Abstract

The laser performance of a high-power ytterbium-doped fiber amplifier is mainly hindered by the onset of mode instability. In this work, the slope efficiency and mode instability threshold of the ytterbium-doped fiber under various gamma-ray radiation doses have been measured. Experimental results reveal that gamma-ray radiation-induced photodarkening degrades mode instability severely, and gamma-ray radiation-induced mode instability degradation can be partly bleached by hours of pump-light injection. It is shown that gamma-ray radiation-induced photodarkening results in a steep reduction of slope efficiency and mode instability threshold; moreover, the entire irradiated fiber can be partly bleached by hours of pump-light injection and exhibits both time and gamma-ray radiation-dose saturation properties. The experimental results indicate that mode instability mitigation can be partly realized by pump-light injection and implies photodarkening suppression is beneficial for TMI mitigation, which is very promising for the advancement of high-power fiber lasers.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2017 (1)

2015 (3)

2013 (6)

2012 (6)

2011 (3)

2010 (2)

2008 (1)

B. P. Fox, Z. V. Schneider, K. Simmons-Potter, W. J. Thomes, D. C. Meister, R. P. Bambha, and D. A. V. Kliner, “Spectrally resolved transmission loss in gamma irradiated Yb-doped optical fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44(6), 581–586 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (3)

1999 (1)

G. M. Williams, B. M. Wright, W. D. Mack, and E. J. Friebele, “Projecting the performance of erbium-doped fiber devices in a space radiation environment,” Proc. SPIE 3848, 271–280 (1999).

1993 (1)

D. L. Griscom, M. E. Gingerich, and E. J. Friebele, “Radiation-induced defects in glasses: origin of power-law dependence of concentration on dose,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71(7), 1019–1022 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Alkeskjold, T. T.

Andersen, T. V.

Bambha, R. P.

B. P. Fox, Z. V. Schneider, K. Simmons-Potter, W. J. Thomes, D. C. Meister, R. P. Bambha, and D. A. V. Kliner, “Spectrally resolved transmission loss in gamma irradiated Yb-doped optical fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44(6), 581–586 (2008).
[Crossref]

Beier, F.

Bello Doua, R.

Berghmans, F.

B. Tortech, M. Van Uffelen, A. Gusarov, Y. Ouerdane, A. Boukenter, J.-P. Meunier, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Gamma radiation induced loss in erbium doped optical fibers,” Non-Cryst. Solids. 353(5–7), 477–480 (2007).

Boukenter, A.

B. Tortech, M. Van Uffelen, A. Gusarov, Y. Ouerdane, A. Boukenter, J.-P. Meunier, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Gamma radiation induced loss in erbium doped optical fibers,” Non-Cryst. Solids. 353(5–7), 477–480 (2007).

Boullet, J.

Broeng, J.

Cardinal, T.

Clarkson, W. A.

Dai, N. L.

Dajani, I.

Dong, L.

Eberhardt, R.

Eidam, T.

Ermeneux, S.

Fox, B. P.

B. P. Fox, Z. V. Schneider, K. Simmons-Potter, W. J. Thomes, D. C. Meister, R. P. Bambha, and D. A. V. Kliner, “Spectrally resolved transmission loss in gamma irradiated Yb-doped optical fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44(6), 581–586 (2008).
[Crossref]

Friebele, E. J.

G. M. Williams, B. M. Wright, W. D. Mack, and E. J. Friebele, “Projecting the performance of erbium-doped fiber devices in a space radiation environment,” Proc. SPIE 3848, 271–280 (1999).

D. L. Griscom, M. E. Gingerich, and E. J. Friebele, “Radiation-induced defects in glasses: origin of power-law dependence of concentration on dose,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71(7), 1019–1022 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gabler, T.

Gingerich, M. E.

D. L. Griscom, M. E. Gingerich, and E. J. Friebele, “Radiation-induced defects in glasses: origin of power-law dependence of concentration on dose,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71(7), 1019–1022 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Griscom, D. L.

D. L. Griscom, M. E. Gingerich, and E. J. Friebele, “Radiation-induced defects in glasses: origin of power-law dependence of concentration on dose,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71(7), 1019–1022 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Guillen, F.

Gusarov, A.

B. Tortech, M. Van Uffelen, A. Gusarov, Y. Ouerdane, A. Boukenter, J.-P. Meunier, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Gamma radiation induced loss in erbium doped optical fibers,” Non-Cryst. Solids. 353(5–7), 477–480 (2007).

Haarlammert, N.

Hanf, S.

Hansen, K. R.

Huang, H. Q.

Jansen, F.

Jauregui, C.

C. Jauregui, H. J. Otto, F. Stutzki, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Simplified modelling the mode instability threshold of high power fiber amplifiers in the presence of photodarkening,” Opt. Express 23(16), 20203–20218 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. J. Otto, N. Modsching, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Impact of photodarkening on the mode instability threshold,” Opt. Express 23(12), 15265–15277 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Jauregui, H. J. Otto, F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Passive mitigation strategies for mode instabilities in high-power fiber laser systems,” Opt. Express 21(16), 19375–19386 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Jauregui, T. Eidam, H. J. Otto, F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Temperature-induced index gratings and their impact on mode instabilities in high-power fiber laser systems,” Opt. Express 20(1), 440–451 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Jauregui, T. Eidam, H. J. Otto, F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Physical origin of mode instabilities in high-power fiber laser systems,” Opt. Express 20(12), 12912–12925 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. J. Otto, F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, T. Eidam, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Temporal dynamics of mode instabilities in high-power fiber lasers and amplifiers,” Opt. Express 20(14), 15710–15722 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Jauregui, T. Eidam, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “The impact of modal interference on the beam quality of high-power fiber amplifiers,” Opt. Express 19(4), 3258–3271 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Eidam, C. Wirth, C. Jauregui, F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, H. J. Otto, O. Schmidt, T. Schreiber, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Experimental observations of the threshold-like onset of mode instabilities in high power fiber amplifiers,” Opt. Express 19(14), 13218–13224 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jetschke, S.

Kirchhof, J.

Kliner, D. A. V.

B. P. Fox, Z. V. Schneider, K. Simmons-Potter, W. J. Thomes, D. C. Meister, R. P. Bambha, and D. A. V. Kliner, “Spectrally resolved transmission loss in gamma irradiated Yb-doped optical fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44(6), 581–586 (2008).
[Crossref]

Lægsgaard, J.

Li, J. Y.

Liao, L.

Liem, A.

Limpert, J.

H. J. Otto, N. Modsching, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Impact of photodarkening on the mode instability threshold,” Opt. Express 23(12), 15265–15277 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Jauregui, H. J. Otto, F. Stutzki, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Simplified modelling the mode instability threshold of high power fiber amplifiers in the presence of photodarkening,” Opt. Express 23(16), 20203–20218 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Jauregui, H. J. Otto, F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Passive mitigation strategies for mode instabilities in high-power fiber laser systems,” Opt. Express 21(16), 19375–19386 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Jauregui, T. Eidam, H. J. Otto, F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Temperature-induced index gratings and their impact on mode instabilities in high-power fiber laser systems,” Opt. Express 20(1), 440–451 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Jauregui, T. Eidam, H. J. Otto, F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Physical origin of mode instabilities in high-power fiber laser systems,” Opt. Express 20(12), 12912–12925 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. J. Otto, F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, T. Eidam, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Temporal dynamics of mode instabilities in high-power fiber lasers and amplifiers,” Opt. Express 20(14), 15710–15722 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Jauregui, T. Eidam, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “The impact of modal interference on the beam quality of high-power fiber amplifiers,” Opt. Express 19(4), 3258–3271 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Eidam, C. Wirth, C. Jauregui, F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, H. J. Otto, O. Schmidt, T. Schreiber, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Experimental observations of the threshold-like onset of mode instabilities in high power fiber amplifiers,” Opt. Express 19(14), 13218–13224 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Eidam, S. Hanf, E. Seise, T. V. Andersen, T. Gabler, C. Wirth, T. Schreiber, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Femtosecond fiber CPA system emitting 830 W average output power,” Opt. Lett. 35(2), 94–96 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mack, W. D.

G. M. Williams, B. M. Wright, W. D. Mack, and E. J. Friebele, “Projecting the performance of erbium-doped fiber devices in a space radiation environment,” Proc. SPIE 3848, 271–280 (1999).

Madden, T.

Manek-Hönninger, I.

Meister, D. C.

B. P. Fox, Z. V. Schneider, K. Simmons-Potter, W. J. Thomes, D. C. Meister, R. P. Bambha, and D. A. V. Kliner, “Spectrally resolved transmission loss in gamma irradiated Yb-doped optical fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44(6), 581–586 (2008).
[Crossref]

Meunier, J.-P.

B. Tortech, M. Van Uffelen, A. Gusarov, Y. Ouerdane, A. Boukenter, J.-P. Meunier, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Gamma radiation induced loss in erbium doped optical fibers,” Non-Cryst. Solids. 353(5–7), 477–480 (2007).

Modsching, N.

Naderi, S.

Nilsson, J.

Otto, H. J.

H. J. Otto, N. Modsching, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Impact of photodarkening on the mode instability threshold,” Opt. Express 23(12), 15265–15277 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Jauregui, H. J. Otto, F. Stutzki, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Simplified modelling the mode instability threshold of high power fiber amplifiers in the presence of photodarkening,” Opt. Express 23(16), 20203–20218 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Jauregui, H. J. Otto, F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Passive mitigation strategies for mode instabilities in high-power fiber laser systems,” Opt. Express 21(16), 19375–19386 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Jauregui, T. Eidam, H. J. Otto, F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Temperature-induced index gratings and their impact on mode instabilities in high-power fiber laser systems,” Opt. Express 20(1), 440–451 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Jauregui, T. Eidam, H. J. Otto, F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Physical origin of mode instabilities in high-power fiber laser systems,” Opt. Express 20(12), 12912–12925 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. J. Otto, F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, T. Eidam, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Temporal dynamics of mode instabilities in high-power fiber lasers and amplifiers,” Opt. Express 20(14), 15710–15722 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Eidam, C. Wirth, C. Jauregui, F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, H. J. Otto, O. Schmidt, T. Schreiber, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Experimental observations of the threshold-like onset of mode instabilities in high power fiber amplifiers,” Opt. Express 19(14), 13218–13224 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ouerdane, Y.

B. Tortech, M. Van Uffelen, A. Gusarov, Y. Ouerdane, A. Boukenter, J.-P. Meunier, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Gamma radiation induced loss in erbium doped optical fibers,” Non-Cryst. Solids. 353(5–7), 477–480 (2007).

Plötner, M.

Podgorski, M.

Richardson, D. J.

Robin, C.

Röpke, U.

Salin, F.

Sattler, B.

Schmidt, O.

Schneider, Z. V.

B. P. Fox, Z. V. Schneider, K. Simmons-Potter, W. J. Thomes, D. C. Meister, R. P. Bambha, and D. A. V. Kliner, “Spectrally resolved transmission loss in gamma irradiated Yb-doped optical fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44(6), 581–586 (2008).
[Crossref]

Schreiber, T.

Seise, E.

Simmons-Potter, K.

B. P. Fox, Z. V. Schneider, K. Simmons-Potter, W. J. Thomes, D. C. Meister, R. P. Bambha, and D. A. V. Kliner, “Spectrally resolved transmission loss in gamma irradiated Yb-doped optical fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44(6), 581–586 (2008).
[Crossref]

Smith, A. V.

Smith, J. J.

Stutzki, F.

F. Beier, M. Plötner, B. Sattler, F. Stutzki, T. Walbaum, A. Liem, N. Haarlammert, T. Schreiber, R. Eberhardt, and A. Tünnermann, “Measuring thermal load in fiber amplifiers in the presence of transversal mode instabilities,” Opt. Lett. 42(21), 4311–4314 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Jauregui, H. J. Otto, F. Stutzki, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Simplified modelling the mode instability threshold of high power fiber amplifiers in the presence of photodarkening,” Opt. Express 23(16), 20203–20218 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Jauregui, H. J. Otto, F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Passive mitigation strategies for mode instabilities in high-power fiber laser systems,” Opt. Express 21(16), 19375–19386 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Jauregui, T. Eidam, H. J. Otto, F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Physical origin of mode instabilities in high-power fiber laser systems,” Opt. Express 20(12), 12912–12925 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Jauregui, T. Eidam, H. J. Otto, F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Temperature-induced index gratings and their impact on mode instabilities in high-power fiber laser systems,” Opt. Express 20(1), 440–451 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. J. Otto, F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, T. Eidam, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Temporal dynamics of mode instabilities in high-power fiber lasers and amplifiers,” Opt. Express 20(14), 15710–15722 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Eidam, C. Wirth, C. Jauregui, F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, H. J. Otto, O. Schmidt, T. Schreiber, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Experimental observations of the threshold-like onset of mode instabilities in high power fiber amplifiers,” Opt. Express 19(14), 13218–13224 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Thienpont, H.

B. Tortech, M. Van Uffelen, A. Gusarov, Y. Ouerdane, A. Boukenter, J.-P. Meunier, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Gamma radiation induced loss in erbium doped optical fibers,” Non-Cryst. Solids. 353(5–7), 477–480 (2007).

Thomes, W. J.

B. P. Fox, Z. V. Schneider, K. Simmons-Potter, W. J. Thomes, D. C. Meister, R. P. Bambha, and D. A. V. Kliner, “Spectrally resolved transmission loss in gamma irradiated Yb-doped optical fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44(6), 581–586 (2008).
[Crossref]

Tortech, B.

B. Tortech, M. Van Uffelen, A. Gusarov, Y. Ouerdane, A. Boukenter, J.-P. Meunier, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Gamma radiation induced loss in erbium doped optical fibers,” Non-Cryst. Solids. 353(5–7), 477–480 (2007).

Tünnermann, A.

F. Beier, M. Plötner, B. Sattler, F. Stutzki, T. Walbaum, A. Liem, N. Haarlammert, T. Schreiber, R. Eberhardt, and A. Tünnermann, “Measuring thermal load in fiber amplifiers in the presence of transversal mode instabilities,” Opt. Lett. 42(21), 4311–4314 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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C. Jauregui, H. J. Otto, F. Stutzki, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Simplified modelling the mode instability threshold of high power fiber amplifiers in the presence of photodarkening,” Opt. Express 23(16), 20203–20218 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Jauregui, H. J. Otto, F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Passive mitigation strategies for mode instabilities in high-power fiber laser systems,” Opt. Express 21(16), 19375–19386 (2013).
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C. Jauregui, T. Eidam, H. J. Otto, F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Temperature-induced index gratings and their impact on mode instabilities in high-power fiber laser systems,” Opt. Express 20(1), 440–451 (2012).
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C. Jauregui, T. Eidam, H. J. Otto, F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Physical origin of mode instabilities in high-power fiber laser systems,” Opt. Express 20(12), 12912–12925 (2012).
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H. J. Otto, F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, T. Eidam, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Temporal dynamics of mode instabilities in high-power fiber lasers and amplifiers,” Opt. Express 20(14), 15710–15722 (2012).
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[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. J. Otto, N. Modsching, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Impact of photodarkening on the mode instability threshold,” Opt. Express 23(12), 15265–15277 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Jauregui, H. J. Otto, F. Stutzki, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Simplified modelling the mode instability threshold of high power fiber amplifiers in the presence of photodarkening,” Opt. Express 23(16), 20203–20218 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Jauregui, T. Eidam, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “The impact of modal interference on the beam quality of high-power fiber amplifiers,” Opt. Express 19(4), 3258–3271 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. V. Smith and J. J. Smith, “Mode Instability in high power fiber amplifiers,” Opt. Express 19(11), 10180–10192 (2011).
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T. Eidam, C. Wirth, C. Jauregui, F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, H. J. Otto, O. Schmidt, T. Schreiber, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Experimental observations of the threshold-like onset of mode instabilities in high power fiber amplifiers,” Opt. Express 19(14), 13218–13224 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Jauregui, T. Eidam, H. J. Otto, F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Temperature-induced index gratings and their impact on mode instabilities in high-power fiber laser systems,” Opt. Express 20(1), 440–451 (2012).
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B. Ward, C. Robin, and I. Dajani, “Origin of thermal modal instabilities in large mode area fiber amplifiers,” Opt. Express 20(10), 11407–11422 (2012).
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C. Jauregui, T. Eidam, H. J. Otto, F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Physical origin of mode instabilities in high-power fiber laser systems,” Opt. Express 20(12), 12912–12925 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. J. Otto, F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, T. Eidam, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Temporal dynamics of mode instabilities in high-power fiber lasers and amplifiers,” Opt. Express 20(14), 15710–15722 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. V. Smith and J. J. Smith, “Influence of pump and seed modulation on the mode instability thresholds of fiber amplifiers,” Opt. Express 20(22), 24545–24558 (2012).
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C. Jauregui, H. J. Otto, F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Passive mitigation strategies for mode instabilities in high-power fiber laser systems,” Opt. Express 21(16), 19375–19386 (2013).
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H. J. Otto, F. Stutzki, T. Eidam, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Mode Instabilities: physical origin and mitigation strategies,” Proc. SPIE – The International Society for Optical Engineering. 8601(10), 86010F–1–86010F–6 (2013).

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Experimental Setup of all-fiber MOPA pumped by 976-nm LDs, LD: Laser Diode; FBG: Fiber Bragg Grating; CLS: Cladding Light Stripper; PD: Photo Detector.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Correlation between output laser power and pump power of 100-Gy-irradiated active YDF and standard deviation and pristine fiber (0Gy).
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Time domain signal of different output power levels of 100 Gy-irradiated active fibers.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Frequency domain signal of different output power levels of 100 Gy-irradiated active fibers.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Mode-instability threshold power versus operation time.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Output laser power versus launched pump power at different gamma-ray radiation doses before and after bleaching.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Optical-optical efficiency versus gamma-ray radiation doses.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Normalized mode Instability threshold versus operation time at different levels of gamma-ray radiation doses.

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