Abstract

Quantum key distribution (QKD) promises information theoretic secure key as long as the device performs as assumed in the theoretical model. One of the assumptions is an absence of information leakage about individual photon detection outcomes of the receiver unit. Here we investigate the information leakage from a QKD receiver due to photon emission caused by detection events in single-photon detectors (backflash). We test commercial silicon avalanche photodiodes and a photomultiplier tube, and find that the former emit backflashes. We study the spectral, timing and polarization characteristics of these backflash photons. We experimentally demonstrate on a free-space QKD receiver that an eavesdropper can distinguish which detector has clicked inside it, and thus acquire secret information. A set of countermeasures both in theory and on the physical devices are discussed.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2017 (2)

S.-K. Liao, W.-Q. Cai, W.-Y. Liu, L. Zhang, Y. Li, J.-G. Ren, J. Yin, Q. Shen, Y. Cao, Z.-P. Li, F.-Z. Li, X.-W. Chen, L.-H. Sun, J.-J. Jia, J.-C. Wu, X.-J. Jiang, J.-F. Wang, Y.-M. Huang, Q. Wang, Y.-L. Zhou, L. Deng, T. Xi, L. Ma, T. Hu, Q. Zhang, Y.-A. Chen, N.-L. Liu, X.-B. Wang, Z.-C. Zhu, C.-Y. Lu, R. Shu, C.-Z. Peng, J.-Y. Wang, and J.-W. Pan, “Satellite-to-ground quantum key distribution,” Nature 549, 43 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Sajeed, C. Minshull, N. Jain, and V. Makarov, “Invisible Trojan-horse attack,” Sci. Rep. 7, 8403 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (5)

V. Makarov, J.-P. Bourgoin, P. Chaiwongkhot, M. Gagné, T. Jennewein, S. Kaiser, R. Kashyap, M. Legré, C. Minshull, and S. Sajeed, “Creation of backdoors in quantum communications via laser damage,” Phys. Rev. A 94, 030302 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Huang, S. Sajeed, P. Chaiwongkhot, M. Soucarros, M. Legré, and V. Makarov, “Testing random-detector-efficiency countermeasure in a commercial system reveals a breakable unrealistic assumption,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 52, 8000211 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Sajeed, A. Huang, S. Sun, F. Xu, V. Makarov, and M. Curty, “Insecurity of detector-device-independent quantum key distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 250505 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Meda, I. P. Degiovanni, A. Tosi, Z. Yuan, G. Brida, and M. Genovese, “Quantifying backflash radiation to prevent zero-error attacks in quantum key distribution,” Light. Sci. Appl. 6, e16261 (2016).
[Crossref]

E. Diamanti, H.-K. Lo, B. Qi, and Z. Yuan, “Practical challenges in quantum key distribution,” NPJ Quantum Inf. 2, 16025 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (7)

W. Le, Z. Sheng-Mei, G. Long-Yan, and C. Wei-Wen, “Free-space measurement-device-independent quantum-key-distribution protocol using decoy states with orbital angular momentum,” Chin. Phys. B 24, 120307 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Sajeed, I. Radchenko, S. Kaiser, J.-P. Bourgoin, A. Pappa, L. Monat, M. Legré, and V. Makarov, “Attacks exploiting deviation of mean photon number in quantum key distribution and coin tossing,” Phys. Rev. A 91, 032326 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Sajeed, P. Chaiwongkhot, J.-P. Bourgoin, T. Jennewein, N. Lütkenhaus, and V. Makarov, “Security loophole in free-space quantum key distribution due to spatial-mode detector-efficiency mismatch,” Phys. Rev. A 91, 062301 (2015).
[Crossref]

F. Xu, K. Wei, S. Sajeed, S. Kaiser, S. Sun, Z. Tang, L. Qian, V. Makarov, and H.-K. Lo, “Experimental quantum key distribution with source flaws,” Phys. Rev. A 92, 032305 (2015).
[Crossref]

S.-H. Sun, F. Xu, M.-S. Jiang, X.-C. Ma, H.-K. Lo, and L.-M. Liang, “Effect of source tampering in the security of quantum cryptography,” Phys. Rev. A 92, 022304 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. V. P. Pinheiro and R. V. Ramos, “Two-layer quantum key distribution,” Quantum Inf. Process. 14, 2111–2124 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. Gehring, V. Händchen, J. Duhme, F. Furrer, T. Franz, C. Pacher, R. F. Werner, and R. Schnabel, “Implementation of continuous-variable quantum key distribution with composable and one-sided-device-independent security against coherent attacks,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8795 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (1)

N. Jain, E. Anisimova, I. Khan, V. Makarov, C. Marquardt, and G. Leuchs, “Trojan-horse attacks threaten the security of practical quantum cryptography,” New J. Phys. 16, 123030 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (4)

S. Nauerth, F. Moll, M. Rau, C. Fuchs, J. Horwath, S. Frick, and H. Weinfurter, “Air-to-ground quantum communication,” Nat. Photonics 7, 382 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Liu, T.-Y. Chen, L.-J. Wang, H. Liang, G.-L. Shentu, J. Wang, K. Cui, H.-L. Yin, N.-L. Liu, L. Li, X. Ma, J. S. Pelc, M. M. Fejer, C.-Z. Peng, Q. Zhang, and J.-W. Pan, “Experimental measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 130502 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J.-P. Bourgoin, E. Meyer-Scott, B. L. Higgins, B. Helou, C. Erven, H. Hübel, B. Kumar, D. Hudson, I. D’Souza, R. Girard, R. Laflamme, and T. Jennewein, “A comprehensive design and performance analysis of low Earth orbit satellite quantum communication,” New J. Phys. 15, 023006 (2013).
[Crossref]

P. Jouguet, S. Kunz-Jacques, and E. Diamanti, “Preventing calibration attacks on the local oscillator in continuous-variable quantum key distribution,” Phys. Rev. A 87, 062313 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

H.-K. Lo, M. Curty, and B. Qi, “Measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 130503 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (6)

L. Lydersen, J. Skaar, and V. Makarov, “Tailored bright illumination attack on distributed-phase-reference protocols,” J. Mod. Opt. 58, 680–685 (2011).
[Crossref]

L. Lydersen, M. K. Akhlaghi, A. H. Majedi, J. Skaar, and V. Makarov, “Controlling a superconducting nanowire single-photon detector using tailored bright illumination,” New J. Phys. 13, 113042 (2011).
[Crossref]

H.-W. Li, S. Wang, J.-Z. Huang, W. Chen, Z.-Q. Yin, F.-Y. Li, Z. Zhou, D. Liu, Y. Zhang, G.-C. Guo, W.-S. Bao, and Z.-F. Han, “Attacking a practical quantum-key-distribution system with wavelength-dependent beam-splitter and multiwavelength sources,” Phys. Rev. A 84, 062308 (2011).
[Crossref]

N. Jain, C. Wittmann, L. Lydersen, C. Wiechers, D. Elser, C. Marquardt, V. Makarov, and G. Leuchs, “Device calibration impacts security of quantum key distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 110501 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Gerhardt, Q. Liu, A. Lamas-Linares, J. Skaar, C. Kurtsiefer, and V. Makarov, “Full-field implementation of a perfect eavesdropper on a quantum cryptography system,” Nat. Commun. 2, 349 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Weier, H. Krauss, M. Rau, M. Fürst, S. Nauerth, and H. Weinfurter, “Quantum eavesdropping without interception: an attack exploiting the dead time of single-photon detectors,” New J. Phys. 13, 073024 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (4)

L. Lydersen, C. Wiechers, C. Wittmann, D. Elser, J. Skaar, and V. Makarov, “Hacking commercial quantum cryptography systems by tailored bright illumination,” Nat. Photonics 4, 686–689 (2010).
[Crossref]

F. Xu, B. Qi, and H.-K. Lo, “Experimental demonstration of phase-remapping attack in a practical quantum key distribution system,” New J. Phys. 12, 113026 (2010).
[Crossref]

L. Lydersen and J. Skaar, “Security of quantum key distribution with bit and basis dependent detector flaws,” Quantum Inf. Comput. 10, 60–76 (2010).

L. Lydersen, C. Wiechers, C. Wittmann, D. Elser, J. Skaar, and V. Makarov, “Thermal blinding of gated detectors in quantum cryptography,” Opt. Express 18, 27938–27954 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (3)

M. P. Peloso, I. Gerhardt, C. Ho, A. Lamas-Linares, and C. Kurtsiefer, “Daylight operation of a free space, entanglement-based quantum key distribution system,” New J. Phys. 11, 045007 (2009).
[Crossref]

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2008 (1)

Y. Zhao, C.-H. F. Fung, B. Qi, C. Chen, and H.-K. Lo, “Quantum hacking: Experimental demonstration of time-shift attack against practical quantum-key-distribution systems,” Phys. Rev. A 78, 042333 (2008).
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2007 (2)

B. Qi, C.-H. F. Fung, H.-K. Lo, and X. Ma, “Time-shift attack in practical quantum cryptosystems,” Quantum Inf. Comput. 7, 73–82 (2007).

A. Lamas-Linares and C. Kurtsiefer, “Breaking a quantum key distribution system through a timing side channel,” Opt. Express 15, 9388–9393 (2007).
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2006 (2)

V. Makarov, A. Anisimov, and J. Skaar, “Effects of detector efficiency mismatch on security of quantum cryptosystems,” Phys. Rev. A 74, 022313 (2006). Erratum ibid. 78, 019905 (2008).
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2005 (2)

R. Renner, N. Gisin, and B. Kraus, “Information-theoretic security proof for quantum-key-distribution protocols,” Phys. Rev. A 72, 012332 (2005).
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2004 (1)

D. Gottesman, H.-K. Lo, N. Lütkenhaus, and J. Preskill, “Security of quantum key distribution with imperfect devices,” Quantum Inf. Comput. 4, 325–360 (2004).

2002 (3)

R. J. Hughes, J. E. Nordholt, D. Derkacs, and C. G. Peterson, “Practical free-space quantum key distribution over 10 km in daylight and at night,” New J. Phys. 4, 43 (2002).
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C. Kurtsiefer, P. Zarda, M. Halder, H. Weinfurter, P. M. Gorman, P. R. Tapster, and J. G. Rarity, “Quantum cryptography: A step towards global key distribution,” Nature 419, 450 (2002).
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C. Kurtsiefer, P. Zarda, M. Halder, P. M. Gorman, P. R. Tapster, J. G. Rarity, and H. Weinfurter, “Long distance free space quantum cryptography,” Proc. SPIE 4917, 25–31 (2002).
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2001 (2)

C. Kurtsiefer, P. Zarda, S. Mayer, and H. Weinfurter, “The breakdown flash of silicon avalanche photodiodes—back door for eavesdropper attacks?” J. Mod. Opt. 48, 2039–2047 (2001).
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A. Vakhitov, V. Makarov, and D. R. Hjelme, “Large pulse attack as a method of conventional optical eavesdropping in quantum cryptography,” J. Mod. Opt. 48, 2023–2038 (2001).
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2000 (4)

C. H. Bennett and D. P. DiVincenzo, “Quantum information and computation,” Nature 404, 247–255 (2000).
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N. Lütkenhaus, “Security against individual attacks for realistic quantum key distribution,” Phys. Rev. A 61, 052304 (2000).
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W. T. Buttler, R. J. Hughes, S. K. Lamoreaux, G. L. Morgan, J. E. Nordholt, and C. G. Peterson, “Daylight quantum key sistribution over 1.6 km,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5652–5655 (2000).
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1999 (1)

H.-K. Lo and H. F. Chau, “Unconditional security of quantum key distribution over arbitrarily long distances,” Science 283, 2050–2056 (1999).
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1998 (2)

N. Akil, S. E. Kerns, D. V. Kerns, A. Hoffmann, and J.-P. Charles, “Photon generation by silicon diodes in avalanche breakdown,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 871–872 (1998).
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1993 (1)

A. Lacaita, S. Cova, A. Spinelli, and F. Zappa, “Photon-assisted avalanche spreading in reach-throught photodiodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 606–608 (1993).
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1991 (1)

A. K. Ekert, “Quantum cryptography based on Bell’s theorem,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 661–663 (1991).
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1988 (1)

D. K. Gautam, W. S. Khokle, and K. B. Garg, “Photon emission from reverse-biased silicon P-N junctions,” Solid-State Electron. 31, 219–222 (1988).
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1984 (1)

P. A. Childs and W. Eccleston, “Impact ionization induced minority carrier injection by avalanching p-n junctions,” J. Appl. Phys. 55, 4304–4308 (1984).
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1968 (1)

M. Waldschmidt and S. Wittig, “Backscattering and bremsstrahlung of electrons in a silicon detector,” Nucl. Instr. Meth. 64, 189–191 (1968).
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1956 (1)

A. G. Chynoweth and K. G. McKay, “Photon emission from avalanche breakdown in silicon,” Phys. Rev. 102, 369–376 (1956).
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1955 (1)

R. Newman, “Visible light from a silicon p–n junction,” Phys. Rev. 100, 700–703 (1955).
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Akhlaghi, M. K.

L. Lydersen, M. K. Akhlaghi, A. H. Majedi, J. Skaar, and V. Makarov, “Controlling a superconducting nanowire single-photon detector using tailored bright illumination,” New J. Phys. 13, 113042 (2011).
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Akil, N.

N. Akil, S. E. Kerns, D. V. Kerns, A. Hoffmann, and J.-P. Charles, “Photon generation by silicon diodes in avalanche breakdown,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 871–872 (1998).
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Alléaume, R.

M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Alléaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Fürst, J.-D. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hübel, G. Humer, T. Länger, M. Legré, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lorünser, N. Lütkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vannel, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” New J. Phys. 11, 075001 (2009).
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Anisimov, A.

V. Makarov, A. Anisimov, and J. Skaar, “Effects of detector efficiency mismatch on security of quantum cryptosystems,” Phys. Rev. A 74, 022313 (2006). Erratum ibid. 78, 019905 (2008).
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Anisimova, E.

N. Jain, E. Anisimova, I. Khan, V. Makarov, C. Marquardt, and G. Leuchs, “Trojan-horse attacks threaten the security of practical quantum cryptography,” New J. Phys. 16, 123030 (2014).
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Bao, W.-S.

H.-W. Li, S. Wang, J.-Z. Huang, W. Chen, Z.-Q. Yin, F.-Y. Li, Z. Zhou, D. Liu, Y. Zhang, G.-C. Guo, W.-S. Bao, and Z.-F. Han, “Attacking a practical quantum-key-distribution system with wavelength-dependent beam-splitter and multiwavelength sources,” Phys. Rev. A 84, 062308 (2011).
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Barreiro, C.

M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Alléaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Fürst, J.-D. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hübel, G. Humer, T. Länger, M. Legré, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lorünser, N. Lütkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vannel, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” New J. Phys. 11, 075001 (2009).
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Bennett, C. H.

C. H. Bennett and D. P. DiVincenzo, “Quantum information and computation,” Nature 404, 247–255 (2000).
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C. H. Bennett and G. Brassard, “Quantum cryptography: Public key distribution and coin tossing,” in Proc. IEEE International Conference on Computers, Systems, and Signal Processing (Bangalore, India), (IEEE Press, 1984), pp. 175–179.

Bouda, J.

M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Alléaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Fürst, J.-D. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hübel, G. Humer, T. Länger, M. Legré, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lorünser, N. Lütkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vannel, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” New J. Phys. 11, 075001 (2009).
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Bourgoin, J.-P.

V. Makarov, J.-P. Bourgoin, P. Chaiwongkhot, M. Gagné, T. Jennewein, S. Kaiser, R. Kashyap, M. Legré, C. Minshull, and S. Sajeed, “Creation of backdoors in quantum communications via laser damage,” Phys. Rev. A 94, 030302 (2016).
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S. Sajeed, I. Radchenko, S. Kaiser, J.-P. Bourgoin, A. Pappa, L. Monat, M. Legré, and V. Makarov, “Attacks exploiting deviation of mean photon number in quantum key distribution and coin tossing,” Phys. Rev. A 91, 032326 (2015).
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S. Sajeed, P. Chaiwongkhot, J.-P. Bourgoin, T. Jennewein, N. Lütkenhaus, and V. Makarov, “Security loophole in free-space quantum key distribution due to spatial-mode detector-efficiency mismatch,” Phys. Rev. A 91, 062301 (2015).
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J.-P. Bourgoin, E. Meyer-Scott, B. L. Higgins, B. Helou, C. Erven, H. Hübel, B. Kumar, D. Hudson, I. D’Souza, R. Girard, R. Laflamme, and T. Jennewein, “A comprehensive design and performance analysis of low Earth orbit satellite quantum communication,” New J. Phys. 15, 023006 (2013).
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Boxleitner, W.

M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Alléaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Fürst, J.-D. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hübel, G. Humer, T. Länger, M. Legré, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lorünser, N. Lütkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vannel, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” New J. Phys. 11, 075001 (2009).
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Brassard, G.

C. H. Bennett and G. Brassard, “Quantum cryptography: Public key distribution and coin tossing,” in Proc. IEEE International Conference on Computers, Systems, and Signal Processing (Bangalore, India), (IEEE Press, 1984), pp. 175–179.

Brida, G.

A. Meda, I. P. Degiovanni, A. Tosi, Z. Yuan, G. Brida, and M. Genovese, “Quantifying backflash radiation to prevent zero-error attacks in quantum key distribution,” Light. Sci. Appl. 6, e16261 (2016).
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Buttler, W. T.

W. T. Buttler, R. J. Hughes, S. K. Lamoreaux, G. L. Morgan, J. E. Nordholt, and C. G. Peterson, “Daylight quantum key sistribution over 1.6 km,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5652–5655 (2000).
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Cai, W.-Q.

S.-K. Liao, W.-Q. Cai, W.-Y. Liu, L. Zhang, Y. Li, J.-G. Ren, J. Yin, Q. Shen, Y. Cao, Z.-P. Li, F.-Z. Li, X.-W. Chen, L.-H. Sun, J.-J. Jia, J.-C. Wu, X.-J. Jiang, J.-F. Wang, Y.-M. Huang, Q. Wang, Y.-L. Zhou, L. Deng, T. Xi, L. Ma, T. Hu, Q. Zhang, Y.-A. Chen, N.-L. Liu, X.-B. Wang, Z.-C. Zhu, C.-Y. Lu, R. Shu, C.-Z. Peng, J.-Y. Wang, and J.-W. Pan, “Satellite-to-ground quantum key distribution,” Nature 549, 43 (2017).
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Cao, Y.

S.-K. Liao, W.-Q. Cai, W.-Y. Liu, L. Zhang, Y. Li, J.-G. Ren, J. Yin, Q. Shen, Y. Cao, Z.-P. Li, F.-Z. Li, X.-W. Chen, L.-H. Sun, J.-J. Jia, J.-C. Wu, X.-J. Jiang, J.-F. Wang, Y.-M. Huang, Q. Wang, Y.-L. Zhou, L. Deng, T. Xi, L. Ma, T. Hu, Q. Zhang, Y.-A. Chen, N.-L. Liu, X.-B. Wang, Z.-C. Zhu, C.-Y. Lu, R. Shu, C.-Z. Peng, J.-Y. Wang, and J.-W. Pan, “Satellite-to-ground quantum key distribution,” Nature 549, 43 (2017).
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Chaiwongkhot, P.

V. Makarov, J.-P. Bourgoin, P. Chaiwongkhot, M. Gagné, T. Jennewein, S. Kaiser, R. Kashyap, M. Legré, C. Minshull, and S. Sajeed, “Creation of backdoors in quantum communications via laser damage,” Phys. Rev. A 94, 030302 (2016).
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A. Huang, S. Sajeed, P. Chaiwongkhot, M. Soucarros, M. Legré, and V. Makarov, “Testing random-detector-efficiency countermeasure in a commercial system reveals a breakable unrealistic assumption,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 52, 8000211 (2016).
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S. Sajeed, P. Chaiwongkhot, J.-P. Bourgoin, T. Jennewein, N. Lütkenhaus, and V. Makarov, “Security loophole in free-space quantum key distribution due to spatial-mode detector-efficiency mismatch,” Phys. Rev. A 91, 062301 (2015).
[Crossref]

Charles, J.-P.

N. Akil, S. E. Kerns, D. V. Kerns, A. Hoffmann, and J.-P. Charles, “Photon generation by silicon diodes in avalanche breakdown,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 871–872 (1998).
[Crossref]

Chau, H. F.

H.-K. Lo and H. F. Chau, “Unconditional security of quantum key distribution over arbitrarily long distances,” Science 283, 2050–2056 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, C.

Y. Zhao, C.-H. F. Fung, B. Qi, C. Chen, and H.-K. Lo, “Quantum hacking: Experimental demonstration of time-shift attack against practical quantum-key-distribution systems,” Phys. Rev. A 78, 042333 (2008).
[Crossref]

Chen, T.-Y.

Y. Liu, T.-Y. Chen, L.-J. Wang, H. Liang, G.-L. Shentu, J. Wang, K. Cui, H.-L. Yin, N.-L. Liu, L. Li, X. Ma, J. S. Pelc, M. M. Fejer, C.-Z. Peng, Q. Zhang, and J.-W. Pan, “Experimental measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 130502 (2013).
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Chen, W.

H.-W. Li, S. Wang, J.-Z. Huang, W. Chen, Z.-Q. Yin, F.-Y. Li, Z. Zhou, D. Liu, Y. Zhang, G.-C. Guo, W.-S. Bao, and Z.-F. Han, “Attacking a practical quantum-key-distribution system with wavelength-dependent beam-splitter and multiwavelength sources,” Phys. Rev. A 84, 062308 (2011).
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Chen, X.-W.

S.-K. Liao, W.-Q. Cai, W.-Y. Liu, L. Zhang, Y. Li, J.-G. Ren, J. Yin, Q. Shen, Y. Cao, Z.-P. Li, F.-Z. Li, X.-W. Chen, L.-H. Sun, J.-J. Jia, J.-C. Wu, X.-J. Jiang, J.-F. Wang, Y.-M. Huang, Q. Wang, Y.-L. Zhou, L. Deng, T. Xi, L. Ma, T. Hu, Q. Zhang, Y.-A. Chen, N.-L. Liu, X.-B. Wang, Z.-C. Zhu, C.-Y. Lu, R. Shu, C.-Z. Peng, J.-Y. Wang, and J.-W. Pan, “Satellite-to-ground quantum key distribution,” Nature 549, 43 (2017).
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Chen, Y.-A.

S.-K. Liao, W.-Q. Cai, W.-Y. Liu, L. Zhang, Y. Li, J.-G. Ren, J. Yin, Q. Shen, Y. Cao, Z.-P. Li, F.-Z. Li, X.-W. Chen, L.-H. Sun, J.-J. Jia, J.-C. Wu, X.-J. Jiang, J.-F. Wang, Y.-M. Huang, Q. Wang, Y.-L. Zhou, L. Deng, T. Xi, L. Ma, T. Hu, Q. Zhang, Y.-A. Chen, N.-L. Liu, X.-B. Wang, Z.-C. Zhu, C.-Y. Lu, R. Shu, C.-Z. Peng, J.-Y. Wang, and J.-W. Pan, “Satellite-to-ground quantum key distribution,” Nature 549, 43 (2017).
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Childs, P. A.

P. A. Childs and W. Eccleston, “Impact ionization induced minority carrier injection by avalanching p-n junctions,” J. Appl. Phys. 55, 4304–4308 (1984).
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Chitambar, E. A.

B. Qi, H. K. Lo, C. C. W. Lim, G. Siopsis, E. A. Chitambar, R. Pooser, P. G. Evans, and W. Grice, “Free-space reconfigurable quantum key distribution network,” in 2015 IEEE International Conference on Space Optical Systems and Applications (ICSOS), (2015), pp. 1–6.

Chynoweth, A. G.

A. G. Chynoweth and K. G. McKay, “Photon emission from avalanche breakdown in silicon,” Phys. Rev. 102, 369–376 (1956).
[Crossref]

Cova, S.

A. Lacaita, S. Cova, A. Spinelli, and F. Zappa, “Photon-assisted avalanche spreading in reach-throught photodiodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 606–608 (1993).
[Crossref]

Cui, K.

Y. Liu, T.-Y. Chen, L.-J. Wang, H. Liang, G.-L. Shentu, J. Wang, K. Cui, H.-L. Yin, N.-L. Liu, L. Li, X. Ma, J. S. Pelc, M. M. Fejer, C.-Z. Peng, Q. Zhang, and J.-W. Pan, “Experimental measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 130502 (2013).
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Curty, M.

S. Sajeed, A. Huang, S. Sun, F. Xu, V. Makarov, and M. Curty, “Insecurity of detector-device-independent quantum key distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 250505 (2016).
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H.-K. Lo, M. Curty, and B. Qi, “Measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 130503 (2012).
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D’Souza, I.

J.-P. Bourgoin, E. Meyer-Scott, B. L. Higgins, B. Helou, C. Erven, H. Hübel, B. Kumar, D. Hudson, I. D’Souza, R. Girard, R. Laflamme, and T. Jennewein, “A comprehensive design and performance analysis of low Earth orbit satellite quantum communication,” New J. Phys. 15, 023006 (2013).
[Crossref]

Debuisschert, T.

M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Alléaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Fürst, J.-D. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hübel, G. Humer, T. Länger, M. Legré, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lorünser, N. Lütkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vannel, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” New J. Phys. 11, 075001 (2009).
[Crossref]

Degiovanni, I. P.

A. Meda, I. P. Degiovanni, A. Tosi, Z. Yuan, G. Brida, and M. Genovese, “Quantifying backflash radiation to prevent zero-error attacks in quantum key distribution,” Light. Sci. Appl. 6, e16261 (2016).
[Crossref]

Deng, L.

S.-K. Liao, W.-Q. Cai, W.-Y. Liu, L. Zhang, Y. Li, J.-G. Ren, J. Yin, Q. Shen, Y. Cao, Z.-P. Li, F.-Z. Li, X.-W. Chen, L.-H. Sun, J.-J. Jia, J.-C. Wu, X.-J. Jiang, J.-F. Wang, Y.-M. Huang, Q. Wang, Y.-L. Zhou, L. Deng, T. Xi, L. Ma, T. Hu, Q. Zhang, Y.-A. Chen, N.-L. Liu, X.-B. Wang, Z.-C. Zhu, C.-Y. Lu, R. Shu, C.-Z. Peng, J.-Y. Wang, and J.-W. Pan, “Satellite-to-ground quantum key distribution,” Nature 549, 43 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Derkacs, D.

R. J. Hughes, J. E. Nordholt, D. Derkacs, and C. G. Peterson, “Practical free-space quantum key distribution over 10 km in daylight and at night,” New J. Phys. 4, 43 (2002).
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Diamanti, E.

E. Diamanti, H.-K. Lo, B. Qi, and Z. Yuan, “Practical challenges in quantum key distribution,” NPJ Quantum Inf. 2, 16025 (2016).
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I. Gerhardt, Q. Liu, A. Lamas-Linares, J. Skaar, C. Kurtsiefer, and V. Makarov, “Full-field implementation of a perfect eavesdropper on a quantum cryptography system,” Nat. Commun. 2, 349 (2011).
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F. Xu, K. Wei, S. Sajeed, S. Kaiser, S. Sun, Z. Tang, L. Qian, V. Makarov, and H.-K. Lo, “Experimental quantum key distribution with source flaws,” Phys. Rev. A 92, 032305 (2015).
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B. Qi, C.-H. F. Fung, H.-K. Lo, and X. Ma, “Time-shift attack in practical quantum cryptosystems,” Quantum Inf. Comput. 7, 73–82 (2007).

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S.-K. Liao, W.-Q. Cai, W.-Y. Liu, L. Zhang, Y. Li, J.-G. Ren, J. Yin, Q. Shen, Y. Cao, Z.-P. Li, F.-Z. Li, X.-W. Chen, L.-H. Sun, J.-J. Jia, J.-C. Wu, X.-J. Jiang, J.-F. Wang, Y.-M. Huang, Q. Wang, Y.-L. Zhou, L. Deng, T. Xi, L. Ma, T. Hu, Q. Zhang, Y.-A. Chen, N.-L. Liu, X.-B. Wang, Z.-C. Zhu, C.-Y. Lu, R. Shu, C.-Z. Peng, J.-Y. Wang, and J.-W. Pan, “Satellite-to-ground quantum key distribution,” Nature 549, 43 (2017).
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M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Alléaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Fürst, J.-D. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hübel, G. Humer, T. Länger, M. Legré, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lorünser, N. Lütkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vannel, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” New J. Phys. 11, 075001 (2009).
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L. Lydersen, J. Skaar, and V. Makarov, “Tailored bright illumination attack on distributed-phase-reference protocols,” J. Mod. Opt. 58, 680–685 (2011).
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L. Lydersen, M. K. Akhlaghi, A. H. Majedi, J. Skaar, and V. Makarov, “Controlling a superconducting nanowire single-photon detector using tailored bright illumination,” New J. Phys. 13, 113042 (2011).
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N. Jain, C. Wittmann, L. Lydersen, C. Wiechers, D. Elser, C. Marquardt, V. Makarov, and G. Leuchs, “Device calibration impacts security of quantum key distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 110501 (2011).
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L. Lydersen, C. Wiechers, C. Wittmann, D. Elser, J. Skaar, and V. Makarov, “Thermal blinding of gated detectors in quantum cryptography,” Opt. Express 18, 27938–27954 (2010).
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L. Lydersen and J. Skaar, “Security of quantum key distribution with bit and basis dependent detector flaws,” Quantum Inf. Comput. 10, 60–76 (2010).

L. Lydersen, C. Wiechers, C. Wittmann, D. Elser, J. Skaar, and V. Makarov, “Hacking commercial quantum cryptography systems by tailored bright illumination,” Nat. Photonics 4, 686–689 (2010).
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Ma, L.

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Ma, X.

Y. Liu, T.-Y. Chen, L.-J. Wang, H. Liang, G.-L. Shentu, J. Wang, K. Cui, H.-L. Yin, N.-L. Liu, L. Li, X. Ma, J. S. Pelc, M. M. Fejer, C.-Z. Peng, Q. Zhang, and J.-W. Pan, “Experimental measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 130502 (2013).
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B. Qi, C.-H. F. Fung, H.-K. Lo, and X. Ma, “Time-shift attack in practical quantum cryptosystems,” Quantum Inf. Comput. 7, 73–82 (2007).

Ma, X.-C.

S.-H. Sun, F. Xu, M.-S. Jiang, X.-C. Ma, H.-K. Lo, and L.-M. Liang, “Effect of source tampering in the security of quantum cryptography,” Phys. Rev. A 92, 022304 (2015).
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Majedi, A. H.

L. Lydersen, M. K. Akhlaghi, A. H. Majedi, J. Skaar, and V. Makarov, “Controlling a superconducting nanowire single-photon detector using tailored bright illumination,” New J. Phys. 13, 113042 (2011).
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S. Sajeed, C. Minshull, N. Jain, and V. Makarov, “Invisible Trojan-horse attack,” Sci. Rep. 7, 8403 (2017).
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F. Xu, K. Wei, S. Sajeed, S. Kaiser, S. Sun, Z. Tang, L. Qian, V. Makarov, and H.-K. Lo, “Experimental quantum key distribution with source flaws,” Phys. Rev. A 92, 032305 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Sajeed, P. Chaiwongkhot, J.-P. Bourgoin, T. Jennewein, N. Lütkenhaus, and V. Makarov, “Security loophole in free-space quantum key distribution due to spatial-mode detector-efficiency mismatch,” Phys. Rev. A 91, 062301 (2015).
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N. Jain, E. Anisimova, I. Khan, V. Makarov, C. Marquardt, and G. Leuchs, “Trojan-horse attacks threaten the security of practical quantum cryptography,” New J. Phys. 16, 123030 (2014).
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N. Jain, C. Wittmann, L. Lydersen, C. Wiechers, D. Elser, C. Marquardt, V. Makarov, and G. Leuchs, “Device calibration impacts security of quantum key distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 110501 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Gerhardt, Q. Liu, A. Lamas-Linares, J. Skaar, C. Kurtsiefer, and V. Makarov, “Full-field implementation of a perfect eavesdropper on a quantum cryptography system,” Nat. Commun. 2, 349 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Lydersen, J. Skaar, and V. Makarov, “Tailored bright illumination attack on distributed-phase-reference protocols,” J. Mod. Opt. 58, 680–685 (2011).
[Crossref]

L. Lydersen, M. K. Akhlaghi, A. H. Majedi, J. Skaar, and V. Makarov, “Controlling a superconducting nanowire single-photon detector using tailored bright illumination,” New J. Phys. 13, 113042 (2011).
[Crossref]

L. Lydersen, C. Wiechers, C. Wittmann, D. Elser, J. Skaar, and V. Makarov, “Hacking commercial quantum cryptography systems by tailored bright illumination,” Nat. Photonics 4, 686–689 (2010).
[Crossref]

L. Lydersen, C. Wiechers, C. Wittmann, D. Elser, J. Skaar, and V. Makarov, “Thermal blinding of gated detectors in quantum cryptography,” Opt. Express 18, 27938–27954 (2010).
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V. Makarov, A. Anisimov, and J. Skaar, “Effects of detector efficiency mismatch on security of quantum cryptosystems,” Phys. Rev. A 74, 022313 (2006). Erratum ibid. 78, 019905 (2008).
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Marquardt, C.

N. Jain, E. Anisimova, I. Khan, V. Makarov, C. Marquardt, and G. Leuchs, “Trojan-horse attacks threaten the security of practical quantum cryptography,” New J. Phys. 16, 123030 (2014).
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N. Jain, C. Wittmann, L. Lydersen, C. Wiechers, D. Elser, C. Marquardt, V. Makarov, and G. Leuchs, “Device calibration impacts security of quantum key distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 110501 (2011).
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M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Alléaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Fürst, J.-D. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hübel, G. Humer, T. Länger, M. Legré, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lorünser, N. Lütkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vannel, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” New J. Phys. 11, 075001 (2009).
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M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Alléaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Fürst, J.-D. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hübel, G. Humer, T. Länger, M. Legré, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lorünser, N. Lütkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vannel, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” New J. Phys. 11, 075001 (2009).
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Mayer, S.

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Meda, A.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Setup for measuring probability of backflash emission. (a) Two identical APDs are connected with a 2 m long multimode (MM) fiber causing 10 ns optical delay between the two detectors. An electronic delay line of 40 ns is added so that the backflash photons from SPCM could also be recorded. (b) To perform spectral analysis, a free-space interference narrowpass filter is added to the setup. The filter represents one often used at the entrance of a practical QKD receiver.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Histogram of time-intervals (dark grey) measured from the coincident clicks from the setup in Fig. 1. The peak on the right is backflash from DUT detected by SPCM. Regions I, II, and III of the histogram represent different stages of detector operation cycle. The shape of histogram resembles the APD current IAPD (green line, measured separately). The current shape is not exact owing to a finite common-mode rejection ratio of the differential probe used to measure IAPD. The apparent abrupt drop of current at the border between regions II and III is common-mode interference from the quenching circuit that lowers the bias voltage and thus ends the avalanche. This coincides with a drop of photon emission almost to zero. The peak on the left is backflash from SPCM detected by DUT.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Receiver designed by INO working as a passive basis choice polarization analyzer at 785 nm. Top: the important optical components consists of a pinhole, coupling lens, beamsplitter (BS), and polarizing beamsplitters (PBSes). Bottom: photo of the receiver. Four multimode fibers lead to the four detectors (not shown).
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Setup for measurement of the reverse propagation loss and polarization extinction ratio. An 808 nm laser is connected to each of the output channels of the receiver, one at a time. A 90:10 reflection:transmission (R:T) ratio beamsplitter diverts the reverse propagating beam to the measurement unit. The latter consists of a fiber-coupled optical power meter, and a rotating PBS to measure power and polarization extinction ratio of the reverse propagation beam. A polarization controller PC is used to maximize throughput power from each receiver channel.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Eavesdropping setup for timing characterization and proof-of-principle attack. The 90:10 R:T BS diverts photons from Bob to Eve’s detector. Eve’s setup consists of a PBS that can be rotated to find the optimal angle for Eve to distinguish the source of backflash photon. The time interval analyser (TIA) is used to find the time delay of the backflash photon in the channel. The timetagging unit records coincidence time between Bob’s and Eve’s detections in the proof-of-principle attack.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Histogram of time intervals between emitting Alice’s laser pulse and detection in Eve’s SPCM. The histogram with DUT powered on (red) has an area of coincidence peak well above the level when DUT is powered off (green). The timing of this area matches the optical time delay between Eve’s receiver and DUT, indicating backflash emission. The other peaks are optical reflections in the setup (see text for details).
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Spectral distribution of backflash.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Reverse propagating extinction ratio measurement of Bob’s setup. The photons from H and V channel could be distinguished with high probability. The measured extinction ratios of A and D channels are low, presumably owing to polarization becoming elliptical at reflections in the measurement unit.

Equations (1)

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l A P det ( 1 h ( e A ) ) leak EC ,