Abstract

Metasurfaces are nanostructured surfaces with engineered optical properties - currently impacting many branches of optics, from miniaturization of optical components to realizing high-resolution structural colors. The optical properties of metasurfaces can be traced to the individual meta-atoms, which set the nature of the optical response, e.g., plasmonic for metallic meta-atoms or photonic for dielectric meta-atoms. Combining multiple types of responses opens up new horizons in design of optical materials, but has so far been avoided due to the fabrication difficulties associated with constructing a metasurface composed of several meta-atom materials. Here, we present a multi-material design approach by optically post-processing a metasurface constructed from self-assembled polystyrene spheres coated with silver. Using our concept of resonant laser printing, we locally alter the initial plasmonic response of the meta-atoms to a pure photonic response. Our work constitutes a conceptually different way of designing metasurfaces and can pave the way for realizing multi-material metasurfaces on large areas while being cost effective.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2018 (3)

W. T. Chen, A. Y. Zhu, V. Sanjeev, M. Khorasaninejad, Z. Shi, E. Lee, and F. Capasso, “A broadband achromatic metalens for focusing and imaging in the visible,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 13, 220–226 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Ding, A. Pors, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Gradient metasurfaces: a review of fundamentals and applications,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 81, 026401 (2018).
[Crossref]

X. Zhu, M. K. Hedayati, S. Raza, U. Levy, N. A. Mortensen, and A. Kristensen, “Digital resonant laser printing: Bridging nanophotonic science and consumer products,” Nano Today 19, 7–10 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (7)

O. Avayu, E. Almeida, Y. Prior, and T. Ellenbogen, “Composite functional metasurfaces for multispectral achromatic optics,” Nat. Commun. 8, 14992 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Staude and J. Schilling, “Metamaterial-inspired silicon nanophotonics,” Nat. Photonics 11, 274–284 (2017).
[Crossref]

X. Zhu, W. Yan, U. Levy, N. A. Mortensen, and A. Kristensen, “Resonant laser printing of structural colors on high-index dielectric metasurfaces,” Sci. Adv. 3, e1602487 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. S. Carstensen, X. Zhu, O. E. Iyore, N. A. Mortensen, U. Levy, and A. Kristensen, “Holographic resonant laser printing of flat optics using template plasmonic metasurfaces,” ACS Photonics 5, 1665–1670 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Sun, Z. Zhou, C. Zhang, Y. Gao, Z. Duan, S. Xiao, and Q. Song, “All-dielectric full-color printing with TiO2 metasurfaces,” ACS Nano 11, 4445–4452 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Murthy, H. Pranov, N. A. Feidenhans, J. S. Madsen, P. E. Hansen, H. C. Pedersen, and R. Taboryski, “Plasmonic color metasurfaces fabricated by a high speed roll-to-roll method,” Nanoscale. 9, 14280–14287 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. L. Holsteen, S. Raza, P. Fan, P. G. Kik, and M. L. Brongersma, “Purcell effect for active tuning of light scattering from semiconductor optical antennas,” Science.  358, 1407–1410 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (11)

A. I. Kuznetsov, A. E. Miroshnichenko, M. L. Brongersma, Y. S. Kivshar, and B. Luk’yanchuk, “Optically resonant dielectric nanostructures,” Science.  354, 6314 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Kristensen, J. K. Yang, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, S. Link, P. Nordlander, N. J. Halas, and N. A. Mortensen, “Plasmonic colour generation,” Nat. Rev. Mater. 2, 16088 (2016).
[Crossref]

L. Duempelmann, A. Luu-Dinh, B. Gallinet, and L. Novotny, “Four-fold color filter based on plasmonic phase retarder,” ACS Photonics 3, 190–196 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Khorasaninejad, W. T. Chen, R. C. Devlin, J. Oh, A. Y. Zhu, and F. Capasso, “Metalenses at visible wavelengths: Diffraction-limited focusing and subwavelength resolution imaging,” Science.  352, 1190–1194 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Proust, F. Bedu, B. Gallas, I. Ozerov, and N. Bonod, “All-dielectric colored metasurfaces with silicon Mie resonators,” ACS Nano 10, 7761–7767 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Li, W. Wang, D. Rosenmann, D. A. Czaplewski, X. Yang, and J. Gao, “All-metal structural color printing based on aluminum plasmonic metasurfaces,” Opt. Express 24, 20472–20480 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. M. Goh, R. J. H. Ng, S. Wang, S. J. Tan, and J. K. Yang, “Comparative study of plasmonic colors from all-metal structures of posts and pits,” ACS Photonics 3, 1000–1009 (2016).
[Crossref]

L. Wang, R. J. H. Ng, S. Safari Dinachali, M. Jalali, Y. Yu, and J. K. W. Yang, “Large area plasmonic color palettes with expanded gamut using colloidal self-assembly,” ACS Photonics 3, 627–633 (2016).
[Crossref]

R. Yu, P. Mazumder, N. F. Borrelli, A. Carrilero, D. S. Ghosh, R. A. Maniyara, D. Baker, F. J. García de Abajo, and V. Pruneri, “Structural coloring of glass using dewetted nanoparticles and ultrathin films of metals,” ACS Photonics 3, 1194–1201 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Jahani and Z. Jacob, “All-dielectric metamaterials,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 11, 23–36 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Zhu, C. Vannahme, E. Højlund-Nielsen, N. A. Mortensen, and A. Kristensen, “Plasmonic colour laser printing,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 11, 325–329 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (5)

X. Ni, Z. J. Wong, M. Mrejen, Y. Wang, and X. Zhang, “An ultrathin invisibility skin cloak for visible light,” Science.  349, 1310–1314 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Højlund-Nielsen, X. Zhu, M. S. Carstensen, M. K. Sørensen, C. Vannahme, N. A. Mortensen, and A. Kristensen, “Polarization-dependent aluminum metasurface operating at 450 nm,” Opt. Express 23, 28829–28835 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Cheng, J. Gao, T. S. Luk, and X. Yang, “Structural color printing based on plasmonic metasurfaces of perfect light absorption,” Sci. Rep. 5, 11045 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Shen, V. Rinnerbauer, I. Wang, V. Stelmakh, J. D. Joannopoulos, and M. Soljačić, “Structural colors from Fano resonances,” ACS Photonics 2, 27–32 (2015).
[Crossref]

V. R. Shrestha, S.-S. Lee, E.-S. Kim, and D.-Y. Choi, “Polarization-tuned dynamic color filters incorporating a dielectric-loaded aluminum nanowire array,” Sci. Rep. 5, 12450 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (6)

J. S. Clausen, E. Højlund-Nielsen, A. B. Christiansen, S. Yazdi, M. Grajower, H. Taha, U. Levy, A. Kristensen, and N. A. Mortensen, “Plasmonic metasurfaces for coloration of plastic consumer products,” Nano Lett. 14, 4499–4504 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. J. Tan, L. Zhang, D. Zhu, X. M. Goh, Y. M. Wang, K. Kumar, C.-W. Qiu, and J. K. W. Yang, “Plasmonic color palettes for photorealistic printing with aluminum nanostructures,” Nano Lett. 14, 4023–4029 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. S. Roberts, A. Pors, O. Albrektsen, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Subwavelength plasmonic color printing protected for ambient use,” Nano Lett. 14, 783–787 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Olson, A. Manjavacas, L. Liu, W.-S. Chang, B. Foerster, N. S. King, M. W. Knight, P. Nordlander, N. J. Halas, and S. Link, “Vivid, full-color aluminum plasmonic pixels,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 111, 14348–14353 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Yu and F. Capasso, “Flat optics with designer metasurfaces,” Nat. Mater. 13, 139–150 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Lin, P. Fan, E. Hasman, and M. L. Brongersma, “Dielectric gradient metasurface optical elements,” Science.  345, 298–302 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (3)

A. Pors, M. G. Nielsen, R. L. Eriksen, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Broadband focusing flat mirrors based on plasmonic gradient metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 13, 829–834 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. V. Kildishev, A. Boltasseva, and V. M. Shalaev, “Planar photonics with metasurfaces,” Science.  339, 1232009 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Baffou and R. Quidant, “Thermo-plasmonics: using metallic nanostructures as nano-sources of heat,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7, 171–187 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (4)

X. Chen, Y. Chen, M. Yan, and M. Qiu, “Nanosecond photothermal effects in plasmonic nanostructures,” ACS Nano 6, 2550–2557 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Kumar, H. Duan, R. S. Hegde, S. C. W. Koh, J. N. Wei, and J. K. W. Yang, “Printing colour at the optical diffraction limit,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 7, 557–561 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Yokogawa, S. P. Burgos, and H. A. Atwater, “Plasmonic color filters for CMOS image sensor applications,” Nano Lett. 12, 4349–4354 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Farcau, M. Giloan, E. Vinteler, and S. Astilean, “Understanding plasmon resonances of metal-coated colloidal crystal monolayers,” Appl. Phys. B 106, 849–856 (2012).
[Crossref]

2010 (3)

X. Zhu, L. Shi, X. Liu, J. Zi, and Z. Wang, “A mechanically tunable plasmonic structure composed of a monolayer array of metal-capped colloidal spheres on an elastomeric substrate,” Nano Res. 3, 807–812 (2010).
[Crossref]

L. Shi, H. Yin, X. Zhu, X. Liu, and J. Zi, “Direct observation of iso-frequency contour of surface modes in defective photonic crystals in real space,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 251111 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Sun, C.-j. Tang, P. Zhan, Z.-l. Han, Z.-S. Cao, and Z.-L. Wang, “Fabrication of centimeter-sized single-domain two-dimensional colloidal crystals in a wedge-shaped cell under capillary forces,” Langmuir. 26, 7859–7864 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1983 (1)

D. E. Aspnes and A. A. Studna, “Dielectric functions and optical parameters of Si, Ge, GaP, GaAs, GaSb, InP, InAs, and InSb from 1.5 to 6.0 eV,” Phys. Rev. B 27, 985–1009 (1983).
[Crossref]

1972 (1)

P. B. Johnson and R.-W. Christy, “Optical constants of the noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370–4379 (1972).
[Crossref]

Albrektsen, O.

A. S. Roberts, A. Pors, O. Albrektsen, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Subwavelength plasmonic color printing protected for ambient use,” Nano Lett. 14, 783–787 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Almeida, E.

O. Avayu, E. Almeida, Y. Prior, and T. Ellenbogen, “Composite functional metasurfaces for multispectral achromatic optics,” Nat. Commun. 8, 14992 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aspnes, D. E.

D. E. Aspnes and A. A. Studna, “Dielectric functions and optical parameters of Si, Ge, GaP, GaAs, GaSb, InP, InAs, and InSb from 1.5 to 6.0 eV,” Phys. Rev. B 27, 985–1009 (1983).
[Crossref]

Astilean, S.

C. Farcau, M. Giloan, E. Vinteler, and S. Astilean, “Understanding plasmon resonances of metal-coated colloidal crystal monolayers,” Appl. Phys. B 106, 849–856 (2012).
[Crossref]

Atwater, H. A.

S. Yokogawa, S. P. Burgos, and H. A. Atwater, “Plasmonic color filters for CMOS image sensor applications,” Nano Lett. 12, 4349–4354 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Avayu, O.

O. Avayu, E. Almeida, Y. Prior, and T. Ellenbogen, “Composite functional metasurfaces for multispectral achromatic optics,” Nat. Commun. 8, 14992 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baffou, G.

G. Baffou and R. Quidant, “Thermo-plasmonics: using metallic nanostructures as nano-sources of heat,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7, 171–187 (2013).
[Crossref]

Baker, D.

R. Yu, P. Mazumder, N. F. Borrelli, A. Carrilero, D. S. Ghosh, R. A. Maniyara, D. Baker, F. J. García de Abajo, and V. Pruneri, “Structural coloring of glass using dewetted nanoparticles and ultrathin films of metals,” ACS Photonics 3, 1194–1201 (2016).
[Crossref]

Bedu, F.

J. Proust, F. Bedu, B. Gallas, I. Ozerov, and N. Bonod, “All-dielectric colored metasurfaces with silicon Mie resonators,” ACS Nano 10, 7761–7767 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Boltasseva, A.

A. V. Kildishev, A. Boltasseva, and V. M. Shalaev, “Planar photonics with metasurfaces,” Science.  339, 1232009 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bonod, N.

J. Proust, F. Bedu, B. Gallas, I. Ozerov, and N. Bonod, “All-dielectric colored metasurfaces with silicon Mie resonators,” ACS Nano 10, 7761–7767 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Borrelli, N. F.

R. Yu, P. Mazumder, N. F. Borrelli, A. Carrilero, D. S. Ghosh, R. A. Maniyara, D. Baker, F. J. García de Abajo, and V. Pruneri, “Structural coloring of glass using dewetted nanoparticles and ultrathin films of metals,” ACS Photonics 3, 1194–1201 (2016).
[Crossref]

Bozhevolnyi, S. I.

F. Ding, A. Pors, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Gradient metasurfaces: a review of fundamentals and applications,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 81, 026401 (2018).
[Crossref]

A. Kristensen, J. K. Yang, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, S. Link, P. Nordlander, N. J. Halas, and N. A. Mortensen, “Plasmonic colour generation,” Nat. Rev. Mater. 2, 16088 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. S. Roberts, A. Pors, O. Albrektsen, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Subwavelength plasmonic color printing protected for ambient use,” Nano Lett. 14, 783–787 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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[Crossref] [PubMed]

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[Crossref] [PubMed]

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V. R. Shrestha, S.-S. Lee, E.-S. Kim, and D.-Y. Choi, “Polarization-tuned dynamic color filters incorporating a dielectric-loaded aluminum nanowire array,” Sci. Rep. 5, 12450 (2015).
[Crossref]

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X. Zhu, M. K. Hedayati, S. Raza, U. Levy, N. A. Mortensen, and A. Kristensen, “Digital resonant laser printing: Bridging nanophotonic science and consumer products,” Nano Today 19, 7–10 (2018).
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[Crossref]

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F. Cheng, J. Gao, T. S. Luk, and X. Yang, “Structural color printing based on plasmonic metasurfaces of perfect light absorption,” Sci. Rep. 5, 11045 (2015).
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A. I. Kuznetsov, A. E. Miroshnichenko, M. L. Brongersma, Y. S. Kivshar, and B. Luk’yanchuk, “Optically resonant dielectric nanostructures,” Science.  354, 6314 (2016).
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L. Duempelmann, A. Luu-Dinh, B. Gallinet, and L. Novotny, “Four-fold color filter based on plasmonic phase retarder,” ACS Photonics 3, 190–196 (2016).
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Zi, J.

L. Shi, H. Yin, X. Zhu, X. Liu, and J. Zi, “Direct observation of iso-frequency contour of surface modes in defective photonic crystals in real space,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 251111 (2010).
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X. Zhu, L. Shi, X. Liu, J. Zi, and Z. Wang, “A mechanically tunable plasmonic structure composed of a monolayer array of metal-capped colloidal spheres on an elastomeric substrate,” Nano Res. 3, 807–812 (2010).
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ACS Nano (3)

X. Chen, Y. Chen, M. Yan, and M. Qiu, “Nanosecond photothermal effects in plasmonic nanostructures,” ACS Nano 6, 2550–2557 (2012).
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S. Sun, Z. Zhou, C. Zhang, Y. Gao, Z. Duan, S. Xiao, and Q. Song, “All-dielectric full-color printing with TiO2 metasurfaces,” ACS Nano 11, 4445–4452 (2017).
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ACS Photonics (6)

Y. Shen, V. Rinnerbauer, I. Wang, V. Stelmakh, J. D. Joannopoulos, and M. Soljačić, “Structural colors from Fano resonances,” ACS Photonics 2, 27–32 (2015).
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L. Wang, R. J. H. Ng, S. Safari Dinachali, M. Jalali, Y. Yu, and J. K. W. Yang, “Large area plasmonic color palettes with expanded gamut using colloidal self-assembly,” ACS Photonics 3, 627–633 (2016).
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R. Yu, P. Mazumder, N. F. Borrelli, A. Carrilero, D. S. Ghosh, R. A. Maniyara, D. Baker, F. J. García de Abajo, and V. Pruneri, “Structural coloring of glass using dewetted nanoparticles and ultrathin films of metals,” ACS Photonics 3, 1194–1201 (2016).
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M. S. Carstensen, X. Zhu, O. E. Iyore, N. A. Mortensen, U. Levy, and A. Kristensen, “Holographic resonant laser printing of flat optics using template plasmonic metasurfaces,” ACS Photonics 5, 1665–1670 (2017).
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Appl. Phys. B (1)

C. Farcau, M. Giloan, E. Vinteler, and S. Astilean, “Understanding plasmon resonances of metal-coated colloidal crystal monolayers,” Appl. Phys. B 106, 849–856 (2012).
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J. Sun, C.-j. Tang, P. Zhan, Z.-l. Han, Z.-S. Cao, and Z.-L. Wang, “Fabrication of centimeter-sized single-domain two-dimensional colloidal crystals in a wedge-shaped cell under capillary forces,” Langmuir. 26, 7859–7864 (2010).
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J. S. Clausen, E. Højlund-Nielsen, A. B. Christiansen, S. Yazdi, M. Grajower, H. Taha, U. Levy, A. Kristensen, and N. A. Mortensen, “Plasmonic metasurfaces for coloration of plastic consumer products,” Nano Lett. 14, 4499–4504 (2014).
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S. J. Tan, L. Zhang, D. Zhu, X. M. Goh, Y. M. Wang, K. Kumar, C.-W. Qiu, and J. K. W. Yang, “Plasmonic color palettes for photorealistic printing with aluminum nanostructures,” Nano Lett. 14, 4023–4029 (2014).
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Nano Res. (1)

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Nano Today (1)

X. Zhu, M. K. Hedayati, S. Raza, U. Levy, N. A. Mortensen, and A. Kristensen, “Digital resonant laser printing: Bridging nanophotonic science and consumer products,” Nano Today 19, 7–10 (2018).
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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Schematic of the laser processing of our self-assembled metasurface. (b–c) Simulated electric field norms of the two main reflection dips of the pristine and completely post-processed areas, respectively.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a–e) SEM and (f–j) optical bright-field images with (k–o) corresponding reflectance measurements of post-processed areas of the self-assembled metasurface. The regions have been reshaped using a 1-ns-pulsed green laser (532 nm wavelength) with pulse energies increasing from 0 nJ to 30 nJ.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Full-field 3D simulation of the reflectance spectrum of the pristine self-assembled metasurface, accounting for both the optically-thick silicon substrate and the hexagonal symmetry of the metasurface. The insets show the z-component (normal to the substrate) of the electric field at the wavelengths of the reflection dips. The Poynting vectors are superimposed as white arrows to illustrate the electromagnetic power flow. (b) Similar to (a) but for the case where the entire hemi-spherical silver cap has been removed by resonant laser printing.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Examples of structural colors created by gradually changing the optical response of the bi-material metasurface from plasmonic to photonic using resonant laser printing. Scale bars: 1 mm.

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