y. Yin, K. Zhao, A. Chew, Y. Cheng, E. Cunningham, Y. Wang, S. Hu, Y. Wu, M. Chini, and Z. Chang, “53-attosecond X-ray pulses reach the carbon K-edge,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 186 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chini, M.

J. Li, X. Ren, Y. Yin, K. Zhao, A. Chew, Y. Cheng, E. Cunningham, Y. Wang, S. Hu, Y. Wu, M. Chini, and Z. Chang, “53-attosecond X-ray pulses reach the carbon K-edge,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 186 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Gholam-Mirzaei, J. Beetar, and M. Chini, “High harmonic generation in ZnO with a high-power mid-IR OPA,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(6), 061101 (2017).
[Crossref]

Corkum, P.

O. Smirnova, Y. Mairesse, S. Patchkovskii, N. Dudovich, D. Villeneuve, P. Corkum, and M. Y. Ivanov, “High harmonic interferometry of multi-electron dynamics in molecules,” Nature 460(7258), 972–977 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Corkum, P. B.

G. Vampa, B. G. Ghamsari, S. S. Mousavi, T. J. Hammond, A. Olivieri, E. Lisicka-Skrek, A. Y. Naumov, D. M. Villeneuve, A. Staudte, P. Berini, and P. B. Corkum, “Plasmon-enhanced high-harmonic generation from silicon,” Nat. Phys. 13(7), 659–662 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. Sivis, M. Taucer, G. Vampa, K. Johnston, A. Staudte, A. Y. Naumov, D. M. Villeneuve, C. Ropers, and P. B. Corkum, “Tailored semiconductors for high-harmonic optoelectronics,” Science 357(6348), 303–306 (2017).
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G. Vampa, T. J. Hammond, N. Thiré, B. E. Schmidt, F. Légaré, C. R. McDonald, T. Brabec, D. D. Klug, and P. B. Corkum, “All-Optical Reconstruction of Crystal Band Structure,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115(19), 193603 (2015).
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G. Vampa, T. J. Hammond, N. Thiré, B. E. Schmidt, F. Légaré, C. R. McDonald, T. Brabec, and P. B. Corkum, “Linking high harmonics from gases and solids,” Nature 522(7557), 462–464 (2015).
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P. B. Corkum and F. Krausz, “Attosecond science,” Nat. Phys. 3(6), 381–387 (2007).
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J. Itatani, J. Levesque, D. Zeidler, H. Niikura, H. Pépin, J. C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Tomographic imaging of molecular orbitals,” Nature 432(7019), 867–871 (2004).
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K. B. Crozier, A. Sundaramurthy, G. S. Kino, and C. F. Quate, “Optical antennas: Resonators for local field enhancement,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(7), 4632–4642 (2003).
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Cunningham, E.

J. Li, X. Ren, Y. Yin, K. Zhao, A. Chew, Y. Cheng, E. Cunningham, Y. Wang, S. Hu, Y. Wu, M. Chini, and Z. Chang, “53-attosecond X-ray pulses reach the carbon K-edge,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 186 (2017).
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S. Ghimire, A. D. DiChiara, E. Sistrunk, P. Agostini, L. F. DiMauro, and A. Reis, “Observation of high-order harmonic generation in a bulk crystal,” Nat. Phys. 7(2), 138–141 (2011).
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DiMauro, L. F.

S. Ghimire, A. D. DiChiara, E. Sistrunk, P. Agostini, L. F. DiMauro, and A. Reis, “Observation of high-order harmonic generation in a bulk crystal,” Nat. Phys. 7(2), 138–141 (2011).
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Dudovich, N.

O. Smirnova, Y. Mairesse, S. Patchkovskii, N. Dudovich, D. Villeneuve, P. Corkum, and M. Y. Ivanov, “High harmonic interferometry of multi-electron dynamics in molecules,” Nature 460(7258), 972–977 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Echternkamp, K. E.

F. Kusa, K. E. Echternkamp, G. Herink, C. Ropers, and S. Ashihara, “Optical field emission from resonant gold nanorods driven by femtosecond mid-infrared pulses,” AIP Adv. 5(7), 077138 (2015).
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H. Liu, Y. Li, Y. S. You, S. Ghimire, T. F. Feinz, and D. A. Reis, “High-harmonic generation from an atomically thin semiconductor,” Nat. Phys. 13(3), 262–265 (2016).
[Crossref]

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M. Ferray, A. L’Huillier, X. F. Li, L. A. Lomprk, G. Mainfray, and C. Manus, “Multiple-harmonic conversion of 1064 nm radiation in rare gases,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 21(3), L31–L35 (1988).
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M. Garg, M. Zhan, T. T. Luu, H. Lakhotia, T. Klostermann, A. Guggenmos, and E. Goulielmakis, “Multi-petahertz electronic metrology,” Nature 538(7625), 359–363 (2016).
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T. T. Luu, M. Garg, S. Y. Kruchinin, A. Moulet, M. T. Hassan, and E. Goulielmakis, “Extreme ultraviolet high-harmonic spectroscopy of solids,” Nature 521(7553), 498–502 (2015).
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G. Vampa, B. G. Ghamsari, S. S. Mousavi, T. J. Hammond, A. Olivieri, E. Lisicka-Skrek, A. Y. Naumov, D. M. Villeneuve, A. Staudte, P. Berini, and P. B. Corkum, “Plasmon-enhanced high-harmonic generation from silicon,” Nat. Phys. 13(7), 659–662 (2017).
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Y. S. You, D. A. Reis, and S. Ghimire, “Anisotropic high-harmonic generation in bulk crystals,” Nat. Phys. 13(4), 345–349 (2017).
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H. Liu, Y. Li, Y. S. You, S. Ghimire, T. F. Feinz, and D. A. Reis, “High-harmonic generation from an atomically thin semiconductor,” Nat. Phys. 13(3), 262–265 (2016).
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S. Ghimire, A. D. DiChiara, E. Sistrunk, P. Agostini, L. F. DiMauro, and A. Reis, “Observation of high-order harmonic generation in a bulk crystal,” Nat. Phys. 7(2), 138–141 (2011).
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S. Gholam-Mirzaei, J. Beetar, and M. Chini, “High harmonic generation in ZnO with a high-power mid-IR OPA,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(6), 061101 (2017).
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B. Metzger, M. Hentschel, T. Schumacher, M. Lippitz, X. Ye, C. B. Murray, B. Knabe, K. Buse, and H. Giessen, “Doubling the Efficiency of Third Harmonic Generation by Positioning ITO Nanocrystals into the Hot-Spot of Plasmonic Gap-Antennas,” Nano Lett. 14(5), 2867–2872 (2014).
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Golde, D.

O. Schubert, M. Hohenleutner, F. Langer, B. Urbanek, C. Lange, U. Huttner, D. Golde, T. Meier, M. Kira, S. W. Koch, and R. Huber, “Sub-cycle control of terahertz high-harmonic generation by dynamical Bloch oscillations,” Nat. Photonics 8(2), 119–123 (2014).
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M. Garg, M. Zhan, T. T. Luu, H. Lakhotia, T. Klostermann, A. Guggenmos, and E. Goulielmakis, “Multi-petahertz electronic metrology,” Nature 538(7625), 359–363 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. T. Luu, M. Garg, S. Y. Kruchinin, A. Moulet, M. T. Hassan, and E. Goulielmakis, “Extreme ultraviolet high-harmonic spectroscopy of solids,” Nature 521(7553), 498–502 (2015).
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T. Shibanuma, G. Grinblat, P. Albella, and S. A. Maier, “Efficient Third Harmonic Generation from Metal-Dielectric Hybrid Nanoantennas,” Nano Lett. 17(4), 2647–2651 (2017).
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M. Garg, M. Zhan, T. T. Luu, H. Lakhotia, T. Klostermann, A. Guggenmos, and E. Goulielmakis, “Multi-petahertz electronic metrology,” Nature 538(7625), 359–363 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hammond, T. J.

G. Vampa, B. G. Ghamsari, S. S. Mousavi, T. J. Hammond, A. Olivieri, E. Lisicka-Skrek, A. Y. Naumov, D. M. Villeneuve, A. Staudte, P. Berini, and P. B. Corkum, “Plasmon-enhanced high-harmonic generation from silicon,” Nat. Phys. 13(7), 659–662 (2017).
[Crossref]

G. Vampa, T. J. Hammond, N. Thiré, B. E. Schmidt, F. Légaré, C. R. McDonald, T. Brabec, D. D. Klug, and P. B. Corkum, “All-Optical Reconstruction of Crystal Band Structure,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115(19), 193603 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Vampa, T. J. Hammond, N. Thiré, B. E. Schmidt, F. Légaré, C. R. McDonald, T. Brabec, and P. B. Corkum, “Linking high harmonics from gases and solids,” Nature 522(7557), 462–464 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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S. Han, H. Kim, Y. W. Kim, Y. J. Kim, S. Kim, I. Y. Park, and S. W. Kim, “High-harmonic generation by field enhanced femtosecond pulses in metal-sapphire nanostructure,” Nat. Commun. 7, 13105 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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T. T. Luu, M. Garg, S. Y. Kruchinin, A. Moulet, M. T. Hassan, and E. Goulielmakis, “Extreme ultraviolet high-harmonic spectroscopy of solids,” Nature 521(7553), 498–502 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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B. Metzger, M. Hentschel, T. Schumacher, M. Lippitz, X. Ye, C. B. Murray, B. Knabe, K. Buse, and H. Giessen, “Doubling the Efficiency of Third Harmonic Generation by Positioning ITO Nanocrystals into the Hot-Spot of Plasmonic Gap-Antennas,” Nano Lett. 14(5), 2867–2872 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Herink, G.

F. Kusa, K. E. Echternkamp, G. Herink, C. Ropers, and S. Ashihara, “Optical field emission from resonant gold nanorods driven by femtosecond mid-infrared pulses,” AIP Adv. 5(7), 077138 (2015).
[Crossref]

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H. Hirori, K. Shinokita, M. Shirai, S. Tani, Y. Kadoya, and K. Tanaka, “Extraordinary carrier multiplication gated by a picosecond electric field pulse,” Nat. Commun. 2(1), 594 (2011).
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F. Langer, M. Hohenleutner, U. Huttner, S. W. Koch, M. Kira, and R. Huber, “Symmetry-controlled temporal structure of high-harmonic carrier fields from a bulk crystal,” Nat. Photonics 11(4), 227–231 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. Schubert, M. Hohenleutner, F. Langer, B. Urbanek, C. Lange, U. Huttner, D. Golde, T. Meier, M. Kira, S. W. Koch, and R. Huber, “Sub-cycle control of terahertz high-harmonic generation by dynamical Bloch oscillations,” Nat. Photonics 8(2), 119–123 (2014).
[Crossref]

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J. Li, X. Ren, Y. Yin, K. Zhao, A. Chew, Y. Cheng, E. Cunningham, Y. Wang, S. Hu, Y. Wu, M. Chini, and Z. Chang, “53-attosecond X-ray pulses reach the carbon K-edge,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 186 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huber, R.

F. Langer, M. Hohenleutner, U. Huttner, S. W. Koch, M. Kira, and R. Huber, “Symmetry-controlled temporal structure of high-harmonic carrier fields from a bulk crystal,” Nat. Photonics 11(4), 227–231 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. Schubert, M. Hohenleutner, F. Langer, B. Urbanek, C. Lange, U. Huttner, D. Golde, T. Meier, M. Kira, S. W. Koch, and R. Huber, “Sub-cycle control of terahertz high-harmonic generation by dynamical Bloch oscillations,” Nat. Photonics 8(2), 119–123 (2014).
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B. K. Canfield, H. Husu, J. Laukkanen, B. Bai, M. Kuittinen, J. Turunen, and M. Kauranen, “Local Field Asymmetry Drives Second-Harmonic Generation in Noncentrosymmetric Nanodimers,” Nano Lett. 7(5), 1251–1255 (2007).
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Huttner, U.

F. Langer, M. Hohenleutner, U. Huttner, S. W. Koch, M. Kira, and R. Huber, “Symmetry-controlled temporal structure of high-harmonic carrier fields from a bulk crystal,” Nat. Photonics 11(4), 227–231 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. Schubert, M. Hohenleutner, F. Langer, B. Urbanek, C. Lange, U. Huttner, D. Golde, T. Meier, M. Kira, S. W. Koch, and R. Huber, “Sub-cycle control of terahertz high-harmonic generation by dynamical Bloch oscillations,” Nat. Photonics 8(2), 119–123 (2014).
[Crossref]

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J. Itatani, J. Levesque, D. Zeidler, H. Niikura, H. Pépin, J. C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Tomographic imaging of molecular orbitals,” Nature 432(7019), 867–871 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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F. Krausz and M. Ivanov, “Attosecond physics,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 81(1), 163–234 (2009).
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O. Smirnova, Y. Mairesse, S. Patchkovskii, N. Dudovich, D. Villeneuve, P. Corkum, and M. Y. Ivanov, “High harmonic interferometry of multi-electron dynamics in molecules,” Nature 460(7258), 972–977 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Johnston, K.

M. Sivis, M. Taucer, G. Vampa, K. Johnston, A. Staudte, A. Y. Naumov, D. M. Villeneuve, C. Ropers, and P. B. Corkum, “Tailored semiconductors for high-harmonic optoelectronics,” Science 357(6348), 303–306 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kadoya, Y.

H. Hirori, K. Shinokita, M. Shirai, S. Tani, Y. Kadoya, and K. Tanaka, “Extraordinary carrier multiplication gated by a picosecond electric field pulse,” Nat. Commun. 2(1), 594 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kauranen, M.

B. K. Canfield, H. Husu, J. Laukkanen, B. Bai, M. Kuittinen, J. Turunen, and M. Kauranen, “Local Field Asymmetry Drives Second-Harmonic Generation in Noncentrosymmetric Nanodimers,” Nano Lett. 7(5), 1251–1255 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kieffer, J. C.

J. Itatani, J. Levesque, D. Zeidler, H. Niikura, H. Pépin, J. C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Tomographic imaging of molecular orbitals,” Nature 432(7019), 867–871 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, H.

S. Han, H. Kim, Y. W. Kim, Y. J. Kim, S. Kim, I. Y. Park, and S. W. Kim, “High-harmonic generation by field enhanced femtosecond pulses in metal-sapphire nanostructure,” Nat. Commun. 7, 13105 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, S.

S. Han, H. Kim, Y. W. Kim, Y. J. Kim, S. Kim, I. Y. Park, and S. W. Kim, “High-harmonic generation by field enhanced femtosecond pulses in metal-sapphire nanostructure,” Nat. Commun. 7, 13105 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, S. W.

S. Han, H. Kim, Y. W. Kim, Y. J. Kim, S. Kim, I. Y. Park, and S. W. Kim, “High-harmonic generation by field enhanced femtosecond pulses in metal-sapphire nanostructure,” Nat. Commun. 7, 13105 (2016).
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Kim, Y. J.

S. Han, H. Kim, Y. W. Kim, Y. J. Kim, S. Kim, I. Y. Park, and S. W. Kim, “High-harmonic generation by field enhanced femtosecond pulses in metal-sapphire nanostructure,” Nat. Commun. 7, 13105 (2016).
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Kim, Y. W.

S. Han, H. Kim, Y. W. Kim, Y. J. Kim, S. Kim, I. Y. Park, and S. W. Kim, “High-harmonic generation by field enhanced femtosecond pulses in metal-sapphire nanostructure,” Nat. Commun. 7, 13105 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kino, G. S.

K. B. Crozier, A. Sundaramurthy, G. S. Kino, and C. F. Quate, “Optical antennas: Resonators for local field enhancement,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(7), 4632–4642 (2003).
[Crossref]

Kira, M.

F. Langer, M. Hohenleutner, U. Huttner, S. W. Koch, M. Kira, and R. Huber, “Symmetry-controlled temporal structure of high-harmonic carrier fields from a bulk crystal,” Nat. Photonics 11(4), 227–231 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. Schubert, M. Hohenleutner, F. Langer, B. Urbanek, C. Lange, U. Huttner, D. Golde, T. Meier, M. Kira, S. W. Koch, and R. Huber, “Sub-cycle control of terahertz high-harmonic generation by dynamical Bloch oscillations,” Nat. Photonics 8(2), 119–123 (2014).
[Crossref]

Klostermann, T.

M. Garg, M. Zhan, T. T. Luu, H. Lakhotia, T. Klostermann, A. Guggenmos, and E. Goulielmakis, “Multi-petahertz electronic metrology,” Nature 538(7625), 359–363 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Klug, D. D.

G. Vampa, T. J. Hammond, N. Thiré, B. E. Schmidt, F. Légaré, C. R. McDonald, T. Brabec, D. D. Klug, and P. B. Corkum, “All-Optical Reconstruction of Crystal Band Structure,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115(19), 193603 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Knabe, B.

B. Metzger, M. Hentschel, T. Schumacher, M. Lippitz, X. Ye, C. B. Murray, B. Knabe, K. Buse, and H. Giessen, “Doubling the Efficiency of Third Harmonic Generation by Positioning ITO Nanocrystals into the Hot-Spot of Plasmonic Gap-Antennas,” Nano Lett. 14(5), 2867–2872 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Koch, S. W.

F. Langer, M. Hohenleutner, U. Huttner, S. W. Koch, M. Kira, and R. Huber, “Symmetry-controlled temporal structure of high-harmonic carrier fields from a bulk crystal,” Nat. Photonics 11(4), 227–231 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. Schubert, M. Hohenleutner, F. Langer, B. Urbanek, C. Lange, U. Huttner, D. Golde, T. Meier, M. Kira, S. W. Koch, and R. Huber, “Sub-cycle control of terahertz high-harmonic generation by dynamical Bloch oscillations,” Nat. Photonics 8(2), 119–123 (2014).
[Crossref]

Krausz, F.

F. Krausz and M. Ivanov, “Attosecond physics,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 81(1), 163–234 (2009).
[Crossref]

P. B. Corkum and F. Krausz, “Attosecond science,” Nat. Phys. 3(6), 381–387 (2007).
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T. Brabec and F. Krausz, “Intense few-cycle laser fields: Frontiers of nonlinear optics,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 72(2), 545–591 (2000).
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A. E. Abbass, H. C. Swart, and R. E. Kroon, “Non-plasmonic enhancement of the near band edge luminescence from ZnO using Ag nanoparticles,” J. Lumin. 182, 263–267 (2017).
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T. T. Luu, M. Garg, S. Y. Kruchinin, A. Moulet, M. T. Hassan, and E. Goulielmakis, “Extreme ultraviolet high-harmonic spectroscopy of solids,” Nature 521(7553), 498–502 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kuittinen, M.

B. K. Canfield, H. Husu, J. Laukkanen, B. Bai, M. Kuittinen, J. Turunen, and M. Kauranen, “Local Field Asymmetry Drives Second-Harmonic Generation in Noncentrosymmetric Nanodimers,” Nano Lett. 7(5), 1251–1255 (2007).
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F. Kusa, I. Morichika, A. Takegami, and S. Ashihara, “Enhanced ultrafast infrared spectroscopy using coupled nanoantenna arrays,” Opt. Express 25(11), 12896–12907 (2017).
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I. Morichika, F. Kusa, A. Takegami, A. Sakurai, and S. Ashihara, “Antenna-Enhanced Nonlinear Infrared Spectroscopy in Reflection Geometry,” J. Phys. Chem. C 121(21), 11643–11649 (2017).
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F. Kusa, K. E. Echternkamp, G. Herink, C. Ropers, and S. Ashihara, “Optical field emission from resonant gold nanorods driven by femtosecond mid-infrared pulses,” AIP Adv. 5(7), 077138 (2015).
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F. Kusa and S. Ashihara, “Spectral response of localized surface plasmon in resonance with mid-infrared light,” J. Appl. Phys. 116(15), 153103 (2014).
[Crossref]

L’Huillier, A.

M. Ferray, A. L’Huillier, X. F. Li, L. A. Lomprk, G. Mainfray, and C. Manus, “Multiple-harmonic conversion of 1064 nm radiation in rare gases,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 21(3), L31–L35 (1988).
[Crossref]

Lakhotia, H.

M. Garg, M. Zhan, T. T. Luu, H. Lakhotia, T. Klostermann, A. Guggenmos, and E. Goulielmakis, “Multi-petahertz electronic metrology,” Nature 538(7625), 359–363 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lange, C.

O. Schubert, M. Hohenleutner, F. Langer, B. Urbanek, C. Lange, U. Huttner, D. Golde, T. Meier, M. Kira, S. W. Koch, and R. Huber, “Sub-cycle control of terahertz high-harmonic generation by dynamical Bloch oscillations,” Nat. Photonics 8(2), 119–123 (2014).
[Crossref]

Langer, F.

F. Langer, M. Hohenleutner, U. Huttner, S. W. Koch, M. Kira, and R. Huber, “Symmetry-controlled temporal structure of high-harmonic carrier fields from a bulk crystal,” Nat. Photonics 11(4), 227–231 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. Schubert, M. Hohenleutner, F. Langer, B. Urbanek, C. Lange, U. Huttner, D. Golde, T. Meier, M. Kira, S. W. Koch, and R. Huber, “Sub-cycle control of terahertz high-harmonic generation by dynamical Bloch oscillations,” Nat. Photonics 8(2), 119–123 (2014).
[Crossref]

Laukkanen, J.

B. K. Canfield, H. Husu, J. Laukkanen, B. Bai, M. Kuittinen, J. Turunen, and M. Kauranen, “Local Field Asymmetry Drives Second-Harmonic Generation in Noncentrosymmetric Nanodimers,” Nano Lett. 7(5), 1251–1255 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Légaré, F.

G. Vampa, T. J. Hammond, N. Thiré, B. E. Schmidt, F. Légaré, C. R. McDonald, T. Brabec, and P. B. Corkum, “Linking high harmonics from gases and solids,” Nature 522(7557), 462–464 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Vampa, T. J. Hammond, N. Thiré, B. E. Schmidt, F. Légaré, C. R. McDonald, T. Brabec, D. D. Klug, and P. B. Corkum, “All-Optical Reconstruction of Crystal Band Structure,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115(19), 193603 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Levesque, J.

J. Itatani, J. Levesque, D. Zeidler, H. Niikura, H. Pépin, J. C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Tomographic imaging of molecular orbitals,” Nature 432(7019), 867–871 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, J.

J. Li, X. Ren, Y. Yin, K. Zhao, A. Chew, Y. Cheng, E. Cunningham, Y. Wang, S. Hu, Y. Wu, M. Chini, and Z. Chang, “53-attosecond X-ray pulses reach the carbon K-edge,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 186 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, X. F.

M. Ferray, A. L’Huillier, X. F. Li, L. A. Lomprk, G. Mainfray, and C. Manus, “Multiple-harmonic conversion of 1064 nm radiation in rare gases,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 21(3), L31–L35 (1988).
[Crossref]

Li, Y.

H. Liu, Y. Li, Y. S. You, S. Ghimire, T. F. Feinz, and D. A. Reis, “High-harmonic generation from an atomically thin semiconductor,” Nat. Phys. 13(3), 262–265 (2016).
[Crossref]

Lippitz, M.

B. Metzger, M. Hentschel, T. Schumacher, M. Lippitz, X. Ye, C. B. Murray, B. Knabe, K. Buse, and H. Giessen, “Doubling the Efficiency of Third Harmonic Generation by Positioning ITO Nanocrystals into the Hot-Spot of Plasmonic Gap-Antennas,” Nano Lett. 14(5), 2867–2872 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lisicka-Skrek, E.

G. Vampa, B. G. Ghamsari, S. S. Mousavi, T. J. Hammond, A. Olivieri, E. Lisicka-Skrek, A. Y. Naumov, D. M. Villeneuve, A. Staudte, P. Berini, and P. B. Corkum, “Plasmon-enhanced high-harmonic generation from silicon,” Nat. Phys. 13(7), 659–662 (2017).
[Crossref]

Liu, H.

H. Liu, Y. Li, Y. S. You, S. Ghimire, T. F. Feinz, and D. A. Reis, “High-harmonic generation from an atomically thin semiconductor,” Nat. Phys. 13(3), 262–265 (2016).
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Lomprk, L. A.

M. Ferray, A. L’Huillier, X. F. Li, L. A. Lomprk, G. Mainfray, and C. Manus, “Multiple-harmonic conversion of 1064 nm radiation in rare gases,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 21(3), L31–L35 (1988).
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L. J. Brillson and Y. Lu, “ZnO Schottky barriers and Ohmic contacts,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(12), 121301 (2011).
[Crossref]

Luu, T. T.

M. Garg, M. Zhan, T. T. Luu, H. Lakhotia, T. Klostermann, A. Guggenmos, and E. Goulielmakis, “Multi-petahertz electronic metrology,” Nature 538(7625), 359–363 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. T. Luu, M. Garg, S. Y. Kruchinin, A. Moulet, M. T. Hassan, and E. Goulielmakis, “Extreme ultraviolet high-harmonic spectroscopy of solids,” Nature 521(7553), 498–502 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Maier, S. A.

T. Shibanuma, G. Grinblat, P. Albella, and S. A. Maier, “Efficient Third Harmonic Generation from Metal-Dielectric Hybrid Nanoantennas,” Nano Lett. 17(4), 2647–2651 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mainfray, G.

M. Ferray, A. L’Huillier, X. F. Li, L. A. Lomprk, G. Mainfray, and C. Manus, “Multiple-harmonic conversion of 1064 nm radiation in rare gases,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 21(3), L31–L35 (1988).
[Crossref]

Mairesse, Y.

O. Smirnova, Y. Mairesse, S. Patchkovskii, N. Dudovich, D. Villeneuve, P. Corkum, and M. Y. Ivanov, “High harmonic interferometry of multi-electron dynamics in molecules,” Nature 460(7258), 972–977 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Manus, C.

M. Ferray, A. L’Huillier, X. F. Li, L. A. Lomprk, G. Mainfray, and C. Manus, “Multiple-harmonic conversion of 1064 nm radiation in rare gases,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 21(3), L31–L35 (1988).
[Crossref]

McDonald, C. R.

G. Vampa, T. J. Hammond, N. Thiré, B. E. Schmidt, F. Légaré, C. R. McDonald, T. Brabec, D. D. Klug, and P. B. Corkum, “All-Optical Reconstruction of Crystal Band Structure,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115(19), 193603 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Vampa, T. J. Hammond, N. Thiré, B. E. Schmidt, F. Légaré, C. R. McDonald, T. Brabec, and P. B. Corkum, “Linking high harmonics from gases and solids,” Nature 522(7557), 462–464 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Meier, T.

O. Schubert, M. Hohenleutner, F. Langer, B. Urbanek, C. Lange, U. Huttner, D. Golde, T. Meier, M. Kira, S. W. Koch, and R. Huber, “Sub-cycle control of terahertz high-harmonic generation by dynamical Bloch oscillations,” Nat. Photonics 8(2), 119–123 (2014).
[Crossref]

Metzger, B.

B. Metzger, M. Hentschel, T. Schumacher, M. Lippitz, X. Ye, C. B. Murray, B. Knabe, K. Buse, and H. Giessen, “Doubling the Efficiency of Third Harmonic Generation by Positioning ITO Nanocrystals into the Hot-Spot of Plasmonic Gap-Antennas,” Nano Lett. 14(5), 2867–2872 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mohanta, D.

S. Bayan and D. Mohanta, “Significant Fowler–Nordheim tunneling across ZnO – Nanorod based nanojunctions for nanoelectronic device applications,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 13(4), 705–709 (2013).
[Crossref]

Morichika, I.

F. Kusa, I. Morichika, A. Takegami, and S. Ashihara, “Enhanced ultrafast infrared spectroscopy using coupled nanoantenna arrays,” Opt. Express 25(11), 12896–12907 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Morichika, F. Kusa, A. Takegami, A. Sakurai, and S. Ashihara, “Antenna-Enhanced Nonlinear Infrared Spectroscopy in Reflection Geometry,” J. Phys. Chem. C 121(21), 11643–11649 (2017).
[Crossref]

Moulet, A.

T. T. Luu, M. Garg, S. Y. Kruchinin, A. Moulet, M. T. Hassan, and E. Goulielmakis, “Extreme ultraviolet high-harmonic spectroscopy of solids,” Nature 521(7553), 498–502 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mousavi, S. S.

G. Vampa, B. G. Ghamsari, S. S. Mousavi, T. J. Hammond, A. Olivieri, E. Lisicka-Skrek, A. Y. Naumov, D. M. Villeneuve, A. Staudte, P. Berini, and P. B. Corkum, “Plasmon-enhanced high-harmonic generation from silicon,” Nat. Phys. 13(7), 659–662 (2017).
[Crossref]

Murray, C. B.

B. Metzger, M. Hentschel, T. Schumacher, M. Lippitz, X. Ye, C. B. Murray, B. Knabe, K. Buse, and H. Giessen, “Doubling the Efficiency of Third Harmonic Generation by Positioning ITO Nanocrystals into the Hot-Spot of Plasmonic Gap-Antennas,” Nano Lett. 14(5), 2867–2872 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Naumov, A. Y.

G. Vampa, B. G. Ghamsari, S. S. Mousavi, T. J. Hammond, A. Olivieri, E. Lisicka-Skrek, A. Y. Naumov, D. M. Villeneuve, A. Staudte, P. Berini, and P. B. Corkum, “Plasmon-enhanced high-harmonic generation from silicon,” Nat. Phys. 13(7), 659–662 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. Sivis, M. Taucer, G. Vampa, K. Johnston, A. Staudte, A. Y. Naumov, D. M. Villeneuve, C. Ropers, and P. B. Corkum, “Tailored semiconductors for high-harmonic optoelectronics,” Science 357(6348), 303–306 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Negro, M.

C. Vozzi, M. Negro, and S. Stagira, “Strong-field phenomena driven by mid-infrared ultrafast sources,” J. Mod. Opt. 59(15), 1283–1302 (2012).
[Crossref]

Niikura, H.

J. Itatani, J. Levesque, D. Zeidler, H. Niikura, H. Pépin, J. C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Tomographic imaging of molecular orbitals,” Nature 432(7019), 867–871 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Olivieri, A.

G. Vampa, B. G. Ghamsari, S. S. Mousavi, T. J. Hammond, A. Olivieri, E. Lisicka-Skrek, A. Y. Naumov, D. M. Villeneuve, A. Staudte, P. Berini, and P. B. Corkum, “Plasmon-enhanced high-harmonic generation from silicon,” Nat. Phys. 13(7), 659–662 (2017).
[Crossref]

Park, I. Y.

S. Han, H. Kim, Y. W. Kim, Y. J. Kim, S. Kim, I. Y. Park, and S. W. Kim, “High-harmonic generation by field enhanced femtosecond pulses in metal-sapphire nanostructure,” Nat. Commun. 7, 13105 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Patchkovskii, S.

O. Smirnova, Y. Mairesse, S. Patchkovskii, N. Dudovich, D. Villeneuve, P. Corkum, and M. Y. Ivanov, “High harmonic interferometry of multi-electron dynamics in molecules,” Nature 460(7258), 972–977 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pépin, H.

J. Itatani, J. Levesque, D. Zeidler, H. Niikura, H. Pépin, J. C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Tomographic imaging of molecular orbitals,” Nature 432(7019), 867–871 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Quate, C. F.

K. B. Crozier, A. Sundaramurthy, G. S. Kino, and C. F. Quate, “Optical antennas: Resonators for local field enhancement,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(7), 4632–4642 (2003).
[Crossref]

Reis, A.

S. Ghimire, A. D. DiChiara, E. Sistrunk, P. Agostini, L. F. DiMauro, and A. Reis, “Observation of high-order harmonic generation in a bulk crystal,” Nat. Phys. 7(2), 138–141 (2011).
[Crossref]

Reis, D. A.

Y. S. You, D. A. Reis, and S. Ghimire, “Anisotropic high-harmonic generation in bulk crystals,” Nat. Phys. 13(4), 345–349 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. Liu, Y. Li, Y. S. You, S. Ghimire, T. F. Feinz, and D. A. Reis, “High-harmonic generation from an atomically thin semiconductor,” Nat. Phys. 13(3), 262–265 (2016).
[Crossref]

Ren, X.

J. Li, X. Ren, Y. Yin, K. Zhao, A. Chew, Y. Cheng, E. Cunningham, Y. Wang, S. Hu, Y. Wu, M. Chini, and Z. Chang, “53-attosecond X-ray pulses reach the carbon K-edge,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 186 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ropers, C.

M. Sivis, M. Taucer, G. Vampa, K. Johnston, A. Staudte, A. Y. Naumov, D. M. Villeneuve, C. Ropers, and P. B. Corkum, “Tailored semiconductors for high-harmonic optoelectronics,” Science 357(6348), 303–306 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Kusa, K. E. Echternkamp, G. Herink, C. Ropers, and S. Ashihara, “Optical field emission from resonant gold nanorods driven by femtosecond mid-infrared pulses,” AIP Adv. 5(7), 077138 (2015).
[Crossref]

Sakurai, A.

I. Morichika, F. Kusa, A. Takegami, A. Sakurai, and S. Ashihara, “Antenna-Enhanced Nonlinear Infrared Spectroscopy in Reflection Geometry,” J. Phys. Chem. C 121(21), 11643–11649 (2017).
[Crossref]

Schmidt, B. E.

G. Vampa, T. J. Hammond, N. Thiré, B. E. Schmidt, F. Légaré, C. R. McDonald, T. Brabec, and P. B. Corkum, “Linking high harmonics from gases and solids,” Nature 522(7557), 462–464 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Vampa, T. J. Hammond, N. Thiré, B. E. Schmidt, F. Légaré, C. R. McDonald, T. Brabec, D. D. Klug, and P. B. Corkum, “All-Optical Reconstruction of Crystal Band Structure,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115(19), 193603 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schubert, O.

O. Schubert, M. Hohenleutner, F. Langer, B. Urbanek, C. Lange, U. Huttner, D. Golde, T. Meier, M. Kira, S. W. Koch, and R. Huber, “Sub-cycle control of terahertz high-harmonic generation by dynamical Bloch oscillations,” Nat. Photonics 8(2), 119–123 (2014).
[Crossref]

Schumacher, T.

B. Metzger, M. Hentschel, T. Schumacher, M. Lippitz, X. Ye, C. B. Murray, B. Knabe, K. Buse, and H. Giessen, “Doubling the Efficiency of Third Harmonic Generation by Positioning ITO Nanocrystals into the Hot-Spot of Plasmonic Gap-Antennas,” Nano Lett. 14(5), 2867–2872 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shibanuma, T.

T. Shibanuma, G. Grinblat, P. Albella, and S. A. Maier, “Efficient Third Harmonic Generation from Metal-Dielectric Hybrid Nanoantennas,” Nano Lett. 17(4), 2647–2651 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shinokita, K.

H. Hirori, K. Shinokita, M. Shirai, S. Tani, Y. Kadoya, and K. Tanaka, “Extraordinary carrier multiplication gated by a picosecond electric field pulse,” Nat. Commun. 2(1), 594 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shirai, M.

H. Hirori, K. Shinokita, M. Shirai, S. Tani, Y. Kadoya, and K. Tanaka, “Extraordinary carrier multiplication gated by a picosecond electric field pulse,” Nat. Commun. 2(1), 594 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sistrunk, E.

S. Ghimire, A. D. DiChiara, E. Sistrunk, P. Agostini, L. F. DiMauro, and A. Reis, “Observation of high-order harmonic generation in a bulk crystal,” Nat. Phys. 7(2), 138–141 (2011).
[Crossref]

Sivis, M.

M. Sivis, M. Taucer, G. Vampa, K. Johnston, A. Staudte, A. Y. Naumov, D. M. Villeneuve, C. Ropers, and P. B. Corkum, “Tailored semiconductors for high-harmonic optoelectronics,” Science 357(6348), 303–306 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Smirnova, O.

O. Smirnova, Y. Mairesse, S. Patchkovskii, N. Dudovich, D. Villeneuve, P. Corkum, and M. Y. Ivanov, “High harmonic interferometry of multi-electron dynamics in molecules,” Nature 460(7258), 972–977 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stagira, S.

C. Vozzi, M. Negro, and S. Stagira, “Strong-field phenomena driven by mid-infrared ultrafast sources,” J. Mod. Opt. 59(15), 1283–1302 (2012).
[Crossref]

Staudte, A.

M. Sivis, M. Taucer, G. Vampa, K. Johnston, A. Staudte, A. Y. Naumov, D. M. Villeneuve, C. Ropers, and P. B. Corkum, “Tailored semiconductors for high-harmonic optoelectronics,” Science 357(6348), 303–306 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Vampa, B. G. Ghamsari, S. S. Mousavi, T. J. Hammond, A. Olivieri, E. Lisicka-Skrek, A. Y. Naumov, D. M. Villeneuve, A. Staudte, P. Berini, and P. B. Corkum, “Plasmon-enhanced high-harmonic generation from silicon,” Nat. Phys. 13(7), 659–662 (2017).
[Crossref]

Sundaramurthy, A.

K. B. Crozier, A. Sundaramurthy, G. S. Kino, and C. F. Quate, “Optical antennas: Resonators for local field enhancement,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(7), 4632–4642 (2003).
[Crossref]

Swart, H. C.

A. E. Abbass, H. C. Swart, and R. E. Kroon, “Non-plasmonic enhancement of the near band edge luminescence from ZnO using Ag nanoparticles,” J. Lumin. 182, 263–267 (2017).
[Crossref]

Takegami, A.

F. Kusa, I. Morichika, A. Takegami, and S. Ashihara, “Enhanced ultrafast infrared spectroscopy using coupled nanoantenna arrays,” Opt. Express 25(11), 12896–12907 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Morichika, F. Kusa, A. Takegami, A. Sakurai, and S. Ashihara, “Antenna-Enhanced Nonlinear Infrared Spectroscopy in Reflection Geometry,” J. Phys. Chem. C 121(21), 11643–11649 (2017).
[Crossref]

Tamaya, T.

N. Yoshikawa, T. Tamaya, and K. Tanaka, “High-harmonic generation in graphene enhanced by elliptically polarized light excitation,” Science 356(6339), 736–738 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tanaka, K.

N. Yoshikawa, T. Tamaya, and K. Tanaka, “High-harmonic generation in graphene enhanced by elliptically polarized light excitation,” Science 356(6339), 736–738 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Hirori, K. Shinokita, M. Shirai, S. Tani, Y. Kadoya, and K. Tanaka, “Extraordinary carrier multiplication gated by a picosecond electric field pulse,” Nat. Commun. 2(1), 594 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tani, S.

H. Hirori, K. Shinokita, M. Shirai, S. Tani, Y. Kadoya, and K. Tanaka, “Extraordinary carrier multiplication gated by a picosecond electric field pulse,” Nat. Commun. 2(1), 594 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Taucer, M.

M. Sivis, M. Taucer, G. Vampa, K. Johnston, A. Staudte, A. Y. Naumov, D. M. Villeneuve, C. Ropers, and P. B. Corkum, “Tailored semiconductors for high-harmonic optoelectronics,” Science 357(6348), 303–306 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Thiré, N.

G. Vampa, T. J. Hammond, N. Thiré, B. E. Schmidt, F. Légaré, C. R. McDonald, T. Brabec, D. D. Klug, and P. B. Corkum, “All-Optical Reconstruction of Crystal Band Structure,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115(19), 193603 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Vampa, T. J. Hammond, N. Thiré, B. E. Schmidt, F. Légaré, C. R. McDonald, T. Brabec, and P. B. Corkum, “Linking high harmonics from gases and solids,” Nature 522(7557), 462–464 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Turunen, J.

B. K. Canfield, H. Husu, J. Laukkanen, B. Bai, M. Kuittinen, J. Turunen, and M. Kauranen, “Local Field Asymmetry Drives Second-Harmonic Generation in Noncentrosymmetric Nanodimers,” Nano Lett. 7(5), 1251–1255 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Urbanek, B.

O. Schubert, M. Hohenleutner, F. Langer, B. Urbanek, C. Lange, U. Huttner, D. Golde, T. Meier, M. Kira, S. W. Koch, and R. Huber, “Sub-cycle control of terahertz high-harmonic generation by dynamical Bloch oscillations,” Nat. Photonics 8(2), 119–123 (2014).
[Crossref]

Vampa, G.

M. Sivis, M. Taucer, G. Vampa, K. Johnston, A. Staudte, A. Y. Naumov, D. M. Villeneuve, C. Ropers, and P. B. Corkum, “Tailored semiconductors for high-harmonic optoelectronics,” Science 357(6348), 303–306 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Vampa, B. G. Ghamsari, S. S. Mousavi, T. J. Hammond, A. Olivieri, E. Lisicka-Skrek, A. Y. Naumov, D. M. Villeneuve, A. Staudte, P. Berini, and P. B. Corkum, “Plasmon-enhanced high-harmonic generation from silicon,” Nat. Phys. 13(7), 659–662 (2017).
[Crossref]

G. Vampa, T. J. Hammond, N. Thiré, B. E. Schmidt, F. Légaré, C. R. McDonald, T. Brabec, and P. B. Corkum, “Linking high harmonics from gases and solids,” Nature 522(7557), 462–464 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Vampa, T. J. Hammond, N. Thiré, B. E. Schmidt, F. Légaré, C. R. McDonald, T. Brabec, D. D. Klug, and P. B. Corkum, “All-Optical Reconstruction of Crystal Band Structure,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115(19), 193603 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Villeneuve, D.

O. Smirnova, Y. Mairesse, S. Patchkovskii, N. Dudovich, D. Villeneuve, P. Corkum, and M. Y. Ivanov, “High harmonic interferometry of multi-electron dynamics in molecules,” Nature 460(7258), 972–977 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Villeneuve, D. M.

M. Sivis, M. Taucer, G. Vampa, K. Johnston, A. Staudte, A. Y. Naumov, D. M. Villeneuve, C. Ropers, and P. B. Corkum, “Tailored semiconductors for high-harmonic optoelectronics,” Science 357(6348), 303–306 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Vampa, B. G. Ghamsari, S. S. Mousavi, T. J. Hammond, A. Olivieri, E. Lisicka-Skrek, A. Y. Naumov, D. M. Villeneuve, A. Staudte, P. Berini, and P. B. Corkum, “Plasmon-enhanced high-harmonic generation from silicon,” Nat. Phys. 13(7), 659–662 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Itatani, J. Levesque, D. Zeidler, H. Niikura, H. Pépin, J. C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Tomographic imaging of molecular orbitals,” Nature 432(7019), 867–871 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vozzi, C.

C. Vozzi, M. Negro, and S. Stagira, “Strong-field phenomena driven by mid-infrared ultrafast sources,” J. Mod. Opt. 59(15), 1283–1302 (2012).
[Crossref]

Wang, Y.

J. Li, X. Ren, Y. Yin, K. Zhao, A. Chew, Y. Cheng, E. Cunningham, Y. Wang, S. Hu, Y. Wu, M. Chini, and Z. Chang, “53-attosecond X-ray pulses reach the carbon K-edge,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 186 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wu, Y.

J. Li, X. Ren, Y. Yin, K. Zhao, A. Chew, Y. Cheng, E. Cunningham, Y. Wang, S. Hu, Y. Wu, M. Chini, and Z. Chang, “53-attosecond X-ray pulses reach the carbon K-edge,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 186 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ye, X.

B. Metzger, M. Hentschel, T. Schumacher, M. Lippitz, X. Ye, C. B. Murray, B. Knabe, K. Buse, and H. Giessen, “Doubling the Efficiency of Third Harmonic Generation by Positioning ITO Nanocrystals into the Hot-Spot of Plasmonic Gap-Antennas,” Nano Lett. 14(5), 2867–2872 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yin, Y.

J. Li, X. Ren, Y. Yin, K. Zhao, A. Chew, Y. Cheng, E. Cunningham, Y. Wang, S. Hu, Y. Wu, M. Chini, and Z. Chang, “53-attosecond X-ray pulses reach the carbon K-edge,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 186 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yoshikawa, H.

H. Yoshikawa and S. Adachi, “Optical Constants of ZnO,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36(10), 6237–6243 (1997).
[Crossref]

Yoshikawa, N.

N. Yoshikawa, T. Tamaya, and K. Tanaka, “High-harmonic generation in graphene enhanced by elliptically polarized light excitation,” Science 356(6339), 736–738 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

You, Y. S.

Y. S. You, D. A. Reis, and S. Ghimire, “Anisotropic high-harmonic generation in bulk crystals,” Nat. Phys. 13(4), 345–349 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. Liu, Y. Li, Y. S. You, S. Ghimire, T. F. Feinz, and D. A. Reis, “High-harmonic generation from an atomically thin semiconductor,” Nat. Phys. 13(3), 262–265 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zeidler, D.

J. Itatani, J. Levesque, D. Zeidler, H. Niikura, H. Pépin, J. C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Tomographic imaging of molecular orbitals,” Nature 432(7019), 867–871 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhan, M.

M. Garg, M. Zhan, T. T. Luu, H. Lakhotia, T. Klostermann, A. Guggenmos, and E. Goulielmakis, “Multi-petahertz electronic metrology,” Nature 538(7625), 359–363 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhao, K.

J. Li, X. Ren, Y. Yin, K. Zhao, A. Chew, Y. Cheng, E. Cunningham, Y. Wang, S. Hu, Y. Wu, M. Chini, and Z. Chang, “53-attosecond X-ray pulses reach the carbon K-edge,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 186 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

AIP Adv. (1)

F. Kusa, K. E. Echternkamp, G. Herink, C. Ropers, and S. Ashihara, “Optical field emission from resonant gold nanorods driven by femtosecond mid-infrared pulses,” AIP Adv. 5(7), 077138 (2015).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

S. Gholam-Mirzaei, J. Beetar, and M. Chini, “High harmonic generation in ZnO with a high-power mid-IR OPA,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(6), 061101 (2017).
[Crossref]

Curr. Appl. Phys. (1)

S. Bayan and D. Mohanta, “Significant Fowler–Nordheim tunneling across ZnO – Nanorod based nanojunctions for nanoelectronic device applications,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 13(4), 705–709 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (3)

L. J. Brillson and Y. Lu, “ZnO Schottky barriers and Ohmic contacts,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(12), 121301 (2011).
[Crossref]

K. B. Crozier, A. Sundaramurthy, G. S. Kino, and C. F. Quate, “Optical antennas: Resonators for local field enhancement,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(7), 4632–4642 (2003).
[Crossref]

F. Kusa and S. Ashihara, “Spectral response of localized surface plasmon in resonance with mid-infrared light,” J. Appl. Phys. 116(15), 153103 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Lumin. (1)

A. E. Abbass, H. C. Swart, and R. E. Kroon, “Non-plasmonic enhancement of the near band edge luminescence from ZnO using Ag nanoparticles,” J. Lumin. 182, 263–267 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

C. Vozzi, M. Negro, and S. Stagira, “Strong-field phenomena driven by mid-infrared ultrafast sources,” J. Mod. Opt. 59(15), 1283–1302 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. (1)

M. Ferray, A. L’Huillier, X. F. Li, L. A. Lomprk, G. Mainfray, and C. Manus, “Multiple-harmonic conversion of 1064 nm radiation in rare gases,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 21(3), L31–L35 (1988).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. Chem. C (1)

I. Morichika, F. Kusa, A. Takegami, A. Sakurai, and S. Ashihara, “Antenna-Enhanced Nonlinear Infrared Spectroscopy in Reflection Geometry,” J. Phys. Chem. C 121(21), 11643–11649 (2017).
[Crossref]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

H. Yoshikawa and S. Adachi, “Optical Constants of ZnO,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36(10), 6237–6243 (1997).
[Crossref]

Nano Lett. (3)

B. K. Canfield, H. Husu, J. Laukkanen, B. Bai, M. Kuittinen, J. Turunen, and M. Kauranen, “Local Field Asymmetry Drives Second-Harmonic Generation in Noncentrosymmetric Nanodimers,” Nano Lett. 7(5), 1251–1255 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Metzger, M. Hentschel, T. Schumacher, M. Lippitz, X. Ye, C. B. Murray, B. Knabe, K. Buse, and H. Giessen, “Doubling the Efficiency of Third Harmonic Generation by Positioning ITO Nanocrystals into the Hot-Spot of Plasmonic Gap-Antennas,” Nano Lett. 14(5), 2867–2872 (2014).
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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) A SEM image of an antenna array fabricated on ZnO. (b) The measured extinction spectrum (blue) is shown with the calculated extinction spectrum (light blue) and the calculated intensity enhancement factor (pink). A black line represents the input pulse spectrum. (c) A simulated near-field distribution inside the ZnO substrate (2-nm beneath the air-ZnO interface). The dotted line shows the antenna area. (d) A schematic of the experimental setup.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Polarization-angle dependence of the HH spectrum measured for an a-cut bare ZnO crystal (without antennas), measured at input intensity of 0.29 TW/cm2 (an electric field of 1.5 V/nm). The HH spectrum is plotted for a polarization component parallel to the input polarization.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 The HH spectrum measured at input intensity of 0.10 TW/cm2 (an electric field of 0.87 V/nm) (a) for the sample I (Ein // m-axis) and (b) for the sample II (Ein // c-axis). The red (black) lines indicate the HH spectra generated from ZnO with (without) antennas. (c) The HH spectra for the sample II, measured at input intensity of 0.047 TW/cm2 (an electric field of 0.59 V/nm).
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 The input-intensity dependence of the HH spectral energy, measured for the sample II (Ein // c-axis) with (filled markers) and without (open markers) antennas: each panel shows the dependence for each of H5–H9 and FL with a line expressing the multi-photon law.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 The magnitude of the field enhancement for the x-component at the wavelength of 2 μm (a) at a plane of z = - 2 nm (inside ZnO) and (b) at a plane of y = 0 which intersects with the antenna at its center.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 The imaginary part of the transfer function for each of the (a) x, (b) y, and (c) z-components, Im[ H x,y,z ( ω ) ], at a plane of z = 2 nm (away from the air-ZnO interface by 2 nm into ZnO). The dashed line indicates the area covered by the gold antenna.

Equations (2)

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S w/o = S bulk × T air/ ZnO
S w/ = S nano × T air/ ZnO + S bulk × T a ir/ Au / ZnO

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